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ISBN 0-307-24052-S
Illustrated by
Thi s book present s a n i nt rod uct i on to Amer i can butter­
fl i es an d moths . So n u merous a re Nor th Amer i ca n
speci es that on l y about fou r per cent have been i n­
c l uded, but these wer e sel ected to i nclude t he most
common, wi despread, i mporta nt , or u n us u al k i nds .
Spec i al at tent i on has been g i ven t o i mmat ure for ms
an d t o ra nge maps.
Andre Du renceau deserves ou r spec i al tha n ks for
hi s mag n i ficent ar t, so pa i n stak i n gl y done. The tech­
n i ca l as s i sta nce of Wi l l i a m D. F i eld has a l so been
i nva l uabl e. The author s are a l so grateful l y i n debted
to other spec i a l i sts for mer l y or cu r rent l y of the Smi th­
son i a n I nst i t ut i on, espec i al ly H. W. Copps, J. F. Gates
Cl a r ke, Dou gl as Ferg u son, Ron al d Hodges, an d E. L.
Todd. Among n u merous other s who cont r i but ed are
W. A. Ander son, T. L. Bi s se l l , J. H. Fa l es , R. S. Si mmons ,
Ri cha rd S mi th, and severa l entomol ogists of the U. S.
Forest Ser vi ce.
Thi s Revi sed Ed i t i on inc l u des recent cha nges i n sci ­
ent i fi c and common na mes and geog raphica l d i stri ­
but i ons , and i t stresses conser vat i on . Rober t Robbi n s
of the Uni ted States Nat i ona l Muse u m gave val uabl e
techn i ca l as s i sta nce i n the sect i on on but ter fl i es . New
ar twor k was done by Ray Ski bi ns ki .
Res Editio, 1987
R. T. M.
H. S. Z.
Copyright© 1987,1977, 1964 reneed 1992,1963 renewed 1991, 1962 reneed
1990 Golden Boks Publishing Company, Inc., New York, New York 10106. All rights
reserved. Produced in the U.S.A. No port ol this bok may be copied or reproduced
without written permission from the publisher. library of Congress Catalo Cord
Number: 64·24907. ISBN 0·307·24052·5.
GOlDEN BOOKS', GOlDEN", A GOlDEN GUIDE", and G Design� ore trademarks
of Golden Books Publishing Company, Inc.
Cl as s i fi cat i on of Lepi doptera; l i f e h i stori es; eggs, l a rvae, pupae,
adu l t s; enemi es, defenses; conservat i on, rear i ng, col l ecti ng; other
stud i es, bi bl i ography
Swa l l owta i l s . 20
Sul ph urs and Whi tes . . 30
Br ush- footed Butterf l i es 38
Meta l mar ks
Snout But terfl i es . .
Gossamer Wi ngs .
6 1
SKI PPERS ......... 74
MOTHS .............................. 81
Sph i n x Mot hs 8 2 Bagworm Mot hs 1 44
Gi ant Si l k Mot hs 95 Cl ear wi ng Mot hs 1 44
True Si l k Mot hs 1 05 Sl ug Caterpi l l ar Mot hs 1 45
Regal Mot hs 1 06 P l u me Mot hs . 1 46
Ti ger Mot hs . 1 1 0 F l annel Mot hs . 1 46
Ctenucha Mot hs 1 1 7 Leaf Rol l ers . 1 46
Forester Mot hs . 1 1 7 Carpenterwor ms . 1 4 7
Di opt i d Mot hs 1 1 7 Snout Mot hs 1 48
Noctu i d Mot h s . 1 1 8 Co se Bearers . 1 50
T h e Promi nents 1 32 Leaf Mi ners . 1 50
Tussock Mot hs . . 1 36 Ol et hr eut i d Mot hs 1 5 1
l osi ocampi ds 1 38 Gel echi i d Mot hs 1 52
Za nol i ds 1 39 Ti nei d Mot hs . 1 53
Geometers 1 40 Ot her Mot hs 1 53
INDEX . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 157
Butterfies and moths are most numerous in the tropi cs,
but temperate areas have a bounti ful suppl y of many
speci es. li ke al l i nsects, they have three mai n body re­
gi ons (head, thorax, and abdomen) , three pai rs of joi nted
legs, and one pair of antennae. Most have two pai rs of
wi ngs. A few are wi ngless.
I nsects that possess certai n basi c structures in common
are cl assifed i nto l arge groups or orders. Butterfies and
mot hs are members of the or der Lepi doptera, derived
from the Greek lepidos for scales and ptera for wi ngs.
Thei r scal ed wi ngs di sti ngui sh them as a group from al l
other i nsects. When butterfies and moths are handl ed,
the scal es rub of as col ored powder. Under a micro­
scope, the col ors and forms of the scal es ore amazi ng.
Lepi doptera i s the l argest order of i nsects next to
Col eoptera ( beet l es) . Beetles are estimated at about
280,000 speci es; Lepi doptera at 1 20,000, wi th about
10,000 speci es i n North Ameri ca. Lepi doptera i s usual ly
di vi ded i nto three suborders: frst, Jugatae, wi th about
250 pri miti ve speci es that somewhat resembl e caddi s­
fi es; second, frenatae, most moths; and, t hi rd, Rhopalo­
cera, the butterfi es and ski ppers.
The suborder Rhopal ocera i s di vi ded i nto two super­
fami l i es: Papilionoidea, whi ch i ncl udes 19 fami l i es of
butterfl ies, and Hesperioideo, two fami l i es of ski ppers.
Butterfl i es and ski ppers are easy to di sti ngui sh by the
shape and posi ti on of thei r ant ennae ( pp. 1 9 and 7 4).
The suborder Frenatae i ncl udes about fi fty fami l i es of
Nort h Ameri can moths. No si ngl e feature wi l l enabl e one
to tel l a moth from a butterfl y or ski pper, but a frenul um
( p. 81 ) on t he hi ndwi ng of most mot hs extends t o the
forewi ng, hol di ng the wi ngs together. The presence and
posi ti on of si mpl e eyes (ocel l i) and l eg spi nes, the nature
scal es
S cover the ngs of al l
Lepi doptera i n overl apping rows.
Moth scal es are vari abl e, some·
times "hai ry." Butterfy scal es are
more uniform. Some1 on mal es,
are modifed into scent scal es.
of the antennae, and the shape and venat i on of t he
wi ngs ar e used i n mot h i denti fi cat i on . To make vei ns
more vi s i bl e for study, moi sten the wi ngs wi th al cohol .
Thi s gu i de empl oys the common names of butterfl i es
and mot hs for ease of use by begi n ners. But the book
cl osel y fol l ows sci enti fi c cl ass i fi cati on of Lepi doptera.
The 6 fami li es of North Amer i can butterf l i es as herei n
named are those recog ni zed i n t he coll ecti on of t he U. S.
Nat i onal Museu m. They are then broken down i nto
genera (pl u ral of gen us), wh i ch i n t ur n contai n one or
more speci es. To hel p you foll ow the organ i zat i on, but­
terfl y fami ly names appear i n red, butterfl y genera and
speci es names i n bl ack. Because they ar e so n u merous,
moths are deal t wi th mai n l y on the fami l y and speci es
l evel s .
Each speci es of Lepi doptera bears a doubl e sci ent i fi c
name, such as Pieris rapae for t he Cabbage Butterfly.
Pieris i s the name of the gen us; rapae i s the speci es
name. See pp. 154-157 for sci enti fi c names of speci es
i l l ustrated i n th i s book.
I a Moth
Monarch Butterfl y
LIFE HISTORIES Lepi doptera devel op by a compl ete
metamorphos i s, whi ch i s characteri zed by fou r di sti nci
growth stages, as shown for the Gypsy Moth on p. 136.
The egg hatches i nto a larva, or caterpi ll ar, wh i ch grows
and mol ts ( sheds i ts ski n) several ti mes before trans­
for mi ng i nto a pupa from wh i ch a wi nged ( us ual l y) adult
emerges later.
EGGS of Lepi doptera vary great l y i n si ze and shape.
Many are spher i cal but some ki nds are fl attened, con i ­
cal , s pi ndl e- or barrel -shaped. Some eggs are smooth,
but others are or namented wi th r i bs, pi ts, or grooves, or
networks of fi ne r i dges. Each egg has a smal l hol e
t hrough wh i ch i t i s fert i l i zed.
The adu l t femal e may l ay eggs s i ngl y, in smal l cl us­
ters, or i n one egg mass. Most often eggs are depos i ted
on a pl ant that wi l l serve os food for the l arvae. Some
eggs are l ai d on the grou nd, and the newl y hatched
l arvae must seek thei r food pl ants. Eggs l ai d dur i ng the
su mmer are usual l y t h i n-coated; those t hat overwi nter
before hatch i ng have a t hi cker outer coat and are some­
ti mes covered by "hai r" from t he mot h . They may al so
be covered wi th a foamy l ayer, as shown for the Tent
Caterpi l l ar on p. 6.
Most eggs hatch i n a few days. The larva, wh i ch can
frequent l y be seen i ns i de t he egg just before hatch i ng,
eats i ts way out and somet i mes al so eats the eggshel l .
LARVAE of Lepi doptera are caterpi l l ars, t hough some
are known as worms, s l ugs, or borers. North Amer i can
caterpi l l ars range i n l ength from 0.2 i nch to about 6
i nches. Li ke t he adu l t, the caterpi l lar has t h ree body
regi ons-head, t horax, and abdomen .
On each s i de of the head are t i ny ocel l i , or s i mpl e
eyes, usual l y i n a semi -ci rcl e, and a t i ny anten na. The
mout hparts i ncl ude an upper li p ( l abru m), a pai r of
strong jaws ( mandi bl es), t wo smal l sensory organs
{pal pi ), and a l ower li p (labi u m), wh i ch bears a pai r of
spi n nerets, used for spi n n i ng s i l k th reads.
On each of the t h ree segments of the t horax i s a pai r
of short joi nted l egs, endi ng i n claws . On each s i de of
the fi rst t horaci c segment is a spi racl e, an open i ng for
breat hi ng.
The abdomen, usual l y composed of ten segments,
bears two t o fi ve pai rs of short, fl eshy prol egs. Segment
10 bears the l argest pai r, the anal prol egs. Spi racl es
occur on each si de of the fi rst ei ght abdomi nal segments.
Most l arvae feed act i vel y throughout thei r l i ves. Some
ki nds matu re i n a few weeks, others i n mont hs. Some
become dor mant, or esti vate, dur i ng the s ummer; others
h i ber nate, over wi nter i n g i n newl y hatched , part l y
grown, or fu l l y grown stages. Most ki nds feed on l eaves,
but others feed on fl owers, fru i ts, and seeds, or bore i nto
stems and wood. A few speci es are scavengers and a
smal l n u mber prey on i nsects , especi al l y pl ant l i ce. A
few feed on an i mal products l i ke wool , s i l k, or feathers.
As a l arva grows, i t sheds i ts ski n, or mol ts, al l owi ng
for another growth per i od. Larvae i n stages between
mol ts are cal l ed i nstars. Ear l y i nstars may di ffer from
l ater ones i n col or, marki ngs, and shape.
Caterpi l l ars wi th hor ns and spi nes may appear
treacherous, but onl y a few, such as the lo, Hag Mot h,
Puss Moth , Saddl eback Caterpi l l ar and rel ated "sl ugs, "
have i r r i tati ng spi nes or hai r s t o avoi d.
PUPAE are the resti ng for ms i n wh i ch the l arvae trans­
form i nto adu l ts. Most butterf l i es and moths i n temper­
ate reg i ons spend the wi nter as pupae, though the
pupal stage of some speci es l asts for onl y a few days or
weeks. In a prepupal stage the l arva l oses i ts prol egs;
l ater i ts mouthparts change from chewi ng mandi bl es to
a l ong probosci s ( i f present in the adul t) , wi ngs devel op,
and reproducti ve organs form. Exter nal factors such as
temperatu re and moi sture may tri gger the changes, but
the actual transfor mat i on i s caused by hor mones.
The butterfly l arva, when matu re, attaches i tsel f to a
fi r m support before chang i ng to a naked pupa, known
as a ch rysal i s. Larvae of swal l owtai ls, s u l phurs, and
whi tes deft l y support thei rs wi th a strong s i l k th read.
Most moth l arvae, when full grown, bu r row i nto the
ground and pupate there i n earthen cel l s. Others pupate
ami d dead l eaves or debr i s on the grou nd, i n hol l ow
stems or decayi ng wood, someti mes wi th materi al drawn
l oosel y together wi t h si lk. Hai ry speci es usuall y mi x
thei r hai rs wi th s i l k, maki ng a fli msy cocoon. Si lk Moth
l arvae spi n tough papery s i lken cocoons t hat house thei r
pupae. When emergi ng from these t i ght cocoons, moths
secrete a fl u i d that softens the si lk. Bagworm Moths
construct cocoons around thei r bodi es as they grow. At
matu r i t y they fasten the fi n i s hed cocoons to twi gs wi t h
s i l k.
Wh i le but terfli es emerge eas i ly from chrysal i ses,
moths often exert great effort to break t hrough cocoons
or pus h thei r way up t hrough t he ground. Both emerge
wi th soft small wi ngs wi th mi ni at ure wi ng patterns. As
flu i ds are pu mped t hrough the vei ns, the wi ngs expand.
Later the vei ns harden, provi di ng a r i gi d support for the
wi ng membrane.
1 0
male's claspers
at end of abdomen
ADULT butterfl i es and moths have a pa i r of segmented
anten nae and a pa i r of l arge, rou nded compou nd eyes
on thei r heads. Many moths al so have a pai r of s i mpl e
eyes. Butterfl i es and many moths have a coi led probos­
cis, whi ch unrol l s i nto a long sucki ng t ube through whi ch
the adul t feeds on nectar and other fl u i ds. Thi s t ube may
be as long as the adult's body.
Each of the three segments of the thorax bears a pai r
of fi ve-joi nted l egs. Some grou ps of butterfli es have the
fi rst pa i r of l egs reduced, and fema l es of the Bagworm
Moth have no l egs. A pair of membranous wi ngs are
attached to the 2nd and 3rd thoraci c segments of most
butterfl i es and moths but a few ki nds are wi ngl ess. The
vei n pattern of wi ngs is used i n cl ass i fi cati on.
At the end of the ten-segmented abdomen are the sex
organs . They are used i n the accu rate i dent i fi cat i on of
many speci es. The femal e's abdomen i s usual l y l arger
than the mal e' s. The l atter can be di st i ngu i shed by the
cl aspers of the sex organs which protrude as pl ate- l i ke
struct ures at the end of the l ast segment .
tera abou nd. Var i ous i nsects feed
on t hem. So do s pi der s , b i rds ,
rodents, rept i l es, amph i bi ans , and
ni ght prowl ers l i ke sku n ks and rac­
coons. Paras i t i c i nsects lay eggs i n
an d on caterpi l l ars, eggs, or pupae,
wh i ch then become food for t he
parasi t i c l arvae. Bacter i a, f ung i ,
protozoa, a n d vi r uses cause di s­
eases; u nfavorabl e weat her also
tokes its tol l .
DEFENSES agai nst such a host of
destruct i ve forces are necessar y for
sur vi va l . The capaci t y of femal es
to l ay h u ndreds of eggs i s one.
Camoufl age, h i di ng from preda­
tors, i s another. Other protect i ve
featu res are body mar ki ngs t hat
fri ghten enemi es, and hai rs, spi nes,
or body ju i ces u n pl easant to t hem.
MN i s enemy no. 1. The destruc­
ti on of favorabl e habi tat from l and
devel opment has l ed to a great
decl i ne i n thei r numbers. Herbi ci des
and pest i ci des ki l l them. Floodli ghts
at mal l s, i ntersect i ons, and ath l et i c
fi el ds are let hal mot h traps. Agai nst
man, they have no bui l t-i n defenses.
For thei r sur vi val , they are becom­
i ng more dependent on people who
care, and so become i nvolved i n
conservati on .
Tobacco hornworm wi th cocoons
of braconi d wasp larvae
1 1
growi n g i mporta nce. At
l east two speci es of butter­
fl i es are now exti nct, and
a n u mber of ot her Lepi ­
doptera have been l i sted
as Threatened or Endan­
gered. Here are some
ways t hat you can hel p.
extinct Xerces Blue
che xerces)
JOI N a cons er vati on-or i ented organi zati on , per­
haps on e of those li sted below. Some 40 states now
have Natu r a l Her i tage Progra ms that i nventory thei r
pl ant and ani mal l i fe and make proposa l s for speci es
of speci al concer n . Contact you r state off i ce or Natur e
Conser vancy to l earn about local efforts wher e you
can be hel pful.
The Xerces Society, I 0 Southwest Ash St., Portland, OR 97204. Dedicated Ia
the preservation of arthropods and their habitats and promoting annual
counts of butterflies in areas throughout the country.
The Lepidopterists' Society, c/o Julian P. Donahue, Asst. Sec., Natural History
Museum of Los Angeles County, 900 Exposition Blvd., Los Angeles, CA
90007. An international society of specialists that publishes o journal of
research papers and on annual summary of field observations of Lepidop­
tera of Canada and the U.S. as reported by members.
Notionollnslilute for Urban Wildlife, 10921 Trolling Ridge Way, Columbia,
MD 21044. Focuses on conservation of urban and suburban areas.
The Nature Conservancy, 1800 North Kent St., Arlington, VA 22209. An
outstanding conservator and manager of valuable habitats of rare and
endangered plants and wildlife throughout the notion.
CREATE A BUTTERFLY GARDE N Pl ant such perenni ­
al s as pussy wi l l ow, l i l ac, bl ueberry, Clethra, phl ox,
butterfl y weed and butterfl y bush, l antana, and such
annual s as zin ni a, French mar i gol d, and sing l e pet unia
i n you r garden to provi de butterfl y food throughout the
season. Also pl ant appropr i ate food for l arvae of the
butterfli es that come to feed as i ndi cated i n thi s book.
REAR but terfl i es and moths from eggs or larvae for
rel ease. Watch them grow and devel op. See how they
move, how they feed, what they do. Then ret ur n them
to thei r preferred habi tat .
Femal e moths confi ned i n paper bags wi l l often l ay
eggs there, but butterfl y eggs are harder t o obtai n . Look
for them when you see a butterfl y expl or i ng the l eaves
rather than the bl ossoms of a pla nt. Chewed or mi ss i ng
leaves on a pl ant are cl ues to the presence of caterpi l l ars
nearby that you mi ght col l ect for rear i ng.
Eggs and small larvae at fi rst can be kept i n t i ghtly
seal ed, clear polyethyl ene sandwi ch bags, together wi th
a few l eaves of thei r plant food. Keep each ki nd i n a sep­
arate bag. Keep the bags out of
the s un or excess i ve heat. Re­
move the l arval droppi ngs every
day or so. Reverse the bag and
add fresh l eaves whenever the
old ones start to yel l ow or to dry
out . Use l eaves of the same spe­
ci es of pl ant, and do not bag
them when they are wet.
