# MECHANI CS OF FLUI DS

AMI E
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AMIE(I)
STUDY CIRCLE(REGD.)
A Focused Approach
Dated: 12-12-10
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Physical Properties of Fluids
Example
Determine the power required to run a 300 mm dia shaft at 400 rpm in journals with uniform
oil thickness of 1 mm. Two bearings of 300 mm width are used to support the shaft. The
dynamic viscosity of oil is 0.03 Pas. (Pas = (N/m
2
) × s).
Solution
Shear stress on the shaft surface = t = µ(du/dy) = µ(u/y)
µ = tDN/60 = µ x 0.3 x 400/60 = 6.28 m/s
t = 0.03 {(6.28 – 0)/ 0.001} = 188.4 N/m
2

Surface area of the two bearings, A = 2tDL
Force on shaft surface = t x A = 188.4 x (2 x t x 0.3 x 0.3) = 106.6 N
Torque = 106.6 · 0.15 = 15.995 Nm
Power required = 2 t NT/60 = 2 x t × 400 x 15.995/60 = 670 W.
P = µt
3
N
2
LR
3
/450 h = 669.74 W
ASSIGNMENT
Q.1. (AMIE S05, 09, 10 marks): Define a fluid and distinguish between: (i) ideal and real fluids (ii)
compressible and incompressible fluids (iii) Newtonian and non Newtonian fluids (iv) surface tension and
capillarity
Q.2. (AMIE W06): Define (i) fluid (ii) Newtonian fluid
Q.3. (AMIE S06, 10 marks): Define (i) density (ii) specific gravity (iii) viscosity (iv) specific volume (v)
Q.4. (AMIE S06, 5 marks): Explain the following (i) surface tension (ii) compressibility
Q.1. (AMIE W07, S09, 10 marks): Define(i) specific gravity, (ii) vapour pressure, (iii) viscosity, (iv)
compressibility, and (v) surface tension.
Q.2. (AMIE S08, 10 marks): Define (i) weight density, (ii) specific volume, (iii) capillarity, and (iv) Newton's
law of viscosity.
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Q.3. (AMIE W08, 10 marks): Define (i) Newtonian fluid, (ii)ideal plastic fluid,(iii) kinematic viscosity, (iv)
specific weight, and (v) specific gravity.
Q.4. (AMIE S10, 6 marks): What are the characteristic fluid properties of which the following phenomena are
attributable: (i) Rise of sap in a tree, (ii) Cavitation, and (iii) water hammer.
Q.5. (AMIE S10, 6 marks): What is viscosity? Discuss its role in fluid flow and the factors on which shear
stress rate depends in a flowing fluid. Give examples of different kinds of fluids from day-to-day life under
different categories.
Q.6. (AMIE W09, S10, 6 marks): Slate Newton's law of viscosity. What is the effect of temperature on
viscosity of water and that of air ?
Q.5. (AMIE S06, 5 marks): What is capillarity? Derive expression for height of capillary rise.
Q.6. (AMIE W2000): A piston 7.95 cm diameter and 30 cm long works in a cylinder 8 cm diameter. The
annular space is filled with an oil viscosity 2 poise. If an axial load of 10 N is applied on the piston, find the
speed of piston.
Hint: Load = t x d x l and t = µ x (U/dr) where dr is radial clearance.
Q.7. (AMIE S2001, 8 marks): A uniform film of oil 0.13 mm thick separates two discs, each of 200 mm
diameter, mounted coaxially. Neglecting edge effects, calculate the torque necessary to rotate one disc relative
to other at a speed of 420 rpm, if the oil has a viscosity of 0.14 Pas. Prove any formula you use.
Q.1. (AMIE W2001, 10 marks): Calculate the power absorbed by fluid friction in a thrust bearing consisting of
a flat disc of 100 mm diameter placed at the lower end of a vertical shaft. The oil film is 0.25 mm thick and the
viscosity of the oil is 1.3 poise. The shaft rotates at 2000 rpm. Neglect end effects. Prove any formula you use.
Answer: T = 1.0692 N-m, Power = eT = 223.93 Watts
Q.2. (AMIE S2001, 8 marks): An oil of viscosity 5 poise is used for lubrication between a shaft and sleeve.
The diameter of the shaft is 0.5 m and it rotates at 200 rpm. Calculate the power lost in oil for a sleeve length of
100 mm. The thickness of oil film is 1.0 mm.
Fluid Statics
Revised topics
Conditions of Equilibrium of a floating Body
There are three possible situations for a body when immersed in a fluid.
- If the weight of the body is greater than the weight of the liquid of equal volume
then the body will sink into the liquid (To keep it floating additional upward force is
required).
- If the weight of the body equals the weight of equal volume of liquid, then the
body will submerge and may stay at any location below the surface.
- If the weight of the body is less than the weight of equal volume of liquid, then the
body will be partly submerged and will float in the liquid.
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Comparison of densities cannot be used directly to determine whether the body will float or
sink unless the body is solid over the full volume like a lump of iron. However the apparent
density calculated by the ratio of weight to total volume can be used to check whether a body
will float or sink. If apparent density is higher than that of the liquid, the body will sink. If
these are equal, the body will stay afloat at any location. If it is less, the body will float with
part above the surface.
A submarine or ship though made of denser material floats because, the weight/volume of the
ship will be less than the density of water. In the case of submarine its weight should equal
the weight of water displaced for it to lay submerged.
Stability of a body
A ship or a boat should not overturn due to small disturbances but should be stable and
return, to its original position. Equilibrium of a body exists when there is no resultant force or
moment on the body. A body can stay in three states of equilibrium.
- Stable equilibrium: Small disturbances will create a correcting couple and the
body will go back to its original position prior to the disturbance.
- Neutral equilibrium Small disturbances do not create any additional force and so
the body remains in the disturbed position. No further change in position occurs in
this case.
- Unstable equilibrium: A small disturbance creates a couple which acts to
increase the disturbance and the body may tilt over completely.
Under equilibrium conditions, two forces of equal magnitude acting along the same line of
action, but in the opposite directions exist on a floating/submerged body. These are the
gravitational force on the body (weight) acting downward along the centroid of the body and
buoyant force acting upward along the centroid of the displaced liquid. Whether floating or
submerged, under equilibrium conditions these two forces are equal and opposite and act
along the same line.
When the position of the body is disturbed or rocked by external forces (like wind on a ship),
the position of the centre of gravity of the body (with respect to the body) remains at the
same position. But the shape of the displaced volume of liquid changes and so its centre of
gravity shifts to a new location. Now these two forces constitute a couple which may correct
the original tilt or add to the original tilt. If the couple opposes the movement, then the body
will regain or go back to the original position. If the couple acts to increase the tilt then the
body becomes unstable. These conditions are illustrated in Fig.
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Figure (i) and (ii) shows bodies under equilibrium condition. Point C is the centre of gravity.
Point B is the centre of buoyancy. It can be seen that the gravity and buoyant forces are equal
and act along the same line but in the opposite directions.
Figure (iii) shows the body under neutral equilibrium. The centre of gravity and the centre of
buoyancy coincide.
Figures (iv) and (v) shows the objects in Figures (i) and (ii) in a slightly disturbed condition.
Under such a condition a couple is found to form by the two forces, because the point of
application of these forces are moved to new positions. In the case of Figure (iv) the couple
formed is opposed to the direction of disturbance and tends to return the body to the original
position. This body is in a state of stable equilibrium. The couple is called righting couple. In
the case of Figure (ii) the couple formed is in the same direction as the disturbance and hence
tends to increase the disturbance. This body is in unstable equilibrium. In the case of figure
(iii) no couple is formed due to disturbance as both forces act at the same point. Hence the
body will remain in the disturbed position.
In the case of top heavy body (Figure (ii)) the couple created by a small disturbance tends to
further increase the tilt and so the body is unstable.
It is essential that the stability of ships and boats are well established. The equations and
calculations are more involved for the actual shapes. Equations will be derived for simple
shapes and for small disturbances. (Note: For practical cases, the calculations will be
elaborate and cannot be attempted at this level.)
Conditions for the Stability of Floating Bodies
- When the centre of buoyancy is above the centre of gravity of the floating body,
the body is always stable under all conditions of disturbance. A righting couple is
always created to bring the body back to the stable condition.
- When the centre of buoyancy coincides with the centre of gravity, the two forces
act at the same point. A disturbance does not create any couple and so the body just
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A Focused Approach
remains in the disturbed position. There is no tendency to tilt further or to correct
the tilt.
- When the centre of buoyancy is below the centre of gravity as in the case of ships,
additional analysis is required to establish stable conditions of floating.
This involves the concept of metacentre and metacentric height. When the body is disturbed
the centre of gravity still remains on the centroidal line of the body. The shape of the
displaced volume changes and the centre of buoyancy moves from its previous position.
The location M at which the line of action of buoyant force meets the centroidal axis of the
body, when disturbed, is defined as metacentre. The distance of this point from the centroid
of the body is called metacentric height. This is illustrated in Figure.

If the metacentre is above the centroid of the body, the floating body will be stable. If it is at
the centroid, the floating body will be in neutral equilibrium. If it is below the centroid, the
floating body will be unstable.
When a small disturbance occurs, say clockwise, then the centre of gravity moves to the right
of the original centre line. The shape of the liquid displaced also changes and the centre of
buoyancy also generally moves to the right. If the distance moved by the centre of buoyancy
is larger than the distance moved by the centre of gravity, the resulting couple will act
anticlockwise, correcting the disturbance. If the distance moved by the centre of gravity is
larger, the couple will be clockwise and it will tend to increase the disturbance or tilting.
The distance between the metacentre and the centre of gravity is known is metacentric
height. The magnitude of the righting couple is directly proportional to the metacentric
height.
Larger the metacentric height, better will be the stability. Referring to following figure, the
centre of gravity G is above the centre of buoyancy B.

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After a small clockwise tilt, the centre of buoyancy has moved to B'. The line of action of this
force is upward and it meets the body centre line at the metacentre M which is above G. In
this case metacentric height is positive and the body is stable. It may also be noted that the
couple is anticlockwise. If M falls below G, then the couple will be clockwise and the body
will be unstable.
Example
A right circular cylinder of diameter D m and height h m with a relative density of (S < 1) is
to float in water in a stable vertical condition. Determine the limit of the ratio D/h for the
required situation.
Solution
For stability, the limiting condition is that the metacentre approach the centre of gravity.
(V – volume displaced),
MB = I/V
MG = (I/V) ± GB.
Here MG = 0 for the limiting condition.
(I/V) = GB
I = tD
4
/64, V = tD
2
h S/4,
(I/V) = D
2
/16hS
Also from basics
GB = (h/2) – (h S/2) = h (1 – S)/2; equating, (D
2
/16hs) = [h (1 – S)]/2
(D/h) = 2 [2 S (1 – S)]
0.5
... (1)
For example if S = 0.8,
D/h = 1.1314
D > h.
The diameter should be larger than the length. This is the reason why long rods float with
length along horizontal. The same expression can be solved for limiting density for a given
D/h ratio. Using equation 1
(D/h)
2
= 8 S (1 – S) or 8 S
2
– 8S + (D/h)
2
= 0
S = {1 ± [1 – (4/8) (D/h)
2
]
0.5
}/2,
say if (D/h) = 1.2, then S = 0.7646 or 0.2354
ASSIGNMENT
Q.3. (AMIE W07, 4 marks): Explain the terms (i) total pressure (ii) centre of pressure.
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Q.4. (AMIE S09, 7 marks): What is centre of pressure? Obtain an expression for the depth of centre of
pressure when the lamina is immersed in a liquid and is at angle with the horizontal.
Q.5. (AMIE S06, 5 marks): Define Buoyancy and centre of Buoyancy.
Q.6. (AMIE W08, 4 marks): Explain the terms (i) buoyant force (ii) centre of buoyancy.
Q.7. (AMIE W08, 2 marks): What is the magnitude of buoyant force and where does the line of action of
buoyant force pass?
Q.8. (AMIE W08, 2 marks): What is the necessary condition for a body to float in stable equilibrium?
Q.9. (AMIE W07, 4 marks): Explain the terms (i) metacentre (ii) metacentric height.
Q.10. (AMIE S08, W09, 7 marks): With neat sketch, explain the condition of equilibrium of submerged
bodies.
Q.11. (AMIE W07, 6 marks): A circular plate, 2.50 m in diameter, is immersed in water. Its greatest and least
depth below the free surface being 3 m and 1 m, respectively. Find the (i) total pressure on one face of the plate,
and (ii) position of centre of pressure.
Q.12. (AMIE W2001, 10 marks): A vertical circular lamina of radius R is kept immersed in a liquid such that
its topmost point A is on the free surface. Determine the depth and width of the horizontal chord BC, so that the
thrust due to hydrostatic pressure on the AABC is maximum. Also determine the ratio of total force on AABC in
this case to that on the entire lamina.
Answer: width of BC = 2.R/3, depth = (5/3)R, 0.43936
Q.13. (AMIE S07, 10 marks): A cylindrical gate of 4 m dia and 2 m long has water on its both sides as shown
in Fig.. Determine the magnitude and direction of the resultant force exerted by the water on the gate. Also, find
the least weight of the cylinder so that it may not be lifted away from the floor.

Answer: 219206 N, u = 57
0
31'
Q.14. (AMIE W09, 8 marks): A rectangular plane surface, 2 m wide and 3 m deep, lies in water in such a way
that its plane makes an angle of 30
0
with the free surface of water. Determine the total pressure and position of
centre of pressure when the upper edge is 1.5 m below the free-water surface.
Q.15. (AMIE S08, 7 marks): Show that a cylindrical body of 1 m diameter and 2 m height weighing 7.848 kN
will not float vertically in sea water of density 1030 kg/m
3
.
Q.16. (AMIE W08, 6 marks): A piece of wood (specific gravity = 0.6) of 10cm
2
in cross-section and 2.5 m
long floats in water. How much lead (specific gravity = 12) need to be fastened at the water end of the stick so
that it floats upright with 0.5 m length out of water.
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Q.17. (AMIE W07, 4 marks): A wooden cylinder of circular section, uniform density, and specific gravity 0.6,
is required to float in oil of specific gravity 0.8. If the diameter of the cylinder is d and its length is l, show that l
cannot exceed 0.817d for cylinder to float with its longitudinal axis vertical.
Q.18. (AMIE W08, 7 marks): A wooden cylinder of specific gravity 0.6 and circular in cross-section is
required to float in oil (specific gravity = 0.90). Find the L/D ratio for the cylinder to float with its longitudinal
axis vertical on oil, where L is the height of cylinder and D its diameter.
Q.19. (AMIE S05, 10 marks): Find the density of a metallic body which floats at the interface of mercury of
specific gravity 13.6 and water such that 40% of its volume is submerged in mercury and 60% in water.
3

Q.20. (AMIE W05, 5 marks): A slab of wood 2m x 2m x 1 m depth has specific gravity of 0.5 floats in water
with 12000 N load on it. Determine the depth of submergence of slab in water.
Q.21. (AMIE W06, 5 marks): The specific gravity of the block shown in figure is 1.6. Find the specific gravity
of the unknown fluid.

Q.22. (AMIE W06, 2 marks): Define metacentric height.
Q.23. (AMIE S06, 10 marks): A wooden block of specific gravity 0.75 floats in water. If the size of the block
is 1 m x 0.5 m x 0.4 m, find its metacentric height.
Q.24. (AMIE W2001, 8 marks): Show that for small angle of tilt, the time period of oscillation of a ship
floating in stable equilibrium in water is given by

2 k
T
g.MG
t
=
where k is radius of gyration about the axis of rotation and MG is the metacentric height.
Q.25. (AMIE S2000, 10 marks): A closed vertical cylinder 0.4 m in diameter and 0.4 m in height is completely
filled with oil of specific gravity 0.8. If the cylinder is rotated about its vertical axis at 200 rpm, calculate the
thrust of oil on top and bottom covers of the cylinder. Derive any formula you use.
Answer: 440.98 N (top), 835.46 N (bottom)
Fluid Kinematics
Laminar and Turbulent Flow
If the flow is smooth and if the layers in the flow do not mix macroscopically then the flow is
called laminar flow. For example a dye injected at a point in laminar flow will travel along a
continuous smooth line without generally mixing with the main body of the fluid.
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Momentum, heat and mass transfer between layers will be at molecular level of pure
diffusion. In laminar flow layers will glide over each other without mixing.
In turbulent flow fluid layers mix macroscopically and the velocity/temperature/mass
concentration at any point is found to vary with reference to a mean value over a time period.
For example ' u u u = + where u is the velocity at an instant at a location and u is the average
velocity over a period of time at that location and u′ is the fluctuating component. This causes
higher rate of momentum/heat/mass transfer. A dye injected into such a flow will not flow
along a smooth line but will mix with the main stream within a short distance.
The difference between the flows can be distinguished by observing the smoke coming out of
an incense stick. The smoke in still air will be found to rise along a vertical line without
mixing. This is the laminar region. At a distance which will depend on flow conditions the
smoke will be found to mix with the air as the flow becomes turbulent. Laminar flow will
prevail when viscous forces are larger than inertia forces. Turbulence will begin where inertia
forces begin to increase and become higher than viscous forces.
Path Line and Streak Line
Path line is the trace of the path of a single particle over a period of time. Path line shows the
direction of the velocity of a particle at successive instants of time. In steady flow path lines
and stream lines will be identical.
Streak lines provide an instantaneous picture of the particles, which have passed through a
given point like the injection point of a dye in a flow. In steady flow these lines will also
coincide with stream lines

Particles P
1
, P
2
, P
3
, P
4
, starting from point P at successive times pass along path lines shown.
At the instant of time considered the positions of the particles are at 1, 2, 3 and 4. A line
joining these points is the streak line.
SOURCE FLOW
A source flow consists of a symmetrical flow field with radial stream lines directed outwards
from a common point, the origin from where fluid is supplied at a constant rate q. As the area
increases along the outward direction, the velocity will decrease and the stream lines will
spread out as the fluid moves outwards. The velocity at all points at a given radial distance
will be the same.
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SINK SOURCE
Sink is the opposite of source and the radial streamlines are directed inwards to a common
point, origin, where the fluid is absorbed at a constant rate. The velocity increases as the fluid
moves inwards or as the radius decreases, the velocity will increase. In this case also the
velocity at all points at a given radial distance from the origin will be the same. The origin is
a singular point. The circulation around any closed curve is zero.
FLOWNET
The plot of stream lines and potential flow lines for a flow in such a way that these form
curvilinear squares is known as flow net. The idea that stream lines and potential lines are
orthogonal is used in arriving at the plot.
Such a plot is useful for flow visualisation as well as calculation of flow rates at various
locations and the pressure along the flow. The lines can be drawn by trial or electrical or
magnetic analogue can also be used.
An example is shown in figure for flow through a well rounded orifice in a large tank. The
flow rate along each channel formed by the stream lines will be equal. The pressure drop
between adjacent potential lines will also be equal.

