Make Better OTDR Fiber Measurements in short Premise/FTTH Applications

Peter Schweiger Agilent Technologies

• • • Trends and Changes in Fiber networks OTDR technology and measurements Tips and trick for Better OTDR Measurements in short fiber Premise/FTTH Applications.

Challenges and Needs
• New links – increased fiber count everywhere – lower loss splices (<0.02dB) – require lower reflections – can be any length. 100 meters to 200 Km. • Test Equipment – Must measure events close together, – See small splices and localize return loss. – Faster, easier, cheaper.

New Drivers • Fiber to the Home/Curb is real – FTTH has now passed over 5 Million homes – Japan has had FTTH for 10 years. 2. These drives are causing a wave in low cost OTDR’s .8million on is free and transforming networks to IP – 8.5Bmin. and Bell Canada ramping up. – FTTH and FTTC are both viable driven by competition and services – VOIP (Skype. – Led by Verizon and AT&T with BellSouth. Quest. 110M downloads.

Also called: • • • • • • • • Fiber in the Loop (FTL) Fiber to the Curb (FTTC) Fiber to the Home (FTTH) Fiber to the Business (FTTB) Fiber to the Premises (FTTP) APON (ATM PONs) EPON (Ethernet PONs) 802.Passive Optical Networks .3 GPON (GigBit PONs) .

Bandwidth Demand 2. Fighting off Broadband Can your copper do this? Coax can! 3. Fiber vs.Why now? 1. existing copper to the home Build it and they can’t come (The Telco’s don’t have to share new fiber connection investments with competitor .

FTTH Topology • Passive Double Star (PDS=PON) Central SW office Star type Optical Fiber/Cable Star Type Optical fiber/cable ONU OLT FDH Passive Device (Optical splitter) Key Acronyms and buzzwords OLT: Optical Line Terminal FDH: Fiber Distribution Hub ONU:Optical Network unit. (ONT) ONU User ONU ONU .

Optical Domain Reflectometry Automatic Measurement + Event Identification Optical Time Domain Reflectometer Coupler Fiber Network Fusion Bend Splice Connector Pair Crack Fiber End Laser Mechanical Splice File Edit View l Select OTDR Measurement Alarm Help Pulse Generator Detector Analyzing Circuitry + Display "Intelligence" Relative Power (dB) OTDR Measurement Display .

Emergency Restoration Fiber identification.What can an OTDR do? It is optical radar and can measure: a break point splice and connector losses point-to-point distances total cable length connector quality (return loss) attenuation of the fiber An OTDR is used for fiber: Installation and Commissioning Maintenance. Loss Fusion Bend Connector Splice Crack Fiber End Mechanical Splice Distance .

Basic Terms • • • • Backscatter Index of refraction Non-Reflective Events Reflective Events .

1 μsec is 48.Backscatter Backscatter OTDR Measurement Display Backscatter is the part of the Raleigh scattering which returns to the OTDR.5 dB. The Backscatter Coefficient defines the ratio of light coming back to the input level at a given pulsewidth and wavelength. Typical value at 1310 nm. .

Their signatures are similar on an OTDR display. . but no reflection.Non-Reflective Events Fusion Splice Bend OTDR Measurement Display Fusion Splice Bend Fusion splices and bends cause loss.

. Their signatures are similar on an OTDR display. connectors and cracks cause both reflections and loss.Reflective Events Connector Mechanical Pair Splice Crack OTDR Measurement Display Reflection Mechanical Splice or Connector Crack Air Gap Loss Mechanical splices.

5dB 0. 1. 10m Event Deadzone min.pulsewidth .5dB 1.5 dB .5m A deadzone always occurs at the front-panel connector and at any other reflective event on the link. .Deadzones Deadzone is a function of: 0.magnitude of the reflection Attenuation Deadzone min.5 dB 1.