Tra n sfer 2-i nch l a r vae to
l arger cl ear bags or to t i ght l y
sea l ed cans, such as l-Ib coffee
cans . To watch devel opments,
the "bouquet" set-up can be used
(see the i l l u st rat i on) .
"Bouquet" set-up for rearing

1 3
1 4
When a but ter fl y l arva
i s al most f ul l grown, put a
st i ck i n t he can or bag to
encou rage t he l a r va to
for m i ts chrysal i s on i t .
large number s of l ate­
i nstar l arvae of t he same
speci es and age can be
reared i n bi g freezer bags
conta i n i ng branches of the
food pl ant, as i l l ustrated.
To c l ea n out d ropp i ng s,
unt i e and a l l ow t hem to
fa l l t hrough the openi ng.
la rge n u mber s of l ar­
Large plastic  a
set-up for r

many larvae of the same speCies
vae can be reared out­
doors with l ess care by encl os i ng t hem i n a strong net
bag pul led over the end of a growi ng branch of a tree
or bush and t i ed sec urel y far t her down the branch.
Caterpi l l ars t hat make cocoons, such as Si l k Mot hs
and Ti ger Moths, can be reared l i ke t hose of butterfl i es.
However, t he l arvae of Regal Mot hs and most noct ui ds
must be gi ven a few inches of damp (not wet) ster i l e soil
or peat moss i nto whi ch to bur row when fu l l grown. The
resu l t i ng pupae can be overwi ntered i n sea l ed pl ast i c
sandwi ch bags (a l ong wi th the damp med i um) i n a
refr i gerator. Keep overwi nter i ng cocoons and chrysa l ­
i ses outdoors, i n cages t o protect t hem from predators.
Adu l ts emergi ng from pupae i n t he fol l owi ng seasons
must be gi ven ampl e room for spreadi ng t hei r wi ngs
and a rough surface for c l i mbi ng t o a perch. For chrysal ­
i ses and cocoons onl y, a screened cage i s needed. I t can
be made from a rol l ed secti on of wi re screeni ng or small­
mesh hardware cl ot h; use paper plates for top and
A cyl indr i ca l cardboard rol l ed­
oats box makes an i deal emer­
gence cage for cocoons and chrysa l ­
i ses. When t he open top is covered
with a nyl on stocki ng ( hel d i n pl ace
by t ucking t he l eg and toe under a
l oop of mater i al near t he r i m) , the
adul t can be capt u red and brought
t o hand by extending t he l eg above
Homemade cage
t he open top as t he adul t fl ies i nto t he l eg trying to
For pupa for med in soil , use topl ess rou nd cans wi t h
a rough ( rusty) surface for cl i mbing, covered wi t h gauze,
nett i ng, or a stocki ng. Then cover the can wi th a pi ece
of cl ear pol yet hyl ene to keep the soil from dr yi ng out
and t o l et you see any emerging mot hs.
After you have compl eted you r observations, ret ur n
t he adul ts t o t heir preferred habitat.
COLLECT SPARINGLY-and be sure to fol l ow l aws
concer ni ng endangered speci es. The c hi ef aims of a
col l ector shou l d be to obtai n subjects for rear i ng or for
maki ng a study col l ect i on . Usua l l y, adul ts are col l ected
whi l e feedi ng at fl owers or bai t . They are rarel y caught
on t he wi ng. The specimen i s qu i ckl y transferred t o a
kil l i ng jar. Later i t i s mou nted, spread, l abel ed, and
catal oged. To make an acceptabl e study col l ecti on, some
i tems must be purchased from a bi ol ogi ca l suppl y house
(see bel ow) . Others can be homemade.
American Biological Supply Co., 1330 Dillon Heights Ave., Baltimore, MD
BioQuip Products, P.O. Box 61, Santo Monico, CA 90406
Carolina Biological Supply Co., 2700 York Rd., Burlington, NC 27215
Word's Natural Science Establishment, Inc., 5100 West Henrietta Rd., Roches-
ter, NY 14692-9012
1 5
1 6
spreading board
collecting net
ki l ling jar
spreading board
COLLECTI NG NETS shou l d be
l i ghtwei g ht , wi t h r i m 1 2 to 1 5
i nches i n di a meter. Strong nyl on
net bog s houl d be 2 7 to 3 2 i nches
deep, rou gh l y f unnel - s haped but
not shar pl y poi nted at t he end.
KI LLING JARS shou l d have wi de
mou t h s a n d s ea l t i g h t l y. P u t
enough paper towel i ng i n t h e bot­
tom to a bsorb a teaspoon to a
t abl espoon of l i qu i d. To u se, odd
enough et hyl acetate or carbon
tetrachl ori de to saturate the paper;
pou r off any excess. Speci mens too
st i ff for mount i ng co n be r el axed
by encl os i ng for a few hour s i n a
pl ast i c food storage box on a sheet
of pl ast i c spread over water-sat u­
r at ed paper towel i ng.
of soft wood wi t h a cent er channel
i n wh i ch t he body of t he speci men
f i t s . When speci men i s rel axed,
i n s er t i n sect p i n str a i g h t down
t hr ough center of t horax , V<- i nch
from head; then st i ck pi n i nto cen­
ter of channel u n t i l wi ngs ore l evel
wi t h upper s u rface of board . I f
necessary, brace by i nsert i ng a pi n
i n t he channel on each si de of
speci men' s body at bose of h i nd­
wi ngs . Spread wi ngs gent l y wi t h
f or eceps and p i n s so edges of
forewi ngs ore at r i ght angl es to
body and h i ndwi ngs ore i n a nor­
mal pos i t i on. Pi n wi ngs in pl ace
wi t h paper str i ps . Neat l y pos i t i on
anten nae. Al l ow severa l days for
dr yi ng.
INSECT PINS ore made of spe­
cial rust-resistant steel and come
in several sizes. Size 3 con be used
lor all but small butterflies and
LABELS should be placed on the
pin of each specimen when it is
removed from the spreading board.
They should tell at least where,
when, and by whom the specimen
was taken. Labels should be neat
and small. Sheets of typewritten
labels con be photographically
reduced to make small but read­
able labels.
The species label, containing the
scientific name of the specimen, is
larger and is usually pinned to the
bottom of the storage box by the
specimen pin. Supplement your
collection data with a notebook of
observations and field records.
BOXES ore of several kinds. The
Schmitt box, with cork bottom,
glozed paper lining, and tight-fit­
ting lid, is ideal lor housing a study
collection. Supply houses also have
less expensive boxes. The begin­
ner con get along with a tightly
lidded box that has a 'Ia-inch Ioyer
of polyethylene loom, soft compo­
sition board, or balsa wood fitted
into the bottom to keep the pins
secure. All boxes must be{reated
periodically with porodichoroben­
zine crystals to keep out destruc­
tive insect pests. If the box will be
stored horizontally, crystals can be
scattered on the bottom. If box is
RTMi t chell  
Collector 1
stored on edge, specimens must be
protected from the crystals. Put
crystals in a small (closed) enve­
lope inserted into a larger one (with
flop removed); glue to lid of box.
Pests found in a box con be killed
by putting the box into a freezer
lor a lew days.
1 8
OTHER STUDIES Anyone watchi ng i nsects i n the fi eld
may di scover new facts about them. The behavi or of
some speci es i s sti ll li ttle known, and a careful observer
can make real contri but i ons to our knowledge. Keep
detai led and accurate records of your observati ons, bei ng
sure t o provi de answers t o the quest i ons: What, where,
when, how, how many, and how long. Become ski lled i n
close-up photography of the di fferent stages of devel­
opment of butterfli es and moths, capturi ng thei r beauty
and i nteresti ng behavi or. Showi ng your pi ctures or sli des
to the young and old i n your commun i ty wi ll generate
i nterest i n these fasci nati ng creatures among other peo­
ple and promote thei r conservati on.
BOOKS offer the qu i ckest way t o extend your knowl­
edge about butterfli es and moths. Try the followi ng:
Cove l l , Char l es V., J r., A Field Guide to the Moths of Eastern North
America. Boston, Houg ht on Mi ffl i n Co. , 1 984.
Ehr l i ch, Pau l R. , and Anne H. , How t o Know the Butterflies. Dubuque,
l A, Wm. C. Brown Co. , 1 961 .
Ferguson, Doug l os C. , Bombycoideo (Soturniidoe, Silk and Regal Moths},
Fasci cl e 20, Ports 2A and 2B, in The Moths of America North of Mexico
Ser i es, ed i ted by R. B. Domi ni ck et a l . London, E. W. Cl assey Ltd . &
R. B. D. Publ i cat i ons I nc., 1 97 1 / 72 .
Hodges, R. W. , Sphingoideo (Howkmaths) , Fasci cl e 2 1 , i n The Moths of
America North of Mexico Seri es, edi ted by R. B. Domi n i ck et al . Lon­
don, E. W. Cl assey Lt d. & R. B. D. Pu bl i cat i ons I nc., 1 97 1 .
Hol l an d, W. J., The Moth Book. Garden Ci ty, NY, Dou bl eday & Co. ,
1 908. Repri nted New York, Dover Publ i cat i ons, 1 968.
Howe, Wi l l i am H., The Butterflies of North America. Garden Ci ty, NY,
Doubl eday & Co. , I nc., 1 975.
Kl ots, A. B. , A Field Guide to the Butterflies of Eastern North America.
Boston , Hought on Mi ffl i n Co., 1 977.
Pyl e, Robert M. , The Audubon Society Field Guide t o North American
Butterflies. New York, Al fred A. Knopf, 1 981.
Teku l sky, Mat hew, Butterfly Gorden. Boston , MA, Har vard Common
Press, 1 985.
Butterfi es number about
700 speci es i n North Amer­
i ca north of Mexi co. Recent
research shows that some
l ong consi dered di sti nct
speci es are merel y varieties
(sub-speci es) of others. A
few of these are i ncl uded
i n thi s book.
Butterfi es usual l y fy by
day, and rest wi th thei r
wi ngs erect. Antennae of butterfies are cl ubl i ke,
endi ng in a swol l en ti p. Ski ppers ( p. 74) have si mi l ar
antennae t hat often t urn back i n a hook. Antennae of
moths are sel dom cl ubl i ke, and are often feathery.
Butterfi es have a projection (the enl arged humeral l obe)
on each hi ndwing that underl aps the front pai r of wi ngs
and hol ds the wi ngs together. Most butterfi es pupate as
an unprotected chrysal i s whi ch hangs freel y from a
pl ant or other support. Onl y a few butterfi es are con­
sidered destructive, but many moths are pests
1 9
SWALLOWTAILS are the l argest and best known of our
butterf l i es. They are fou nd the wor l d over, main l y i n the
tropi cs, and most are br i ght l y col ored. There are some
two dozen speci es i n North America, most havi ng char­
acter i st i c tai l -l i ke project i ons from the hi ndwi ngs, usu­
al l y one but al so two or three i n some s pec i es. These
tai l s are l acki ng i n the par nass i us group {p. 29) and
some others. In many speci es, the fema l es l ook di fferent
from the ma l es i n si ze and mar ki ngs.
Most swal l owtai l s l ay thei r spher i cal eggs s i ngl y on
the food pl ants, mai n l y trees and shru bs. Later, the
l arvae may be found resti ng on a si lken mat i n a rol l ed
l eaf. Most speci es have an orange, fl eshy, horn-l i ke
organ behi nd the head t hat emerges when the l arva i s
di st u rbed and gi ves off a di sagreeabl e odor.
When a f ul l -grown swal l owtai l caterpi l l ar has sel ected
a pl ace to form i ts chrysal i s, it fastens i ts hi ndmost feet
secu rel y wi th s i l k and l oops a tough s i l k thread behi nd
i ts body, fasteni ng the ends t o the support as a ki nd of
"safety bel t . " Soon the caterpi l l ar sheds i ts s ki n, becom­
i ng a rough, angul ar chrysa l i s, and usua l l y spends the
wi nter i n thi s form. Adu l ts are often seen at fl owers and
are attracted to wet soi l , puddl es, or ponds.
l arva or caterpi l l ar feedi ng on
pi pevi ne. Chrysal i s to the right.
is more common in the southern
part of its range. The female hos
slightly larger whitish spots along
the margin of the front wings
ond less colorful hind wings. She
lays orange eggs in clusters on
pipevine and snakeroot, on which
the larvae feed.
is our onl y tai l l ess bl ack species.
The caterpi l l ar and chrysal i s are
si mi l ar to those of the Pi pevi ne
Swal l owtai l , but the caterpi l l ar
has reddi sh tentacl es. I t al so feeds
on pi pevi ne. Note the greeni sh
ti nt to the hi ndwi ngs.
2 1
cal l ed the Common Eastern, or
Parsnip, Swal l owtai l , has vari­
abl e markings. Some mal es have
hardl y any bl ue on the hindwing.
The spots may be l arger or may
be orange instead of yel l ow. Oc­
casional l y the two rows of spots
on the forewing are fused into
l arge triangul ar areas, or the
spots may be greatl y reduced.
The hindwing in some forms is al ­
most entirel y yel l ow, tinged with
The Bl ack Swal l owtai l i s found
i n open fel ds and woodl and
meadows. It frequents cl over and
fower gardens, al ways fying
near the ground. The yel l owish,
ovoid eggs are l ai d on wi l d and
cul tivated pl ants of the carrot
fami l y, such as parsl ey, parsnip,
cel ery, and carrot. When smal l ,
the l arva, l i ke that of most swal ­
l owtai l s, i s dark brown wi th a
white saddl e mark. It becomes
green, as i l l ustrated, as it ma·
tures. There are two broods of
Bl ock Swal l owtai l s annual l y in
the North and at l east three in
the South.
very cl osel y rel ated to the Bl ack
Swal l owtai l and i s al so cal l ed the
Western Bl ack Swal l owtai l . The
mal es are si mi l ar, but there is
some di ference in the femal es,
whi ch have less yel l ow than the
eastern speci es. Thi s butterfy is
vari abl e; some are quite yel l ow,
some al most enti rel y bl ack. The
cater pi l l ar feeds on sagebrush
( Artemesia), and not on pl ants of
the carrot fami l y. There is one
brood annual ly.
probabl y the most common swal ­
l owtai l west of the Rocky Moun­
tains. The earl y stages of the
l arva cl osel y resembl e those of
the Bl ack Swal l owtai l i n form
and col or. The l arva feeds mai nl y
on ani se or Sweet Fennel of the
carrot fami l y. The adul t femal e
l ooks very much l i ke the mal e.
I NDRA, or Mountain Swal l ow­
tai l , con be di stingui shed from
Baird's and Bl ack by its short
tai l . Its l i ght wing band is vari­
abl e in size. Another species, the
Short-tai l ed Swal l owtai l , occurs
i n eastern Canada. 2.0-3.0
TAIL ri val s the Gi ant (p. 25) in
si ze. Common in the South, it
prefers the margi ns of swampy
woods, where i n sl ow fl i ght it
someti mes rises to the tops of tal l
trees. There are two or three
is a smal l er and yel l ower vari ety
of the European, or Ol d Worl d,
Swal l owtai l , common i n Eu rope
and Asia. Another vari ety of this
broods a year. Eggs are l aid on
food pl ants-bay, magnol i a, and
sassafras. The cater pi l l ar resem·
bl es that of the Spi cebush (p. 26),
but the reddish spot that appears
on the third body segment is not
so disti nct and l acks the bl ack r i ng.
Ol d Worl d species i s fou nd near
Hudson Boy i n Canada. The cat·
erpi l l or resembl es the Bl ock Swol ·
l owtai l 's ( p. 22) and feeds on
pl ants of the carrot famil y.
erpi l l ars are known as Orange
Dogs or Orange Puppi es in the
South, where they do occasi onal
damage to ci trus trees, especial l y
i n young groves. Four or fve
hu ndred eggs may be laid by
one femal e, deposited one at a
ti me near ti ps of l eaves or
branches. The caterpi l l ars feed
on Prickl y Ash and the Hop Tree
in additi on to ci trus.
The Gi ant Swal l owtai l i s more
common i n the southern part of
i ts range, where i t is l i kel y to
have three i nstead of two broods.
Fi rst-brood adul ts emerge from
chrysal i ds i n May. The Giant
Swal l owtai l has a l ei surel y fi ght,
sometimes sai l i ng with out·
stretched wi ngs, which then show
the bri ght yel l ow underside i n
contrast to the brown uppersi de.
The Gi ant frequents open fel ds
and gardens, si ppi ng nectar from
fowers and moi sture from mud.
i s sometimes cal l ed t h e Green­
cl ouded Swal l owtail because the
mal e's hindwing has a pro­
nounced greeni sh tone. This spe­
cies has a red-orange spot on
the upper margin of the hind­
wing above.
These swal l owtails frequent
l ow, damp woods, visiting open
fel ds l ess often than many other
swal l owtail s. They are active,
steady fiers and sel dom al ight.
Numbers of them often gather at
puddl es on woodl and roads or
at other wet pl aces. This butter­
fy has several geographic forms,
same with l arger yel l ow spots
and other variations.
There are two broods i n the
North, three in the South. Butter­
fli es of the frst brood, which
emerge from chrysal i ds i n l ate
April or earl y May, after spend­
ing the winter in the pupal stage,
are smal l er than those which
emerge from l ater broods i n the
The l arva feeds on Spicebush,
Sassafras, Sweet Bay, and Prickl y
Ash. like other swal l owtai l cater­
pil l ars i t forms a mat of sil k on
the upper s u rface of a l eaf; then
it draws the l eaf together and
hi des when not feedi ng. As i t
grows t he l arva constructs new
and l a rger shel ters unti l it is ready
to pupate.
LOWTAI L s hows diference i n
col or between sexes. Femal es ore
dimorphic (show two col or
forms); some ore yel l ow and oth­
ers dark brown. The dark form
is uncommon i n the North. The
l arva of the Eastern Tiger Swal ­
l owtail feeds mostl y on Wild
Cherry and Tul i ptrees.
Underside of forewing:
Eastern Tiger Western Tiger
LOWTAI L is not dimorphic. I t
difers fr om t he Eastern Swal l ow­
tail in having the spots on the
underside of the forewing merge
to form a band ( see bel ow) . The
caterpil l ar is l ike that of the East­
ern Tiger Swal l owtail but feeds
on wil l ow, popl ar, and hops,
pl ants of moist western areas.