With the advent of computer softwares for flow analysis, the mechanical labour in the
plotting of such flow net has been removed. However the basic idea of flow net is useful.
Example
Explain how the potential function can be obtained if the stream function for the flow is
specified.
Solution
(1) Irrotational nature of the flow should be checked first. Stream function may exist, but if
the flow is rotational potential function will not be valid.
(2) The values of u and v are obtained from the stream function as

u
y
v
x
¢
¢
c
=
c
c
= ÷
c

(3) From the knowledge of u and v, | can be determined using the same procedure as per the
determination of stream function
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( )
u
x
udx f y
|
|
c
= ÷
c
= ÷ ÷
}

where f(y) is a function of y only
/ y | c c is determined and equated to – v
Comparing f '(y) is found and then f(y) is determined and substituted in equation A
( ) udx f y C | = ÷ ÷ +
}

Example
For the following stream functions, determine the potential function
(i)
2 2
(3/ 2)( ) x y ¢ = ÷
(ii) 8xy ¢ = ÷
(iii) x y ¢ = ÷
Solution
(i) Step1: We have
3 u y
y
¢ c
= = ÷
c

3 3 v x v x
x
¢ c
÷ = = ¬ = ÷
c

To check for irrotationality

v u
x y
c c
=
c c

here, both are -3, so checks
Step 2: 3 u y = ÷ , also u
x
| c
= ÷
c

3 ( ) ydx f y | = +
}

3 ( ) xy f y | = + (A)
Diff. eq. (A) wrt y and equating to v,
3 ' 3 x f y v x
y
| c
+ = ÷ =
c

'( ) 0 f y = and so f(y) = constant.
Substituting in A,
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3 tan xy cons t | = +
Check
2 2 2
2 2 2
0, 3 , 0 y
x y y x
| | | | c c c c
+ = = =
c c c c

So also
2
2
0
y
| c
=
c

So checks
3 , 3 u y v x
x y
| | c c
= ÷ = ÷ = ÷ = ÷
c c
also checks.
(ii) Do yourself.
2 2
4 4 x y | = ÷
(iii) Do yourself. x y | = +
This topic has been deleted.
MOMENT OF MOMENTUM EQUATION
This topic has been deleted.
ASSIGNMENT
Q.26. (AMIE W05, 07, S08, 7 marks): Define and distinguish between (i) stream line (ii) streak line and (iii)
path line. Are these same in steady flow?
Q.27. (AMIE W07, 3 marks): Define (i) rotational and irrotational flow (ii) uniform and non uniform flow.
Q.28. (AMIE S08, 09, 6 marks): Define (i) steady and non steady flow (ii) one, two and three dimensional
flow (iii) laminar and turbulent flow.
Q.29. (AMIE W08, 6 marks): Define (i) steady and unsteady flow (ii) compressible and incompressible flow.
Q.30. (AMIE W09, 6 marks): Define (i) Compressible and incompressible flow (ii) one, two and three
dimensional flow.
Q.31. (AMIE W09, 5 marks): Define (i) source flow (ii) sink flow (iii) free vortex flow (iv) superimposed
flow.
Q.32. (AMIE S10, 6 marks): Explain what is meant by a point source and a sink source.
Q.33. (AMIE S06, 5 marks): Write short note on (i) momentum theorem. (ii) Reynolds transport theorem
Q.34. (AMIE S06, 5 marks): Derive the expressions of continuity and momentum equations.
Q.35. (AMIE S08, 10 marks): Derive an expression for continuity equation for a three dimensional flow.
Q.36. (AMIE W05, 4 marks): What is potential flow and how does it differ from viscous flow.
Q.37. (AMIE S06, W08, 09, 10 marks): Explain briefly the following : (i) velocity potential (ii) stream
function. Describe relation these two.
Q.38. (AMIE W08, 10 marks): What are the properties of stream function and what do you mean by
equipotential line and a line of constant stream function.
Q.39. (AMIE W07, 4 marks): describe the use and limitations of flow nets.
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STUDY CIRCLE(REGD.)
A Focused Approach
Q.40. (AMIE W07, 10 marks): Derive, from first principles, the condition for irrotational flow. Prove that, for
potential flow, both the stream function and velocity function satisfy the Laplace equation.
Q.41. (AMIE W05, 8 marks): Does the velocity potential function
2 2
2(x 2y y ) | = + ÷ describe the
possible flow of an incompressible fluid? If so, find out the equation for the velocity vector V. Also determine
the equation of streamline.
Answer: Yes, V iu jv 4xi (4y 4) j = + = ÷ + ÷

,
dx dy dx dy
or
4x 4y 4 x y 1
+ +
÷ ÷ ÷

Q.42. (AMIE W06, 5 marks): Determine whether the following flow is irrotational or not? Also determine its
velocity potential.

2 2
u xy ; v x y = =
2 2
x y
cons tan t
2
| = +
Q.43. (AMIE W07, 4 marks): A stream function is given by
2 3
3x y ¢ = ÷ . Determine the magnitude of
velocity components at point (2,1).
Answer: u = 3 units/s, v = 12 units/s
Q.44. (AMIE W08, 4 marks): The velocity potential function is given by
2 2
5( ) x y | = ÷ . Calculate the
velocity component at (4, 5).
Answer: u = 40 units/s, v = -50 units/s
Q.45. (AMIE S08, 6 marks): A fluid flow field is given by

2 2 2
(2 ) V x yi y zj xyz yz k = + ÷ +
Prove that it is a case of possible steady incompressible fluid flow. Calculate the velocity at the point (2, 1, 3).
Q.46. (AMIE S09, 10 marks): For a doublet of strength 20 m
2
/s, calculate the velocity at point P(1, 2) and the
value of stream function passing through it.
Hint: For doublet sin
2 r
µ
¢ u
t
= ÷
in Cartesian coordinates

2 2
.
2
y
x y
µ
¢
t
= ÷
+

Q.47. (AMIE W09, 10 marks): A point P(0.5, 1) is situated in the flow field of a doublet of strength 5 m
2
/s.
Calculate the velocity at this point and also the value of the stream function.
Answer: 0.6366 m/s, stream function = 0.6366 m
3
/s
Q.48. (AMIE S10, 8 marks): If u = 2x and v = -2y are respectively x and y components of possible fluid flow,
determine stream function.
Answer: 2xy C ¢ = ÷ +
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STUDY CIRCLE(REGD.)
A Focused Approach
Q.49. (AMIE W05, 10 marks): What force components are required to hold the black box, shown in the figure,
stationary? Assume no mass accumulation in the box.

x
= 423.6 N, F
y
= 210.85 N
Hint: EQ = 0 to find unknown Q. Now find components of forces.
Q.50. (AMIE S2000, 12 marks): A 0.4 m x 0.3 m, 90
0
vertical reducing bend carries 0.5 m
3
/s of oil of specific
gravity 0.85 with a pressure of 118 kN/m
2
at inlet to the bend. The volume of the bend is 0.1 m
3
. Find the
magnitude and direction of the force on the bend. Neglect friction and assume both inlet and outlet sections to
be at same horizontal level. Also assume that water enters the bend at 45
0
to the horizontal.
Answer: Resultant force on bend = 18665.6 N, 283.58
0
from x direction (anticlockwise)
Q.51. (AMIE S2007, 10 marks): Determine the hydrodynamic force on a uniform 90° pipe elbow of 15 cm
diameter through which water flows at a constant velocity of 8.4 m/s and constant pressure of 116kPa (gauge).
Assume the elbow to be in horizontal plane.
Answer: 4657 N, o = 45
0

Bernoulli's Equation and its Applications
Example (AMIE Summer 2007, 10 marks)
A liquid of specific gravity 1.52 is discharged from a tank through a siphon whose
summit point is 1.2 m above the liquid level in the tank. The siphon has a uniform
diameter of 10 cm and it discharges the liquid into atmosphere whose pressure is 101
kPa. If the vapour pressure of the liquid is 28 kPa (abs), how far below the liquid level
in the tank can the outlet be safely located? What is the maximum discharge? Neglect
Solution
Referring to figure, apply Bernoulli's equation on 2 and 3

2 2
3 3 2 2
2 3
2 2
p V p V
Z Z
g g g g µ µ
+ + = + +
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STUDY CIRCLE(REGD.)
A Focused Approach

where Z
3
= 0, V
2
= V
3
= V, p
3
= 101 kPa, Z
2
= 1.2 + h

2 2
28 1000 101 1000
(1.2 ) 0
(1.52 1000) 9.81 2 (1.52 1000) 9.81 2
x V x V
h
x x g x x g
+ + + = + +
Solving h = 3.7 m
This is the safe limit of h.
Applying Bernoulli's equation between points 1 and 3

2
101 1000 101
0 3.7 0
(1.52 1000) 9.81 (1.52 1000) 9.81 2
x V
x x x x g
+ + = + +
Solving V = 8.52 m/s

2
(0.1) 8.52 0.0669
4
Q AV x
t
= = = m
3
/s
ASSIGNMENT
Q.52. (AMIE S06, 09, 10, 10 marks): State and prove Bernoulli’s equation. Mention its limitations.
Q.53. (AMIE S05, 10 marks): State Bernoulli’s theorem for steady flow of an incompressible fluid. Derive
expression for Bernoulli’s equation from first principle and state the assumptions made for such a derivation.
Q.54. (AMIE W07, 6 marks): Derive Bernoulli's equation from Euler's equation of motion.
Q.55. (AMIE W08, 09, 6 marks): Derive Euler's equation of motion stating the assumptions.
Q.56. (AMIE S05, 10 marks): State the different devices that can be used to measure the discharge through a
pipe also through an open channel. Describe one of such devices with a neat sketch and explain how one can
obtain the actual discharge with its help.
Q.57. (AMIE S06, 10 marks): Describe how the pitot tube is used to determine the mass flow weighed mean
value of the velocity in a large duct.
Q.58. (AMIE W09, 5 marks): How will you determine the velocity of flow at any point with the help of pitot
tube?
Q.59. (AMIE S06, 5 marks): What are the relative advantages and disadvantages of the orifice meter,
venturimeter and the flow nozzle for measuring flow rates of gases?
Q.60. (AMIE W07, 10 marks): Write short notes on (i) Orifice meter (ii) Pitot tube
Q.61. (AMIE W08, 20 marks): Write short notes on (a) Venturimeter (b) Bernoulli's equation (c) Euler's
equation (d) Pitot tube.
Q.62. (AMIE S08, 10 marks): Define an orificemeter. prove that the discharge through an orifice meter is
given by
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STUDY CIRCLE(REGD.)
A Focused Approach

2 2
0 1 1 0
2 /
d
Q C a a gh a a = ÷
where a
1
is area of pipe; a
0
is the area of orifice, and C
d
is the coeff. of discharge.
Q.63. (AMIE W09, S09, 10 marks): What is a venturimeter? Draw a neat sketch of the venturimeter showing
the arrangement of the manometer. Derive an expression for the rate of flow of fluid through it.
Q.64. (AMIE S10, 8 marks): Define orifice, mouth piece, notch and weirs.
Q.65. (AMIE S09, 6 marks): A horizontal water pipe of diameter 15 cm converges to 7.5 cm diameter. If the
pressures at two sections arc 400 kPa and 150 kPa, respectively, calculate the flow rate of water.
3
/s
Q.66. (AMIE W06, 5 marks): Water flows in a circular pipe. At one section, the diameter is 0.2 m, the static
pressure is 250 kPa gauge, the velocity is 3 m/s and the elevation is 10 m above ground level. At a down stream
section, the pipe diameter is 0.15 m and elevation is 0 m. Find the gauge pressure at the downstream section.
Mention the assumptions.
Q.67. (AMIE W08, 6 marks): Water flows through a 100 mm pipe at the rate of 0.027 m
3
/s and then through
a nozzle attached to the end of the pipe. The nozzle tip is 50 mm in diameter, and the coefficients of velocity
and contraction for the nozzle are 0.950 and 0.930, respectively. What pressure head must be maintained at the
base of the nozzle if atmospheric pressure surrounds the jet?
Q.68. (AMIE W06, 10 marks): Water flows through the horizontal Y branch shown in figure. For steady flow
and neglecting losses, determine the force components required to hold the body Y in place.

The gauge pressure at section (1) is 30 kPa with volumetric inflow 15 x 10
-3
m
3
/s, volumetric outflow from
section (2) equals to 10
-2
m
3
/s and water density is 1000 kg/m
3
.
x
= -47.2 N (in –x direction), F
y
= 1.172 N
Q.69. (AMIE W07, 6 marks): A venturi meter, having a diameter of 75 mm at the throat and 150 mm diameter
at the enlarged end, is installed in a horizontal pipeline 150 mm in diameter carrying an oil of specific gravity
0.9. The difference in pressure head between the enlarged end and the throat recorded by on U tube is 175 mm
of mercury. Determine the discharge through the pipe. Assume the coefficient of discharge of the meter as 0.97.
3
/s
Q.70. (AMIE W07, 6 marks): A venturimeter of 30 cm inlet diameter and 15 cm throat diameter is provided
in a vertical pipeline carrying oil of specific gravity 0.9, the flow being upward. The difference in elevation of
the throat section and entrance section of the venturimeter is 30 cm. The differential U-tube mercury manometer
shows a gauge deflection of 25 cm. Calculate the (i) discharge of oil, (ii) pressure difference between the
entrance section and the throat section. Take coefficient of meter as 0.98 and specific gravity of mercury as
13.6.
2

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AMIE(I)
STUDY CIRCLE(REGD.)
A Focused Approach
Q.71. (AMIE S10, 12 marks): A venturi meter is to be fitted in a pipe of 0.25 m diameter, where the pressure
head is 7.6 m of following liquid and the maximum flow is 8.1 m
3
/min. Find the least diameter of the throat to
ensure that the pressure head does not become negative. Take C
d
= 0.96.
Q.72. (AMIE S08, 6 marks): An orifice meter with diameter 15 cm is inserted in a pipe of 30 cm diameter. The
pressure difference measured by a mercury oil differential manometer on two sides of the orifice meter gives a
reading of 50 cm of mercury. Find the rate of flow of oil of specific gravity 0.9 when the coefficient of
discharge of the meter is 0.64.
Q.73. (AMIE S08, 6 marks): An orifice meter, with orifice diameter 10 cm, is inserted in a pipe of 20 cm
diameter. The pressure gauges fitted upstream and downstream of the orifice meter given readings of 19.62
N/cm
2
and 9.81 N/cm
2
, respectively. Coefficient of discharge for the meter is given as 0.6. Find the discharge of
water through pipe.
Q.74. (AMIE S09, 10 marks): A submarine moves horizontally in sea with its axis much below the surface of
water. A pitot tube, properly placed just in front of the submarine and along its axis, is connected to two limbs
of a U tube containing mercury. The difference of mercury level is found to be 17 cm. Find the speed of the
submarine knowing that density of mercury is 13.6 and that of sea water is 1.026 with respect to freshwater.
Q.75. (AMIE W05, 8 marks): Derive an expression for the discharge through a triangular notch. When would
you recommend to use it.
Flow Through Pipes
Loss of Head Due to Friction
Proof:
Consider following figure.

Applying Bernoulli's theorem at 1-1 and 2-2

2 2
1 1 2 2
1 2
2 2
f
p V p V
z z h
g g g g µ µ
+ + = + + +
where h
f
is frictional loss.
But z
1
= z
2
as pipe is horizontal; V
1
= V
2
as same diameter
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AMIE(I)
STUDY CIRCLE(REGD.)
A Focused Approach

1 2
f
p p
h
g g µ µ
= ÷ (1)
Frictional resistance = frictional resistance per unit wetted area per unit velocity x wetted area
x (velocity)
2

or
2
1
'( ) F f dL V t =
The forces acting on the fluid between sections 1-1 and 2-2 are
1. Pressure force at section 1-1 =
2
1
4
p x d
t

2. Pressure force at 2-2 =
2
2
4
p d
t

Resolving all forces

2 2 2
1 2
'( ) 0
4 4
p x d p x d f dL V
t t
t ÷ ÷ = (2)
or
2
1 2
' 4
( )
f Lx V
p p
d
÷ =
But from (1)

1 2
( )
f
p p gh µ ÷ =

2
' 4
f
f Lx V
h g
d
µ =
or
2
4 '
f
f LV
h
gd µ
=
Putting f'/µ = f/2 where f is coeff. of friction, the above equation reduces to

2
4
2
f
flV
h
gd
=
ASSIGNMENT
Q.76. (AMIE W2001, 6 marks): Starting the assumptions, deduce an expression for the head loss due to
sudden expansion of streamlines in a pipe.
Q.77. (AMIE S08, 10 marks): Derive the expression for the loss of head due to friction in pipe

2
4 / 2
f
h flV gd =
where h
f
is the loss of head due to friction; L, the length of the pipes; f, the coeff. of friction; V, the velocity, and
d, the diameter of pipe.
Q.78. (AMIE W05, 10 marks): A pipeline of 0.6 m dia. is 1.5 km long. In order to increase the discharge,
another parallel line of the same diameter introduced in the second half of the length. Neglecting minor losses,
find the increase in discharge if f = 0.004. The head at the inlet is 30 m over that at the outlet.
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AMIE(I)
STUDY CIRCLE(REGD.)
A Focused Approach
Q.79. (AMIE W06, 6 marks): Water flow through a pipe with a flow rate Q and head H
1
. The pipe later divides
into two pipes A and B with diameter of D
A
and D
B
and lengths L
A
and L
B
as shown in figure. Find an
expression for Q
A
and Q
B
, the flow rates through pipes A and B. Pipes A and B have friction factor of f
A
and f
B
.

