# Appendix A AFE Equations

This Appendix presents the equations that govern the analog front end, as well as the AFE bill of materials and a list of gains and breakpoint frequencies. The AFE is divided into ﬁve sub-circuits: Preampliﬁer, Diﬀerential Ampliﬁer, Salen-Key (High Pass), Salen-Key (Low Pass), and Variable Gain (refer to Figure 3.6). The bill of materials, including all passive device values, is given in Table A.1

Preampliﬁer: The preampliﬁer consists of a passive RC high pass ﬁlter and an active low pass ﬁlter with gain. Their transfer functions, respectively, are: H (s) = s s+
1 R1 C1

and s+ H (s) =
1 R2 C2

+

1 R3 C2

s+

1 R2 C2 1 2πR1 C1

The preampliﬁer produces a passband gain of 1+ R2 = 100, and poles at f = R3 212Hz and f =
1 2πR2 C2

=

= 12.5kHz.

114

50 mil spacing Table A.5kΩ 6.8nF 220pF 33nF 33nF 330pF 330pF Maxim 4253 Maxim 4199 Burr Brown OPA2244 Burr Brown OPA4244 Analog Devices OP262 Analog Devices AD708 Analog Devices AD706 Maxim 4626 Analog Devices AD7495 Harwin M80-8681222 Advanced Interconnections KBA-030-131 Package 0402 0402 0402 0402 0402 0402 0402 0402 0402 0402 0402 0402 0402 8 pin µMAX 0402 0402 0402 0402 0402 0402 0402 Dual 10 pin µMAX 8 pin µMAX Dual 8 pin MSOP Quad 14 pin TSSOP Dual 8 pin TSSOP 16 pin TSSOP 28 pin TSSOP 5 pin SOT23-5 8 pin SOIC 2 x 13 array w/ 2mm spacing 30 pin.8Ω 22kΩ 39kΩ 10.2kΩ 39kΩ 37.Device R1 R2 R3 R4 R5 R6 R7 R8 R9 R10 R11 R12 R13 R14 R15 C1 C2 C3 C4 C5 C6 Amp 1 Amp 2 Amp 3 Amp 4 Amp 5 8:1 Mux 16:1 Mux SPST Switches ADC Input Connector Digital Data I/O Value 110kΩ 58kΩ 585.1: AFE Bill of Materials 115 .4kΩ 90kΩ 390kΩ 33kΩ 355kΩ 390kΩ Maxim 5160 6.

The equation for the second low pass ﬁlter is the same as the for the ﬁrst. Variable Gain: The variable gain circuit is governed by the equation: H (s) = 1 + R14 R15 Note that R14 is a digital potentiometer whose impedance varies from 0Ω to 200kΩ. Salen-Key (Low Pass): The equation of the ﬁrst low pass Salen-Key ﬁlter is G (R8 C5 )2 (3−G) s + (R 1 )2 R8 C5 8 C5 1 2πR8 C5 H (s) = s2 + where G = 1 + R9 R10 = 1.91. and with G = 1 + R12 R13 = 1. C6 for C5 . The overall transfer function is: H (s) = −Adif f s s + R41C3 1 2πR4 C3 where Adif f = 10 and the high pass ﬁlter pole is at f = = 219Hz. The pole is at f = = 12. The feedback ﬁlter adds a high pass characteristic. The variable gain therefore ranges from 1 to 32.6kHz. Salen-Key (High Pass): The equation for the high pass Salen-Key ﬁlter is given by H (s) = R6 R7 Gs2 s2 + (3−G) s R5 C4 + 1 (R5 C4 )2 1 2πR5 C4 were G = 1 + = 1. The high pass pole is at f = = 123Hz.9kHz.26.23. substituting R11 for R8 . The pole is therefore located at f = 14.Diﬀerential Ampliﬁer: The diﬀerential ampliﬁer uses an IC with laser trimmed feedback resistors to achieve a gain of 10. 116 .

The low pass portion of the Preampliﬁer and the second order Salen-Key low pass ﬁlters were designed to be consistent with standardized Bessel parameters (Table A. the desired pole location was f = 8kHz.557f 1. the Damping parameter was set according to Damping = 3 − G where G is the gain term of the respective low pass Salen-Key ﬁlters: Second Order(1): pole = 1.775 1.Filter First Order Second Order(1) Second Order(2) Frequency 1.5kHz.6kHz G = 3 − Damping = 1.9kHz G = 3 − Damping = 1.2: Standardized Parameters for a ﬁfth order Bessel low pass ﬁlter The low pass circuits combine to form a ﬁfth order Bessel ﬁlter. The Preampliﬁer low pass ﬁlter comprises the First Order portion of Table A.091 Lancaster.2 : 1.91 These are consistent with the low pass ﬁlter derivations on pages 114 and 116.613f 1. 1996 [93] Table A.819 × 8kHz = 14.819f Damping 1.613 × 8kHz = 12. 117 .23 Second Order(2): pole = 1. For the Second Order ﬁlters.557 × 8kHz = 12.557f = 1.2).