TAI L, our l argest butterfy, oc­
curs from British Col umbia to
Cal if. and eastward to western
Texas and Montana. The cater-
al l al ong the West Coast to the
eastern sl ope of the Rockies and
i s quite common l ocal l y. larva
feeds chiefy on buckthorn. At
l east two broods occur annual l y.
pi l l ar feeds on cherry, hoptree,
ash, privet, and shadbush. Prob­
ably breeds twice each year. The
smal l er Three-tailed Swal lowtail
occurs in Arizona and Mexico.
eastern species more common i n
t he South, varies i n marking and
size. Spr i ng for ms are smal l est;
l ater broods l arger with l onger
tail s. Larva feeds on pawpaw.
PARNASSI US is a more pri mitive genus t han Papilio,
the true swal l owtai l s. The l arva shows many habits of
ski ppers (pp. 7 4-80) and, l i ke them, is covered wi th short
hai rs. It l acks the scent horns of swal l owtai l s. The pupa i s
not l i ke those of swal l owtai l s ei ther, but, l i ke t hose of
ski ppers, i s smooth and browni sh, and i s formed in a l eafy
shel ter on t he ground or in grass. The adult parnassi us is
not l i ke swal l owtai l s in shape or col orati on but is pal e
white or yel l owi sh, wi th marki ngs that vary greatl y. Par­
nassi ans occur mostly in the mountai ns, where adul ts are
on the wi ng by mi dsummer. Femal e bodi es l ack the hai ri ­
ness of the mal e.
CLODI US, a var i abl e speci es,
i s di sti ngui shed from Smi nt heus
by i t s bl ack anten nae. I t l acks
the red spots often found on the
forewi ngs of Smi nt heus.
SMI NTHEUS di ffers from other
parnassi ans i n havi ng white an·
tennae wi th bl ock r i ngs. The l arva
feeds on stonecrop (Sedum) and
saxi frage (Saxifraga).
SULPHURS AND WHI TES form a worl d-wi de fami l y
of several hundred speci es, i ncl udi ng many speci es i n
temperate parts of the Northern Hemi sphere. They are
among the frst butterfies to appear i n spri ng. Nearl y
al l are yel l ow, orange, or white. Femal es di fer from
mal es in pattern and often i n col or. The butter-yel l ow
col or of European sul phurs probabl y suggested t he name
butterfy. Some are often seen around t he edges of
puddl es. Eggs are spi ndl e-shaped, scul ptured wi th fne
ri dges and pi ts. The l arva, usual l y l ong, green, and sl en­
der wi th l i ttl e hai r, feeds mai nl y on l egumes and mus­
tards. Some are crop pests. The pupa, often compressed
and tri angul ar, i s held in pl ace by a si l k gi rdl e. Most
speci es have more t han one brood a year, especi al l y i n
t he South, where three or even more may occur.
cal l ed the Orange Sul phur, oc­
cu rs in many hybri d forms, cross·
ing wi th the Cl ouded Sul phur. I t
can be di sti nguished from the
Cl ouded Sul phur by the orange
of the uppersi des. The u nder­
si des of both are simi l ar. Some
femal es are white. The l arva is
a pest of al fal fa. Several broods
each year. The buterfy ranges
from Canada to Mexico.
cal l ed the Common Sul phur,
ranges through most of North
Ameri ca but i s most common i n
the East. I t i s the "puddl e butter­
fly" that swarms i n moi st pl aces
and over cl over fi el ds. Li ke the
Al fal fa Butterfl y, some femal es
are wh i t e, b u t g e n e ra l l y t h e
Cl ouded femal e h as l ess bl ack on
the mar gi n of t h e wi ngs. The
l arva i s more common on cl over
than on al fal fa and cannot be
disti ngui shed from that of the Al ­
fal fa Butterfl y. There are several
broods yearly.
be disti ngui shed from other sul ­
phurs by the pi nk wi ng edges
and the pi nk-edged si l ver spot on
the undersi de of each hi ndwi ng.
Sara Orange Tip
1. 0-1 .3"
SARA ORANGE TIP is var i abl e.
The u nderside of t he h i ndwi ngs has
on i rregul ar "mossy" appearance
from t he greeni s h mar bl i ng. The
amount of mar bl i ng i s reduced i n
t he second of t he two on n uo l gen­
era t i o n s. L ar va feeds on wi l d
mustards .
Falcate Orange Tip
1 . 6- 1 .7"
OLYMPIA MARBLE, na med for
the pronounced green mar bl i ng on
the u nder si de of the h i ndwi ng, i s
cl osel y r el ated to t h e orange li ps.
The I a rvo feeds most I y on Hedge
Mu st a rd. The Ol y mp i a Mar bl e
produces on l y on e brood a year, i n
t h e s pr i ng.
the fi rst but t er fl i es to emerge i n
s pr i ng. It f r eq u en t s mos t l y t h e
margi ns of damp woods , f l yi ng
near t he grou nd. I t i s na med for
t he s i c k l e - s h a ped a pe x of t h e
forewi ng. Larvae feed on pl ant s of
the mu stard fami l y.
is common al ong the Gul f of
Mexico, occasional l y straying into
middl e Atl antic and midwestern
slates. The l arva, yel l owish-green,
with bl ack and yel l ow bands and
s mal l bl ack s pi nes, feeds an Cas­
sia and on other cl osel y rel ated
pl ants of the pea family. At l east
two broods each year.
known as the Giant Sul phur, is
abundant in the tropics and com­
mon in our southern states. Huge
focks du ring migration are an
impressive sight. Breeding i s con­
tin uous in the tropics, but t o the
north there are two broods with
adults overwi ntering. Wil d Senna
i s i ts chief food.
be di sti ngui shed from the South­
ern Dog-face by the l ack of dark
margi ns on the uppersi de af the
hindwi ng. I t someti mes strays
eastward from i ts normal range.
The l arva feeds on Fal se I ndigo.
Two broods devel op yearl y; the
adul ts are on the wi ng in s pring
and midsummer. The name dog­
face comes from the "poodl e
face" marki ng on t he forewi ng.
noted for its rapi d fl i ght, is more
common i n the southern part of
its range. li ke the Cal i fornia
Dog-face, it i s doubl e-brooded.
The l arvae, hi ghl y vari abl e in
marki ngs, feed on Wi l d I ndi go
and al so on vari ous cl overs.
east of the Rockies. The l arva
feeds an Senna, Partridge Pea,
and other l egumes. There are two
or three broods a year. This spe­
cies migrates i n l arge focks.
SLEEPY ORANGE i s so no med
beca use i t i s s l ower i n f l i ght t han
other s u l ph ur s . I t i s ver y common
i n t h e Sou t h , wh e r e i t br eeds
thr oughout most of t he year. Mal es
fr eq u e n t l y c ong r egat e i n l a r ge
numbers at puddl es . The vel vety
green l arva wi th a yel l owi s h str i pe
on eac h s i d e feed s ma i n l y on
Sen n a.

DAI NTY SULPHUR occur s from
Ga. to so. Ca l i f . and up t he Mi s s .
Va l l ey t o t he Gr eat Lakes. Fema l es
are heavi l y ma rked wi t h bl ack. I t
i s dou bl e- brooded .
MUSTARD WHI TE has a cir­
cumpol ar range. The veins on the
underside are outl ined with dark
scal es. The l arva, green with
greenish-yel l ow stripes, feeds on
various mustards.
1. 0-1.3"
FAI RY YELLOW, al so known
as Barred Sul phur, has a gray
bar in the forewing of mal es and
some femal es. I t ranges from
Fl orida and Texas southward,
feeding on Joint Vetch and other
l egumes.
PI NE WHI TE, a pest of pi nes
and Bal sam Fir in the West, has
one brood and overwinters as
eggs. The femal e has more bl ack
marki ngs than the mal e.
GI ANT WHI TE is common i n
the tropics and breeds to south­
ern Texas, straying northward.
· Like the Great Southern White
it al so has a dark phase.
of t he Gul f Coast and Miss. Val ­
l ey, sometimes migrates. I f so, a
dark phase i s i nvol ved. The l arva
feeds mostl y on mustards.
FLORI DA WHI TE i s a wi de­
spread butterfy that strays north
from Fl a. and Tex. Al l have
orange on the undersides; most
femal es al so have dark marks.
mon White, occurs al l over tem­
perate N. A. I t was more common
before the Cabbage Butterfy ar­
rived and spread. Larva feeds on
cabbage and other mustards.
Adul ts occur earl y i n spri ng and
produce at l east three broods.
duced from Europe about 1 860, has
spread across N . A. and become a
pest of cabbage, broccol i , kol e,
cau l i fl ower, and ot her mustards
ond of t he garden nast ur t i u m. I t i s
one of the fi rst butterfl i es to emerge
i n spri ng.
BRUSH-FOOTED BUTTERFLIES ore na med for their
t i ny forel egs, usel ess for wa l ki ng, hai r y i n mal es.
MILKWEED BUTTERFLIES, chi efl y tropi ca l , n u mber
onl y t wo speci es i n North Ameri ca, both common.
THE MONARCH, on e of t h e best
known butterfl i es, i s noted for i t s
mi grator y habi t s . I n fal l , fl ocks of
Monarchs move south ward t o Ca l ­
i f or n i a a n d Mex i c o. Res t i n g
mi gra nts o r wi nter res i dents may
cover ent i re trees . I n spr i ng t hey
ret ur n nor t hwar d t o t hei r breedi ng
areas , s ome as far as sout her n
Canada. Three or fou r broods may
be produced i n one year. The mol e
scent g l ands ore marked by a spot
of dark sca l es i n t he center of the
h i ndwi ngs; t hi s spot i s not found
on t he femal e. Fema l es di ffer a l so
in havi ng brooder bl ock vei n l i nes .
The l arva feeds on mi l kweeds and
rel ated pl a nt s, t he j u i ces of whi c h
cause t he Monarch' s unpal atabi l ­
i t y t o many bi rds . T h e Monarch' s
devel opment tokes a bout a mont h
fr om con i ca l eggs-l ai d si ngl y on
l eaves or bl os s oms-t o a d u l t ,
whi ch emerges from a s hi ny green,
gol d-speck l ed hangi ng chr ysal i s .
T h e l ar va, st ri ped wi t h yel l ow,
bl ock, a nd wh i te, i s about 2 i n .
l ong when fu l iy grown .
THE QUEEN resembl es
the Monarc h but is smal l er
and da rker brown. The
brownish l arva with brown
and yel l ow transverse
stripes feeds an mil k­
weeds. There are th ree
broods yearl y. A su bspe­
cies cal l ed Bates' Queen
has the vei ns of the up·
perside of the hindwing
edged with grayish white.
Bates' Queen is found i n
so ut her n Arizona, New
Mexico, and Texas.
SATRS are butterfl i es of rather dull color, usual l y brown
or gray wi th eyespots on both upper and under sides.
Most prefer woods or woods margi ns. Satyr larvae have
forked ta i ls, feed at n i ght on grasses, and overwinter as
t i ny l arvae.
EYED BROWN has a weak
danci ng f l i ght . It frequents damp
meadows wi t h tal l grasses and
from Quebec so. t hr u Appa la­
chi ans to n . Ga. , and so. from Mo n i -
al so t he marg i ns af waads . Local
co l o n i es ar e f ou n d east of t h e
l ocal ly i n t he Mi dwest and Sout h­
east . St reaks af ra i sed dark scal es
ma rk t he ma l e f or ewi n g . T h e
femal e's forewi ng has f i ve eye­
spats u nder neat h.
< PEARLY EYE occurs l ocal l y i n t he
East . Mal e di ffers f r om Creol e i n
l ack i ng r a i s ed dark scal es on
forewi ng . Femal e's forewi ng usu­
al l y has 4 eyespots bel ow.
toba to Ark. and Mi ss . Di ffers from
Pear l y Eye by havi ng orange, not
bl ack, ant enna I knobs .
1. 5
open woods and meadows over­
grown with shr ubbery. Occurs
east of the Rockies.
gray above, without eyespots.
Occurs from N.J. to Fl a. , west to
Texas, and up the Miss. Val l ey.
PLAIN RINGLET r anges t hrough
Canada sout h t o Con n . and t he
nort hern Mi dwest . The u nders i de
of t he h i ndwi ng has an i sol ated
l ight-col ored patch.
a promi nent viol et-gray pale
under its hindwing. Virginia to
I l l inois, south to Fl a. and Mex.
marshy areas or open pine
woods. Distribution is simil ar
t hat of t he Carol ina Satyr .
very common west of t he Rockies.
It is near-white above, darker be­
l ow, with an angul ar white patch
on its hi ndwing.
RI DI NG' S SATYR at rest is the
col or of mossy rock and thus is
wel l camoufaged i n its envi ron­
ment. Pupa forms underground.
COMMON ALPI NE i s common
i n spri ng i n the mou ntai ns from
New Mexico to Wash. and
Al aska. Larva feeds on grasses.
varies s o i n col or and pattern i n
its nati on-wi de range that difer­
ent forms are hard to recogni ze.
The northeastern form is i l l us­
trated. Southeastern form is
l arger, and the l ower eyespot on
the forewi ng is smal l er. I n the
West it is darker and smal l er,
and does not have the l ight band
on the forewi ng.
cal l ed the Greater Arctic. The
femal e l acks the dark shadi ng on
the mal e' s forewi ng. Other spe­
ci es of arctics, mostl y smal l er and
some wi thout eyespots, occur i n
Canada, the Rackies, and al pi ne
New Engl and.
HELICONIANS are pecu l i ar to the Amer i can tropi cs.
They are reputed t o be protected agai nst predat i on by
thei r unsavory taste and odor. Some are mi mi cked by
other butterfl i es. The forewi ngs are twi ce as l ong as
wi de. The eggs are rounded, and about twi ce as l ong as
wi de. The l arvae, wi th rows of l ong branched spi nes,
feed on l eaves of the Passi on Fl ower. The pupae are
u nusua l l y angul ar.
GULF FRITI LLARY ranges t hrough
South Amer i ca to New Jersey and
I owa . I n col or and wi ng s hape i t
resembl es t he greater f r i t i l l ar i es
( p. 44- 46} .
JULIA, nat i ve t o Sout h and
Central Ameri ca, is a
f l i er . Occa s i ona l l y
appears i n l arge swarms
southern Texas or Fl or i da . The
fema l e i s much l i g hter and
du l l er t han t he ma l e. The ch ry­
sa l i s l acks t he spi nes of t he
Zebra .
ZEBRA, found in or near woods,
i s a weak fl yer and moves about
s l owl y. Zebr as gat her i n col oni es
at ni ght . Mal es are at t racted to
ch rysa l i ds of femal es j ust before
t h e l at t er e me rge. St r ays f r om
tropi ca l Amer i ca t o Sout h Carol i na
and Kansas .
GREATER FRITILLARIES are common i n temperate
regi ons. Caterpi l l ars feed at n i ght, most l y on vi ol ets.
Most speci es are s i ngl e-brooded, overwi nteri ng as t i ny
l arvae.
ra nges over most of t he U. S. except
t he Poci fi c Nor t hwest . I t l acks the
t ypi ca l s i l ver spots on t he under­
s i deof t he wi ngs . The Mex i can Fr i t­
i l l ary, s i mi l or i n for m but wi t h
pl a i ner h i ndwi ngs , i s found from
so u t h er n Tex a s t o so u t h er n
Ca l i for n i a.
REGAL FRI TILLARY f r eq u en t s
roa d s i des o n d wet meadows ,
feedi ng on mi l kweeds and t h i s­
t l es. Both rows of spots on t he
h i ndwi ng of t he femol e ore wh i te
but onl y t he i n ner row of t he mal e
i s wh i te. Larva i s l i ke Great Span­
gl ed, but bl ack, mot t l ed wi t h yel ­
l ow. For me r l y fa i r l y common
t hr oughout t h e Nort heast as far
west as Nebr aska a nd Mi ssou r i ,
t hi s st r iki ng speci es now appea rs
to be di mi n i s h i ng a l ar mi ngl y i n
n u mber s.
APHRODI TE, s i mi l a r to Gr eat
Spa ng l ed, i s s mal l er and has a
narrower, yel l owi sh margi nal band
under the h i ndwi ng. It prefers hi gh
el evat i ons from s o. Con. t o Ga. w.
LARY is singl e-brooded in the
North and doubl e-brooded i n the
South. Larva hibernates soon
after hatching and the fol l owing
spring feeds at night on viol ets.
The adults, in typical fritil l ary
fashion, prefer marshes and
damp meadows. This i s one of t he
best known friti l l aries.
to the Rocki es . Anot her speci es ,
At l a nt i s, i s l i ke Aphrod i te, but i ts
forewi ng has a dar k marg i n . It
occurs from Can. so. t hr u mt ns. to
Vi rgi n i a.
DI ANA is an unusual friti l l ary
because the sexes difer so i n
col or and marki ngs and because
it prefers woodl ands t open
common i n secti ons of the Rockies
and foothi l l s of the Sierra Ne­
vadas. Greenish undersi de of
hi ndwi ng is a good i dentifyi ng
country and is more attracted to
manure pi l es than to fowers. It
ranges from the southern Ap­
pal achi an Mts. west to I l l i noi s.
EURYNOME resembl es the Ne­
vada Friti l l ary, but the greeni sh
ti nt covers only top thi rd of
undersi de of the hi ndwi ng. Oc­
curs i n the Rockies from N. Mex.
to Can. , west to Cascades.
greater fri ti l l ari es but are s mal l er,
and most l ack the s i l ver spots under
the hi ndwi ng. The l arvae of most
speci es feed on vi ol ets.
LARY appears i n many vari­
eties. Some are al so found in
Europe. All have the heavi l y si l ­
vered u ndersi de of the hi ndwi ng.
LARY has outer margi n angl ed
near apex, not curved as i n other
fritil l aries. I t l acks the dark outer
margi n, but has black spots.
LARY resembl es the Si l ver­
bordered in shape but is difer­
ent beneath. Those i n the North
are darker above than those i n
t he South. They are
common i n mountai n
val l eys of the West,
rangi ng from Col o­
rado to Cal ifornia
and north to British
Col umbi a.
THE CHECKERSPOTS, smal l - to medi um-si zed, l ay
thei r eggs i n groups. The spi ny caterpi l l ars feed together
f or a whi l e. The free- hangi ng pupa i s whi ti sh wi th dar k
bl otches.
11 ) THE BALTI MORE, though
wi despread, i s l ocal , sel dom
found far from i ts wet meadow
food pl ant, Turtl ehead. Many
vari ati ons occur . Several speci es
are found i n the West.
SPOT is si mi l ar to Harris' on the
upper su rface. Found al ong
roads, l akes, and open meadows
from Mai ne to North Carol i na
and west to the Rocki es.
SPOT i s al so vari abl e and very
l ocal . I t prefers damp fel ds and
underbrush. Ranges f r om Nova
Scotia west to Mani toba and
south t o I l l i noi s and W. Va
ERSPOT is qu ite vari abl e i n
col or and patter n. I t i s common
al ong the Paci fc i n the l ower
mountai n l evel s and feeds on
pl ants of the fgwort fami l y.