B 1/ 2
5
B B A
5
A A B
Q
Q
f L D
1 .
f L D
=
(
+
(
¸ ¸
;
A 1/ 2
5
B B A
5
A A B
Q
Q
f L D
1 .
f L D
=
(
+
(
¸ ¸

Q.80. (AMIE S07, 12 marks): Two reservoirs, whose water level elevations differ by 12m, are connected to
the following horizontal compound pipes starting from the higher level reservoir: L
1
= 200m; D
1
= 0.2 m, f
1
=
0.008 and L
2
= 500 m, D
2
= 0.3 m, f
2
= 0.006. Considering all head losses and assuming that all changes of
section are abrupt, compute the discharge through the system. Determine the equivalent length of a 0.25 m
diameter pipe, if minor losses are neglected and friction factors are assumed to be same.
3
/s, 811.3 m
Laminar Flow
Example (AMIE S2009, 6 marks)
Determine the (i) kinetic energy correction factor (ii) momentum correction factor for
laminar flow in a round pipe.
Solution
(i)
2 2
( ) u K R r = ÷
where
1
4
dp
K
dx µ
| |
= ÷
|
\ .
for horizontal pipes and
( /
.
4
d p Z
K
ds
¸ ¸
µ
| | +
= ÷
|
\ .
for
inclined pipes.
Average velocity
2
0
1
.2 .
R
V u r dr
R
t
t
=
}

=
2 3
2
0
2
)
R
K
R r r dr
R
t
t
÷
}

=
4 4
2
2
2
2 4 2
K R R K
R
R
(
÷ =
(
¸ ¸

Kinetic energy correction factor
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AMIE(I)
STUDY CIRCLE(REGD.)
A Focused Approach

3
3
1
u dA
V A
o =
}

=
3 2 2 3
0
2 2
1
( ) 2
2
R
K R r rdr
K
R R
t
t
÷
| |
|
\ .
}

=
2 2 3
8
0
16
( )
R
R r rdr
R
÷
}

=
6 7 4 3 2 5
8
0
16
[ 3 3 ]
R
R r r R r R r dr
R
÷ ÷ +
}

=
1 1 3 3
16 2
2 8 4 6
(
÷ ÷ + =
(
¸ ¸

2 o =
(ii)
2
2
1
av
u dA
AU
| =
}

=
2
2 2
2 2
1
2 1 2
av
av
r
U rdr
R U R
t
t
(
| |
÷
(
|
\ .
(
¸ ¸
}

=
2 4
2
0
8
1 2
R
r r
rdr
R R R
(
| | | |
÷ +
(
| |
\ . \ .
(
¸ ¸
}

=
3 5
2 2 4
0
8 2
R
r r
r dr
R R R
| |
÷ +
|
\ .
}

=
2 4 6
2 2 4
0
8 2 4
2 4 6 3
R
r r r
R R R
(
÷ + =
(
¸ ¸

Example
Oil with a kinematic viscosity of 241 × 10
-6
m
2
/s and density of 945 kg/m
3
flows through a
pipe of 5 cm dia. and 300 m length with a velocity of 2 m/s. Determine the pump power,
assuming an overall pump efficiency of 45%, to overcome friction.
Solution
Re = uD/v = 2 × 0.05/241 × 10
-6
= 415. So the flow is laminar.
h
f
= (64/415) × [(2
2
× 300)/(2 × 9.81 × 0.05)] = 188.67 m head of oil
Mass flow = (π × 0.05
2
/4) 2 × 945 kg/s = 3.711 kg/s
Power required = mg H/η = 3.711 × 9.81 × 188.67/0.45 W = 15,263 W or 15.263 kW.
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AMIE(I)
STUDY CIRCLE(REGD.)
A Focused Approach
ASSIGNMENT
Q.8. (AMIE S05, 10 marks): Prove that the velocity distribution for viscous flow between two parallel plates,
when both plates are fixed across section is parabolic in nature. Also, prove that the maximum velocity is equal
to one and a half times the average velocity.
Q.9. (AMIE W06, 10 marks): Prove that for flow between two stationary parallel plates, the pressure drop is
given by

avg
2
12 u
dp
dx h
µ
= ÷
where h is the distance between the plates and u
avg
is the average flow velocity.
Q.10. (AMIE W05, 10 marks): Derive the velocity distribution formula for a plane Poiseuille flow and prove
that the average velocity is 2/3 of its centre line velocity.
Hint: See flow between two parallel plates
Q.11. (AMIE S08, W08, 09, 10 marks): Derive an expression for the velocity distribution for viscous flow
through a circular pipe. Also, sketch the velocity distribution and shear stress distribution across the section of
pipe.
Q.12. (AMIE S10, 6 marks): Derive the expression for Hagen Poiseuille flow.
Q.13. (AMIE S06, 10 marks): Explain briefly (i) Couette flow (ii) Poiseuille flow
Q.1. (AMIE S07, 12 marks): Starting from continuity and momentum equations, derive the governing equation
for Couette flow. Determine velocity profile when lower plate is stationary and upper plate moves with velocity
U for different pressure gradient situation.
Q.2. (AMIE W07, 6 marks): Show that for laminar flow in circular pipes, the friction factor is inversely
proportional to Reynolds number.
Q.14. (AMIE S05, 10 marks): Two parallel plates kept 0.01 m apart have a laminar flow of oil between them.
Taking dynamic viscosity of oil to be 0.8 poise, determine the velocity distribution, discharge and shear stress
on the upper plate that moves horizontally at relative velocity 1 m/s with respect to the lower plate which is
stationary. Further, the pressure drops in the flow direction from 180 kPa to 100 kPa over a distance of 80 m.
Answer: Flow is Couette flow. u = y(162.5 – 6250y); 0.00604 m
3
/s; t = 3 Ns/m
2

Q.15. (AMIE S10, 6 marks): Air (µ = 1.2 kg/m
3
, µ = 1.81 x 10
-5
Ns/m
2
) is forced at 25 m/s through a = 0.3 m
2

steel duct, 148 m long. Calculate the head loss and power if f = 0.015.
Q.1. (AMIE S08, 10 marks): A laminar flow is taking place in a pipe of diameter 200 mm. The maximum
velocity is 1.5 m/s. Find the mean velocity and the radius at which this occurs. Also, calculate the velocity at 4
cm from the wall of the pipe.
Answer: 0.75 m/s, 7.07 cm, 0.96 m/s
Q.2. (AMIE S09, 6 marks): A fluid of viscosity 0.7 Ns/m
2
and specific gravity 1.3 is flowing through a
circular pipe of diameter 10 cm. The maximum shear stress at the pipe wall is given as 196.2 N/m
2
. Find (i) the
pressure gradient, (ii) average velocity, and (iii) Reynold number of the flow.
2
, 3.5 m/s, 650
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AMIE(I)
STUDY CIRCLE(REGD.)
A Focused Approach
Q.16. (AMIE S05, W2000, 10 marks): A crude oil of viscosity 0.97 Poise and relative density 0.9 is flowing
through a horizontal circular pipe of diameter 10 cm and of length 10 m. Calculate the difference of pressure at
the two ends of the pipe, if 100 kg of oil is collected in a tank in 30 sec.
2

Q.1. (AMIE S09, 10 marks): A straight stretch of horizontal pipe of 5 cm diameter was used in the laboratory
to measure the viscosity of a crude oil (specific weight 9000 N/m
3
). During the test run, a pressure differential of
18000 N/m
2
was recorded from two pressure gauges located 6 m apart on the pipe. The oil was allowed to
discharge into a weighing tank and 5000 N of oil was collected in 3 min duration. Work out dynamic viscosity
of the oil.
2

Turbulent Flow
Example
A pipeline 30 cm in diameter carries 300 L/s of petrol (µ = 680 kg/m
3
, µ = 2.9 x 10
-4
Pa.s).
Calculate the (i) friction factor (ii) shear stress at the boundary (iii) shear stress and velocity
at a radial distance of 5 cm from the pipe axis (iv) maximum velocity (v) thickness of laminar
sublayer. Assume smooth pipe.
Solution
Mean velocity

2
0.300
4.244 /
( / 4)(0.30)
Q
V m s
A t
= = =
Reynolds number

6
4
4.244 0.30 680
Re 2.985 10
2.9 10
VD x x
x
x
µ
µ
÷
= = =
(i) By using the explicit formula for f

6 0.237
0.221
0.0032 0.009654
(2.985 10 )
f
x
= + =
(ii)
* 0
/ / 8 u V f t µ = =

2 2
0
680(4.244) (0.009654)
14.78
8 8
V f
Pa
µ
t = = =

14.78
* 0.14743 /
680
u m s = =
(iii) At r = 5 cm, y = r
0
- r = 15 - 5 = 10 cm

0
0
5
14.78 4.927
15
r
x Pa
r
t t = = =
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AMIE(I)
STUDY CIRCLE(REGD.)
A Focused Approach
The velocity at y = 0.1 m is given by the smooth pipe formula

*
*
5.75log 5.5
u y u
u u
= +
Noting that / u µ µ =

4
*
0.14743 0.1 680
5.75log 5.5 31.597
2.9 10
u x x
u x
÷
(
= + =
(
¸ ¸

*
(31.597) 0.14743 31.597 4.658 / u u x m s = = =
(iv) The maximum velocity u
m
is related to V as

*
3.75
m
u V
u
÷
=

*
3.75 4.244 3.75 0.14743 4.797 /
m
u V u x m s = + = + =
(v) Laminar sublayer thickness

4
5
*
11.6 2.9 10 1
' 11.6 3.356 10 0.0336
680 0.14743
x
x m mm
u
u
o
÷
÷
| |
| |
= = = =
| |
\ .
\ .

ASSIGNMENT
Q.2. (AMIE S05, 5 marks): Write a short note on turbulent flow.
Q.3. (AMIE W07, 8 marks): A smooth brass pipeline, 75 mm in diameter and 900 m long, carries water at the
rate of 7 litres/sec If the kinematic viscosity of the water is 0.0195 stokes, calculate the loss of head, wall
shearing stress, centre line velocity and thickness of the laminar sublayer. Take Q = 1000 kg/m
3
.
2
, 1.91 m/s, 0.02829 cm
Q.4. (AMIE S08, 10 marks): A smooth pipe of diameter 400 mm and length 800 m carries water at the rate of
0.04 m
3
/s. Determine the head lost due to friction, wall shear stress, centre-line velocity and thickness of laminar
sub-layer. Take the kinematic viscosity of water as 0.018 stokes.
Answer: 0.2 m, 0.3789 m/s, 0.133 cm
Q.5. (AMIE S08, 10 marks): A smooth pipe of diameter 80 mm and 800 m long carries water at the rate of
0.480 m
3
/min. Calculate the loss of head, wall shearing stress, centre line velocity, velocity and shear stress at
30 mm from pipe wall. Also, calculate the thickness of laminar sub-layer. Take kinematic viscosity of water as
0.015 stokes. Take the value of coefficient of friction f from the relation f = 0.0791/Re
1/4
where Re = Reynold
number.
2
, 1.88 m/s,
Boundary layer
Characteristics of Boundary Layer
- o increases as distance from leading edge x increases.
- o decreases as U increases.
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AMIE(I)
STUDY CIRCLE(REGD.)
A Focused Approach
- o increases as kinematic viscosity increases.
- t
0
decreases as x increases. However, when boundary layer becomes turbulent (see
below), it shows a sudden increase and then decreases with increasing x.
- If U increases in the downstream direction, i.e. / p x c c is -ve, boundary layer growth
is reduced.
- If U decreases in the downstream direction, i.e. / p x c c is +ve, flow near the boundary
is further retarded, boundary layer growth is faster and boundary layer is susceptible
to separation.
- All characteristics of the boundary layer on flat plate, such as variation of o, t
0
or
force F, are governed by inertial and viscous forces; hence they are functions of either
Ux/v or UL/v.
- When Ux/v is less than 5 x 10
5
, boundary layer is laminar and velocity distribution in
boundary layer is parabolic. When Ux/v > 5 x 10
5
the boundary layer on that portion
is turbulent.
- Critical value of Ux/v at which boundary layer changes from laminar to turbulent
depends on turbulence in ambient flow, surface roughness, pressure gradient, plate
curvature and temperature difference between fluid and boundary.
- Velocity distribution in laminar boundary layer follows parabolic law while that in
turbulent boundary layer follows logarithmic law or power law.
- In turbulent boundary layer a thin layer known as laminar sub-layer o' exists near the
boundary, if it is smooth.
ASSIGNMENT
Q.6. (AMIE S08, 5 marks): Explain with necessary sketch the following
(i) Laminar boundary layer
(ii) Turbulent boundary layer
(iii) Laminar sub-layer
(iv) Boundary layer thickness
Q.7. (AMIE W07, 08, 09, 6 marks): Explain the characteristics of laminar and turbulent layer.
Q.8. (AMIE W08, 8 marks): Discuss the effect of pressure gradient on boundary layer separation.
Q.9. (AMIE S10, 8 marks): Explain the phenomena of boundary layer growth over a flat plate. Explain
phenomenon of boundary layer separation with a neat sketch.
Q.10. (AMIE W06, 5 marks): What are boundary layer equations? How do they differ from the Navier Stokes
equations?
Q.11. (AMIE S99, W06, 08, 5 marks): Define displacement thickness o* and momentum thickness u. Write
their formula.
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AMIE(I)
STUDY CIRCLE(REGD.)
A Focused Approach
Q.12. (AMIE W08, S10, 8 marks): The velocity distribution in boundary layer is given by u/v = y/o, where u
is the velocity at distance y from plate and u = v at y = o, o being boundary layer thickness. Find the (i)
displacement thickness, (ii) momentum thickness, (iii) energy thickness, and (iv) value of o*/ u.
Q.13. (AMIE S06, 10 marks): Discuss laminar boundary layer, boundary layer thickness and boundary layer
control.
Q.14. (AMIE S99, 2000, W05, 10 marks): Explain the phenomenon of separation of boundary layer and
formation of wake. Give a list of various methods of boundary layer control.
Q.15. (AMIE S05, 10 marks): What do you mean by separation of boundary layer? What is the effect of
pressure gradient on boundary layer separation? How will you determine whether a boundary layer flow is
attached flow, detached flow or on the verge of separation?
Q.16. (AMIE W06, 10 marks): Air is blowing past a flat plate. Assume that air velocity profile is given by
expression

3 4
u 2y y y
2
U
·
| | | |
= ÷ +
| |
o o o
\ . \ .

Show that the boundary layer thickness is given by

x
x
5.836
Re
o =
Q.17. (AMIE W07, 12 marks): If a laminar boundary layer at zero pressure, gradient over a flat plate is
described by the velocity profile.

3
0
/ (3/ 2) / 2 V V q q = ÷
in which q = (y/o). Show that the boundary layer thickness, o, wall shear stress t
0
and coefficient of drag C
D
are
given by

2
0
0
0.322 4.65
; ; 1.328 Re
Re Re
D x
x x
V x
C
µ
o t = = =
Q.18. (AMIE S09, 8 marks): Assuming one of the standard velocity distributions for laminar boundary flow,
obtain expression for the drag coefficient, boundary shear stress, and thickness of the boundary layer.
Hint: Standard velocity distribution is

3
0
/ (3/ 2) / 2 V V q q = ÷
in which q = (y/o).
2
0
0
0.322 4.65
; ; 1.328 Re
Re Re
D x
x x
V x
C
µ
o t = = =
Hint: energy thickness =
2
0
u u
1 dy
U U
o
· ·
(
| |
( ÷
|
(
\ .
¸ ¸
}
and energy loss per metre length of spillway will be
(1/2)µo
e
U
·
3
.
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AMIE(I)
STUDY CIRCLE(REGD.)
A Focused Approach
Q.19. (AMIE W05, S10, 10 marks): Water at 15
0
C flows over a flat plate at a speed of 1.2 m/s. The plate is 0.3
m long and 2 m wide. The boundary layer on each side is laminar. Assume the velocity profile is approximately
a linear for which
ex
/ x 3.46/ R o = . Determine the drag force on the plate. For water: v = 1.1 x 10
-6
m
2
/s, µ
= 1000 kg/m
3
.
2

Q.20. (AMIE S2001, 12 marks): A smooth flat plate of length 5 m and width 2 m is moving with a velocity of
4 m/s in stationary air of density 1.2 kg/m
3
and kinematic viscosity 1.5 x 10
-5
m
2
/s. If the boundary layer flow
changes from laminar to turbulent at Reynolds number of 5 x 10
5
, determine (a) the total drag on one side of the
plate and (b) boundary layer thickness at the transition point, if it exists.
Q.21. (AMIE W06, 5 marks): Air is flowing over a flat plate with a free stream velocity of 10 m/s. At a
distance of 1 m/s from the leading edge, calculate o, the boundary layer thickness. Assume turbulent flow over
for a 1/7
th
power law velocity profile. Assume µ = 1.23 kg/m
3
and v = 1 x 10
-5
m
2
/s.
Answer: 25.386 mm Hint: For 1/7
th
power law,
1/ 5
x
0.371
x (Re )
o
=
Q.22. (AMIE W08, 12 marks): Water is flowing over a thin smooth plate of length 4 m and width 2 m at a
velocity of 1.0 m/s. If the boundary layer flow changes from laminar to turbulent at a Reynold number 5 x 10
5
,
find the (i) distance from leading edge up to which boundary layer is laminar, (ii) thickness of the boundary
layer at the transition point, and {iii) drag force on one side of the plate. Take velocity of water µ = 9.8 x 10
-4

Ns/m
2

Answer: 4.9 cm, 0.344 cm, 12 N
Q.23. (AMIE S09, 10 marks): Atmospheric air at 25
0
C flows parallel to a flat plate al a velocity of 3 m/s.
Use the exact Blasius solution to estimate the boundary layer thickness and the local skin friction coefficient at x
= l m from the leading edge of the plate. How these values would compare with the corresponding values
obtained from the approximate von-Karman integral technique? Assume cubic velocity profile for air at 25
0
C, n
= 15.53 x 10
-6
m
2
/s.
Answer: Blasius eq.: o = 5x/\Re
x
= 1.1376 cm, C
f
= 0.664/\Re
x
= 1.51075 x 10
-3
; Van Karman; o = 4.64x/\Re
x

= 0.010557 m, C
f
= 0.646/\Re
x
= 1.4698 x 10
-3

Q.24. (AMIE W97, 12 marks): Water is flowing at a velocity of 1 m/s over a smooth flat plate of length 1 m
and width 2 m. Taking viscosity of water as 9.81 x 10
-4
N-s/m
2
, determine the drag force on one side of the
plate. Assume Blasius solution for determination of C
D
for laminar flow and C
D
= 0.072/(Re)
0.2
for turbulent
flow, where C
D
is drag coefficient and N
R
is Reynolds number.
Answer: 12.08 N on one side of plate
Hint: Flow is combined i.e. laminar upto certain distance and turbulent after that.
Hence F
D
= (F
D
)
laminar
+ (F
D
)
turbulent

Q.25. (AMIE S10, 12 marks): Air(µ = 1.23 kg/m
3
and v = 1.5x 10
-5
m
2
/s) is flowing over a flat plate. The free
stream speed is 15 m/s. At a distance of 1m from the scaling edge (leading edge), calculate o and t
w
for (i)
completely laminar flow, and (ii) completely turbulent flow for a one-seventh power low velocity profile.
Answer: (i) o = 4.96x/\Re = 4.96 mm, t
x
= (1/2)C
f
= 0.092 N/m
2
where C
f
= 0.644/\Re (ii) o = 0.371x/Re
0.2
=
23.4 mm, 0.503 N/m
2
, C
f
= 0.0576/Re
0.2

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AMIE(I)
STUDY CIRCLE(REGD.)
A Focused Approach
Compressible Flow
SOUND WAVE IN COMPRESSIBLE FLOW
With reference to following figure in which a sound wave os flowing with velocity c.