However.Measuring Insertion Loss and Reflectance of the First Connector Launch Fiber (length > attenuation deadzone for pulsewidth used) Connector Pair Fiber-Under-Test Reflectance Note: deadzone into fiber-undertest Insertion Loss A launch fiber can be used so that the system’s first connector's insertion loss and reflectance can be measured. it does not eliminate the deadzone! .

Dynamic Range Definition – The main specification on OTDR’s Initial backscatter level Dynamic range (SNR=1) Noise level (Peak) ~2 dB Noise level (RMS) Dynamic range determines how far and how well the OTDR can "see” events clearly .

5 dB = 39. .1 dB 0.5 dB 10.To measure a small splice you need a certain Signal to Noise Ratio Initial Backscatter Level.The Need for Dynamic Range in OTDR’s .0 dB 31 dB Link Loss SNR 8. Splice Loss 0.02 dB Required Signal /Noise Ratio 8.5 dB of Dynamic Range (SNR=1) Add the required Signal/Noise Ratio to the total link loss to determine the dynamic range (SNR=1) required.0 dB 12.05 dB 0.

. reducing deadzone.Good resolution and short deadzones require reasonable dynamic range Short Pulse Long Pulse Shorter pulses mean smaller deadzones but low dynamic range High dynamic range OTDR’s use smaller pulse widths.

The difference between higher and lower Dynamic Range Instruments -Time Low performance instrument after a 3 minute measurement High performance instrument after a 2 second measurement. .

What dynamic range to purchase? Agilent’s recommendations: Link length Test time To 75 km 100 km 150 km 175 km 200+ km 180 sec 60 sec 30 sec 10 sec 2 sec 30dB E6004A 35dB 40dB 43dB 45dB 40dB 43dB 45dB 43dB 45dB 45dB 35dB E6003A 40dB E6003B 43dB E6003C 45dB E6008B .

A Typical Trace Display Full/Zoomed Trace The keys Event Bar Full Trace Overview Marker Information Measurement Parameters .

.Measuring Reflections Close Together To measure reflections close together. use 5ns pulsewidth and the Resolution Mode for the shortest event deadzone.

.A Typical Event Table Selecte d Event Full Trace Overvie w Zoomed Event In Snap-toEvent Mode.

a bad reflection could be lots of places.Measure closer than before: >50% of all issues are within the first 1000 meters – With today’s multiple cross connects and LGX panels. – Before – Cleaning the second jumper of the second patch panel improved ORL by 10dB – After .

New Capabilities with better OTDR’s: Variable Start-Stop Spans – Trouble shoot exact reflectance causes. from any end - . at any distance.

1550 (blue) and 1625nm (green) shows probable bending loss at 41km of 3dB – One button 3 wavelength and bending tests can detect macrobending.OTDR Tests • Test at all wavelength you have available and check for Macrobending Traces at 1310 (red). .

.Measurement Settings – Choose wisely Set the range to the smallest you can Use the smallest pulse width with acceptable noise Optimize for resolution to reduce deadzones Average as long as you can.

Consider a cable certification tool to measure loss and length or a simple source and power meter.Measuring short fibers: Summary Dynamic Range: Chose the product with most dynamic range you can afford. Use the right tool: It’s not useful to use an OTDR for fibers 100meters and shorter. Deadzone: Clean all your connectors and use the smallest pulsewidth you can to minimize this effect. This ensures the smallest deadzones so you can see things closer. Deadzone affects how close together you can resolve two events and if also affected by the magnitude of reflections. . It allows you to measure faster and with a smaller pulsewidth.

Getting the most from your OTDR. Cable Factor. • Connector style and cleaning • Pulse width trade offs • Signal to noise ratio • MM testing SM fiber Fiber Length > Cable Length Singlemode Multimode Multimode Singlemode Short Pulse Long Pulse • IOR. • Landmarks. • Help features and assistants ? .

ca Peter Schweiger 905 282 6489 .Where to get more information Garry Burrows (Telonix): 403-3354147 email: Agilent Optical Support team 1 800 829 4444 x5465 www.agilent.burrows@telonix.

OTDR Measurements and Tips Questions and Answers? .