THE CRESCENTS are cl osel y al l i ed to checkerspots
but are smal l er. Named for pal e crescent on outer mar­
gin of the hi ndwi ng, beneath. The l arvae stay together
but do not make webs. Summer brood l er t han the
wi nter brood.
abundant on the West Coast,
varies greatl y. I t general l y shows
a pal e crescent both above and
beneath. Larva feeds on thistl es.
1 2 1 FI ELD CRESCENT i s com­
mon i n Cal ifornia and occurs
from Ari zona to Al aska, with
both spri ng and fal l broods, in
damp meadows and al ong
streams. Larva feeds on asters.
easy to tel l from other crescents
by its underside. The forewi ng
above has a band of white to yel ­
l owish spots. Gul f slates to Cal if.
of the most common butterfl ies, is
found around puddl es and fow­
ers. I t ranges over al l North
America south of Hudson Bay,
except for the Pacifc Coast.
ANGLE WI NGS are named for the sharp, angul ar mar­
gi ns of thei r wi ngs. The undersi des of t he wi ngs cl osel y
resembl e dead l eaves or bark, camoufagi ng angl e wi ngs
i n thei r woodl and haunts. Eggs someti mes occur i n a
hangi ng chai n. The l arva is spi ny; t he angular pupa
hangs free. Li ke crescents, angl e wi ngs have l i ght and
dark seasonal forms. They hi bernate as adults.
angl e wi ng, is named for the si l
very mark on the underside of its
hi ndwi ng. The purpl i sh margi n of
the wi ngs is al so di sti nctive. The
l arva feeds mai nl y on el m.
SATYR l acks t he broad, dark 1
hi ndwi ng margi n of Comma. Un·
l i ke the Zephyr, it is brown be·
neath, and l acks the greeni sh
l uster above of the Fawn. Larva
feeds mostl y in nettles.
1 . 8·2.0"
COMMA is a common ongl e
wi ng of moi st open woodl and.
Lorvo feeds on nettl e ond hops.
As in al l angl e wi ngs, the Comma
has a dar k summer form, shown
i n the hi ndwi ng detai l .
FAWN, or Green Comma, has a
greenish ti nt to its wi ngs. Found
i n the mountai ns from eastern
Canada and Carol i nas to the
N.W. states. Larva l ives on bi rch
and al der, feedi ng on the under­
sides of l eaves.
hi ndwing
of dark form
ZEPHYR, l i ke the Satyr, l acks
dark margi n on hi ndwi ng but i s
gray beneath. Seen from May to
Sept. Larva feeds on elm and cur­
rant. The darker form bel ow was
once consi dered a separate
species-si/en us.
BUCKEYES are br i ght l y col ored butterfl i es, a l l of wh i ch
have a l arge eyespot on the u ppers i de of both the h i nd
and t he fore wi ngs. There are some fi fty speci es
throughout the wor l d, but on l y one of them i s common
i n North Amer i ca.
THE BUCKEYE, a vari abl e •pedes, overwi nters
as an adu lt. larva feeds mai ! . l y an pl antai n and
Gerardi a. I n its devel opment, l arva ( 1 ) attaches
itsel f to a support ( 2) and becomes a pupa ( 3) .
Adul t devel ops i n the pupa ( 4) and emerges wi th
soft wi ngs (5) whi ch soon expand (6) and dry
( 7).
THI STLE BUTTERFLI ES are a wi despread group. One
speci es, the Pai nted lady, ranges t hr ough al l temperdte
and some tropi cal areas. These butterfi es frequent fow­
ers, especi al l y thi stl es. Adul ts hi bernate. Some speci es mi ­
grate. The l arvae are spi ny.
PAI NTED LADY is cal l ed t he
Cosmopol it an because of its wide
range. I t is al so noted for its mi·
grations. The l arva buil ds a
webbed nest on the food pl ant,
usual l y thistl e. Adul ts prefer
open pl aces. There are usual l y
two broods a year in the Nort h.
from the Rockies westward and
south to Argenti na. I t difers
from the Painted Lady i n l acking
the white bar on the upper s ur·
face of the forewi ng. It is easil y
captured whi l e feeding on fow·
ers. The l arva feeds on mal l ows.
RED ADMI RAL i s found worl d­
wi de i n north temperate regi ons.
I t i s a swi ft erratic fi er seen i n
open woodl and and around But­
terfy Bush. The l arva l ives and
feeds si ngl y on l eaves of nettl es,
the edges of which i t draws to-
gether wi th si l k.
nate. The Red Admi ral is doubl e­
brooded; the second brood i s
l arger and darker than one
shown here. The ranges of the
Red Admi ral and Ameri can
Pai nted lady are al most al i ke.
or Hunter's Butterfy, has two
l arge eyespots on the undersi de
of the hi ndwi ng. Pai nted and
West Coast ladies have 5 smal l
spots each. Greeni sh eggs are
l ai d on everl asti ng and burdock.
larva is bl ack wi th yel l ow stripes.
TORTOI SE SHELLS i ncl ude butterfi es that resembl e
angl e wi ngs, but the i nner margi n of the forewi ng i s
strai ght i nstead of concave. Adults hi bernate and may
be seen very earl y i n spri ng. Eggs are l ai d i n cl usters.
Tortoise shel l s are a ci rcumpol ar group whi ch i s wi de­
spread i n the Northern Hemi sphere.
SHELL frequents open wood­
l ends, where its undersi des pro­
vi de excel l ent camoufage.
SHELL is a northern species of
open areas and mou ntai n mead­
ows. larva feeds on nettl e.
t h r o u g h o u t t e mp e r at e N . A.
Adul ts that have hi bernated moy
be seen s unni ng i n earl y spri ng
with open wi ngs. Eggs are l aid
in masses ar ound the twigs of
el m, wi l l ow and popl ar. larvae
may become pests.
Mourning Cl oak l arva
Compton Tortoise Shel l
ADMI RALS AND SI STERS tot al six speci es i n N. A.
The l arva, not as spi ny as those of other brush-footed
butterfi es, feeds on a vari ety of trees. These speci es are
mostly doubl e- brooded, and the ti ny l arva hi bernates i n
si l ken shel ters on the food pl ant.
WHI TE ADMI RAL, or Banded Purpl e, l ives i n
upl and hardwood forests and on mou ntai n sl opes,
where its l arva feeds mostly on bi rch, wi l l ow, and
popl ar. The adult is readi l y attracted by putrid
rd odors.
VI CEROY, red-brown i n color, mo mo cs
the reputedl y di stasteful Monarch But·
terfy ( p. 38) . It is found in open pl aces,
where the l arva feeds on wi l l ow and
popl ar. Larva hi bernates and devel ops
as shown above.
has white spots al ong the margi n
of the forewi ng. Found on
mountai n sl opes and wet pl aces
where aspen and wi l l ow grow.
orange t i p t o forewi ng and a
white band on both wi ngs. Found
i n river bottoml and. larva feeds
on cherry, wi l l ow, and popl ar.
RED-SPOTTED PURPLE, consi dered . '
by some t o be a subspecies of t h e White
Admi ral , prefers l ower al titudes and a
warmer cl i mate than that species. It also
,.,,"; .· ,
prefers more open areas, where the
l arva feeds mostl y on Wi l d Cherry.
i l ar to Lorqu i n's Admi ral but has
bl ue l i nes on undersi des of wi ngs.
It is a common Cal iforni a butter-
f l y, f r eq u e n t i n g t h e u p per
branches of l ive oaks, on whi ch
the l arva feeds. The butterfy
rarel y si ps nectar from fowers.
are a t r opi c al gr oup i n
whi ch the undersi des of t h e wi ngs resembl e dead l eaves.
Col or and wi ng shape vary greatl y. Two seasonal forms
occur-a wet and a dry. The forewi ngs of the dry-season
form are l ess curved. larva hi des by day i n a rol l ed l eaf.
The goatweeds are the onl y North Ameri can speci es.
ranges from Ga. and Tex. u p the
Mi ss. Val l ey. Its dry-season form
i s l ighter i n col or. Femal e i s l i ke
Morri son's, but l i ght spots on
wi ngs form a conti nuous band.
has a tropi cal range but enters
Texas. Mal e is quite si mi l ar to
Goatweed Butterfy but i s more
bri l l i ant. Femal e ( i l l ustrated) dif­
fers in col or and pattern.
found near Hackberry trees, on whi ch the l arva feeds i n
col oni es. The striped caterpi l l ar tapers toward both ends
and bears two "horns" behi nd the head. I t hi bernates
when partl y grown. Adul ts show much geographi c vari a­
tion. The femal es are l arger than the mal es and are al so
l i ghter i n col or.
wi del y i n open woodl ands. I ndividual
often have a choice perch on whi ch the)
repeatedl y l and. Some varieties of this
butterfy have an i ncomplete eyespot, or
one or two dark eyespots i n addi ti on to
the typical spot on the forewi ng. Some
are much l i ghter than normal .
TAWNY EMPEROR i s more common
i n the South, though it ranges north to
New Engl and. Lacks dark eyespots on
the forewi ng. Larva si mi l ar to Hackberry
Butterfy's but has branched head spi nes.
PURPLE WI NGS are tropi cal butterfi es, usual ly dul l
purpl i sh above and wel l marked on t he undersi des. Two
speci es occur in southern Fl ori da and Texas.
DAGGER WI NGS are mai nl y tropi cal butterfi es, wi th
prol onged ti ps to thei r forewi ngs, resembl i ng smal l swal­
l owtai l s. One species breeds in the United States.
curs i n dense hordwood hom­
mocks. Di ngy Purpl e Wi ng ( not
shown) is sl i ghtl y smal l er and
l acks most of t he pu rpl e sheen
southern Fl a. and Texas, may
stray northward. The or nate fl a­
ment-beari ng l arva feeds on fg
and Anacardium.
TROPI C QUEENS are tropi cal butterfi es noted for
thei r beauty and the femal es' trait of mi mi cki ng mi l kweed
butterfi es (p. 38) . The Mi mi c i s a species that was prob­
abl y i ntroduced i nto the Ameri can tropi cs from the Ol d
Wor l d a l ong time ago. The Mi mi c occurs i n the West
I ndi es and l ocal l y i n Fl ori da.
METALMARKS are smal l butterfi es usual l y havi ng
metal l i c spots, from whi ch the common name i s derived.
Many of the ffteen pl ai nl y col ored speci es occurri ng
north of Mexi co are di fcul t t o di sti ngui sh. I n the tropi cs,
metalmarks are common and occur i n many di ferent
bri ght col or patterns. Mal es have four wal ki ng l egs, fe­
mal es si x. They rest with wi ngs O tstretched. The l arvae
resembl e t hose of hai rstreaks. 1he pupa i s hai ry, sus­
pended by a stem, and supported by a si l k t hread.
0. 9- 1 .0"
littl e Metal mark •´
common in t he southern part of
its range. I t occurs in open grassy
areas, where it is distinguished
by its smal l size and its uncheck­
ered wing margins.
r el ati vel y r ar e an d h as been
confused with simil ar species. The
wings are dar ker t han those of
t he litt l e a n d t he Swa mp an d
hove an irregul ar dark band. The
Northern prefers dry hil l y ter rain
and open woods.
Northern Metal mark
the i nner dark irregu l ar band af
the Norther n, and wing margi ns
are slightl y checkered. I t occu rs
in wet meadows and swamps in
s ummer . Over wi nt er s as l a rva
that feeds on swamp thistl e.
. P
desert species, occurs through the
Southwest. I ts wi ng spots are
white rather than metal l ic.
Amounts of gray or brown on
hi ndwi ng vary as shown.
from Col orado to Mexi co. I ts
wi ng fri nges are checkered, but
i n overal l appearance it i s not
disti nctl y l i ke other metal marks.
The l arva feeds on Wild Pl um.
SNOUT BUTTERFLI ES are easi l y recogni zed by the
l ong projecti ng mouth parts (pal pi ) whi ch resembl e
snouts. li ke the metal marks, mal es have four wal ki ng
l egs and the females si x. The Common Snout Butterfy i s
the only snout butterfy regul arl y occurri ng north of
Mexi co. The l arva, whi ch grows very rapi dly, feeds on
GOSSAMER WI NGS are small - to med i u m-s i zed but­
terfl i es, often wi th hai r l i ke tai ls on the hi ndwi ngs. They
are usua l l y bl ue, coppery, gray, or du l l brown above.
HAI RSTREAKS, about 70 speci es north of Mexi co, have
a swift, darti ng fl i ght and are readi l y attracted to
fl owers .

STREAK is al so cal l ed the Cot­
ton Square Borer or the Bean
Lycaeni d because of damage it
sometimes does to crops. I t over­
winters i n the pupal stage and
emerges earl y i n the spr i ng.

fema l es have two ta i l s on each
h i ndwi ng, as do some ma l es. The
fe ma l e l ac ks s ex - pads-b l a c k
spots on forewi ng. T h e l a rva feeds
on mi st l etoe. Doubl e- brooded .
actual l y more purpl e i n col or
than the Great Purpl e. The un­
dersi de has a typi cal banded
pattern. Thi s speci es is common l y
found around scr ub oaks.
Hai rstreak
1 .2"·
Hoi rstreak
1 .0"
Hoi rstreak
1 . 3"
southeaster n speci es, is named
for the i nverted white M on the
undersi de of the hi ndwi ng. The
upper surface of the wi ng i s bl ue.
wi del y separated spots i nstead of
transverse l i nes. The l arva feeds
on wi l l ow. Adul ts are found in
wet areas where wi l l ows grow.
occurs from Fl ori da and Mexi co
to New York and Mi chi gan, but i s
commoner i n the South. Mal e up·
persi de i s brown; femal e, bl ui sh .
ova l spots t h a t form b r ok en
transverse l i nes. I t frequents
thi ckets of Scr ub Oak, on whi ch
the I a rva feeds.
h a s orange patches on the u pper­
si des of both wi ngs, l arger on the
hi ndwi ng. I t i s si ngl e-brooded.
The l arva feeds on oak.
l ess. Coral red spots on under­
si de may form a sol i d band. I t
overwi nters i n the egg stage.
Ad ul ts appear by mi dsummer.
1 . 1 - 1 .3"
1 .0- 1 .2"
i s si ngl e-brooded, appeari ng on
the wi ng i n mi dsummer i n the
foothi l l s. Larva feeds on Cea­
nothus and, probabl y, on oak.
reddi sh brown above, is common
i n the Rocki es and west to the
Paci fc coast i n summer. Feeds on
Cercocarpus and Ceanothus.
brooded, overwi nters as a pupa.
The adu l ts occ ur i n s pr i ng and
midsummer, usual l y near r ed ce­
dars, the l arval food pl ants.
1 . 2"
1 .0"
i n l ate s pr i ng and earl y s ummer,
usual l y i n or near woodl ands. I t
overwi nters i n the egg stage. The
l arva feeds on oak and hi ckory.
tinctly striped under neath. It is
wi del y di stri buted east of the
Rockies. The l arva feeds on many
pl ants, i ncl udi ng oak and wi l l ow.
sembl es Cal iforni a Hai rstreak
but i s l i ghter beneath and has
onl y one smal l red spot. The
l arva feeds on wi l l ow.
Western Banded El fn
1 .2"
undersi de
ELFI NS are s mal l - to med i u m-si zed brown butterfl i es;
femal es are l arger and l ess drab than mal es. El fi ns
overwi nter as pupae and have onl y a s i ngle brood
yearly. They are among the fi rst butterfli es to oppear i n
spr i ng . The ma l es of al l elfi ns but Hen ry's have a "sex­
spot" on the u pper s i de of the forewi ngs .
resembl es t he Bonded El fi n, but the
bond ( mi ddl e of forewi ng, u nder­
s i de) i s l ess i rregu l ar. larva feeds
BANDED ELFI N, al so ca l l ed Pi ne
El f i n, i s us ua l l y found i n open pi ne
sta nds. The l arva feeds pr i mar i l y
on t he seedl i ngs of both hard and
soft pi nes, on whi c h i t i s wel l
camoufl aged.
BROWN ELFI N, reddi s h brown
on t he u nder si de, i s found i n and
a l ong t he edges of open woods
where i ts food pl ant s, bl ueberry
and Sheep lau rel , grow.
Western El fn
0. 9- 1 .0"
WESTERN ELFI N i s obscurel y
marked beneath . I t occurs i n both
l owl ands and mountai ns, often
frequenti ng Ceanothus bl ossoms.
The l arva feeds on sedum.
HENRY' S ELFI N of open woods
i s l ess gray on the undersi de and
is dark br own ot the base of t he
scal l oped hi ndwi ng. The l arva
feeds on bl ueberry.
HOARY ELFI N gets its name
fr om the gray col or on the under­
si de. It occ u rs in open, dry,
heath-covered areas. The l arva
feeds on bearberry.
FROSTED ELFI N mal e has a
sex-spot on the uppersi de of fore­
wi ng. Hi ndwi ng has more scal ­
l oped border and l ess col or con­
trast than that of Henry's El fn.
COPPERS occur chi efy in the Norther n Hemi sphere,
wi th about si xteen speci es i n the United States and Can­
ada. Most are reddi sh or br own and have a coppery
l uster, but one, the Bl ue Copper, is bri ght bl ue. Most spe­
ci es frequent open areas and roadsi des.
from spri ng to fal l i n fel ds where
Sheep Sorrel , food pl ant of the
l arva, grows. Overwi nters i n the
pupal stage. Ad u l ts i n spri ng are
br i ghter and l ess spotted.
GREAT COPPER is one of the
l argest of the coppers. Mal es
have fewer bl ack dots and l ess
orange on the wi ng margi ns. The
femal es feed on dock. Ad ul ts
emerge i n summer .
RU DDY COPPERS have whi te
margi ns on the wi ngs and fewer
bl ack spots on t he undersi de of
the hi ndwi ng than other coppers.
The femal e resembl es the Ameri ­
can Copper but i s l arger and not
as bri ghtl y col ored. Feeds on
Arni ca.
from spri ng to fal l , mostl y i n
moi st meadows. The undersi de of
the hi ndwi ng i s marked with a
fai nt red l i ne. The l arva feeds
mostl y on dock and knotweeds.
B RONZE COPPER frequents
wet meadows. I t i s doubl e­
brooded and hi bernates i n the
egg stage. The margi n of the
undersi de of the hi ndwi ng has
a broad orange band. The l arva
feeds mostl y on several speci es
of dock and knotweed.
GORGON COPPER has onl y a
mi dsummer brood. I ts undersi de
i s typical of the coppers. The fe­
mal e resembl es that of the Pur­
pl i sh Copper but is l ess bri ght.
The l arva feeds on friogonum.