Applying continuity equation between (1) and (2)
( )( ) cA d c dV A µ µ µ = + ÷
Neglecting product of small quantities,
c c dV cd µ µ µ µ = ÷ +
or dV cd µ µ = (1)
Applying momentum equation
Force in right direction = mass x change in velocity from (1) and (2)
or ( ) {( ) } A p dp A cA c dv c µ µ ÷ + = ÷ ÷
or d cdV µ µ ÷ = ÷
or
dp
dV
c
µ =
Substituting for µdV in equation (1)

dp
cd
c
µ =
or
2
dp
c

=
or
dp
c

=
This is required expression.
Example (AMIE S08, W08, S10, 8 marks)
Derive an expression for change of area and velocity for compressible fluid in a nozzle

2
( 1)
dA dV
M
A V
= ÷
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AMIE(I)
STUDY CIRCLE(REGD.)
A Focused Approach
Solution
From continuity eq.
.
AV
m AV const µ
u
= = = here v is specific volume.
Taking logarithms, and then differentials
0
dA dV d
A V
u
u
+ ÷ =
or 1
dA d dV dV V d
A V V dV
u u
u u
(
= ÷ = ÷
(
¸ ¸
(1)

2
.
2
V
h const + = here h is specific enthalpy.
or 0 dh VdV dh VdV + = ¬ = ÷ (2)
From first law of thermodynamics
0 Tds dh dp u = ÷ = for isentropic flow.
or dh dp u = (3)
From (2) and (3)
VdV dp u = ÷ (4)
The isentropic relation for an ideal gas gives
pv const
¸
=
Taking log, and then differentials
0
dp d
p
u
¸
u
+ =
or pd dp ¸ u u = ÷ (5)
From (4) and (5)
VdV pdv ¸ =
or
d V
dV p
u
¸
=
Substituting for / d dV u in relation (1)
1
dA dV V V
A V p u ¸
(
= ÷
(
¸ ¸

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AMIE(I)
STUDY CIRCLE(REGD.)
A Focused Approach
=
2
1
dV V
V RT ¸
(
÷
(
¸ ¸
as pv = RT.
=
2
2
1
dV V
V a
(
÷
(
¸ ¸
as
2
a RT ¸ = = sonic velocity
2

=
2
1
dV
M
V
( ÷
¸ ¸
as V/a = M, the Mach number.
Example (AMIE Summer 2010, 6 marks)
Prove that

/ 1
2 0
1
1
2
y y
P y
M
P
÷
÷ (
= +
(
¸ ¸

where P
0
= stagnation pressure; y = isentropic index; M = Mach number.
Solution
For compressible flow

0 0
p
p
¸
µ
µ
| |
=
|
\ .

and
1/
0 0
T p
T p
¸ ¸ ÷
| |
=
|
\ .
etc.
The stagnation enthalpy h
0
is related to static enthalpy h by the steady flow energy equation

2
0
2
V
h h = +
For an ideal gas, h = C
p
T and h
0
= C
p
T
0

2
0 0
2
p
V
C T C T = +
or
2
0
1
2
p
T V
T C T
= +
But
1
p
R
C
¸
¸
=
÷

2 2
0
1
1 1 .
2
2
1
T V V
T RT R
¸
¸ ¸
¸
÷
= + = +
| |
|
÷
\ .

Now,
2
RT a ¸ = , a = sonic velocity and V/a = mach number = M.
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AMIE(I)
STUDY CIRCLE(REGD.)
A Focused Approach
Hence, the above relation becomes,

2
2 0
2
1 1
1 . 1
2 2
T V
M
T a
¸ ¸ ÷ ÷
= + = +
From isentropic relation,

/ 1 / 1
2 0 0
1
1
2
p T
M
p T
¸ ¸ ¸ ¸
¸
÷ ÷
÷ | | (
= = +
|
(
¸ ¸ \ .
Hence Proved.
ASSIGNMENT
Q.26. (AMIE W07, 4 marks): Define Mach number and explain its significance in compressible fluid flow.
Q.27. (AMIE W07, 09, 8 marks): Obtain an expression for the sound wave in a compressible fluid in terms of
change of pressure and change of density.
Q.28. (AMIE S05, 3 marks): What is a normal shock and how is it obtained?
Q.29. (AMIE W05, 10 marks): What is shock wave and under what conditions would it occur? Derive the
Prandtl Mayer relation.
Q.30. (AMIE S06, 10 marks): How is a shock wave produced in a compressible fluid? Explain normal and
oblique shocks.
Q.31. (AMIE W08, 4 marks): Define the terms (i) subsonic flow (ii) supersonic flow.
Q.32. (AMIE W09, 4 marks): Define (i) Mach number (ii) subsonic flow (iii) sonic flow (iv) supersonic flow.
Q.33. (AMIE S05, 3 marks): Write the basic equations i.e. continuity, momentum and energy equation for a
control volume having normal shocks.
Q.34. (AMIE S05, 4 marks): How the velocity, temperature, density and entropy change across a normal shock
wave.
Q.35. (AMIE W05, 10 marks): The conditions of a gas in a combustor at entry are: p
1
= 0.343 bar, T
1
= 310 K
and C
1
= 60 m/s. Determine the mach number, pressure, temperature and velocity at the exit if the increase in
stagnation enthalpy of the gas between entry and exit is 1172; 5 kJ/kg. Take C
p
= 1.005 kJ/kg and ¸ = 1.4. The
question is to be solved using appropriate tables.
Answer: 0.45, 0.277 bar, 1423.2K, 340.3 m/s
Q.36. (AMIE S05, 10 marks): A tank contains air at a pressure 135 kPa and temperature 27
0
C. The local
barometric pressure is 100 kPa. Air discharges out of the tank and into atmosphere through a convergent nozzle.
Determine the output flow velocity and the mass flow rate of air. The cross sectional area at the nozzle outlet is
500 m
2
.
Q.37. (AMIE W06, 10 marks): A convergent divergent nozzle with supersonic flow at exit has a throat area of
500 mm
2
and exit area of 1000 mm
2
. Air enters the nozzle with a stagnation temperature of 360 K and
stagnation pressure of 1 MPa. Determine the maximum flow rate that the nozzle can pass.
Q.38. (AMIE W07, 08, 8 marks): Find the velocity of air flowing at the outlet of a nozzle, fitted to a large
vessel which contains air at a pressure of 29.43 bar (abs) and at a temperature of 20 °C. The pressure at the
outlet of the nozzle is 20.6 bar (abs). Take K= 1.4 and R = 287 J/kg K.
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AMIE(I)
STUDY CIRCLE(REGD.)
A Focused Approach
Q.39. (AMIE S08, 8 marks): Determine the exit velocity and mass flow rate for isentropic flow of air through a
nozzle from inlet stagnation conditions of 7 bar and 320
0
C to an exit pressure of 1.05 bar and the exit area of the
nozzle is 6.25 cm
2
. Also, determine the throat area of the nozzle. Assume ¸ = 1.4.
Answer: 706.2 m/s, 0.4683 kg/s, 4.026 cm
2

Q.40. (AMIE W09, 8 marks): A nozzle is required to expand the air from 4.5 bar and 750°C to 1.1 bar. Find
the throat area, outlet area and outlet temperature for a mass flow rate of 0.5 kg/s. Take the nozzle efficiency as
85% and assume the following properties for air:
Ratio of specific heat, ¸ = 1.4
Gas constant, R = 0.287 kJ/kg °K
Constant pressure specific heat, C
p
= 1.005 kJ/kg. K.
2
, 12.49 cm
2
, 461.87
0
C
Q.41. (AMIE W09, 8 marks): Air at an absolute pressure 60.0 kPa and 27°C enters a passage at 486 m/sec.
The cross-sectional area at the entrance is 0.02 m
2
. At section 2, further downstream the pressure is 78.8 kPa
(absolute). Assuming isentropic flow, calculate Mach number at section 2. Also, identify type of the nozzle.
Given ¸ = 1.4.
Objective Questions
Set 2
1. One SI unit of viscosity is equal to
(a) 10 poise
(b) 981 poise
(e) 0.1 poise
(d) None of these
2. Pressure head of a fluid is the ratio of pressure to
(a) fluid height
(b) specific weight
(e) density
(d) specific gravity
3. In a differential manometer, the flowing fluid is water and the gauge fluid is water and
the manometer reading is 10 cm, the differential head in m of water is
(a) 13.6
(b) 1.36
{c) 1.47
(d) 1.26
4. Along a stream line,
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AMIE(I)
STUDY CIRCLE(REGD.)
A Focused Approach
(a) velocity is constant
(b) | is zero
(c) ¢ is zero
(d) ¢ is constant
5. Doublet is a combination of
(a) source and vortex
(b) source and sink
(c) source and uniform flow
(d) None of these
6. Flow in a whirlpool in a river is an example of
(a) free vortex
(b) spiral vortex
(e) forced vortex
7. The coefficient of contraction of a sharp-edged small orifice under normal conditions
is
(a) 0.985
(b) 0.82
(e) 0.707
(d) 0.62
8. An error of 1.5mm is committed in the measurement of head over a triangular notch.
The bead over the notch is 0.5 m. The percent error in computing discharge is
(a) 0.5
(b) 0.75
(e) 1.5
(d) 3.0
9. In series pipes, the parameter which is same in each pipe is
(a) h
f

(b) Q
(e)f
(d) None of these
10. The following is not a minor loss
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AMIE(I)
STUDY CIRCLE(REGD.)
A Focused Approach
(a) friction loss
(b) bend loss
(e) enlargement loss
(d) contraction loss
11. In laminar flow between two fixed parallel plates, the ratio of average to maximum
velocities is
(a) 1/3
(b) 1/2
(e) 2/1
(d) 2/3
12. In which of the following types of flows, the shear stress is uniform across the cross-
section
(a) Simple Couette flow
(b) Generalised Couette flow
(e) Poiseuille flow
(d) None of these
13. The thickness of a laminar boundary layer on a flat plate varies
(a) x
(b) x
1/2

(e) x
-1/2

(d) x
1/7

14. The average drag coefficient of a laminar layer is
(a)
1.328
Re

(b)
0.664
Re

(c)
1/5
0.0587
Re

(d)
1/5
0.0735
Re

15. Reynolds turbulent shear stress is given by
(a) lu µ
(b) . u v µ
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AMIE(I)
STUDY CIRCLE(REGD.)
A Focused Approach
(c)
du
dy
µ
(d)
du
dy
u
16. In a given rough pipe, the losses depend on
(a) Q
(b) Re
(c) µ, µ
(d) f, D, V
17. Kinematic eddy viscosity has units
(a) poise
(b) Pascal
(e) N/s
(d) m
2
/s
18. Effect of compressibility of fluid can be neglected if Mach number.
(a) 0.3 to 1.0
(b) < 0.3
(c) > 1
(d) none of these
19. In a diverging passage, the velocity of supersonic flow
(a) decreases linearly
(b) decrease exponentially
(c) increases
(d) remains constant
20. Across a normal shock in compressible fluid, there is
(a) increase in p and decrease in M
(b) increase in p and s, decrease in M
(c) increase in p and M, no change in s
(d) increase in p, M and T
21. Poise is the unit of
(a) mass density
(b) kinematic viscosity
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AMIE(I)
STUDY CIRCLE(REGD.)
A Focused Approach
(c) viscosity
(d) velocity potential
22. The point of action of hydrostatic force is known as
(a) centre of gravity
(b) centre of buoyancy
(c) centre of pressure
(d) metacentre
23. Bernoulli's theorem deals with law of conservation of
(a)mass
(b) momentum
(c) energy
(d) None of the above
24. The coefficient of friction for laminar flow through a circular pipe is given by
(a)
1/ 4
0.791/ Re f =
(b) 16 / Re f =
(c) 64 / Re
(d) 32 / Re f =
25. The boundary layer separation takes place if
26. Compressibility is equal to
(a) ( / ) / dV dP u
(b) / ( / ) dP dV u ÷
(c) / dP dµ
(d) / dP dµ
27. When the fluid is at rest the shear stress is
(a) maximum
(b) zero
(c) minimum
OBJECTI VE QUESTI ONS
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AMIE(I)
STUDY CIRCLE(REGD.)
A Focused Approach
(d) None of the above
28. For a floating body, if the metacentre coincides with the centre of gravity, the
equilibrium is called
(a) stable
(b) unstable
(c) neutral
(d) None of the above
29. An oil of specific gravity 0.7 and pressure 0.14 kgf/cm
2
will have the height of oil as
(a) 70 cm of oil
(b) 2 m of oil
(c) 20 cm of oil
(d) 14 cm of oil
30. The velocity distribution across a section of a circular pipe having viscous flow is
given by
(a)
2
max
[(1 ( / ) ] u u r R = ÷
(b)
2 2
max
[ ] u u R r = ÷
(c)
2
max
[1 / ] u u r R = ÷
(d) None of the above.
31. The buoyant force for the floating body passes through the
(a) centre of gravity of the body
(b) meta-centre of the body
(c) centroid of the displaced volume
32. The pressure difference between inside and outside of a droplet of water is given by
(a) 2 o/d
(b) 4 o/d
(c) 8 o/d
(d) None of the above.
33. An ideal fluid is one which
(a) is frictionless and incompressible
(b) is viscous
(c) obeys Newton's law of viscosity
(d) All of the above
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AMIE(I)
STUDY CIRCLE(REGD.)
A Focused Approach
34. The position of centre of pressure of a plane surface immersed in a static fluid is
(a) at the centroid of the submerged surface
(b) always above centroid
(c) always below centroid
(d) None of the above.
35. Stream lines and path line always coincide in
(b) uniform flow
(c) non-uniform flow
(d) laminar flow.
36. Navier Stokes equations are useful in the analysis of
(a) turbulent flows
(b) vortex flows
(c) viscous flows
(d) rotational flows
37. The velocity distribution at any section of a pipe for steady laminar flow is
(a) linear
(b) exponential
(c) parabolic
(d) hyperbolic
38. The speed of pressure wave depends upon
(a) initial velocity of fluid
(b) viscosity of flowing fluid
(c) diameter of pipe
(d) density of flowing fluid
39. The velocity of sound is largest in
(a) air
(b) kerosene
(c) water
(d) steel
40. The range of coefficient of discharge for a venturimeter is
(a) 0.6 - 0.7
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AMIE(I)
STUDY CIRCLE(REGD.)
A Focused Approach
(b) 0·7 - 0.85
(c) 0.92 - 0.98
(d) 0.85 - 0.92
41. Correct unit of kinematic viscosity is
(a) m
2
/s
(b) Ns/m
2

(c) m/kg-s
(d) kg/m
2
-s
42. All liquid surfaces tend to stretch. This phenomenon is called
(a) cohesion
(c) surface tension
(d) cavitation
43. A metallic piece weighs 78.5 N in air and 58.8 N in water. The relative density of the
metal would be
(a) 8
(b) 4
(c) 6
(d) 3
44. In uniform flow, the velocities of fluid particles are:
(a) equal at all sections
(b) always dependent on time
(c) mutually perpendicular to each other
(d) the fluid particles move in well defined paths.
45. Pressure loss for laminar flow through pipeline is dependent
(a) directly on square of flow velocity
(b) directly on square of pipe radius
(c) directly as length of pipe
(d) inversely on viscosity of flowering medium.
46. The velocity potential function in a two-dimensional flow field is given by
2 2
x y | = ÷ . The magnitude of velocity at point P(1, 1) is
(a) zero
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AMIE(I)
STUDY CIRCLE(REGD.)
A Focused Approach
(b) 2
(c) 2
(d) 8
47. Identify the Bernoulli's equation, where each term represents energy per unit mass:
(a)
2
.
2
P V
y const
w g
+ + =
(b)
2
.
2
P V
gy const
µ
+ + =
(c)
2
2
V
P wy const
µ
+ + =
(d) none of these
48. Discharge is measured by
(a) current meter
(b) pitot tube
(c) venturimeter
(d) hot wire anemometer
49. The relation
2 2
2 2
0
x y
| | c c
+ =
c c
for an irrotational flow is referred to as
(a) Euler's equation
(b) Laplace equation
(c) Reynold's equation
(d) Cauchy-Riemann's equation
50. Fluid is a substance which offers no resistance to change of
(a) pressure
(b) flow
(c) shape
(d) volume
(e) temperature
51. A fluid is said to be ideal, if it is
(a) incompressible
(b) inviscous
(c) viscous and incompressible
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STUDY CIRCLE(REGD.)
A Focused Approach
(d) viscous and compressible.
(e) inviscous and incompressible
52. The unit of viscosity is
(a) m
2
/s
(b) kg/m-s
(c) Ns/m
2

(d) Ns
2
/m
(e) None of the above
53. A one-dimensional flow is one which
(a) is uniform flow
(c) takes place in straight lines
(d) involves zero transverse component of flow
(e) takes place in one dimension.
54. The line of action of the buoyant force acts through the
(a) centroid of the, volume of fluid vertically above the body
(b) centre of the volume of floating body
(c) centre of gravity of any submerged body
(d) centroid of the displaced volume of fluid
(e) None of the above
55. Differential manometer is used to measure
(a) pressure in pipes, channels, etc.
(b) atmospheric pressure
(c) very low pressure
(d) difference of pressure between two points
(e) velocity in pipes
56. An ideal flow of any fluid must satisfy
(a) Pascal law
(b) Newton's law of viscosity
(c) boundary layer theory
(d) continuity equation
(e) Bernoulli's theorem
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AMIE(I)
STUDY CIRCLE(REGD.)
A Focused Approach
57. A stream line is defined as the line
(a) parallel to central axis flow
(b) parallel to outer surface of pipe
(c) a tangent to it at the point gives the direction of velocity.
(d) along which the pressure drop is uniform.
(e) which occurs in all flows.
58. Separation of flow occurs when pressure gradient
(a) tends to approach zero.
(b) becomes negative
(c) changes abruptly
(d) reduces to value when vapour formation starts
59. For a laminar flow
(a) flow .occurs in zig-zag way.
(b) Reynolds number lies between 2000 and 3000 for pipes.
(c) Newton's law of viscosity is of importance.
(d) pipe losses are major considerations
(e) velocity of flow is maximum.
60. Orifices are used for
(a) velocity
(b) pressure
(c) rate of flow
(d) none of these
61. For supersonic flow, if the area of flow increases, then
(a) velocity decreases
(b) velocity increases
(c) velocity remains constant
(d) none of these
62. Pressure drag results from
(a) skin friction
(b) deformation drag
(c) principle cause of skin friction
(d) always occur when deformation drag predominates
63. The growth of boundary layer is supported when
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AMIE(I)
STUDY CIRCLE(REGD.)
A Focused Approach
(a) / p x c c is positive
(b) / p x c c is zero
(c) / p x c c is negative
Key to Set 2
1. a
2. b
3. d
4. d
5. b
6. a
7. d
8. b
9. b
10. a
11. d
12. a
13. b
14. a
15. b
16. d
17. d
18. b
19. c
20. b
21. c
22. c
23. c
24. b
25. b
26. a
27. b
28. c
29. b
30. a
31. c
32. b
33. a
34. c
35. a
36. c
37. c
38. d
39. d
40. c
41. a
42. c
43. b
44. a
45. c
46. c
47. b
48. c
49. b
50. c
51. e
52. c
53. d
54. d
55. d
56. e
57. c
58. b
59. c
60. c
61. b
62. b
63. a

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AMIE(I)
STUDY CIRCLE(REGD.)
A Focused Approach

OBJECTIVE QUESTIONS

AMIE(I)

STUDY CIRCLE(REGD.)

Q.3. (AMIE W08, 10 marks): Define (i) Newtonian fluid, (ii)ideal plastic fluid,(iii) kinematic viscosity, (iv) specific weight, and (v) specific gravity. Q.4. (AMIE S10, 6 marks): What are the characteristic fluid properties of which the following phenomena are attributable: (i) Rise of sap in a tree, (ii) Cavitation, and (iii) water hammer. Q.5. (AMIE S10, 6 marks): What is viscosity? Discuss its role in fluid flow and the factors on which shear stress rate depends in a flowing fluid. Give examples of different kinds of fluids from day-to-day life under different categories. Q.6. (AMIE W09, S10, 6 marks): Slate Newton's law of viscosity. What is the effect of temperature on viscosity of water and that of air ? Q.5. (AMIE S06, 5 marks): What is capillarity? Derive expression for height of capillary rise. Q.6. (AMIE W2000): A piston 7.95 cm diameter and 30 cm long works in a cylinder 8 cm diameter. The annular space is filled with an oil viscosity 2 poise. If an axial load of 10 N is applied on the piston, find the speed of piston. Answer: 0.1668 m/s Hint: Load =  x d x l and  =  x (U/dr) where dr is radial clearance. Q.7. (AMIE S2001, 8 marks): A uniform film of oil 0.13 mm thick separates two discs, each of 200 mm diameter, mounted coaxially. Neglecting edge effects, calculate the torque necessary to rotate one disc relative to other at a speed of 420 rpm, if the oil has a viscosity of 0.14 Pas. Prove any formula you use. Answer: 7.44 Nm Q.1. (AMIE W2001, 10 marks): Calculate the power absorbed by fluid friction in a thrust bearing consisting of a flat disc of 100 mm diameter placed at the lower end of a vertical shaft. The oil film is 0.25 mm thick and the viscosity of the oil is 1.3 poise. The shaft rotates at 2000 rpm. Neglect end effects. Prove any formula you use. Answer: T = 1.0692 N-m, Power = T = 223.93 Watts Q.2. (AMIE S2001, 8 marks): An oil of viscosity 5 poise is used for lubrication between a shaft and sleeve. The diameter of the shaft is 0.5 m and it rotates at 200 rpm. Calculate the power lost in oil for a sleeve length of 100 mm. The thickness of oil film is 1.0 mm. Answer: 2.153 kW

A Focused Approach

Fluid Statics
Revised topics

Conditions of Equilibrium of a floating Body
There are three possible situations for a body when immersed in a fluid.  If the weight of the body is greater than the weight of the liquid of equal volume then the body will sink into the liquid (To keep it floating additional upward force is required). If the weight of the body equals the weight of equal volume of liquid, then the body will submerge and may stay at any location below the surface. If the weight of the body is less than the weight of equal volume of liquid, then the body will be partly submerged and will float in the liquid.
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 

2

OBJECTIVE QUESTIONS

AMIE(I)

STUDY CIRCLE(REGD.)

Comparison of densities cannot be used directly to determine whether the body will float or sink unless the body is solid over the full volume like a lump of iron. However the apparent density calculated by the ratio of weight to total volume can be used to check whether a body will float or sink. If apparent density is higher than that of the liquid, the body will sink. If these are equal, the body will stay afloat at any location. If it is less, the body will float with part above the surface. A submarine or ship though made of denser material floats because, the weight/volume of the ship will be less than the density of water. In the case of submarine its weight should equal the weight of water displaced for it to lay submerged. Stability of a body A ship or a boat should not overturn due to small disturbances but should be stable and return, to its original position. Equilibrium of a body exists when there is no resultant force or moment on the body. A body can stay in three states of equilibrium.   Stable equilibrium: Small disturbances will create a correcting couple and the body will go back to its original position prior to the disturbance. Neutral equilibrium Small disturbances do not create any additional force and so the body remains in the disturbed position. No further change in position occurs in this case. Unstable equilibrium: A small disturbance creates a couple which acts to increase the disturbance and the body may tilt over completely.

A Focused Approach

Under equilibrium conditions, two forces of equal magnitude acting along the same line of action, but in the opposite directions exist on a floating/submerged body. These are the gravitational force on the body (weight) acting downward along the centroid of the body and buoyant force acting upward along the centroid of the displaced liquid. Whether floating or submerged, under equilibrium conditions these two forces are equal and opposite and act along the same line. When the position of the body is disturbed or rocked by external forces (like wind on a ship), the position of the centre of gravity of the body (with respect to the body) remains at the same position. But the shape of the displaced volume of liquid changes and so its centre of gravity shifts to a new location. Now these two forces constitute a couple which may correct the original tilt or add to the original tilt. If the couple opposes the movement, then the body will regain or go back to the original position. If the couple acts to increase the tilt then the body becomes unstable. These conditions are illustrated in Fig.

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3

OBJECTIVE QUESTIONS

AMIE(I)

STUDY CIRCLE(REGD.)

A Focused Approach

Figure (i) and (ii) shows bodies under equilibrium condition. Point C is the centre of gravity. Point B is the centre of buoyancy. It can be seen that the gravity and buoyant forces are equal and act along the same line but in the opposite directions. Figure (iii) shows the body under neutral equilibrium. The centre of gravity and the centre of buoyancy coincide. Figures (iv) and (v) shows the objects in Figures (i) and (ii) in a slightly disturbed condition. Under such a condition a couple is found to form by the two forces, because the point of application of these forces are moved to new positions. In the case of Figure (iv) the couple formed is opposed to the direction of disturbance and tends to return the body to the original position. This body is in a state of stable equilibrium. The couple is called righting couple. In the case of Figure (ii) the couple formed is in the same direction as the disturbance and hence tends to increase the disturbance. This body is in unstable equilibrium. In the case of figure (iii) no couple is formed due to disturbance as both forces act at the same point. Hence the body will remain in the disturbed position. In the case of top heavy body (Figure (ii)) the couple created by a small disturbance tends to further increase the tilt and so the body is unstable. It is essential that the stability of ships and boats are well established. The equations and calculations are more involved for the actual shapes. Equations will be derived for simple shapes and for small disturbances. (Note: For practical cases, the calculations will be elaborate and cannot be attempted at this level.)

Conditions for the Stability of Floating Bodies
 When the centre of buoyancy is above the centre of gravity of the floating body, the body is always stable under all conditions of disturbance. A righting couple is always created to bring the body back to the stable condition. When the centre of buoyancy coincides with the centre of gravity, the two forces act at the same point. A disturbance does not create any couple and so the body just

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4

This is illustrated in Figure.  When the centre of buoyancy is below the centre of gravity as in the case of ships. SULTAN TOWERS. ROORKEE – 247667 UTTARANCHAL PH: (01332) 266328 Email : pcourses@hotmail. The location M at which the line of action of buoyant force meets the centroidal axis of the body. is defined as metacentre. The magnitude of the righting couple is directly proportional to the metacentric height. The shape of the displaced volume changes and the centre of buoyancy moves from its previous position. When a small disturbance occurs. the centre of gravity G is above the centre of buoyancy B. the couple will be clockwise and it will tend to increase the disturbance or tilting. correcting the disturbance. say clockwise. If it is below the centroid. 2 ND FLOOR. better will be the stability. the floating body will be stable.OBJECTIVE QUESTIONS AMIE(I) STUDY CIRCLE(REGD. the floating body will be in neutral equilibrium. P. then the centre of gravity moves to the right of the original centre line. The shape of the liquid displaced also changes and the centre of buoyancy also generally moves to the right. If the metacentre is above the centroid of the body. If the distance moved by the centre of gravity is larger. additional analysis is required to establish stable conditions of floating.) remains in the disturbed position.77. If the distance moved by the centre of buoyancy is larger than the distance moved by the centre of gravity.B.com 5 . There is no tendency to tilt further or to correct the tilt. the floating body will be unstable. Referring to following figure. If it is at the centroid. the resulting couple will act anticlockwise. NO. When the body is disturbed the centre of gravity still remains on the centroidal line of the body. The distance of this point from the centroid of the body is called metacentric height. The distance between the metacentre and the centre of gravity is known is metacentric height. Larger the metacentric height. when disturbed. A Focused Approach This involves the concept of metacentre and metacentric height.

Determine the limit of the ratio D/h for the required situation. Using equation 1 (D/h)2 = 8 S (1 – S) or 8 S2 – 8S + (D/h)2 = 0 S = {1 ± [1 – (4/8) (D/h)2]0.3. then S = 0.com 6 . The same expression can be solved for limiting density for a given D/h ratio. Here MG = 0 for the limiting condition. In this case metacentric height is positive and the body is stable. (V – volume displaced).5 }/2. Solution For stability.5 D/h = 1. The line of action of this force is upward and it meets the body centre line at the metacentre M which is above G.2. the limiting condition is that the metacentre approach the centre of gravity.B.) After a small clockwise tilt. Example A right circular cylinder of diameter D m and height h m with a relative density of (S < 1) is to float in water in a stable vertical condition. NO. then the couple will be clockwise and the body will be unstable. equating.2354 ASSIGNMENT Q. 4 marks): Explain the terms (i) total pressure (ii) centre of pressure. V = D2 h S/4. (1) A Focused Approach Also from basics For example if S = 0. (D2/16hs) = [h (1 – S)]/2   (D/h) = 2 [2 S (1 – S)]0. (AMIE W07. (I/V) = GB I = D4/64. SULTAN TOWERS.OBJECTIVE QUESTIONS AMIE(I) STUDY CIRCLE(REGD. It may also be noted that the couple is anticlockwise. 2 ND FLOOR. the centre of buoyancy has moved to B'.77. MB = I/V MG = (I/V) GB.8. ROORKEE – 247667 UTTARANCHAL PH: (01332) 266328 Email : pcourses@hotmail. This is the reason why long rods float with length along horizontal.  (I/V) = D2/16hS GB = (h/2) – (h S/2) = h (1 – S)/2. P..1314   D > h.. . If M falls below G. say if (D/h) = 1.7646 or 0. The diameter should be larger than the length.

4 marks): Explain the terms (i) metacentre (ii) metacentric height. (AMIE W2001. (AMIE W07.9. explain the condition of equilibrium of submerged bodies. 2. Q.5 m length out of water. Find the (i) total pressure on one face of the plate. Determine the depth and width of the horizontal chord BC. Q.50 m in diameter.848 kN will not float vertically in sea water of density 1030 kg/m3.15. is immersed in water. Determine the total pressure and position of centre of pressure when the upper edge is 1. (AMIE S08.5 m below the free-water surface. Answer: 53. 2 marks): What is the necessary condition for a body to float in stable equilibrium? Q. Also determine the ratio of total force on ABC in this case to that on the entire lamina. NO. (AMIE S06.5 N P. and (ii) position of centre of pressure.B.5. Q. (AMIE S08. respectively. (AMIE W07. (AMIE W08. 4 marks): Explain the terms (i) buoyant force (ii) centre of buoyancy. Determine the magnitude and direction of the resultant force exerted by the water on the gate. 7 marks): With neat sketch. so that the thrust due to hydrostatic pressure on the ABC is maximum. lies in water in such a way that its plane makes an angle of 300 with the free surface of water.12.4. SULTAN TOWERS.333 m. Also. Its greatest and least depth below the free surface being 3 m and 1 m. W09. find the least weight of the cylinder so that it may not be lifted away from the floor. 0.OBJECTIVE QUESTIONS AMIE(I) STUDY CIRCLE(REGD. 10 marks): A cylindrical gate of 4 m dia and 2 m long has water on its both sides as shown in Fig. Q. Answer: 96310 N. 10 marks): A vertical circular lamina of radius R is kept immersed in a liquid such that its topmost point A is on the free surface. 5 marks): Define Buoyancy and centre of Buoyancy. (AMIE W08. Q. (AMIE W09. (AMIE S09.6) of 10cm2 in cross-section and 2.R/3.125 m Q. (AMIE S07. 7 marks): Show that a cylindrical body of 1 m diameter and 2 m height weighing 7.16.13.5 m long floats in water. 6 marks): A circular plate. 7 marks): What is centre of pressure? Obtain an expression for the depth of centre of pressure when the lamina is immersed in a liquid and is at angle with the horizontal.. How much lead (specific gravity = 12) need to be fastened at the water end of the stick so that it floats upright with 0.43936 Q.14. 2. ROORKEE – 247667 UTTARANCHAL PH: (01332) 266328 Email : pcourses@hotmail. 8 marks): A rectangular plane surface. 2 m wide and 3 m deep. 2. Q.com 7 .) Q. Q. A Focused Approach Answer: 219206 N. depth = (5/3)R. 6 marks): A piece of wood (specific gravity = 0.11. 2 ND FLOOR.8.7.  = 57031' Q.77. 2 marks): What is the magnitude of buoyant force and where does the line of action of buoyant force pass? Q.10. (AMIE W08. (AMIE W08. Answer: 132435 N. Answer: width of BC = 25.6.

If the size of the block is 1 m x 0.com 8 . find its metacentric height. Q.46 N (bottom) Fluid Kinematics Laminar and Turbulent Flow If the flow is smooth and if the layers in the flow do not mix macroscopically then the flow is called laminar flow.5 m x 0. Q.9 Q. Answer: 440.8.19. If the diameter of the cylinder is d and its length is l. Find the specific gravity of the unknown fluid.B. Answer: 0. Determine the depth of submergence of slab in water. Derive any formula you use. If the cylinder is rotated about its vertical axis at 200 rpm.77.8. Find the L/D ratio for the cylinder to float with its longitudinal axis vertical on oil.6.OBJECTIVE QUESTIONS AMIE(I) STUDY CIRCLE(REGD.98 N (top).17. Answer: 0. 10 marks): A wooden block of specific gravity 0.21.22.24. 5 marks): The specific gravity of the block shown in figure is 1. show that l cannot exceed 0. Answer: 6040 kg/m3 Q. the time period of oscillation of a ship floating in stable equilibrium in water is given by T 2k g.75 Q. (AMIE W2001.4 m.18. (AMIE S05.817d for cylinder to float with its longitudinal axis vertical. 835.75 floats in water.4 m in diameter and 0.5 floats in water with 12000 N load on it. ROORKEE – 247667 UTTARANCHAL PH: (01332) 266328 Email : pcourses@hotmail.01944 m Q. A Focused Approach Answer: 1.4 m in height is completely filled with oil of specific gravity 0.25. 5 marks): A slab of wood 2m x 2m x 1 m depth has specific gravity of 0. (AMIE W06. uniform density. where L is the height of cylinder and D its diameter. SULTAN TOWERS.20.80 m Q. (AMIE W07. 10 marks): A closed vertical cylinder 0. 2 marks): Define metacentric height. (AMIE S06. calculate the thrust of oil on top and bottom covers of the cylinder. (AMIE W05. and specific gravity 0. 8 marks): Show that for small angle of tilt. Answer: < 0. is required to float in oil of specific gravity 0.6 and water such that 40% of its volume is submerged in mercury and 60% in water.MG where k is radius of gyration about the axis of rotation and MG is the metacentric height.90). (AMIE W06. For example a dye injected at a point in laminar flow will travel along a continuous smooth line without generally mixing with the main body of the fluid. (AMIE S2000. 7 marks): A wooden cylinder of specific gravity 0. Q.6 and circular in cross-section is required to float in oil (specific gravity = 0.23.) Q. 4 marks): A wooden cylinder of circular section. P. (AMIE W08. 2 ND FLOOR.6. 10 marks): Find the density of a metallic body which floats at the interface of mercury of specific gravity 13. NO.

2. P4. heat and mass transfer between layers will be at molecular level of pure diffusion. The velocity at all points at a given radial distance will be the same.B. the velocity will decrease and the stream lines will spread out as the fluid moves outwards. the origin from where fluid is supplied at a constant rate q.77. ROORKEE – 247667 UTTARANCHAL PH: (01332) 266328 Email : pcourses@hotmail. NO. In steady flow these lines will also coincide with stream lines Particles P1. In laminar flow layers will glide over each other without mixing. At the instant of time considered the positions of the particles are at 1. In turbulent flow fluid layers mix macroscopically and the velocity/temperature/mass concentration at any point is found to vary with reference to a mean value over a time period. As the area increases along the outward direction. Path line shows the direction of the velocity of a particle at successive instants of time. Turbulence will begin where inertia forces begin to increase and become higher than viscous forces. starting from point P at successive times pass along path lines shown. SULTAN TOWERS.com 9 . 3 and 4. In steady flow path lines and stream lines will be identical. A Focused Approach Path Line and Streak Line Path line is the trace of the path of a single particle over a period of time. Laminar flow will prevail when viscous forces are larger than inertia forces. Streak lines provide an instantaneous picture of the particles. P. This causes higher rate of momentum/heat/mass transfer. For example u  u  u ' where u is the velocity at an instant at a location and u is the average velocity over a period of time at that location and u′ is the fluctuating component. At a distance which will depend on flow conditions the smoke will be found to mix with the air as the flow becomes turbulent. A dye injected into such a flow will not flow along a smooth line but will mix with the main stream within a short distance. which have passed through a given point like the injection point of a dye in a flow. 2 ND FLOOR. SOURCE FLOW A source flow consists of a symmetrical flow field with radial stream lines directed outwards from a common point. This is the laminar region.OBJECTIVE QUESTIONS AMIE(I) STUDY CIRCLE(REGD. The difference between the flows can be distinguished by observing the smoke coming out of an incense stick.) Momentum. The smoke in still air will be found to rise along a vertical line without mixing. A line joining these points is the streak line. P3. P2.