THE HARVESTER occurs onl y i n North Ameri ca, but a
few cl ose rel at i ves are fou nd i n Afri ca and Ori enta l
tropi cs. The l arva feeds on wool l y aphi ds that l i ve on
al der, beech, and wi tch hazel , and becomes fu l l grown
i n as l i tt l e as ten days. There are severa l generat i ons a
year. Wi nter i s passed i n the pupal stage. The marki ngs
of the pupa resembl e a mon key's face.
BLUES are smal l and usual ly bl ue above. The l arvae of
some speci es secrete "honeydew" and are attended by
ants for thi s l i qui d. There is much seasonal vari ati on i n
col or. The sexes di fer; femal es usual l y are darker, wi th
wi der dark borders on the uppersi de of the wi ngs.
0. 9- 1 . 1 "
common al l thr ough its range,
occu rs from earl y spri ng to fal l ,
with several generati ons yearl y.
I t overwinters as a ful l -grown
l arva, whi ch feeds mostl y on
fowers of l egumes. Mal es i n
spri ng have narrower dark bor­
ders above. Spri ng femal es are
darker; some ar e brown above.
Pygmy Bl ue
0. 5-0.7"
Dwarf Bl ue
0. 5-0.7"
Common Bl ue
0. 8- 1 .3"
Bl ue
mal e-summer
mal e-spri ng
Tai led
Bl ue
0.9- 1 . 1 "
;. ·: r /1

are the smal l est of al l North
Ameri can butterfl i es. The Pygmy
i s common i n i ts range. I ts l arva
i s wel l camoufl aged on Lamb' s
Tongue, its food pl ant.
DWARF BLUE i s si mi l ar but
l acks the whi te spot and fri nge
on the uppersi de of the forewi ng.
COMMON BLUE, or Spr i ng
Azur e, occu rri ng t hr oughout
North Ameri ca, i s anot her ear l y
spri ng butterfy. Spri ng forms are
darker than summer forms, wi th
spots on the undersi des some­
ti mes fused . The undersi de mar k­
i ngs of summer forms are us ual l y
pal e. The sl ug- l i ke l arva f eeds on
fl owers and excretes a sweet l i q­
ui d cal l ed honeydew, for whi ch i t
i s fol l owed by ants.
easi l y di st i ng u i shed from Easter n
by i ts l ess-spotted u nders i de. I n
some areas t he Easter n and West­
er n Ta i l ed Bl ues occ ur toget her.
(2) underside
( 1 , 2, 3 ) MARI NE BLUE ap­
pears l ater i n spri ng t han ather
bl ues. Larva feeds mostl y an buds
and bl ossoms of wi steri a, al fal fa,
l ocoweed, and other l egumes.
! 6 ) REAKI RT'S BLUE i s easi l y
di sti nguished by the white-ri nged
bl ack spots on the underside of
the forewi ng. Mesquite i s one of
its food pl ants.
! 4, 5 ) ACMON BLUE occurs
earl y spri ng to fal l . The femal e
i s browni sh or bl uish. The broad
orange band wi th bl ack spots on
h i ndwi ng i s disti ncti ve.
! 7, 8, 9 ) ORANGE- BOR­
DERED BLUE, or Mel issa Bl ue,
i s doubl e-brooded. larva feeds
on l egumes. Note orange spots
on upper hi ndwi ng of femal e.
C l l SI LVERY BLUE l acks the
bl ack s pots al ong the margi n of
undersi de of h i ndwi ng. The up­
persi de resembl es the l ight forms
of the Saepi ol us Bl ue.
1 5, 6, 71 SONORA BLUE ap­
pears very earl y in spr i ng. It i s
found near stonecrop (Sedum)
and other succ u l ent pl ants. Larva
feeds in the thi ck pl ant tissues.
1 2, 3, 4 1 SAEPI OLUS BLUE i s
vari abl e; some forms i n the West
are dar k. The row of ti ny orange
spots on the undersi de of hi nd­
wi ng i s di sti nctive.
(8, 9, 1 0) SQUARE-SPOTTED
BLUE occu rs in June or J ul y
where i ts food, Eriogon um, grows.
Bl ack spots on u ndersi de are
squari sh. Resembl es Acmon Bl ue.
5 K1?FEk5
Ski ppers (more than 3, 000 ki nds) are di st i ngui shed from
true butterfli es by the antennae, whi ch are farther apart
at the base and end i n poi nted, curved clubs. Ski ppers
are named for thei r ski ppi ng fl i ght. Most are drab. Many
are di ffi cul t t o di st i ngu i sh. Thei r bodi es are robust and
moth- l i ke. The l arvae, di st i nct l y nar rowed behi nd the
head, rest during the day between l eaves pu l l ed l oosel y
together by s i lk strands. The smooth pupae are for med
i n s i mi l ar shelters, often on the grou nd.
DGED, or Frosted,
r occu rs from southern
Engl and to Fl a. and west to
and I owa. Undersi de re-
sembl es Si l ver-spotted. Larva
feeds mostly on tick trefoi l s.
common throughout the warm
seasons from so. Canada through
Cen. Amer., has disti nctive si l ver
patch on the hi ndwi ng. The l arva
feeds on l ocusts and wi steri a.
i s di fcul t t o tel l from Southern
Cl oudy Wi ng. The s pots on the
forewi ng are usual l y smal l er and
t he wi ng fri nges are darker. I t i s
doubl e·brooded i n the North,
may have three or more broods
i n the South, and overwi nters i n
the pupal stage. The green l arva,
whi ch l ives i n a s i J k. J i ned nest,
feeds on cl over and other her­
baceous l egumes.
i s general l y u ncommon and un­
usual l y sl uggi sh. I t occurs i n wet
woodl ands from N.Y. south and
west to Ari zona. The l arva i s
l i ght green wi th yel l ow dots.
al so cal l ed the Bean leaf Rol l er
because of the way the l arva at­
tacks cul tivated beans. Common
i n the Southeast. I t overwi nters
as a pupa.
prefers woods mar gi ns, especi al l y
near cl over and other l egumes
on whi ch t he brown l arva feeds.
Note the l arger white s pots on
the forewi ngs.
most other dusky-wi ngs, hos no
cl ear spats on the forewi ng.
Found f r om southern Canada to
the Gul f and west to the Rocki es.
occurs i n woods margi ns i n
Sl eepy's r ange i n spri ng. Hi nd­
wi ng has two di sti nct whi te spots
below. Femal e i s paler than mal e.
s mal l er than Sl eepy Dusky-wi ng;
al so has no cl ear spots on the
forewi ng. li ke the Sl eepy, i t oc­
curs i n earl y spri ng.
whi te marks of uppersi de repeated
bel ow. Femal e is l i g hter t han t he
mal e. Adu l ts occ ur i n l ate May and
mi d-J u l y.
the West Coast has white dashes
on the undersi de next to the white
� fri nge on the hi ndwi ng.
found sout hwest from Col o. and
Tex . , h a s wh i t e f r i nges an t h e
h i ndwi ngs. Larva feeds on al f al fa.
mon species, vari es greatl y i n the
amount of gray. Fl i es fast wi th­
out the characteristic ski ppi ng
moti on. Larva feeds on mal l ows.
Checkered Ski pper, but the fore­
wing spots are somewhat square
and separate; its u ndersi de i s
darker. Al so feeds on mal l ows .
Common Sool) i nl
wi th l arva
and pupa
1 .0· 1 .2"
curs throughout North Ameri ca.
I t overwinters as a l arva on the
food pl ant, pigweed, between
l eaves that have been rol l ed to­
gether with si l k.
l i ke the Common, but wi ngs have
fai nt dark bands. Occurs from Po.
to Nebr. and the S. E. Larva feeds
on Lamb's Quarters.
( o r
Larger Canna Leaf Rol l er) ranges
from Argenti na north to Tex., So.
Cor. , and occasional l y northward.
Larva feeds on openi ng l eaves
be destructive.
LEAST SKI PPER, common east
of the Rockies from spring to fal l ,
fi es cl ose t o the ground, usual l y
i n marshy areas. I t var i es i n t he
amount of orange above.
earl y spri ng from Wisconsi n and
Texas eastward. I t and the I ndi an
Ski pper resembl e Uncas Ski pper.
UNCAS SKI PPER of the Great
Pl ai ns can be recogni zed by the
dark patches around the white
spots on the u ndersi de of the
hi ndwi ng.
JUBA SKI PPER i s found i n
sagebrush regi ons from the Pa­
ci fc coastal states east to Col o­
rado. Seen in both spri ng, fal l .
I NDI AN SKI PPER appears i n
earl y spri ng i n eastern United
States and Canada. Larva feeds
on Pani c Grass.
summer, easter n species, fre­
quents wet meadows and open
regi ons. The l arva feeds on grass
and overwi nters when smal l .
GOLDEN SKI PPER of the arid
Southwest occurs from April to
September. The undersi de is
pl ai n yel l ow. Larva feeds on Ber­
muda Grass (Cynodon dactylon).
0. 7-1 .0"
BROKEN DASH is named for
the dash mark on uppersi de of
mal e's forewi ng. Unl i ke Peck's, it
i s broken i nto a long upper mar k
and a l ower dot . Both sexes l ack
Peck's yel l ow patches on under­
si des. Found east of Rocki es.
VERNAL SKI PPER, or Li ttl e
Gl assy Wi ng, is a mi dsummer
speci es found east of the Rocki es.
Femal e resembl es mal e. The l arva
feeds on grass.
FI ERY SKI PPER has character­
istic short antennae and vari es
i n col or patter n. The femal e i s
dark brown wi th a few l i ght spots
LONG DASH has an i rregul ar,
dark, obl i que mar k on forewi ng
of mal e. Yel l ow areas, l ess dis­
ti nct than in Peck1s, occur on
undersi des i n both sexes. Long
Dash occurs from Vi rgi nia and
I l l i noi s north i nto Canada.
PECK' S SKI PPER occurs from
so. Canada and New Eng. south
to Fl a. and west to Kans. and
Ari z. Undersi des of both sexes
have di sti nct yel l ow patches.
FI ELD SKI PPER, or Sachem, oc­
curs i n the South i n spr i ng. By
mi dsummer i t ranges to N.Y. , N.
Oak. , and San Franci sco. Larva
feeds on Ber muda Grass.
from Konsas to southern Canada.
Femal e has two col or forms, one
l i ke the mal e and the other, or
"Pocahontas," bei ng quite dar k
and diferent above.
wi ngs wi thout marki ngs. Wi ng
fri nges are strongl y checkered. I t
occurs fr om southeast Canada t o
Fl or i da and west t o Cal iforni a.
The pupa wi nters on grass.
from Massachusetts to Texas.
Male resembl es Hobomok and fe­
male looks l i ke the Pocahontas
form of Hobomok. Zabul on and
Hobomok both feed on grasses.
OCOLA SKI PPER ranges as
far north as N.Y., and i s common
from Vi rgi ni a and Arkansas
south to Fl ori da and Texas. The
marki ngs of its forewi ngs are
repeated on the undersi de.
� YUCCA SKI PPER occurs i n
semi-arid regi ons from the Caro­
l i nas to Fl ori da and west to Cal i­
forni a. Femal es are l arger than
mal es, wi th a row of four yel l ow
spots on the hi ndwi ng. Both have
broad wi ngs and stout
bodies. Larva feeds on
yucca stal ks.
The 8,000 or so species of
moths whi ch occur in North
Ameri ca north of Mexi co
have bodi es more pl ump
and furry than those of
butterfi es. At rest, moths
usual ly hol d thei r wi ngs fat
or fol d them roof- l i ke over
thei r backs. Thei r anten­
nae, often feathery, vary
i n structure but usual ly l ack
the termi nal cl ub typi cal
of butterfi es. Most moths
have a frenul um, a curved
throughout eastern North Amer­
ica. The l orvo, active ot ni ght,
feeds on the Trumpet Vine. See
pp. 82-94 for other sphi nxes.
spi ne or group of bristles on the i nner (humeral ) angl e
of t he hi ndwi ng. Thi s hel ps t o hol d t he fore and hi nd­
wi ngs together i n fi ght. Most moths fy at ni ght and ar e
aHracted to l i ghts. A few femal e moths do not fy at al l .
larvae of moths spi n si l ken cocoons or pupate on t he
ground or i n underground cel l s.
I n thi s secti on, moths are treated as commonly recog­
nized groups whi ch usual ly, but not always, i ncl ude
cl osel y rel ated speci es.
Below: Types of moth antennae. Right: Un­
derwi ng Mot h: underside of wi ngs showi ng
frenul um.
' ­
SPHI NX MOTHS, about 1 00 N. A. speci es, have l arge,
stout l arvae that hol d the body erect, i n a sphi nx- l i ke
positi on. Most l arvae have a horn at the rear of the
body. Adul ts are powerful fl i ers; they often have a l ong
probosci s, used to suck nectar. Some are cal l ed hawk­
moths for thei r swoopi ng fl i ght; others, hummi ngbi rd
moths because they hover whi l e feedi ng.
MOTH ranges throughout most
of the Wester n Hemi sphere. The
l arva, or Sweetpotato Hornworm,
feeds on Sweet Potato vi nes and
cl osel y rel ated pl ants. Thi s hawk·
moth is a strong fier and has
been seen far at sea.
readi l y tol d from the Five-spotted
Hawkmoth by the parti al fusi on
of the two mi ddl e bl ack stri pes
on the hindwi ng. The l arva, or
Tobacco Hornworm, feeds on to4
bacco and tomatoes throughout
the U. S. The pupa, formed under­
ground, has a l onger tongue case
than the Tomato Hornworm's.
RUSTI C SPHI NX, or Six-spotted Sphi nx, is
common in southern states. On the si des of the
body are three pai rs of yel l ow spots. larva re­
sembl es Tobacco and Tomato Hornworms, but
the ski n i s rough i nstead of smooth where· the
marki ngs appear. Feeds mai nl y
on the Fr i nge Tr ee and j asmi ne.
MOTH, unl i ke Carol i na Sphi nx,
has the bl ack stri pes on the hi nd­
wi ng separated. larva, the To­
mato Hornworm, common ly feeds
on t obacco. Whi te abdomi n al
marks form an an gl e i nstead of
a si ngl e obl i que l i ne as on the
Tobacco Hornworm. Wi despread
i n temperate N. A.
.. WAVED SPHI NX resembl es the Ca­
tal pa Sphinx but is bri ghter, with more
white scal es on the forewi ngs. The l arva,
whi ch feeds mostly on ash but al so on
privet and l i l ac, is green and smooth. It
has the obl i que marks typi cal of sphi nx
l arvae and often has pi nk l egs, horn,
and face.
is the destructive Catal paworm,
which when numerous strips ca­
talpa trees of all fol i age. The
moths l ay masses of white eggs
on the undersi des of the l eaves.
The velvety l arvae occ ur i n two
col or forms, as shown. There are
commonl y two broods each year.
The l arvae are so hi ghl y subject
to attack by a parasitic wasp that
few of them survive to become
pupae and moths.
Sph i nx, occu rs from Canada to Fl ori da,
and west through the Mi ss. Val l ey. Adu lt
has pal er col or on front margi n of fore­
wing than Catal pa and Waved sphi nxes.
The l arva, whi ch feeds on el m or bi rch,
has four green or brown rough projec­
tions on the thoraci c segments.
HERMI T SPHI NX l arva, whi ch
feeds on mi nts, has an abrupt
hump near i ts front end. Hermit­
l i ke Sphi nx, of the Southwest, i s
si mi l ar but i s l i ght gray and l acks
the l ong bl ack stri pe down the
mi ddl e of its abdomen .
PAWPAW SPHI NX i s brown
of varyi ng shades, with smal l
white spots on each si de of the
center abdomi nal stri pe. The
l arva feeds on l eaves of Pawpaw
and Bl ack Al der. �
Great Ash
Sphi nx
l arva
l i ke the Great Ash Sphi nx but is
a darker gray. These moths are
frequentl y seen at eveni ng pri m­
rose fowers. The l arva is some­
ti mes a pest of appl e and pl um
marked Sphi nx, gets the l atter
name from the bl ack wav
streaks on the forewi ngs. I ts
thorax is l i ghter than that of the
Appl e Sphi nx or Wi l d Cherry
Sphi nx and l acks the white
streaks on the sides. The l arva
feeds mostly on ash trees but
al so on l i l ac and privet. I t is
doubl e-brooded i n some areas,
but i n others i t occurs i n al l
stages from spri ng t o fal l .
LAUREL SPHI NX, in spite of
its name, feeds mostly on the
leaves of l i l ac and Fri nge Trees.
I t closely resembl es the Appl e
and Wi l d Cherry Sphi nx Moths
i n form but has a di stinct brown
APPLE SPHI NX resembl es the
Wi l d Cherry Sphinx but l acks
both the whi te shadi ng al ong the
front edge of the forewi ng and
the bl ack band down the si de of
the abdomen. I t occurs i n mi d­
summer. The l arva i s bri ght green
and has seven sl anted white l i nes
edged with pi nk. I t feeds mai nl y
on appl e, ash, wi l d rose, Myrtl e
and Sweet Fern.
much l i ke Appl e Sphinx but has
a l ateral bl ack band on the ab­
domen. The l arva feeds on
cherry, pl um, and appl e. Unl ike
most other hawkmoth l arvae, it
hides duri ng the day. I t i s darker
than the l arva of Great Ash
Sphinx and has viol et body
stri pes. I n the Appl e Sphi nx these
are pi nkish; i n the Laurel Sphi nx
they are often bl uish marked
with bl ack.
what var i abl e i n cal or pattern and
resembl es Nor t her n, as does t he
l arva . The l arva feeds on pi nes
and, l i ke the Northern l arva, may
become destruct i ve.
ELLO SPHI NX i s common from
t he Gu l f states to t he t ropi cs and
often strays nort hward. Femal es
l ack t he dar k streaks i n t he fore­
wi ngs. The l arva feeds most l y on
poi nset t i a and
s Pi ne tend t o i ntergrade
where ra nges over l ap. The l ar va,
wi t h t r i angul ar head an d no typi ­
ca l cauda l hor n , feeds on whi te,
pi tch , and j ack pi nes.
i n both a pal e and a darker
form. The l arva has a rough,
granul ar ski n and an unusual l y
short caudal horn. I t feeds on
popl ars and wi l l ows.
ABBOT' S SPHI NX has two
forms of mature l arva, one shown
above and another bright green
wi th brown spots. Young l arvae
are l ike that i l l ustrated. Larvae
feed on grape and woodbi ne.
Bi g Poplar Sphinx
3. 5-5. 5"
found resti ng on a Sequoi a tree
and was so named. I t frequents
the bl ossoms of Wi l d Cherry and
buckeye. The l arva feeds on Wi l d
Cherry l eaves.
ONE-EYED SPHI NX is darker
and more common i n t he western
part of i ts range. Larva (an wi l l ow)
resembl es t he Sma l l -eyed Sph i nx
bul l ocks red spats and has a pi nk,
vi ol et, or bl ue horn.
be c onf u s ed wi t h S ma l l - eyed
Sph i nx , but t he out er edge of t he
forewi ng i s stra i ght i nstead of con­
cave. The l arva feeds on bl ueberry
and huckl eberry.