In this case also the velocity at all points at a given radial distance from the origin will be the same. (2) The values of u and v are obtained from the stream function as  u y   v x (3) From the knowledge of u and v. FLOWNET The plot of stream lines and potential flow lines for a flow in such a way that these form curvilinear squares is known as flow net. Solution (1) Irrotational nature of the flow should be checked first. the mechanical labour in the plotting of such flow net has been removed. The lines can be drawn by trial or electrical or magnetic analogue can also be used. 2 ND FLOOR.OBJECTIVE QUESTIONS AMIE(I) STUDY CIRCLE(REGD. The pressure drop between adjacent potential lines will also be equal. origin. SULTAN TOWERS. Such a plot is useful for flow visualisation as well as calculation of flow rates at various locations and the pressure along the flow. ROORKEE – 247667 UTTARANCHAL PH: (01332) 266328 Email : pcourses@hotmail. The idea that stream lines and potential lines are orthogonal is used in arriving at the plot. but if the flow is rotational potential function will not be valid. The velocity increases as the fluid moves inwards or as the radius decreases.B. Stream function may exist. NO. can be determined using the same procedure as per the determination of stream function P. With the advent of computer softwares for flow analysis. The flow rate along each channel formed by the stream lines will be equal. An example is shown in figure for flow through a well rounded orifice in a large tank. However the basic idea of flow net is useful. The circulation around any closed curve is zero.com 10 .77. the velocity will increase. where the fluid is absorbed at a constant rate.) A Focused Approach SINK SOURCE Sink is the opposite of source and the radial streamlines are directed inwards to a common point. Example Explain how the potential function can be obtained if the stream function for the flow is specified. The origin is a singular point.

ROORKEE – 247667 UTTARANCHAL PH: (01332) 266328 Email : pcourses@hotmail. 2 ND FLOOR. eq. (A) Substituting in A.77.  3 x  f ' y  v  3 x y  f '( y )  0 and so f(y) = constant.B. so checks Step 2: u  3 y . (A) wrt y and equating to v.OBJECTIVE QUESTIONS AMIE(I) STUDY CIRCLE(REGD. P.)  u x A Focused Approach     udx  f ( y ) where f(y) is a function of y only  / y is determined and equated to – v Comparing f '(y) is found and then f(y) is determined and substituted in equation A     udx  f ( y )  C Example For the following stream functions. NO. SULTAN TOWERS.com 11 . also u     x    3 ydx  f ( y )   3xy  f ( y ) Diff. determine the potential function (i)   (3 / 2)( x 2  y 2 ) (ii)   8xy (iii)   x  y Solution (i) Step1: We have u   3 y y   3x  v  3 x x v  To check for irrotationality v u  x y here. both are -3.

(AMIE W07. (ii) Reynolds transport theorem Q. (AMIE W05. 6 marks): Define (i) steady and unsteady flow (ii) compressible and incompressible flow.38. (AMIE S06. 5 marks): Define (i) source flow (ii) sink flow (iii) free vortex flow (iv) superimposed flow.26. 09. SULTAN TOWERS. v    3x also checks. 5 marks): Derive the expressions of continuity and momentum equations.37. (AMIE S08. S08. (AMIE W08. Q. Are these same in steady flow? Q. (AMIE S08.34. Q.36. 10 marks): Derive an expression for continuity equation for a three dimensional flow. (AMIE W07. ASSIGNMENT Q. (AMIE S06. 07. (AMIE W09. 2  0 x 2 y 2 y x A Focused Approach So also  2 0 y 2 So checks u (ii) (iii)    3 y.29. x y Do yourself. 3 marks): Define (i) rotational and irrotational flow (ii) uniform and non uniform flow.33. Q. P.  3 y. Q. 6 marks): Define (i) steady and non steady flow (ii) one. MOMENT OF MOMENTUM EQUATION This topic has been deleted. 10 marks): What are the properties of stream function and what do you mean by equipotential line and a line of constant stream function.30. 4 marks): describe the use and limitations of flow nets. W08. Q.77. Q.)   3 xy  cons tan t  2  2   2 Check   0. two and three dimensional flow (iii) laminar and turbulent flow. 4 marks): What is potential flow and how does it differ from viscous flow. (AMIE W09. (AMIE S10.   4 x 2  4 y 2 Do yourself. Q.OBJECTIVE QUESTIONS AMIE(I) STUDY CIRCLE(REGD.31. 09. 6 marks): Define (i) Compressible and incompressible flow (ii) one.com 12 .B. (AMIE W05.28. 10 marks): Explain briefly the following : (i) velocity potential (ii) stream function. NO. 7 marks): Define and distinguish between (i) stream line (ii) streak line and (iii) path line. 2 ND FLOOR. ROORKEE – 247667 UTTARANCHAL PH: (01332) 266328 Email : pcourses@hotmail. 5 marks): Write short note on (i) momentum theorem.32. Q.35. Describe relation these two.   x  y FORCES ON MOVING BLADES This topic has been deleted. Q.39.27. two and three dimensional flow. Q. Q. (AMIE S06. 6 marks): Explain what is meant by a point source and a sink source. (AMIE W08.

2 2 x  y 2 in Cartesian coordinates   Q.63 m/s Hint: For doublet    sin  2 r  y .  dx dy dx dy  or  x y 1 4x 4y  4 Q. u  xy 2 .43. calculate the velocity at point P(1. 5).46. (AMIE S10.OBJECTIVE QUESTIONS AMIE(I) STUDY CIRCLE(REGD. Calculate the V  x 2 yi  y 2 zj  (2 xyz  yz 2 )k Prove that it is a case of possible steady incompressible fluid flow. (AMIE S08. Q.6366 m/s. (AMIE W07.1).com . Answer: u = 3 units/s. ROORKEE – 247667 UTTARANCHAL PH: (01332) 266328 Email : pcourses@hotmail.47. NO. SULTAN TOWERS. 10 marks): Derive.) Q. Calculate the velocity at the point (2. 5 marks): Determine whether the following flow is irrotational or not? Also determine its velocity potential.5.48. 1) is situated in the flow field of a doublet of strength 5 m2/s. 1.   2 Q. 2) and the value of stream function passing through it. (AMIE W08. 6 marks): A fluid flow field is given by   3x 2  y 3 . Answer:   2xy  C 13 P. 2 ND FLOOR. Answer: Yes. determine stream function.40. 10 marks): A point P(0. from first principles. Answer: u = 40 units/s. 10 marks): For a doublet of strength 20 m2/s. find out the equation for the velocity vector V. Determine the magnitude of   5( x 2  y 2 ) . 8 marks): Does the velocity potential function   2(x  2y  y ) describe the 2 2 A Focused Approach possible flow of an incompressible fluid? If so. v = -50 units/s Q. the condition for irrotational flow. 3). Prove that. for potential flow. v  x 2 y x 2 y2  cons tan t Answer: Flow is irrotational. (AMIE W09. Answer: 0. Calculate the velocity at this point and also the value of the stream function.77.42. v = 12 units/s Q. both the stream function and velocity function satisfy the Laplace equation.6366 m3/s Q.B. 4 marks): A stream function is given by velocity components at point (2. (AMIE W05. Answer: 21. (AMIE W06. (AMIE S09. V  iu  jv  4x i  (4y  4) j . 8 marks): If u = 2x and v = -2y are respectively x and y components of possible fluid flow. Answer: 0.45. Also determine the equation of streamline.44. 4 marks): The velocity potential function is given by velocity component at (4. (AMIE W07.41. stream function = 0.58 Q.

shown in the figure. SULTAN TOWERS.5 m3/s of oil of specific gravity 0. 10 marks): Determine the hydrodynamic force on a uniform 90° pipe elbow of 15 cm diameter through which water flows at a constant velocity of 8. Find the magnitude and direction of the force on the bend. NO.77. stationary? Assume no mass accumulation in the box. If the vapour pressure of the liquid is 28 kPa (abs).3 m. ROORKEE – 247667 UTTARANCHAL PH: (01332) 266328 Email : pcourses@hotmail. Fy = 210.85 N Hint: Q = 0 to find unknown Q.4 m x 0. Q. The volume of the bend is 0.com 14 . how far below the liquid level in the tank can the outlet be safely located? What is the maximum discharge? Neglect all losses of head. Answer: Resultant force on bend = 18665.B. Assume the elbow to be in horizontal plane. Solution Referring to figure.52 is discharged from a tank through a siphon whose summit point is 1.2 m above the liquid level in the tank.OBJECTIVE QUESTIONS AMIE(I) STUDY CIRCLE(REGD. (AMIE S2007. apply Bernoulli's equation on 2 and 3 p V2 p2 V2 2   Z 2  3  3  Z3  g 2g  g 2g P.6 N. 900 vertical reducing bend carries 0. (AMIE S2000. Neglect friction and assume both inlet and outlet sections to be at same horizontal level. 283. 10 marks): What force components are required to hold the black box. 10 marks) A liquid of specific gravity 1.1 m3. 2 ND FLOOR.) Q. 12 marks): A 0.51. A Focused Approach Answer: Fx = 423.4 m/s and constant pressure of 116kPa (gauge).85 with a pressure of 118 kN/m2 at inlet to the bend. Now find components of forces. Also assume that water enters the bend at 450 to the horizontal. (AMIE W05. The siphon has a uniform diameter of 10 cm and it discharges the liquid into atmosphere whose pressure is 101 kPa.49. Answer: 4657 N.6 N.50.580 from x direction (anticlockwise) Q.  = 450 Bernoulli's Equation and its Applications Example (AMIE Summer 2007.

(AMIE W07.B. Derive expression for Bernoulli’s equation from first principle and state the assumptions made for such a derivation.58.com 15 .1) 2 x8. (AMIE S05. (AMIE W07. 10 marks): State Bernoulli’s theorem for steady flow of an incompressible fluid. Mention its limitations. 6 marks): Derive Bernoulli's equation from Euler's equation of motion. (AMIE S06. (AMIE S06. Q.7   0 (1.57. 09. prove that the discharge through an orifice meter is given by P.56. 2 ND FLOOR.OBJECTIVE QUESTIONS AMIE(I) STUDY CIRCLE(REGD.55. Q.77.59. 10 marks): State and prove Bernoulli’s equation. (AMIE W08. (AMIE S08. 5 marks): How will you determine the velocity of flow at any point with the help of pitot tube? Q.52  0. (AMIE W09. Q. 10 marks): Describe how the pitot tube is used to determine the mass flow weighed mean value of the velocity in a large duct.) A Focused Approach where Z3 = 0. 20 marks): Write short notes on (a) Venturimeter (b) Bernoulli's equation (c) Euler's equation (d) Pitot tube. 10 marks): State the different devices that can be used to measure the discharge through a pipe also through an open channel. (AMIE W08. NO.52 x1000) x9. venturimeter and the flow nozzle for measuring flow rates of gases? Q.62.53.54.81 2 g h = 3.52 x1000) x9. 10 marks): Write short notes on (i) Orifice meter (ii) Pitot tube Q.52 m/s Q  AV   4 (0. 6 marks): Derive Euler's equation of motion stating the assumptions.52 x1000) x9. ROORKEE – 247667 UTTARANCHAL PH: (01332) 266328 Email : pcourses@hotmail. Q.52. Q. 09. p3 = 101 kPa.81 2 g Solving  V = 8. Applying Bernoulli's equation between points 1 and 3 101x1000 101 V2  0  3.2  h)   0 (1.7 m This is the safe limit of h.81 2 g (1. V2 = V3 = V.52 x1000) x9.0669 m3/s ASSIGNMENT Q.81 (1.61. 10 marks): Define an orificemeter. Q.60. Z2 = 1. (AMIE S06. (AMIE S05. Q. Describe one of such devices with a neat sketch and explain how one can obtain the actual discharge with its help.2 + h  Solving 28 x1000 V2 101x1000 V2   (1. 10. 5 marks): What are the relative advantages and disadvantages of the orifice meter. SULTAN TOWERS.

(AMIE W07.97. 5 marks): Water flows in a circular pipe. Answer: 338.65. volumetric outflow from section (2) equals to 10-2 m3/s and water density is 1000 kg/m3. having a diameter of 75 mm at the throat and 150 mm diameter at the enlarged end. At one section. ROORKEE – 247667 UTTARANCHAL PH: (01332) 266328 Email : pcourses@hotmail.66. notch and weirs.930. (AMIE W08.67. Derive an expression for the rate of flow of fluid through it. 6 marks): A venturimeter of 30 cm inlet diameter and 15 cm throat diameter is provided in a vertical pipeline carrying oil of specific gravity 0. The difference in pressure head between the enlarged end and the throat recorded by on U tube is 175 mm of mercury. 2 ND FLOOR. Assume the coefficient of discharge of the meter as 0. At a down stream section.379 N/cm2 P. Q. the flow being upward. (AMIE W07. If the pressures at two sections arc 400 kPa and 150 kPa. (AMIE S10. gauge Q. Q.4 kPa.027 m3/s and then through a nozzle attached to the end of the pipe.2 m. the diameter is 0. determine the force components required to hold the body Y in place.68. the static pressure is 250 kPa gauge. The gauge pressure at section (1) is 30 kPa with volumetric inflow 15 x 10-3 m3/s. is installed in a horizontal pipeline 150 mm in diameter carrying an oil of specific gravity 0.63. Fy = 1.) A Focused Approach Q  Cd a0 a1 2 gh / a1  a0 where a1 is area of pipe.795 l/s. respectively.15 m and elevation is 0 m. (AMIE W06. respectively.70.B.77.com 16 . The nozzle tip is 50 mm in diameter.2 N (in –x direction). Answer: 0. 6 marks): A horizontal water pipe of diameter 15 cm converges to 7. 10 marks): Water flows through the horizontal Y branch shown in figure. and Cd is the coeff.9. (AMIE S09. (AMIE W06. (AMIE W09. (ii) pressure difference between the entrance section and the throat section. 6 marks): A venturi meter. Determine the discharge through the pipe.0308 m3/s Q. The difference in elevation of the throat section and entrance section of the venturimeter is 30 cm. 3.OBJECTIVE QUESTIONS AMIE(I) 2 2 STUDY CIRCLE(REGD.9. 10 marks): What is a venturimeter? Draw a neat sketch of the venturimeter showing the arrangement of the manometer. Answer: 148. What pressure head must be maintained at the base of the nozzle if atmospheric pressure surrounds the jet? Answer: 11. S09. of discharge.98 and specific gravity of mercury as 13. calculate the flow rate of water. the pipe diameter is 0. NO.64. Mention the assumptions. 6 marks): Water flows through a 100 mm pipe at the rate of 0. mouth piece. Find the gauge pressure at the downstream section. 8 marks): Define orifice. The differential U-tube mercury manometer shows a gauge deflection of 25 cm. Answer: Fx = -47.6. Calculate the (i) discharge of oil. Q. a0 is the area of orifice.5 cm diameter. the velocity is 3 m/s and the elevation is 10 m above ground level. Take coefficient of meter as 0. For steady flow and neglecting losses. and the coefficients of velocity and contraction for the nozzle are 0.172 N Q.69. Answer: 0.950 and 0. SULTAN TOWERS.424 m Q.102 m3/s Q.

12 marks): A venturi meter is to be fitted in a pipe of 0. is connected to two limbs of a U tube containing mercury. 6 marks): An orifice meter. 6 marks): An orifice meter with diameter 15 cm is inserted in a pipe of 30 cm diameter.73. where the pressure head is 7. Applying Bernoulli's theorem at 1-1 and 2-2 p1 V12 p V2   z1  2  2  z2  h f  g 2g  g 2g where hf is frictional loss. Answer: 68. properly placed just in front of the submarine and along its axis. Answer: 11.25 m diameter.556 km/h Q.64.72. (AMIE S10. respectively. Find the discharge of water through pipe. Coefficient of discharge for the meter is given as 0.) Q. is inserted in a pipe of 20 cm diameter. with orifice diameter 10 cm.OBJECTIVE QUESTIONS AMIE(I) STUDY CIRCLE(REGD. A Focused Approach Flow Through Pipes Loss of Head Due to Friction Proof: Consider following figure. 8 marks): Derive an expression for the discharge through a triangular notch. ROORKEE – 247667 UTTARANCHAL PH: (01332) 266328 Email : pcourses@hotmail. V1 = V2 as same diameter P. (AMIE S08. NO.81 N/cm2.9 when the coefficient of discharge of the meter is 0. (AMIE W05.6 and that of sea water is 1. Answer: 137.21 l/s Q.B. Find the least diameter of the throat to ensure that the pressure head does not become negative. The pressure gauges fitted upstream and downstream of the orifice meter given readings of 19. Take Cd = 0.6.71.94 cm Q. SULTAN TOWERS.77. (AMIE S09.74. When would you recommend to use it.75. (AMIE S08. But z1 = z2 as pipe is horizontal. 2 ND FLOOR. 10 marks): A submarine moves horizontally in sea with its axis much below the surface of water.6 m of following liquid and the maximum flow is 8.1 m3/min.96. A pitot tube.com 17 . The difference of mercury level is found to be 17 cm.026 with respect to freshwater. Answer: 22. The pressure difference measured by a mercury oil differential manometer on two sides of the orifice meter gives a reading of 50 cm of mercury.42 l/s Q. Find the speed of the submarine knowing that density of mercury is 13.62 N/cm2 and 9. Find the rate of flow of oil of specific gravity 0.

f. (AMIE W05. the velocity.76.) A Focused Approach (1)  p p hf  1  2 g g Frictional resistance = frictional resistance per unit wetted area per unit velocity x wetted area x (velocity)2 or F1  f '( dL)V 2 The forces acting on the fluid between sections 1-1 and 2-2 are 1.6 m dia. Pressure force at section 1-1 = p1 x Pressure force at 2-2 = p2  4 d2  4 d2 Resolving all forces p1 x or But from (1) ( p1  p2 )   gh f  or hf  g  f ' Lx 4V 2 d  4 d 2  p2 x  4 d 2  f '( dL)V 2  0 (2) ( p1  p2 )  f ' Lx 4V 2 d 4 f ' LV 2 hf   gd Putting f'/ = f/2 where f is coeff.77.77. another parallel line of the same diameter introduced in the second half of the length.78. Q.OBJECTIVE QUESTIONS AMIE(I) STUDY CIRCLE(REGD. is 1. P. In order to increase the discharge. 10 marks): A pipeline of 0. Q.004. (AMIE S08. of friction. 10 marks): Derive the expression for the loss of head due to friction in pipe h f  4 flV 2 / 2 gd where hf is the loss of head due to friction. the length of the pipes. find the increase in discharge if f = 0. SULTAN TOWERS. the coeff. the above equation reduces to hf  4 flV 2 2 gd ASSIGNMENT Q. of friction.B. 2. L. NO. 2 ND FLOOR.5 km long. the diameter of pipe. The head at the inlet is 30 m over that at the outlet. V.com 18 . Neglecting minor losses. deduce an expression for the head loss due to sudden expansion of streamlines in a pipe. ROORKEE – 247667 UTTARANCHAL PH: (01332) 266328 Email : pcourses@hotmail. 6 marks): Starting the assumptions. and d. (AMIE W2001.

QA  Q f L D 5  1   B B . Average velocity V 1  R2  R R 0 u.2 r.0754 m3/s. 12 marks): Two reservoirs.2 m. are connected to the following horizontal compound pipes starting from the higher level reservoir: L1 = 200m.3 m Laminar Flow Example (AMIE S2009.dr = = 2 K  R2  0 R 2 r  r 3 )dr 2K  R4 R4  K 2    R 4  2 R2  2 Kinetic energy correction factor P. Determine the equivalent length of a 0.25 m diameter pipe. (AMIE S07. D2 = 0. 6 marks) Determine the (i) kinetic energy correction factor (ii) momentum correction factor for laminar flow in a round pipe.) A Focused Approach Q. Find an expression for QA and QB.  for horizontal pipes and K     for ds  4 dx   4  inclined pipes. (AMIE W06. the flow rates through pipes A and B. A5   f A LA DB  1/ 2 Q. A5   f A LA DB  1/ 2 .B.5% increase AMIE(I) STUDY CIRCLE(REGD.008 and L2 = 500 m. Answer: 0. compute the discharge through the system. Pipes A and B have friction factor of fA and fB.006.3 m.OBJECTIVE QUESTIONS Answer: 26. 811. whose water level elevations differ by 12m. 2 ND FLOOR. The pipe later divides into two pipes A and B with diameter of DA and DB and lengths LA and LB as shown in figure. ROORKEE – 247667 UTTARANCHAL PH: (01332) 266328 Email : pcourses@hotmail. D1 = 0.79. NO.com 19 .77.80. f1 = 0. Answer: Q B  Q f L D 5  1   B B . Considering all head losses and assuming that all changes of section are abrupt. f2 = 0. Solution (i) u  K (R2  r 2 )  1 dp    d( p /   Z  where K    . 6 marks): Water flow through a pipe with a flow rate Q and head H1. if minor losses are neglected and friction factors are assumed to be same. SULTAN TOWERS.

Solution Re = uD/ = 2 × 0.711 kg/s Power required = mg H/η = 3. hf = (64/415) × [(22 × 300)/(2 × 9. NO.81 × 0.)  1 V 3 A Focused Approach u dA A 3 = 1 K 2 2  R  R 2  16 R8 16 R8  R 0 K 3 ( R 2  r 2 )3 2 rdr = =  R 0 ( R 2  r 2 )3 rdr [ R 6 r  r 7  3R 4 r 3  3R 2 r 5 ]dr  R 0 1 1 3 3 = 16       2 2 8 4 6  (ii)  2  1 u 2 dA 2  AU av   r 2  1 2 2 2 U av 1     2 rdr =  R 2U av 2   R    8 = 2 R = 8 R2   R 0 2 4  r r  1  2      rdr R R     R 0  2r 3 r 5   r  2  4  dr R R   R 8  r 2 2r 4 r6  4 = 2   2  4  R  2 4R 6R 0 3 Example Oil with a kinematic viscosity of 241 × 10-6 m2/s and density of 945 kg/m3 flows through a pipe of 5 cm dia.45 W = 15.05)] = 188.67 m head of oil Mass flow = (π × 0.05/241 × 10-6 = 415. ROORKEE – 247667 UTTARANCHAL PH: (01332) 266328 Email : pcourses@hotmail.263 W or 15. So the flow is laminar. SULTAN TOWERS.com 20 . 2 ND FLOOR. P. assuming an overall pump efficiency of 45%.263 kW. Determine the pump power. and 300 m length with a velocity of 2 m/s. to overcome friction.711 × 9.052/4) 2 × 945 kg/s = 3.77.81 × 188.OBJECTIVE QUESTIONS AMIE(I) STUDY CIRCLE(REGD.67/0.B.

81 x 10-5 Ns/m2) is forced at 25 m/s through a = 0. Answer: Flow is Couette flow. (AMIE S07. (AMIE S10. the pressure drops in the flow direction from 180 kPa to 100 kPa over a distance of 80 m. Calculate the head loss and power if f = 0. 6 marks): Show that for laminar flow in circular pipes. (AMIE S08.com 21 .) A Focused Approach ASSIGNMENT Q.75 m/s.07 cm.1. Also. W08. Taking dynamic viscosity of oil to be 0.2 N/m2. Q. 10 marks): Explain briefly (i) Couette flow (ii) Poiseuille flow Q. 6 marks): Derive the expression for Hagen Poiseuille flow.2 kg/m3. (AMIE S05. 6 marks): A fluid of viscosity 0. (AMIE S10. 148 m long.8. Determine velocity profile when lower plate is stationary and upper plate moves with velocity U for different pressure gradient situation. 2 ND FLOOR.15. Q. (AMIE S09.3 is flowing through a circular pipe of diameter 10 cm. (AMIE S05.10. Answer: 0. 09. Also.  = 3 Ns/m2 Q. Q. 10 marks): Derive an expression for the velocity distribution for viscous flow through a circular pipe. 10 marks): Two parallel plates kept 0. Also. Q.2.9. 12 marks): Starting from continuity and momentum equations. 10 marks): Derive the velocity distribution formula for a plane Poiseuille flow and prove that the average velocity is 2/3 of its centre line velocity.2.1.12. (ii) average velocity.77. prove that the maximum velocity is equal to one and a half times the average velocity. 650 P. 0.OBJECTIVE QUESTIONS AMIE(I) STUDY CIRCLE(REGD. and (iii) Reynold number of the flow. calculate the velocity at 4 cm from the wall of the pipe. 7.5 – 6250y). 10 marks): A laminar flow is taking place in a pipe of diameter 200 mm.5 m/s.11. (AMIE S08. the friction factor is inversely proportional to Reynolds number.14.B. (AMIE W06.00604 m3/s.3 m2 steel duct.7848 N/m2. The maximum velocity is 1. when both plates are fixed across section is parabolic in nature. (AMIE W07.96 m/s Q. discharge and shear stress on the upper plate that moves horizontally at relative velocity 1 m/s with respect to the lower plate which is stationary. SULTAN TOWERS. u = y(162. (AMIE W05.5 m/s. NO.8 poise.015. ROORKEE – 247667 UTTARANCHAL PH: (01332) 266328 Email : pcourses@hotmail.13. 10 marks): Prove that the velocity distribution for viscous flow between two parallel plates. Q. 10 marks): Prove that for flow between two stationary parallel plates. Hint: See flow between two parallel plates Q.  = 1. Q. the pressure drop is given by 12u avg dp  dx h2 where h is the distance between the plates and uavg is the average flow velocity. Further.01 m apart have a laminar flow of oil between them. derive the governing equation for Couette flow. Find (i) the pressure gradient. The maximum shear stress at the pipe wall is given as 196. Answer: . sketch the velocity distribution and shear stress distribution across the section of pipe. 3. 0. determine the velocity distribution. (AMIE S06. Q. Find the mean velocity and the radius at which this occurs. 6 marks): Air ( = 1.7 Ns/m2 and specific gravity 1.

8 N/m2 Q. Solution Mean velocity V Reynolds number Re  (i) VD  Q 0.221  0.B. (AMIE S05.985 x 106 )0.78  0.78 Pa 8 14.244) 2 (0.OBJECTIVE QUESTIONS AMIE(I) STUDY CIRCLE(REGD.1491 Ns/m2 A Focused Approach Turbulent Flow Example A pipeline 30 cm in diameter carries 300 L/s of petrol ( = 680 kg/m3.97 Poise and relative density 0. (AMIE S09.244 m / s A ( / 4)(0. ROORKEE – 247667 UTTARANCHAL PH: (01332) 266328 Email : pcourses@hotmail.78 x  4. Calculate the difference of pressure at the two ends of the pipe.77. The oil was allowed to discharge into a weighing tank and 5000 N of oil was collected in 3 min duration.r = 15 .30) 2   4. NO.927 Pa r0 15 22 P.9 x 10-4 Pa. SULTAN TOWERS.s).9 x104 By using the explicit formula for f f  0.1.30 x680  2.com .237 f /8 (ii) u*   0 /   V 0  u*  V 2 f 8 680(4. W2000. 10 marks): A straight stretch of horizontal pipe of 5 cm diameter was used in the laboratory to measure the viscosity of a crude oil (specific weight 9000 N/m3).5 = 10 cm  0 r 5  14. During the test run. Answer: 1463. Answer: 0.009654 (2. y = r0 . a pressure differential of 18000 N/m2 was recorded from two pressure gauges located 6 m apart on the pipe.16.300   4.0032  0. 10 marks): A crude oil of viscosity 0. Calculate the (i) friction factor (ii) shear stress at the boundary (iii) shear stress and velocity at a radial distance of 5 cm from the pipe axis (iv) maximum velocity (v) thickness of laminar sublayer.009654)   14. 2 ND FLOOR.985 x 106 2. Work out dynamic viscosity of the oil.  = 2.9 is flowing through a horizontal circular pipe of diameter 10 cm and of length 10 m.14743 m / s 680 (iii) At r = 5 cm. if 100 kg of oil is collected in a tank in 30 sec.244 x0.) Q. Assume smooth pipe.

0. 0.B. Boundary layer Characteristics of Boundary Layer    increases as distance from leading edge x increases.) The velocity at y = 0.4.0336 mm u*  680   0. 5 marks): Write a short note on turbulent flow.597)  0.9 x104   u  u* (31. 1. NO.797 m / s (v) Laminar sublayer thickness  2.018 stokes.04 m3/s. Q. centre line velocity.5  u* Noting that    /  u  0. wall shearing stress. (AMIE S05. 10 marks): A smooth pipe of diameter 400 mm and length 800 m carries water at the rate of 0. Take the kinematic viscosity of water as 0.75 x0.3.88 m/s.02829 cm Q. 1.75log    5.77. ROORKEE – 247667 UTTARANCHAL PH: (01332) 266328 Email : pcourses@hotmail. Also.597 u* 2.75log *  5. 6. (AMIE W07.015 stokes. calculate the thickness of laminar sub-layer. Determine the head lost due to friction. SULTAN TOWERS. 8 marks): A smooth brass pipeline.1x680   5.com 23 .922m.6 1  5  '  11. Take Q = 1000 kg/m3. centre line velocity and thickness of the laminar sublayer.480 m3/min. 75 mm in diameter and 900 m long.3198 N/m2. wall shear stress. 10 marks): A smooth pipe of diameter 80 mm and 800 m long carries water at the rate of 0.9 x104   11. centre-line velocity and thickness of laminar sub-layer.2 m. Calculate the loss of head.3789 m/s.OBJECTIVE QUESTIONS AMIE(I) STUDY CIRCLE(REGD. 0.597  4.91 m/s. Take the value of coefficient of friction f from the relation f = 0. P.0195 stokes.2.5  31.93 m.1 m is given by the smooth pipe formula A Focused Approach uy u  5.14743 x 31. (AMIE S08.869 N/m2.14743x0. Answer: 23.14743  ASSIGNMENT Q.14743  4. 2 ND FLOOR.133 cm Q. Answer: 0.6     3. carries water at the rate of 7 litres/sec If the kinematic viscosity of the water is 0. calculate the loss of head. (AMIE S08.  decreases as U increases.356 x 10 m  0.5. 5. Answer: 30.75u*  4. velocity and shear stress at 30 mm from pipe wall. Take kinematic viscosity of water as 0.244  3.0791/Re1/4 where Re = Reynold number. wall shearing stress.658 m / s (iv) The maximum velocity um is related to V as um  V  3.75 u* um  V  3.

08.8. i. SULTAN TOWERS. 8 marks): Explain the phenomena of boundary layer growth over a flat plate. Critical value of Ux/ at which boundary layer changes from laminar to turbulent depends on turbulence in ambient flow. However.B. plate curvature and temperature difference between fluid and boundary. such as variation of .e. 6 marks): Explain the characteristics of laminar and turbulent layer. When Ux/ > 5 x 105 the boundary layer on that portion is turbulent.     ASSIGNMENT Q.9. boundary layer growth is faster and boundary layer is susceptible to separation. are governed by inertial and viscous forces.10. If U decreases in the downstream direction.com 24 . 09.OBJECTIVE QUESTIONS AMIE(I) STUDY CIRCLE(REGD. 0 or force F. (AMIE S10.7. 5 marks): What are boundary layer equations? How do they differ from the Navier Stokes equations? Q. p / x is -ve. when boundary layer becomes turbulent (see below). (AMIE S08. if it is smooth. (AMIE W06. it shows a sudden increase and then decreases with increasing x. hence they are functions of either Ux/ or UL/. Explain phenomenon of boundary layer separation with a neat sketch. Q. i. P. Q. A Focused Approach 0 decreases as x increases.  All characteristics of the boundary layer on flat plate.e. NO. Velocity distribution in laminar boundary layer follows parabolic law while that in turbulent boundary layer follows logarithmic law or power law. boundary layer growth is reduced. boundary layer is laminar and velocity distribution in boundary layer is parabolic. p / x is +ve. flow near the boundary is further retarded. 2 ND FLOOR.)      increases as kinematic viscosity increases.11.77. 5 marks): Define displacement thickness * and momentum thickness . 08. pressure gradient. (AMIE S99. 5 marks): Explain with necessary sketch the following (i) Laminar boundary layer (ii) Turbulent boundary layer (iii) Laminar sub-layer (iv) Boundary layer thickness Q. surface roughness. Write their formula. W06. Q. In turbulent boundary layer a thin layer known as laminar sub-layer ' exists near the boundary. 8 marks): Discuss the effect of pressure gradient on boundary layer separation.6. (AMIE W08. ROORKEE – 247667 UTTARANCHAL PH: (01332) 266328 Email : pcourses@hotmail. When Ux/ is less than 5 x 105. If U increases in the downstream direction. (AMIE W07.

13.322 V0 2 4.12. 10 marks): What do you mean by separation of boundary layer? What is the effect of pressure gradient on boundary layer separation? How will you determine whether a boundary layer flow is attached flow.B. (AMIE S99. 10 marks): Air is blowing past a flat plate. 10 marks): Explain the phenomenon of separation of boundary layer and formation of wake. (AMIE S09. Give a list of various methods of boundary layer control.65 x . 3 Q. NO. (iii) energy thickness. Find the (i) displacement thickness.   0 2 u   u   1     dy and energy loss per metre length of spillway will be U   U     P.17. CD  1. 12 marks): If a laminar boundary layer at zero pressure.328 Re x Re x Re x Q.328 Re x  Re x Re x Hint: energy thickness = (1/2)eU3.  being boundary layer thickness. Hint: Standard velocity distribution is V / V0  (3 / 2)   3 / 2 in which  = (y/). (AMIE S06.18. 2000. and (iv) value of */ . Assume that air velocity profile is given by expression A Focused Approach u 2y y y   2     U    3 4 Show that the boundary layer thickness is given by   5.65 x . (AMIE S05.836 x Re x Q. S10. W05.com 25 . /4. . boundary layer thickness and boundary layer control. wall shear stress 0 and coefficient of drag CD are given by  0. 8 marks): Assuming one of the standard velocity distributions for laminar boundary flow. obtain expression for the drag coefficient. detached flow or on the verge of separation? Q.16. ROORKEE – 247667 UTTARANCHAL PH: (01332) 266328 Email : pcourses@hotmail. CD  1. (AMIE W06. Answer: /2. Answer: 0. gradient over a flat plate is described by the velocity profile. (AMIE W08.) Q. 10 marks): Discuss laminar boundary layer. 0  . where u is the velocity at distance y from plate and u = v at y = . and thickness of the boundary layer.322 V0 2 4. /6. (AMIE W07. Q.14. 0  .77. SULTAN TOWERS. (ii) momentum thickness.OBJECTIVE QUESTIONS AMIE(I) STUDY CIRCLE(REGD. Show that the boundary layer thickness. 2 ND FLOOR. boundary shear stress. 8 marks): The velocity distribution in boundary layer is given by u/v = y/. V / V0  (3 / 2)   3 / 2 in which  = (y/). Q.15.

 c   c   dV  cd  or  dV  cd  (1) Applying momentum equation Force in right direction = mass x change in velocity from (1) and (2) or or or  A  ( p  dp) A   cA{(c  dv)  c} d     cdV  dV  dp c Substituting for dV in equation (1) dp  cd  c or c2  c dp d dp d or This is required expression. NO. Applying continuity equation between (1) and (2)  cA  (   d  )(c  dV ) A Neglecting product of small quantities. 8 marks) Derive an expression for change of area and velocity for compressible fluid in a nozzle dA dV ( M 2  1)  A V P.) A Focused Approach Compressible Flow SOUND WAVE IN COMPRESSIBLE FLOW With reference to following figure in which a sound wave os flowing with velocity c. W08.77.com 27 .B. S10. SULTAN TOWERS. 2 ND FLOOR.OBJECTIVE QUESTIONS AMIE(I) STUDY CIRCLE(REGD. Example (AMIE S08. ROORKEE – 247667 UTTARANCHAL PH: (01332) 266328 Email : pcourses@hotmail.

2 ND FLOOR.OBJECTIVE QUESTIONS AMIE(I) STUDY CIRCLE(REGD. and then differentials dp d  0  p or  pd   dp VdV   pdv (5) From (4) and (5) or d V  dV  p Substituting for d / dV in relation (1)  dA dV V V     p  1 A V   P.) A Focused Approach Solution From continuity eq. 2 here h is specific enthalpy. here  is specific volume. and then differentials dA dV d   0  A V or dA d dV dV  V d     1 A  V V   dV    (1) From steady flow energy equation h or V2  const. m   AV  AV   const.B. SULTAN TOWERS. NO. or dh   dp VdV   dp (3) From (2) and (3) (4) The isentropic relation for an ideal gas gives pv  const Taking log.com 28 . ROORKEE – 247667 UTTARANCHAL PH: (01332) 266328 Email : pcourses@hotmail. (2) dh  VdV  0  dh  VdV From first law of thermodynamics Tds  dh   dp  0 for isentropic flow. Taking logarithms.77.

SULTAN TOWERS. 2  RT T  R  2    1  Now. Solution For compressible flow p      p0   0  and T  p   T0  p0    1/  etc. NO.B. y = isentropic index.com 29 . h = CpT and h0 = CpT0  or V2 C0T0  C pT  2 T0 V2  1 2C pT T Cp  R  1 But  T0  1 V 2 V2  1  1 . the Mach number. 2 ND FLOOR.77. a = sonic velocity and V/a = mach number = M.  V  Example (AMIE Summer 2010. 6 marks) Prove that P0  y  1 2   1 M  2 P    y / y 1 where P0 = stagnation pressure.) = dV V dV V  V   1 as p = RT. The stagnation enthalpy h0 is related to static enthalpy h by the steady flow energy equation h0  h  V2 2 For an ideal gas.OBJECTIVE QUESTIONS AMIE(I) STUDY CIRCLE(REGD. ROORKEE – 247667 UTTARANCHAL PH: (01332) 266328 Email : pcourses@hotmail.    RT  2 A Focused Approach = = V 2  2 2  2  1 as a   RT = sonic velocity a  dV  M 2  1 as V/a = M. M = Mach number.  RT  a 2 . P.