.  SMALL-EYED SPHI NX and other
eye-spoiled sph i n xes rest wi t h a
l obe of t he h i ndwi ng extended
before the forewi ng and, i n the case
of the mal e, wi t h the abdomen
curved upward. Spots on l arva var y
or are absent . Prefers Wi l d Cherry
but a l so feeds on bi rch and other
trees. Occur s from sout hern Can­
ada t o Fl or i da an d west t o t he
Rocki es.
name from the bl ue bar across each
eyespat on t he h i ndwi ng. Larva
ca n not be tol d from t hat of One­
eyed S p h i n x . I t feeds on Wi l d
Cherry, bi rch, a nd wi l l ow.
WALNUT SPHINX i s a rel at i vel y
common s ph i n x mot h found from
New Engl and sout h to Fl or i da and
west t o Man i toba and Texas . The
act i ve l arva feeds onl y on wa l n ut ,
Butternut , pecan, and h i ckory, and
i s somet i mes common i n peca n
orchar ds. The mot hs var y cons i d­
erabl y i n col or. The l ar vae var y i n
col or al so, f r om green t o redd i s h .
Smal l -eyed, but i ts forewi ngs have
sca l l oped margi n s . The l arva a l so
l ooks l i ke that of Sma l l -eyed . I t
feeds on a var i ety of trees but pre­
fers bi rch, wi l l ow, and cherry.
NESSUS SPHI NX fies at earl y
dusk. The l arva resembl es that of
the Hog Sphi nx but has a shorter
horn and more obl i que marks on
the side of the body. I t feeds on
grape and Vi rgi ni a Creeper.
AZALEA SPHI NX resembl es
the Hog Sphi nx al so, but the
forewi ng i s brown i nstead of
greeni sh and the hi ndwi ngs are
enti rel y orange-brown. The l arva
feeds on vi bur num and azal ea.
HOG SPHI NX, or Vi rgi ni a­
Creeper Sphi nx, shown at rest,
has hi ndwi ngs al most enti rel y
bri ght orange-brown. I t i s com­
mon and someti mes becomes a
pest in vi neyards. Unl i ke most
hawkmoth l arvae that burrow i n
the ground t o pupate, a Hog
Sphi nx l arva forms a l oose co­
coon of si l k among dead l eaves
on the ground.
i n much the same range as Hog
Sphi nx. At rest i t assumes the po­
si ti on shown for Hog Sphi nx. The
l arva feeds on Hydrangea, But­
tonbush, and Swamp loosestrife.
resembl es t hat of Pandor us Sph i n x
except t h ot t h e spots on t h e s i des
of t he body are l ong and angul ar
i nstead of ova l . T h i s speci es feeds
on gr ape and Vi rgi n i a Creeper.
a l most h a l f-grown l arva, l oses i t s
hor n and acqu i res a gl assy eye­
spot i n i t s pl ace. The l arva, green or
redd i s h brown , feeds on grape and
Vi rgi n i a Creeper.
ca l speci es, strays i nto New Eng.
Larva feeds on grape and Va .
Creeper. It i s marked wi t h bl ack,
whi te, and r ed, and has a n eye­
spot i n pl ace of a hor n.
Common Clearwi ng, vari es in
col or with season and race. The
' ' cl ear" wi ng appears as scal es
weor off soen after the moth
emerges. Feeds at flowers by day.
al so h as seasonal and raci al for ms.
I t di ffers from t he Hu mmi ngbi rd
Moth i n havi ng o n unsea l ed cel l on
t he fr ont edge of t he forewi ng near
t he body.
Stri ped Morni ng Sphi nx, often
fies by day. The l arva i s some­
ti mes green with a series of yel­
l ow spots. When abundant i t i s
a pest, feedi ng on many broad-
pl ants from southern Can­
ada i nto Central America.
GALI UM SPHI NX i s from the
Ol d Worl d. The l arva, l i ke that of
the Whi te-l i ned Sphi nx, has two
col or forms. In Eu rope it feeds on
bedstraw (Galium) but i n Amer­
ica mai nly on Epilobium and
other pl ants.
CYNTHI A MOTH, i ntroduced
from Chi na, is found in ci ti es from
Boston to Savannah and west­
ward to I ndi ana_ The l arva, whi ch
feeds on Ai l anthus, resembl es the
Cecropi a l arva, but al l t ubercl es
are bl ue_ The cocoons hang l i ke
those of the Promethea Moth_
GI ANT SI LK MOTHS, most of whi ch are l arge and at­
tractive, number about 42 speci es north of Mexi co. Some
have cl ear spots, or "wi ndows," i n thei r wi ngs. I n some
the sexes di fer i n si ze and col or, but mal es can always
be tol d by thei r more feathery antennae. The probosci s
i s barel y devel oped, i ndi cati ng that adults do not feed.
The hi ndwi ng has no frenul um_ The l arva, whi ch feeds
mostly on l eaves of trees and shrubs, is ornatel y armed
wi th tubercl es and spi nes_ The cocoon, l ong and oval ,
i s made of si l k and i s attached t o t he food pl ants. Easi l y
spotted i n wi nter_ These ni ght-fyi ng moths come to l i ghts,
and unmated femal es attract di stant mal es. You can ob­
tai n speci mens and study mati ng, egg l ayi ng, and growth
by pl aci ng a newl y emerged femal e i n an out-of-doors
cage and waiti ng for the mal es to reach the cage.
CECROPI A MOTH is si ngl e­
brooded. The femal e l ays 200 to
300 whi ti sh oval eggs, a few at a
ti me, usual l y on the u ndersi des of
l eaves. The l arva feeds on a va­
ri ety of trees and shr ubs but
mai nl y on cher ry, pl um, el der­
berry, appl e, box-el der, mapl e,
wal n ut, bi rch, and wi l l ow. The
overwi nter i ng cocoon does not
hang but i s attached l engthwi se
to a twi g of the pl ant on whi ch
the l arva has fed.
sembl es Cecropi a in earl y stages,
but mat ure l arva has yel l ow i n­
stead of red t horaci c tu bercl es.
Feeds an cherry, wi l l ow, al der,
wi l d currant, and other pl ants.
si ngl e-brooded. larva resembl es
that of Gl over's, but i ts yel l ow
thoraci c tu bercl es are ri nged wi th
bl ack at the mi ddl e. Prefers buck­
bush (Ceanothus) l eaves.
2. 0-3. 3"
has red thoraci c t uber cl es l i ke t hat
of Cecropi a, but t hey are r i nged
wi th bl ack at t he base. The cocoon,
attached l engt hwi se, has s i l ver y
streaks . Adul t resembl es a s ma l l
Cecropi a Moth but l acks redd i s h
margi n s t o t h e wh i te wi ng bands .
PANDORA MOTH, a pest of pi ne
forests, has a two-year l i fe cycl e.
The f i r s t wi nter i s spent as a par t l y
grown l arva on trees and t he sec­
ond as a pupa i n the grou nd. No
cocoon i s s pun.
haps the commonest gi ant si l k
moth, was named after the one­
eyed gi ant Pol yphemus of Greek
mythol ogy because of the l arge
eyespots on its hi ndwi ngs. I n the
South i t has two broods. The
accordi !n-shaped l arva feeds on
a variety of trees and shrubs,
especi al l y on oak, hi ckory, el m,
mapl e, and bi rch. The rounded,
tough, parchment-l i ke cocoon i s
found hangi ng on the food pl ant.
1 00
cal l ed the Spi cebush Si l k Moth,
was once consi dered as a pos­
si bl e basi s for devel opment of an
Ameri can si l k i ndustry. Mal es fl y
i n the l ate afternoon-an un usual
habi t. Spi cebush, Sassafras, Tul i p·
tree, and Wi l d Cherry are pre·
!erred foods of the l arva. The
cocoon i s al ways suspended on
the food pl ant, where i t can eas·
i l y be seen in wi nter. There are
two broods yearl y in the South.
l arva feeds mostl y on tul i p trees.
I t resembl es the Prometheo l arva
but has fewer and shorter tu.
bercl es. The cocoon i s not fas·
tened to the food pl ant as wi th
most other l ar ge si l k moths. The
mal e l ooks more l i ke i ts mote
than does the mol e Prometheo.
The Tul i p-tree Si l k Moth fl i es onl y
at ni ght. Li ke Prometheo, i t i s
doubl e-brooded i n the Sout h, but
it i s not as common as Promethea.
1 0 1
1 02
f or ms where i t i s doubl e-brooded.
The summer form has yel l ow wi ng
margi ns, whereas the spri ng form
hos pi nk to pu rpl e wi ng margi ns.
Larva feeds mai nl y on Sweet
Gum, hi ckory, wal nut, bi rch, and
oak. Pupa i s active i n i t s papery
cocoon, usual l y spun on the
mol e
2. 0·3. 0"
1 0 MOTH, named for a mythi­
cal Greek mai den, has conspi cu­
ous eyespots on the hi ndwi ngs.
Eggs are l ai d i n cl usters. The
l arvae, whi ch have i rritati ng
spi nes, stay together and move i n
l ong trai ns. They feed on a wi de
vari ety of pl ants, i ncl udi ng corn
and roses. The l arvae spi n thi n,
papery cocoon s on the ground.
SHEEP MOTH eggs, l ai d i n
masses ar ound twigs, hatch i n the
spri ng_ The l arva feeds mai nly on
pl ants of the rose fami l y. When
mature it i s browni sh-bl ack wi th
tan and bl ack spi nes, red spots
down the mi ddle, and a red l i ne
on each si de. Pupates earl y. The
mot h emerges i n the summer,
some in the second summer.
1 04
BUCK MOTH fi es by day. I n
fal l, femal es l ay eggs i n cl usters
around a twig, usual l y oak. The
eggs hatch i n spri ng. Li ke those
of the l o, Buck l arvae feed to­
gether and have sti ngi ng spi nes.
larvae do not spin cocoons but
burrow i nto the ground and pu·
pate. Most moths emerge i n fal l ,
some the next spr i ng or the fol­
lowing fal l .
the Buck Moth i n most respects.
The l arva i s greenish i nstead of
gray and has brown spots on
each si de of the back and al ong
the si des of the body. The spi­
racl es are yel l ow, edged with
brown . The l arva feeds on wi l l ow
and popl ar. Moths are found
from September to November.
ri aus range pest in the South­
west, feeds on grasses and some­
ti mes attacks corn and other
crops. Moths occur i n the fal l
and, al though day-fyi ng, ar e at­
tracted to l i ghts at ni ght- The
eggs are l ai d in masses around
pl ant stems. The cocoon is of
l oosel y j oi ned pl ant fragments.
TRUE SI LK MOTHS are not native to North Ameri ca.
The si l kworm that produces the si l k used for thread comes
from Asi a, where the Chi nese frst l earned to unravel the
si l k from cocoons some 5,000 years ago. I n commerci al
si l k producti on the moths are i nduced to l ay eggs on
cards. The eggs hatch i n about 1 0 days, and t he "worms"
are fed mul berry l eaves. They eat steadi l y u nti l i n about
a month the si l kworm becomes ful l -grown. Soon every
l arva is ready to spi n a cocoon. A few cocoons are al­
l owed to devel op i nto moths, but most are pl aced i n boi l­
i ng water so t hey can be unravel ed easi l y. The si ngl e
strand of si l k t hat makes each cocoon may be from 500
to 1 ,300 yards l ong. Strands are combi ned to make a
thread not yet dupl i cated by any syntheti c fi ber.
REGAL, OR ROYAL, MOTHS are medi um- to l arge­
si zed. There are fewer than twenty speci es in Ameri ca
north of Mexi co. Caterpi l l ars, general ly spi ny, feed on
many ki nds of trees. larvae of some speci es are destruc­
tive to forests and shade pl anti ngs. The caterpi l l ars do
not spi n cocoons but burrow i nto the ground, where the
pupa i s formed. At rest, Regal Moths usual l y fol d thei r
wi ngs roof- l i ke over thei r bodi es. li ke si l k moths they are
not attracted to bait but are attracted to l i ghts.
vari es i n the col or of its wi ngs
and i n the presence or absence
of forewi ng marki ngs. The l arva
feeds on Honey Locust and Ken­
tucky Cofee Tree. Thi s moth i s
double·brooded. I t overwi nters
as a pupa i n the ground.
cal l ed the Green·stri ped Mapl e
Worm, overwi nters as a pupa.
Li ke oakworms ( p. 1 07) they feed
i n large col oni es and someti mes
stri p Red and Si l ver mapl es of
their l eaves. There are two
broods yearl y.
OAKWORM MOTHS are easi er to tel l apart as l arvae
than as adults. Larvae feed in col onies, someti mes so
popul ous as to compl etel y stri p forests. Femal es are l arger
than mal es, wi th thi nner antennae and stouter bodi es.
WORM The mal e
l argest of the species i l l ustrated.
The mal e resembl es the femal e
more cl osel y than i n the other
Oakworm speci es.
of the femal e are thi nner and
less speckl ed than those of the
femal e Spi ny Oakworm.
Mal e has narrower, more triangu·
l or forewi ngs, thi nner beyond
the spot than other speci es. Fe·
mal e l acks spotting on
1 08
Mot h, os a l ar va, i s ca l l ed t he
Hi ckory Hor ned Devi l for i t s scary
appea rance and i ts food pl a nt­
hi ckory. l t a l so eats wa l n ut, pecan ,
sweet gu m, and su mac. T h e mot h,
seen i n mi ds ummer, has onl y
one brood a year. The
pupa l stage of a few
mot hs may l ast for
two wi nt er s.
I MPERI AL MOTH is di morphic,
the femal e being much l arger and
yel l ower t han the mal e. At rest
thei r wi ngs are partly spread, as
shown. The l arva, usual l y green
but someti mes tan or dark brown,
feeds mai nly on oak, mapl e, pi ne,
sycamore, Sweet
Gum, and Sasso·
fras. I t i s si ngl e­
1 09
TI GER MOTHS are smal l to medi um i n size and gener­
al l y l i ght i n col or. Many have conspi cuous spots or stri pes.
Only a few of some 200 speci es north of Mexi co have
functi onal mouthparts. Adults, especi al ly mal es, come
readi l y to l i ghts. Most l arvae are covered wi th a dense
coat of hai rs, whi ch are shed and mi xed wi th si l k when
the cocoon i s made. Most caterpi l l ars move about rapi dl y
and are active by day. They commonly rol l i nto a bal l
di sturbed.
wel l named far its wi ng spots.
The hai rs on the caterpi l l ar are
very stif, and cri mson ri ngs be·
tween segments show di stinctl y
when the l arva rol l s i nto a bal l .
Feeds on pl antai n. Cocoon i s
s pu n i n spri ng. Larva overwinters .
ACREA MOTH l arva, cal l ed
the Sal t Marsh Caterpi l l ar, feeds
on herbaceous pl ants. I t i s
doubl e-brooded. The l arvae are
often abundant i n fal l and over­
wi nter as pupae in cocoons. Adul t
wi ngs are profusel y spotted. The
femal e has white hi ndwi ngs.
ISABELLA MOTH i s not as wel l
known a s i ts caterpi l l ar, the Banded
Wool l y Bear. The a mount of bl ack
on each end of i t s body does not,
of course, predi ct t he col dness of
the comi ng wi nter. T here are two
broods year l y; cocoons are formed
i n spri ng a nd s u mmer.
1 1 1
vori obl e thot its forms look l i ke
di ferent speci es. The hi ndwi ngs
may be yel l ow wi th dar k spots,
and the forewi ngs may bear very
broad white bands.
FALL WEBWORM is al so vari ­
abl e. Some moths have heavi l y
spotted wi ngs. Others have anl y
a few bl ack dots. The bodi es of
some are yel l ow wi th bl ack dots
on the si des, whi l e others are
pl ai n whi te. The soci al l arvae ex­
tend thei r webs over the fol i age
of the many deci duous trees on
whi ch they feed. The webs may
soon cover l arge branches. These
webs are someti mes confused
with those of tent caterpi l l ars
( p. 1 38). Large numbers of eggs
are l ai d i n masses, usual l y on
the undersi des of l eaves. Pu pae
overwi nter i n cocoons.
CLYMENE is a Hapl aa Ti ger
Moth, of whi ch there are fve
species north of Mexico. In some
the hi ndwi ngs are white or buf.
Cl ymene hos one brood. The
moths occur i n midsummer.
i ncl ude some 30 species, often
varyi ng greatl y in col or. In gen·
eral thei r forewi ngs ore j et bl ack
wi th i rregul ar white streaks, and
thei r hi ndwi ngs are yel l ow or red
with bl ack spots or bands. The
hai ry caterpi l l ars l ive over the
wi nter and feed mostly on herba­
ceous pl ants. Mal es are common­
l y captured at l i ghts.
ARGE is doubl e·brooded, wi th
moths occur r i ng J u ne and Sept.
VI RGO has a typi cal Apantesis
col or patter n. I t i s si ngl e­
brooded, with moths on the wi ng
mai nl y i n J ul y.
Vi rgo Tiger Moth
1 .8· 3. 0"
1 1 3
1 1 4
forest pest of h i ckory, wa l n ut, and
other trees. The mot h i s found i n
mi d s u mme r. E ggs ar e l ai d i n
masses, and t h e l arvae feed i n
col oni es bu t do not make webs.
They may be common i n l ate s um­
mer and fa l l .
cal l ed t he Banded Tussock Mot h.
The l arva, f r om yel l owi s h t o gray,
feeds on a vari et y of trees. L i fe
hi story i s l i ke t he Spotted . It over­
wi nters i n a soft, hai r y cocoon . A
Sycamore Tussock Moth is very
s i mi l ar.
l arvae are seen more commonl y
than the adu lts. They vary from
pal e yel l ow to reddi sh and are
confused wi th Acree Moth l arvae
(p. 1 1 1 ), but have bl ack heads.
There are two broods.
1 .0- 1 .8"

i s one of the l argest and most
attractive members of thi s group.
Another common form of thi s
moth has yel l ow hi ndwi ngs and
a yel l ow

varies in the amount of yel l ow
on the front edge of the fore·
wi ng. I t is probabl y doubl e­
brooded. The caterpi l l ar, wi th an
unusual l y l i ght hai rl i ke coveri ng,
feeds al most enti rel y on dog­
bane. May be very common.
1 . 3- 1 .8"
1 1 5
1 1 6
bri ghtest of the ei ght or so holo­
mel ina moths of North Ameri ca.