The question is to be solved using appropriate tables.4.43 bar (abs) and at a temperature of 20 °C.4 and R = 287 J/kg K. Q.34. Q.29. 4 marks): Define the terms (i) subsonic flow (ii) supersonic flow.6 bar (abs). (AMIE S05. 5 kJ/kg. Air discharges out of the tank and into atmosphere through a convergent nozzle. (AMIE W07. (AMIE S06. 3 marks): What is a normal shock and how is it obtained? Q. fitted to a large vessel which contains air at a pressure of 29.14089 kg/s Q. Determine the mach number.0639 kg/s Q. pressure. Q. Q. T1 = 310 K and C1 = 60 m/s. Determine the maximum flow rate that the nozzle can pass. temperature and velocity at the exit if the increase in stagnation enthalpy of the gas between entry and exit is 1172. SULTAN TOWERS. (AMIE W09. Answer: 238.343 bar. 10 marks): How is a shock wave produced in a compressible fluid? Explain normal and oblique shocks. 3 marks): Write the basic equations i. temperature. Q. continuity.e. T0  1 V 2  1 2  1 .45. 340. (AMIE W06. 08. 2 ND FLOOR.B. p0  T0    p T   /  1 A Focused Approach   1 2  M   1  2    /  1 Hence Proved.3 m/s Q. Take K= 1. 09.005 kJ/kg and  = 1.2K. (AMIE W05.26.7 m/s.38. (AMIE S05. Q. NO.) Hence. (AMIE W08. ASSIGNMENT Q.27. Answer: 1. 10 marks): A convergent divergent nozzle with supersonic flow at exit has a throat area of 500 mm2 and exit area of 1000 mm2.32. Answer: 222. ROORKEE – 247667 UTTARANCHAL PH: (01332) 266328 Email : pcourses@hotmail. (AMIE W07.277 bar.OBJECTIVE QUESTIONS AMIE(I) STUDY CIRCLE(REGD. 10 marks): A tank contains air at a pressure 135 kPa and temperature 270C.com 30 . 1423. 8 marks): Obtain an expression for the sound wave in a compressible fluid in terms of change of pressure and change of density. 4 marks): How the velocity. Determine the output flow velocity and the mass flow rate of air. density and entropy change across a normal shock wave.33.28. 2  1 M 2 a 2 T From isentropic relation. momentum and energy equation for a control volume having normal shocks.36. Air enters the nozzle with a stagnation temperature of 360 K and stagnation pressure of 1 MPa. 10 marks): The conditions of a gas in a combustor at entry are: p1 = 0. 8 marks): Find the velocity of air flowing at the outlet of a nozzle. 4 marks): Define Mach number and explain its significance in compressible fluid flow. (AMIE S05. the above relation becomes. The local barometric pressure is 100 kPa. Take Cp = 1. 0. 4 marks): Define (i) Mach number (ii) subsonic flow (iii) sonic flow (iv) supersonic flow.31.77.8 m/s P. (AMIE W05. Answer: 0. The pressure at the outlet of the nozzle is 20.37. (AMIE W07. 10 marks): What is shock wave and under what conditions would it occur? Derive the Prandtl Mayer relation. (AMIE S05. Q. 0. The cross sectional area at the nozzle outlet is 500 m2.35.30. Q.

Along a stream line. At section 2. identify type of the nozzle.1 bar.) Q. Assume  = 1. determine the throat area of the nozzle.OBJECTIVE QUESTIONS AMIE(I) STUDY CIRCLE(REGD. Answer: 1.287 kJ/kg °K Constant pressure specific heat.0 kPa and 27°C enters a passage at 486 m/sec.026 cm2 Q. Pressure head of a fluid is the ratio of pressure to (a) fluid height (b) specific weight (e) density (d) specific gravity 3.47 (d) 1.2 A Focused Approach Objective Questions Set 2 1. R = 0.36 {c) 1. The cross-sectional area at the entrance is 0.4 Gas constant.870C Q. Answer: 706. further downstream the pressure is 78.B.2 m/s. One SI unit of viscosity is equal to (a) 10 poise (b) 981 poise (e) 0. P. 0.39. the differential head in m of water is (a) 13. SULTAN TOWERS.4.40. Assuming isentropic flow. NO. K.26 4. 8 marks): Air at an absolute pressure 60. In a differential manometer.25 cm2. (AMIE S08.  = 1. 461. Answer: 8.05 bar and the exit area of the nozzle is 6. (AMIE W09.49 cm2. ROORKEE – 247667 UTTARANCHAL PH: (01332) 266328 Email : pcourses@hotmail. 12.1 poise (d) None of these 2. the flowing fluid is water and the gauge fluid is water and the manometer reading is 10 cm.5 kg/s. Cp = 1.02 m2. 4. Also.4. 8 marks): A nozzle is required to expand the air from 4. Also. calculate Mach number at section 2. 2 ND FLOOR.77.4683 kg/s.com 31 . 8 marks): Determine the exit velocity and mass flow rate for isentropic flow of air through a nozzle from inlet stagnation conditions of 7 bar and 3200C to an exit pressure of 1.79 cm2. (AMIE W09. Given  = 1.5 bar and 750°C to 1. Find the throat area.6 (b) 1. Take the nozzle efficiency as 85% and assume the following properties for air: Ratio of specific heat. outlet area and outlet temperature for a mass flow rate of 0.41.8 kPa (absolute).005 kJ/kg.

Doublet is a combination of (a) source and vortex (b) source and sink (c) source and uniform flow (d) None of these 6.82 (e) 0. An error of 1. ROORKEE – 247667 UTTARANCHAL PH: (01332) 266328 Email : pcourses@hotmail.com 32 .77. 2 ND FLOOR. NO. A Focused Approach The coefficient of contraction of a sharp-edged small orifice under normal conditions is (a) 0.75 (e) 1.OBJECTIVE QUESTIONS AMIE(I) STUDY CIRCLE(REGD. In series pipes. the parameter which is same in each pipe is (a) hf (b) Q (e)f (d) None of these 10.0 9.707 (d) 0.) (a) velocity is constant (b)  is zero (c)  is zero (d)  is constant 5.5mm is committed in the measurement of head over a triangular notch.62 8.5 m.5 (d) 3.5 (b) 0.985 (b) 0. The percent error in computing discharge is (a) 0. The following is not a minor loss P. Flow in a whirlpool in a river is an example of (a) free vortex (b) spiral vortex (e) forced vortex (d) radial vortex 7. SULTAN TOWERS.B. The bead over the notch is 0.

The average drag coefficient of a laminar layer is (a) (b) (c) (d) 1.v P. ROORKEE – 247667 UTTARANCHAL PH: (01332) 266328 Email : pcourses@hotmail. Reynolds turbulent shear stress is given by (a)  lu (b)  u .OBJECTIVE QUESTIONS AMIE(I) STUDY CIRCLE(REGD.0587 Re1/5 0.328 Re 0.) (a) friction loss (b) bend loss (e) enlargement loss (d) contraction loss 11.77. 2 ND FLOOR.0735 Re1/5 15. In which of the following types of flows. SULTAN TOWERS. The thickness of a laminar boundary layer on a flat plate varies (a) x (b) x1/2 (e) x-1/2 (d) x1/7 14.com 33 .664 Re 0.B. the ratio of average to maximum velocities is (a) 1/3 (b) 1/2 (e) 2/1 (d) 2/3 12. NO. the shear stress is uniform across the crosssection (a) Simple Couette flow (b) Generalised Couette flow (e) Poiseuille flow (d) None of these 13. A Focused Approach In laminar flow between two fixed parallel plates.

3 (c) > 1 (d) none of these 19.77.OBJECTIVE QUESTIONS AMIE(I) STUDY CIRCLE(REGD. In a diverging passage. no change in s (d) increase in p.com 34 . Poise is the unit of (a) mass density (b) kinematic viscosity P. decrease in M (c) increase in p and M.3 to 1. du dy In a given rough pipe.  (d) f. D. Across a normal shock in compressible fluid. M and T 21. the velocity of supersonic flow (a) decreases linearly (b) decrease exponentially (c) increases (d) remains constant 20. SULTAN TOWERS. there is (a) increase in p and decrease in M (b) increase in p and s. 2 ND FLOOR.) A Focused Approach du (c)  dy (d)  16.0 (b) < 0. Effect of compressibility of fluid can be neglected if Mach number. (a) 0. the losses depend on (a) Q (b) Re (c) . V 17. NO. ROORKEE – 247667 UTTARANCHAL PH: (01332) 266328 Email : pcourses@hotmail.B. Kinematic eddy viscosity has units (a) poise (b) Pascal (e) N/s (d) m2/s 18.

77. The boundary layer separation takes place if (a) pressure gradient is zero.com 35 . A Focused Approach The coefficient of friction for laminar flow through a circular pipe is given by (a) f  0. 2 ND FLOOR. ROORKEE – 247667 UTTARANCHAL PH: (01332) 266328 Email : pcourses@hotmail. NO.) (c) viscosity (d) velocity potential 22. Bernoulli's theorem deals with law of conservation of (a)mass (b) momentum (c) energy (d) None of the above 24.791/ Re1/4 (b) f  16 / Re (c) 64 / Re (d) f  32 / Re 25. (b) pressure gradient is positive (c) pressure gradient is negative (d) pressure gradient is constant 26. The point of action of hydrostatic force is known as (a) centre of gravity (b) centre of buoyancy (c) centre of pressure (d) metacentre 23. When the fluid is at rest the shear stress is (a) maximum (b) zero (c) minimum P. Compressibility is equal to (a) (dV /  ) / dP (b) dP / (dV /  ) (c) dP / d  (d) dP / d  27. SULTAN TOWERS.OBJECTIVE QUESTIONS AMIE(I) STUDY CIRCLE(REGD.B.

com 36 . The pressure difference between inside and outside of a droplet of water is given by (a) 2 /d (b) 4 /d (c) 8 /d (d) None of the above.7 and pressure 0. 33.77. the equilibrium is called (a) stable (b) unstable (c) neutral (d) None of the above 29.B.14 kgf/cm2 will have the height of oil as (a) 70 cm of oil (b) 2 m of oil (c) 20 cm of oil (d) 14 cm of oil 30. The buoyant force for the floating body passes through the (a) centre of gravity of the body (b) meta-centre of the body (c) centroid of the displaced volume 32. SULTAN TOWERS. An oil of specific gravity 0.OBJECTIVE QUESTIONS AMIE(I) STUDY CIRCLE(REGD. 31. A Focused Approach For a floating body. if the metacentre coincides with the centre of gravity. 2 ND FLOOR. ROORKEE – 247667 UTTARANCHAL PH: (01332) 266328 Email : pcourses@hotmail. An ideal fluid is one which (a) is frictionless and incompressible (b) is viscous (c) obeys Newton's law of viscosity (d) All of the above P. NO.) (d) None of the above 28. The velocity distribution across a section of a circular pipe having viscous flow is given by (a) u  umax [(1  (r / R) 2 ] (b) u  umax [ R 2  r 2 ] (c) u  umax [1  r / R ]2 (d) None of the above.

6 . ROORKEE – 247667 UTTARANCHAL PH: (01332) 266328 Email : pcourses@hotmail. A Focused Approach 35. NO. 2 ND FLOOR. SULTAN TOWERS.7 P. 36. The range of coefficient of discharge for a venturimeter is (a) 0. Navier Stokes equations are useful in the analysis of (a) turbulent flows (b) vortex flows (c) viscous flows (d) rotational flows 37.OBJECTIVE QUESTIONS AMIE(I) STUDY CIRCLE(REGD.B.com 37 . The speed of pressure wave depends upon (a) initial velocity of fluid (b) viscosity of flowing fluid (c) diameter of pipe (d) density of flowing fluid 39. The position of centre of pressure of a plane surface immersed in a static fluid is (a) at the centroid of the submerged surface (b) always above centroid (c) always below centroid (d) None of the above. The velocity of sound is largest in (a) air (b) kerosene (c) water (d) steel 40.) 34.77. Stream lines and path line always coincide in (a) steady flow (b) uniform flow (c) non-uniform flow (d) laminar flow. The velocity distribution at any section of a pipe for steady laminar flow is (a) linear (b) exponential (c) parabolic (d) hyperbolic 38.0.

Pressure loss for laminar flow through pipeline is dependent (a) directly on square of flow velocity (b) directly on square of pipe radius (c) directly as length of pipe (d) inversely on viscosity of flowering medium.) (b) 0·7 . 2 ND FLOOR.85 . The magnitude of velocity at point P(1. Correct unit of kinematic viscosity is (a) m2/s (b) Ns/m2 (c) m/kg-s (d) kg/m2-s 42.98 (d) 0. SULTAN TOWERS.0. The velocity potential function in a two-dimensional flow field is given by   x 2  y 2 .8 N in water. A metallic piece weighs 78.com 38 . This phenomenon is called (a) cohesion (b) adhesion (c) surface tension (d) cavitation 43.77. In uniform flow.5 N in air and 58.B.85 (c) 0. 45. NO.0. ROORKEE – 247667 UTTARANCHAL PH: (01332) 266328 Email : pcourses@hotmail. The relative density of the metal would be (a) 8 (b) 4 (c) 6 (d) 3 44. the velocities of fluid particles are: (a) equal at all sections (b) always dependent on time (c) mutually perpendicular to each other (d) the fluid particles move in well defined paths.92 41.OBJECTIVE QUESTIONS AMIE(I) STUDY CIRCLE(REGD.0.92 . 46. A Focused Approach All liquid surfaces tend to stretch. 1) is (a) zero P.

ROORKEE – 247667 UTTARANCHAL PH: (01332) 266328 Email : pcourses@hotmail. 2 ND FLOOR. A fluid is said to be ideal. SULTAN TOWERS.) (b) 2 (c) 22 (d) 8 47. if it is (a) incompressible (b) inviscous (c) viscous and incompressible P. NO. A Focused Approach Identify the Bernoulli's equation.com 39 . (a)  w 2g (b) P V2   gy  const.B. Discharge is measured by (a) current meter (b) pitot tube (c) venturimeter (d) hot wire anemometer 49.77. The relation  2  2   0 for an irrotational flow is referred to as x 2 y 2 (a) Euler's equation (b) Laplace equation (c) Reynold's equation (d) Cauchy-Riemann's equation 50.OBJECTIVE QUESTIONS AMIE(I) STUDY CIRCLE(REGD.  2 (c) P  V 2 2  wy  const (d) none of these 48. where each term represents energy per unit mass: P V2  y  const. Fluid is a substance which offers no resistance to change of (a) pressure (b) flow (c) shape (d) volume (e) temperature 51.

2 ND FLOOR. (b) atmospheric pressure (c) very low pressure (d) difference of pressure between two points (e) velocity in pipes 56. NO. channels. etc. volume of fluid vertically above the body (b) centre of the volume of floating body (c) centre of gravity of any submerged body (d) centroid of the displaced volume of fluid (e) None of the above 55. 54. Differential manometer is used to measure (a) pressure in pipes. A one-dimensional flow is one which (a) is uniform flow (b) is steady uniform flow (c) takes place in straight lines (d) involves zero transverse component of flow (e) takes place in one dimension.) (d) viscous and compressible.B. An ideal flow of any fluid must satisfy (a) Pascal law (b) Newton's law of viscosity (c) boundary layer theory (d) continuity equation (e) Bernoulli's theorem P. The unit of viscosity is (a) m2/s (b) kg/m-s (c) Ns/m2 (d) Ns2/m (e) None of the above 53. ROORKEE – 247667 UTTARANCHAL PH: (01332) 266328 Email : pcourses@hotmail.OBJECTIVE QUESTIONS AMIE(I) STUDY CIRCLE(REGD.77.com 40 . SULTAN TOWERS. The line of action of the buoyant force acts through the A Focused Approach (a) centroid of the. (e) inviscous and incompressible 52.

60. 58.77. 2 ND FLOOR. then (a) velocity decreases (b) velocity increases (c) velocity remains constant (d) none of these 62. ROORKEE – 247667 UTTARANCHAL PH: (01332) 266328 Email : pcourses@hotmail. The growth of boundary layer is supported when P.OBJECTIVE QUESTIONS AMIE(I) STUDY CIRCLE(REGD. Pressure drag results from (a) skin friction (b) deformation drag (c) principle cause of skin friction (d) always occur when deformation drag predominates 63.com 41 . For supersonic flow. (c) Newton's law of viscosity is of importance.occurs in zig-zag way. (d) along which the pressure drop is uniform. Separation of flow occurs when pressure gradient (a) tends to approach zero.B.) 57. (e) which occurs in all flows. if the area of flow increases. NO. For a laminar flow (a) flow . (b) becomes negative (c) changes abruptly (d) reduces to value when vapour formation starts 59. SULTAN TOWERS. (b) Reynolds number lies between 2000 and 3000 for pipes. (d) pipe losses are major considerations (e) velocity of flow is maximum. A stream line is defined as the line (a) parallel to central axis flow (b) parallel to outer surface of pipe A Focused Approach (c) a tangent to it at the point gives the direction of velocity. Orifices are used for (a) velocity (b) pressure (c) rate of flow (d) none of these 61.

a 45. c 46. a 13. NO. b 3.77. d 8. a 2. c 32. c 22. c 53. a 42. c 58. b 16. a 15. c 51. c 20. a 7. d 5. b P. b 44. c 29. d 17. c 49. c 47. b 26. d 12. a 36. c 61. b 10. b 21.OBJECTIVE QUESTIONS AMIE(I) STUDY CIRCLE(REGD. b 28. d 40. c 37. c 43. b 14. d 55. c 35. c 38. b 9. a 27. b 63. 2 ND FLOOR. c 60. d 18. SULTAN TOWERS. b 59.) (a) p / x is positive (b) p / x is zero (c) p / x is negative A Focused Approach Key to Set 2 1. c 23. b 62. b 6.B. d 4.com 33. e 52. a 34. a 11. c 41. d 56. e 57. d 39. b 25. b 30. c 24. b 50. a 31. b 48. ROORKEE – 247667 UTTARANCHAL PH: (01332) 266328 Email : pcourses@hotmail. a 42 . d 54. b 19.

ROORKEE – 247667 UTTARANCHAL PH: (01332) 266328 Email : pcourses@hotmail.com 43 TOTAL PAGES: .AMIE(I) STUDY CIRCLE(REGD. 2 ND FLOOR.) A Focused Approach POST BOX NO. SULTAN TOWERS.77.