Others are mai nl y yel l owish,
gray, or dul l red. The l arva, l i ke
that of the Dogbane Moth, has
a soft, hai rl i ke coveri ng. The co­
coon is very thi n, wi th few hai rs.
better known by i t s l a r va, wh i ch i s
found i n l ate s ummer feed i ng i n
col oni es on mi l kweed . Wh en di s­
tu rbed it frequent l y rol l s i nto a ba l l
and drops from the pl ant . The pupa
over wi nters i n a cocoon wh i ch i s
very hai ry.
BELLA MOTH, or Ra!!lebox
Moth, is l ocal l y common but i s re­
stricted to the vici nity of its food
pl ant, Rattlebox, and other ki nds
of Crota/aria. The l arva l acks the
hai rs typical of ti ger moths. The
pupa, whi ch is u nusual l y ornate,
CTENUCHA MOTHS, dayti me fi ers, l ook l i ke wasps
when feedi ng at fowers. Larvae feed on marsh grasses.
Hai ry cocoons and l arvae resembl e those of some cl osel y
rel ated ti ger moths. Amounts of yel l ow and bl ack hai rs
vary i n Vi rgi ni a Ctenucha larvae. Smal l er, narrower­
winged Brown Ctenucha Moth has a more southern range.
FORESTER MOTHS More than two dozen Ameri can
speci es are known. They di ffer from most noctui d moths
(p. 1 1 8) i n havi ng the ends of the antennae thi ckened.
The Ei ght-spotted Forester i s bel ow. I ts doubl e- brooded
l arva feeds on grape and woodbi ne.
DI OPTI D MOTHS are represehted by onl y one speci es
i n North America north of Mexico, the Cal i forni a Oak­
worm Moth. I t is a pest of l i ve oaks i n Cal i forni a, some­
ti mes stri ppi ng these trees.
The Cal i forni a Oakworm, brown
with nearl y transparent wi ngs, is
doubl e-brooded. I t overwi nters as
eggs or ti ny l arvae. The femal e Cal i ­
forni a Oakworm Moth l acks the yel ­
l owi sh patch near the mi d-forewi ng.
California Oakworn: t larva
1 1 8
NOCTUI D MOTHS (pp. 1 1 8- 1 3 1 ) number over 2,600
ki nds i n America north of Mexi co. Many are seri ous pests
of farm and garden crops and forest and shade trees.
Among these are the wel l - known armyworms, cutworms,
and Corn Earworm. Noctui ds vary greatl y i n habi ts, but
most adul ts fy at ni ght and feed on the nectar of fowers.
Most noctui ds are attracted to l i ghts and to baits contai n­
i ng sugar. Some overwinter as pupae i n the ground or i n
thi n cocoons above gr ound. Others overwi nter as larvae
and a few as eggs or adults. They are someti mes cal l ed
owl et moths, from the way their eyes shine i n the dark
when a l i ght strikes them.
BLACK WI TCH, or Gi ant Noctui d, i s the
l argest of the fami l y wi thi n our range. I t is a
tropi cal species, someti mes strayi ng northward
i nto Canada in the fal l . Its shade af brown
varies. The wings of the femal es come to a less
sharp poi nt at the apex. Larva feeds on acacia
and si mi l ar pl ants. Consi dered a pest i n Hawai i .
3. 5-6.0"
is the l argest of the daggers. The
l arva feeds on a variety of trees.
Winter is passed as a pupa, often
in an ol d stump. The cocoon i n­
cl udes the hai r of the l arva.
DAGGER MOTHS (some 70 ki nds) are so named for
the dagger-l i ke mark near the forewi ng outer margi n .
Adults are si mi l ar but many of the l arvae are quite di fer­
ent. Some are hai ry, with characteristi c tufts of l onger
hai r cal l ed penci l s. Other l arvae l ack hai r and may be
spi ny. Dagger moths overwi nter as pupae.
occurs more commonl y i n wet�
l ands, where the l arva feeds on
wi l l ow, smartweed, al der, Button­
bush, and cattai l . Overwi nteri ng
cocoon i s thi n but strong.
MOTH vari es greatl y i n mark·
i ngs. larva has soft yel l ow hai r
l i ke Ameri can Dagger but has
fve hai r penci l s on i ts abdomen.
I t feeds on popl ars and wi l l ows.
1 1 9
CUTWORM MOTHS are noctui ds whose l arvae, or
cutworms, cut of young pl ants j ust above the ground.
Some cutworms drag cut-of porti ons of pl ants i nto a hol e.
Some are cl i mbers, feedi ng on fol i age of bushes and
trees. Al l feed at ni ght. Certai n speci es occur onl y i n
spri ng, others onl y i n fal l ; many have several broods each
year. Some f ul l - grown l arvae remai n at rest wi thout feed­
i ng from spri n g to l ate summer, when t hey pupate.
cal l ed the Greasy Cutworm, oc­
curs throughout the U. S. and
souther n Canada. Larva i s a bur­
rower, found mostl y in l ow spots.
Overwi nters as a pupa.
cl i mber, feedi ng on a wi de va­
riety of trees, shrubs, and her­
baceous pl ants. I t overwi nters as
a l arva and, i n most areas, has
two breeds each year.
of the most damagi ng, feedi ng
on a wi de vari ety of pl ants and
often cl i mbi ng them. I t over­
wi nters as a nearl y mature l arva.
May have three broods yearl y.
mostl y i n a t unnel i nto whi ch i t
drags pieces of cut-of pl ants for
food. There may be four broods
yearl y. The wi nter i s passed i n
the pupal stage.
moths occur i n Aug. and Sept.
and l ay eggs on newl y cul tivated
l and. Overwi nteri ng may be as
eggs or young l arvae. Pl ants are
attacked bel ow the soi l surface.
1 . 3·
1 . 5"
WORM i s si ngl e-brooded. The
moth occurs throughout most of
U. S. in summer. Larvae rest ex­
posed on food pl ants. They ma­
ture and pu pate i n fal l .
from Canada to N. J. and west
to the Pacifc. I t feeds on roots
and l ower stems of grasses. I t i s
si ngl e-brooded and overwi nters
os partl y grown l arva.
l arva l arva 1 .3- 1 . 5"
has one generati on. The moth
occurs from Al berta and Texas
eastward i n the fal l . Ful l -grown
l arvae appear on dock and chi ck­
weed i n earl y spri ng.
1 2 1
a cl i mber, someti mes very de­
structive to orchards and shrubs.
Eggs hatch duri ng wi nter and
l arvae become ful l-grown by
June. There i s one brood.
grasses and cereal s. Moths occur
i n Sept. and Oct. and eggs hatch
duri ng wi nter. By Apri l or May
the l arvae are ful l-grown, but
they do not pupate unti l Jul y.
1 22
resembl es Dark-sided Cutworm
but difers much i n l ife hi story.
Eggs hatch i n the fal l and partly
grown l arvae hi bernate i n the
soi l , feedi ng agai n i n spri ng.
WHI TE CUTWORM sometimes
damages the buds and young
l eaves of grapes and frui t trees.
I ts l ife history i s l i ke that of the
Striped Cutworm. Head and spi r­
acl es of l arva vary in col or.
DI NGY CUTWORM wi nters as
i mmature l arva, maturi ng i n l ate
spri ng. I t l ies i nactive (estivates)
until August, when i t pupates,
emergi ng as a math i n a month
or so.
probabl y t he mast destructive
cutworm, attacks many diferent
craps. I t overwi nters as a pupa
and may have four broods. Oc­
curs throughout North America.
curs i n cl over with the Di ngy Cut­
worm. It is doubl e-brooded.
Larva compl etes growth i n the
spri ng l i ke that Di ngy Cut­
worm but does nn1�d; nt .
WORM, al so cal l ed Cotton Cut­
worm because it bores i nto cotton
bol l s, is common in the South.
Feeds on many pl ants. Wi nter is
passed as a pupa.
1 23
summer spreads north from the
Gul f states but di es out by wi n­
ter. I n the South there may be
three broods. Prefers grasses and
often attacks cor n.
ARMYWORM has t wo or more
broods. The spri ng one is most
destructive, especial l y to oats
and smal l g rai ns. Natural ene­
mi es reduce l ater broods. It over­
wi nters as moth, pupa, or l arva.
ARMYWORM MOTHS are noctui d moths whose l ar­
vae tend to mi grate i n "armi es" to new feedi ng areas
after destroyi ng vegetati on in fel ds where thei r eggs
were l ai d. Active at ni ght and hi di ng by day, the l arvae
feed mostl y on grasses and smal l grai ns.
mon pest of sugar beets i n the
West. larva resembl es that of
Fal l Armyworm, but the pal e cen­
tral l i ne al ong the back is l ess
disti nct. Overwinters as pupa.
1 24
feeds mai nl y on ti mothy and
wheat heads, attacki ng at n ight.
Ful l-grown l arva is about one
i nch l ong wi th narrow pal e
stri pes. Overwi nters as a pupa.
occ urs in vast n u mbers and trav­
el s i n huge armi es. Moths emerge
i n l ate summer and l ay eggs i n
the soi l . Young l arva overwi nters.
Two adul t forms shown : ( 1 ), (2) .
sl ender, l oopi ng l arva that feeds
onl y on cotton. Spines at end of
the moth's t ongue someti mes i n­
j ur e r i pe fr uit. Thi s tropi cal spe­
ci es cannot su rvive U. S. wi nters.
on a wi de vari ety of garden and
fel d crops. Ther e are us ual l y two
broods each year, moths occu r­
ri ng in May and August. Over­
wi nters i n pupal stage.
l oopi ng l arva, feeds on cl over,
al fal fa, and other l egumes. Wi n­
ter i s usual l y passed as an adul t
but some may wi nter as pupae.
Ther e are t wo to four broods.
1 25
1 26
ALFALFA LOOPER, in spite of
its name, feeds on a wi de va·
riety of pl ants, i ncl udi ng cereal s.
Wi nter i s passed i n pupal and
adul t stages. There are two
broods, the second in July.
mon speci es, feeds mostly on cab­
bage and other members of the
cabbage fami l y. Two broods oc­
cur i n the North. Hi bernates as
pupa i n l oosel y woven cocoon.
LOOPERS is a name most commonl y used for l arvae of
geometer moths ( p. 1 40), but l arvae of some noctui d
moths are al so cal l ed l oopers because they hump thei r
backs when crawl i ng. The noctui d l arvae have fewer than
the normal fou r pai rs of prol egs and cl aspers.
CELERY LOOPER i n the l arval
stage cl osel y resembl es the Cab­
bage Looper. There are at l east
two broods. The summer form is
brown, as i l l ustrated. A spri ng
form i s gray.
BI LOBED LOOPER feeds on al ­
fal fa, cl over, and many other
pl ants. Larva resembl es Cabbage
Leaper's but has stri pes an the
si des of i ts head. I t hi bernates
as a pupa i n a thin cocoon .
ti mes destructive to cl over. Mark­
i ngs of forewi ngs are much l ess
distinct in femal es. Three broods
occ ur from spring to fal l . Pupa
overwinters on l eaves.
to young appl es, pears, cherries,
and other fruit i n spri ng. Moths
emerge in the fal l and overwi nter.
The l arva resembl es that of Cop­
per Underwi ng ( p. 1 30).
LUNATE ZALE often has I orge
green patches on t he wi ng ma r­
gi ns . Pupa over wi nters i n soi l . The
l arva var i es great l y i n col or a nd
l ooks l i ke those of t he u nderwi ng
mot hs ( p. 1 28) .
Moth, l arva feeds on l ichens and
dead l eaves. The devel opment
from ti ny eggs is very sl ow. The
moths are on the wi ng i n mi d­
summer and are si ngl e-brooded.
1 27
1 28
of some seventeen cotocal a moths
with pl ai n dark brown under­
wi ngs. Thi s caterpi l l ar feeds
mostl y on wal nut and hickory.
1 00 ki nds i n Ameri ca north of Mexi co) readi l y come to
l i ght and bait. Otherwise they woul d rarel y be seen, for
in dayl i ght they rest wel l camoufaged on tree trunks with
thei r underwi ngs hi dden. larvae al so rest by day on
trunks or l i mbs, or under debris on the ground where the
thi n cocoons are al so found. They have one brood and
overwi nter as eggs on bark of trees.
greatl y i n the forewi ng patter n.
The caterpi l l ar cl osel y resembl es
that of the Wi dow Underwi ng
but feeds on wi l l ow and popl ar.
hard to tel l from several other
catocal a moths. Note its l arge
si ze, wi th a wi ngspread occasi on-
i s one of several species of smal l
catocal as wi th si mi l ar yel l ow un­
derwi ngs. The forewi ngs vary
greatl y i n pattern. The l arva
feeds on oak.
al ly exceedi ng three i nches. Lar­
va feeds on oak. I t l acks the
striped saddl e patch of the Wi­
dow Underwi ng l arva.
from Jul y to October. Larva l acks
the fri nge of hai rs and swol l en
saddl e patch of the Wi dow Un­
derwi ng caterpi l l ar l arva. Feeds
on wal n ut and hickory.
from mi dsummer to fal l but hi des
i n cracks duri ng the day. I n the
spri ng, l arva feeds on many
pl ants, i ncl udi ng Woodbi ne. I t,
too, i s not a catocal a u nderwi ng.
1 30
one of three wood nymphs. Beau­
ti ful Wood Nymph is l ar ger and
has a dar k mar gi n on t he hi nd­
wi ng. Cal if. Wood Nymph has a
bl ack dot on hi ndwi ng.
White-vei ned Dagger 1 .0- 1 .8"
sembl es the Smeared Dagger ( p.
1 1 9) i n the l arval stage but has
fner hai r. Feeds on marsh pl ants,
especi al l y cattai l . Cocoon is made
i n fol ded l eaves.
STALK BORER, a pest of corn,
feeds i n the stal ks of many pl ants,
especial l y Gi ant Ragweed. Eggs
l ai d i n fal l hatch very earl y i n
spri ng. Bri ght body stripes are
l ost as the l arva matures i n sum­
mer. There i s onl y one genera­
ti on annual l y.
CORN EARWORM, the fami l ­
i ar worm i n ears of corn, i s al so
cal l ed Tomato Fruitworm and
Bol l worm. larvae are often found
i n the frui t of many pl ants. Wi n­
ter is passed as a pupa i n the
soi l . There may be several broods
each year.
1 3 1
1 32
THE PROMI NENTS, numberi ng about 1 00 speci es
north of Mexi co, resembl e noctui ds. Readi l y attracted to
l i ghts. Many of them can be told by thei r hai ry legs when
at rest. larvae of most speci es l i ve on tree l eaves. Many
speci es l ack anal prol egs and hol d thei r rear ends erect.
1 .0- 1 .8"
on popl ar
and wi l l ow. larva resembles that
of the Popl ar Tentmaker. I t over­
wi nters as pupa, often in its tent.
of seven tentmakers. Al l tent­
maker l arvae are gregari ous.
They l ive i n a si l k- l i ned tent made
by drawi ng l eaf edges together.
Thi s doubl e-brooded species
feeds on wil l ow and popl ar.
occurs from Que. and I l l . south
to Fl a. and Tex. Si mi l ar speci es
occur throughout the U. S. larva
feeds on aspen and wi l l ow and
waves vivid tentacl es when
al armed. The pupa overwi nters
PI LLAR feeds on many ki nds of
trees, preferri ng appl e. Unl i ke
most hand- mai d moths, it has a
scal l oped outer margi n on the
forewi ng.
HAND-MAI D MOTHS number 1 2 speci es that re­
sembl e one another cl osel y. The l arvae feed i n col oni es
and may be numerous enough to stri p trees. When di s­
turbed they hol d both ends of thei r bodi es erect. Most
speci es are si ngl e- brooded, overwi nteri ng as pupae i n
the ground. The Wal nut Caterpi l l ar feeds on wal nut and
hi ckory. The Sumac Caterpi l l ar feeds onl y on sumac. The
outer mar gi ns of the forewi ngs of these two moths are
strai ght. The moth of the Wal nut Caterpi l l ar is dark.
1 33
1 34
named for the saddl e mark on
the back of the green, poi nted­
tai l ed l arva, whi ch feeds mai nly
on l eaves of beech and mapl e.
The moth resembl es that of the
Vari abl e Oak Leaf Caterpi l l ar.
ERPI LLAR, found i n l ate sum­
mer and fal l , may l ay 500 eggs
si ngl y, on oak. Larva overwinters
i n the soil and pupates i n spri ng.
ANGUI NA MOTH is commonl y
recogni zed by i ts un usual cater­
pi l l ar, which feeds on vari ous
l egumes, especi al l y l ocust. The
Angui na Moth is doubl e-brooded.
wel l camoufaged on el m fol i age.
Moths occu r i n J une and August.
Pupae spend wi nter i n cocoons on
the ground.
i s doubl e-brooded. The
moth l ays eggs i n masses on the
undersi des of appl e, cherry, and
other l eaves. The l arvae are gre­
gari ous. Cocoons overwi nter on
the ground; pupate i n spri ng.
a l i fe history si mi l ar to the Red­
humped Caterpi l l ar's, but it is
not gregari ous and feeds mostl y
on Wi l d Cherry and wi l l ow.
doubl e-brooded onl y i n
northern part of its range. The
l arva, whi ch feeds mostly on
oaks, pupates i n the soi l .
gregari ous onl y as young l arva.
I t feeds on varieties of oaks and
i s doubl e-brooded i n t he South.
The cocoon i s spun on the ground.
1 35
1 36
MOTH is Eurasi an.
Found i n Mass. and Br . Col umbi a
i n 1 920, it has spread through
N. E. and N. W. U. S. and Canada.
I n Jul y eggs are l ai d i n masses.
Larva prefers popl ar and wi l low.
I t hi bernates when partl y grown.
, num about 30 speci es, get
thei r name from the bri ghtl y col ored tufts of hai r on the
l arvae. Hai rs of some speci es are i rritati ng. Adult l egs
are hai ry. Some femal es are al most wi ngl ess. The an­
tennae of mal es are feathery. Tussock moths have no
tongue. Several tussock moths, i ncl udi ng the Sati n and
Gypsy Moths, are pests of forest and shade trees.
GYPSY MOTH, acc i den t a l l y
i nt roduced from Europe about 1 868
i nto Mass . , now occur s from Con .
t o N. C. w. t o Mi c h . and I l l . I t over­
wi nters as eggs. Larvae feed gre­
gar i ous l y on many ki nds of trees,
especi a l l y oaks. They become f u l l
grown i n J u l y.
l arva
MOTH i s a seri ous pest of many
deci duous trees. I t is doubl e­
brooded. The wi ngl ess femal e
l ays eggs, which overwi nter, on
her cocoon. The pupal stage l asts
about 2 weeks.
i s si ngl e-brooded, overwi nters as
eggs on the cocoon. Lorva feeds
on many trees and someti mes
damages a ppl es. Except for
bl ack heads and cri mson prol egs,
it resembl es l arva of Whi te­
marked Tussock Moth.
mal e i s r ust brown i n col or. Un­
l i ke the two above speci es, eggs
are not covered wi th hai r from
the femal e. Larva has bl ack
head and bl ack hai r penci l s on
si des of abdomen.
pest of J ack, Pi tch, and Red
pi nes, spruce, and sometimes fr.
I t i s si ngl e-brooded, overwi nters
as hai r-covered eggs. Mal e fore­
wi ngs are rel ati vel y wel l - marked.
1 37
1 38
LASI OCAMPI DS are a fami l y of some thi rty North
Ameri can moths of medi um size with stout hai ry bodi es.
They are readi l y attracted to l i ghts. Femal es are l i ke the
mal es but l arger. The most fami l i ar speci es are the tent
caterpi l l ars, pests of forest, shade, and orchard trees.
LAR overwinters in "varnish·
coated" egg masses around
twigs. The l arvae hat ch i n earl y
spri ng, formi ng si l ky tents i n
crotches of l i mbs. They feed out­
si de their tents, usi ng them onl y
for resti ng, unl i ke Fal l Web­
worms which feed on the l eaves
encl osed wi thi n thei r si l ken webs.
Appl e and cherry are the most
common food pl ants.
has a l i fe h i stor y s i mi l ar to the
E as t er n Te n t Cat er p i l l a r ' s , bu t
u n l i ke t hat speci es, i t i ncl udes oak
among i t s many food pl ant s.
LAR feeds on a variety of de­
ciduous trees. The l arvae do not
make tents but spi n si l ken mats
on trunks or l i mbs where they
rest and mol t. The egg masses
overwi nter. There i s one brood.
ZANOLI DS are cl osel y rel ated to the promi nents (pp.
1 32- 1 35). There are onl y three speci es i n North Ameri ca,
al l occurri ng east of the Rocki es. Eggs are fat and wafer­
l i ke. The densel y hai ry l arvae feed si ngl y on l eaves of
trees and bushes. They make no cocoon but pupate i n the
ground and overwi nter there.
man i n some years. The l arva,
wi t h dense, l ong, shaggy canary­
yel l ow hai r, feeds mai nl y on Wi l d
Cherry. The Wi l d Cherry Moth
has one brood annual l y.
1 39
GEOMETER, meani ng earth measurer, refers to t he way
the crawl i ng l arvae of these species draw the rear of the
body up to the front l egs, formi ng a l oop, and t hen extend
the body agai n. The crawl i ng pattern i s associ ated wi th
onl y two or three pai rs of abdomi nal l egs. Geometers are
al so cal l ed l oopers, i nchworms, measuri ng worms, and
spanworms. Most geometer moths have t hi n bodi es and
rel ati vel y broad, del i cate wi ngs. The femal es of some
speci es are wi ngl ess. More than 1 , 000 speci es of geome­
ters l i ve i n North Ameri ca; some are seri ous pests.
femal e and eggs
1 40
on many kinds of trees but pre·
fers appl e and el m. The moths
emerge l ate i n fal l when the
wi ngl ess femal es l ay eggs i n
masses on tree t r unks. The eggs
hatch i n spri ng.
l arvae di ffer from Fal l Canker.
worm1s i n havi ng two rather than
th ree abdomi nal prol egs, but,
l i ke them, pupate in the soi l .
The moths occur mostl y i n spri ng.
from N. J. to Quebec, and west to
Al berta. The moth occurs i n fal l
on Sugar Mapl e, popl ar, beech,
and other trees. The femal e is
wi ngl ess. The l arva resembl es
Spri ng Cankerworm's i n form but
has si x nar row white stri pes.
0. 9· 1 .4"'
MOTH h a s vari abl e amounts of
bl ack and white. I t has two
broods per year. Larvae live to·
gether i n nests of l eaves, mostly
bi rch and wi l l ow. Pupae over­
wi nter in soi l .
MOTH i s commonl y seen i n the
l arval stage i n nests of wi l d
cherry l eaves. Doubl e-brooded.
The pupa overwi nters i n the soi l .
pest of currant and gooseberry.
Eggs are l aid i n earl y summer
but do not hatch unti l the next
spri ng. Larva pu pates i n the soi l
i n May or earl y J u ne.
occur i n earl y spri ng. The fe­
mal es are wi ngl ess. Larva feeds
mai nl y on Live Oak but al so at­
tacks Engl i sh Wal nut and other
fr ui t trees. Si ngl e-brooded.
1 42
occurs in l ate spri ng and earl y
summer. Both sexes are wi nged.
The l arva, cal l ed Cl eft-headed
Spanworm, feeds on many deci d­
uous trees. Pupa overwinters.
1 . 1 - 1 .5"
LI NDEN LOOPER moths occur
i n fal l . The femal e is wi ngl ess.
Eggs are laid si ngl y or i n smal l
<I groups. They hatch i n spri ng.
Larva feeds on many ki nds of
l eaves besides l i nden.
i s Snow-white Li nden
Moth. Groups of eggs are l ai d
i n J ul y on bark of trees, pass the
winter there, and hatch i n spri ng.
Larva feeds on many trees be­
sides el m.
mostly on heml ock and Balsam
Fi r. Moths occur i n l ate summer.
Thei r eggs, which hatch the fol ­
l owi ng spring, are l aid si ngl y ar
i n smal l groups an bark ar
needl es.
ETER moths occur from Aug. to
Oct. Eggs overwinter, hatchi ng
l ate i n spri ng. larva feeds mostly

on shrubs and smal l trees. Pupae
form on l eaves i n l oose cocoons.
prefers mapl e and oak to its
many other food pl ants. The l arva
� resembl es a twig. There are two
. ..   �.� . � broods. Moths occur lhrough the
summer. Pupa overwi nters.
si ngl e-brooded. Moths occur i n
earl y summer. larva i s green �
with narrow, broken, white l i nes
and a yel l ow stripe on each si de
of the back. I t feeds on mapl e.
Cranberry looper, feeds on
many l ow-growi ng pl ants. Moths

occur in earl y summer. They vary
greatly in amount of wing spot-
ti ng. Femal es are often spotless.
Pupa overwinters.
1 43
BAGWORM, or Evergreen Bog­
worm, is common from Moss. and
Kans. south to Fl a. and Tex.
Feeds mainl y on evergreens as
wel l as l ocust, sycamore, and wi l ­
l ow. Eggs overwi nter i n bag.
Moths emerge i n fal l .
BAGWORM MOTHS ore named for the si l ken bag
which the l arva covers with bits of the food pl ant. When
ful l - grown, it fastens the bag to a twi g and changes to a
pupa. The femal e moth is wi ngless and l egl ess. She l ays
her eggs i nsi de the bag. There ore about 20 species of
bagworm moths i n North America.
CLEARWI NG MOTHS, wi th transparent wi ngs, re­
sembl e bees and wasps. They fy in the dayti me and feed
at fowers. larvae ore borers i n bark, stems, or roots of
trees, or in stems or roots of smal l er pl ants. A few of the
1 25 North Ameri can speci es are pests.
stone frui t trees near the g round.
I t occurs i n southern Canada and
the United Stoles. Col or pattern
varies throughout its range. I t is
si ngl e-brooded.
1 44
in most of North Ameri ca except
along the Pacifc coast. Larva
feeds in squash stems and is a
seri ous pest. It overwinters in the
ground; pupates i n the spri ng.
LAR, named for the oval brown
spot on its back, has disti nctive
sti ngi ng spi nes. I t feeds on vari ­
ous pl ants, i ncl udi ng corn, rose,
cherry, and Pawpaw.
sti ngi ng spi nes. Besides oak, i t
feeds on pear, wi l l ow, che. rry,
and other trees. The moth occurs
i n J une. The number of green
spots on the forewi ng vari es.
SLUG CATERPI LLAR MOTHS number over 40 Nort h
Ameri can speci es. The l arvae cr awl l i ke s l ugs; thei r t ho­
raci c l egs ar e smal l and i nstead of prol egs t hey have suck­
i ng di scs. The oval to spheri cal cocoon, made of dark
brown si l k, has a l i d at one end whi ch the emergi ng moth
pushes asi de. larvae overwi nter i n the cocoons.
HAG MOTH feeds mostl y on
shrubs. The l arva, sometimes
cal l ed Monkey Sl ug, has proj ec­
ti ons beari ng sti ngi ng hai rs
al ong its si des. These hai rs are
woven i nto the cocoon.
SKI FF MOTH occurs i n mi d­
summer. Eggs are fot and wafer­
l i ke. larva, without hai r or sti ng­
i ng spi nes, prefers oak, Wi l d
Cherry, and sycamore. Has di s­
ti nct races varyi ng in col or.
1 45
Pl ume Moth
PLUME MOTHS are named for the pl ume- l i ke di vi si ons
of thei r wi ngs. The forewi ng may be separated i nto two
parts, the hi ndwi ng i nto t hree. Ragweed Pl ume Moth
occurs wi del y i n the U. S. larva and pupa are hai ry. There
are over l 00 speci es i n North Ameri ca.
FLANNEL MOTHS are named for the texture of the
wi ngs. The l arva, about an i nch l ong when ful l - grown, i s
sl ug- l i ke and bears sti ngi ng hai rs. I t has seven pai rs of
pro l egs. The Puss Caterpi l l ar of eastern U. S. i s white when
young. I t overwi nters i n the cocoon.
LEAF ROLLERS make up a very l arge fami ly, i ncl udi ng
many seri ous pests. The l arva rol l s a l eaf or l eaves to­
gether and l ives i nsi de them. Cocoons are made of thi n,
soft si l k on or near the food pl ant.
our worst forest pests, feeds
mai nl y on frs and spruces. I t oc­
curs i n Canada, northern U. S.,
and Col orado. Eggs are l ai d i n
mi dsummer. Larvae overwinter.
occurs i n appl e-growi ng areas of
t he U. S. and Canada. Eggs are
l ai d i n masses on tree l i mbs,
where they overwi nter. They
hatch early in spri ng.
LEOPARD MOTH, acci dent a l l y
i n t rodu ced f r om E u r ope abou t
1 879, i s a pest, mai n l y of el ms an d
mapl es. On e moth ca n l ay about
800 eggs . Lar vae mat ure i n about
t wo year s.
CARPENTERWORMS are gr ub- l i ke l arvae t hat bore
i n trees, even i n sol i d wood. They pupate wi t h i n the
bored t un nel s . When emergi ng, mot hs, wh i ch l ook l i ke
Sph i nx Mot hs ( p. 82) , shed t he pupa l s ki n at t he t unnel
exi t . They l ay eggs on bar k or i n tu nnel s from wh i ch
t hey came. Some 40 speci es occur nor t h of Mexi co.
pest of many hardwoods, mai nl y
as h, oak, el m, l ocust , and mapl e.
Eggs are l ai d on bar k, often near
wou nds . Thi s mot h has a l i fe cycl e
of f r om t hree t o fou r year s.
mon from Mexico i nto southern
Conodo. Femal e hos two white
spots on hi ndwi ng. I t is doubl e­
brooded. Pupa overwi nters i n
fol ded gr ape or woodbi ne l eaves.
occurs i n no. U. S. and s o. Can­
ada, attacki ng pi nes. larvae
often feed and pupate on twi gs
i nfested by another i nsect. Eggs
or l arvae overwi nter.
SNOUT MOTHS make up a l arge fami ly of nearl y
1 ,000 speci es north of Mexi co. Mostl y medi um- to smal l ­
si zed moths, t hey vary greatl y i n appearance. The mai n
common feature i s the snout- l i ke projecti on i n front of
the head, composed of mouthparts cal l ed pal pi . Many
snout moths are i mportant pests of crops and stored grai n.
The l arvae usual l y l i ve i n t he stems or rol l ed l eaves of the
food pl ant. Most ki nds make t hi n cocoons.
occurs i n corn-growi ng areas of
North Ameri ca. Larva bores i nto
stal ks and ears of corn. It al so
feeds on about 200 other pl ants,
i ncl udi ng dock, mi l l et, pi gweed,
sorghum, and dahl i a. Matu ri ng i n
about a month, the l arva over­
wi nters in its tun nel and pupates
there in spri ng.
femal e
BORER occurs from Md. and
Kans. south t o Fl o. and Mex. and
west to Ari z. lorvo hi bernates i n
cor n stal ks j ust above the roots.
The speci es is doubl e-brooded.
CELERY LEAF TI ER i s wi del y
distri buted. I t survives col d wi n­
ters onl y i n greenhouses. Besi des
cel ery, it is a pest of many gar­
den and greenhouse pl ants,
feedi ng and pupati ng in leaves.
nati on-wi de pest of beehives.
Eggs are laid on or near the
comb, on which the l arva feeds.
There are 3 broods. Wi nter i s
passed as a pupa .
of al fal fa and other crops, ranges
from S. Ameri ca to so. Canada .
Webbi ng is conspi cuous in badl y
i nfested fel ds. Several broods
occur. Pupa passes wi nter i n soi l .
on many ki nds of stored foods.
The l arva webs the materi al s to­
gether, maki ng a thi n cocoon.
I ndoors it breeds conti n uousl y.
MEAL MOTH is common and
wi despread. The di rty-white l arva
l ives in a si l ken tube. It feeds
most commonl y on cereal s and
cereal products.
MOTH feeds o n whol e grai ns
and cereal s but prefers four,
whi ch the pi nki sh l arvae web
around them i n masses. Since
1 890 i t has spread across al l of
North Ameri ca.
CASE BEARER l arva l ives i n a thi n, tough sac. When
ful l -grown, i t uses the case as a cocoon. Of more than
1 00 speci es, two of the most common, t he Ci gar and Pi stol
Case Bearers, are pests of appl e and other frui t trees.
LEAF MI NERS damage l eaves. The ti ny, fat l arvae
feed on the i nner ti ssue. Most of the more than 200 North
Ameri can speci es have shi ni ng scal es and pl umes. One of
the best known i s the Sol i tary Oak Leaf Mi ner.
0. 2-0.3"
Pi stol Case Bearer
occurs from the Atl antic west to
Col o. , I daho, and so. Canada. I t
hi bernates as a l arva i n a cocoon .
The l arva feeds i n fol ded l eaves.
There are 2 to 3 generati ons.
|' `
, t
:¹· }I
,:� - .. ' �
. �
0. 6·0. 8"
I a rva i n seed
ar e seeds, usual ly of a species of
croton from Mexico, that contai n
an acti ve l arva of a rel ative of
the Codl i ng Mot h. larvae over­
winter i n the seeds.
OLETHREUTI D MOTHS cl osel y resembl e leaf Rol ­
l ers ( p. 1 4) and Gel echi i ds (p. 1 52) . There are over 700
North Ameri can speci es, whi ch may di ffer greatl y in thei r
habits. Many are seri ous pests of farm and forest.
the East and Southwest, chi efl y
attacks peaches. The l arva bores
di rectly i nto the twi gs earl y i n
the spri ng; l ater generations
enter t he fruit. Larva wi nters i n a
thi n cocoon .
COD L I NG MOTH occ u r s
where apples grow. After wi nter­
i ng as l arvae i n cocoonS1 moths
emerge i n earl y spr i ng. The
l arvae i nfest pears and other
fruits of the appl e fami l y, al so
Engl i sh Wal n uts.
MOTH, a seri ous pest of Red,
Scotch, Austri an, and Mugho
Pi nes, l ays eggs i n earl y summer
near the twi g ti ps. Larva feeds i n
needl es at frst, l ater enters buds.
Pitch forms over thei r burrows.
Larva overwinters in buds.
TWI GMOTH emerges
i n l ate May and June. Eggs are
l aid on the twi gs of Vi rgi ni a and
other hard pi nes i nt o whi ch the
l arva bores. Pi tch masses form
where the l arva t unnel s. The
partl y grown l arva overwinters
i n twi gs and feeds i n spri ng.
GELECHI I D MOTHS (bel ow) number more than 400
speci es in North Ameri ca. Many of these smal l moths are
pests. Some l arvae feed i n stems. Others feed i n rol l ed
l eaves or i n l eaves ti ed together. A few mi ne needl es.
Forewi ngs are narrow, hi ndwi ngs somewhat angular .
1 52
GALL mi ght be confused with
the round gal l of a fy. Before
pupati ng i n the gal l , the l arva
makes an exit hol e. Moths
emerge through i t i n the foi l .
i s a seri ous pest of stored, whol e·
kernel grai ns, especi al l y wheat
and corn, throughout the United
States. Some grai n is attacked i n
the feld at harvest ti me.
0.3-0. 8"
ebbing Clothes Moth
Carpet Moth
0. 3- 0. 6"
Clothes Moth
0. 3-0.6"
TI NEI D MOTHS i ncl ude more t han 1 25 North Ameri can
speci es. Some eat l eaves, some fungus, and some wool
fabri c or fur. The Carpet Moths and Cl othes Moths bel ong
to thi s fami l y. The Webbi ng Cl othes Moth i s most common.
The Case- maki ng Cl othes Moth i s darker. I t s l arva l i ves i n
a movabl e, open-ended case.
OTHER MOTHS The moths and butterfi es on t he pre­
vi ous pages represent thi rty-six fami l i es of Lepi doptera.
Some t hi rty more fami l i es exist i n North Ameri ca, i ncl ud­
i ng many i nconspi cuous moths. The fol l owi ng two moths
ore excepti ons.
on mi mosa and Honey Locust i n
the East. I t ti es l eaves together
and feeds wi thi n t he webbi ng.
Doubl e-brooded, i t overwinters
as a pupa i n a soft, whi te cocoon.
YUCCA MOTH is essenti al for
the Yucca's reproduction. The
femol e moth carri es pol l en to the
stigma, ferti l izi ng the eggs whi ch
form seeds. Larva feeds i n t he
seeds, pupates i n spri ng.
1 54
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1 56
1 50 I ndi an- mea l : Plodia interpunctella
Mea I : Pyrolis farina lis
Medi terranea n : Anogasto kuhniello
Ci gar: Coleophora cerasivorella
Pi stol : C. malivorella
1 52 European : Rhyocionia buoliano
Pi tch : Petrovo comstockiono
Gol denrod: Gnorimoschemo


1 5 1
Sol i tary, Cameraria hamadryadella
Strawberry: Ancylis comptana
Mexi can : Cyio deshaisiona
Ori enta l : Gropholitha molesto
Codl i ng, Cyia pomonella
1 53
Carpet, ïrichophaga tapetzel/a
Case-maki ng, Tinea pllionella
Mi mosa: Homadoulo anisocentro
Yucca: Tegeticula yuccasella
Aster i sks ( * ) denote pages o n whi ch i l l ustrat i ons appear.
Abbot's Pi ne Sphi nx, 88* Bel l a Moth, 1 1 6*
Abbot' s Sphi nx, 89* Bi g Popl ar, 89*
Acadi an Hai rstreak, 64* Bi l obed looper, 1 26*
Achemon Sphi nx, 93* Bl ack Cutworm, 1 20*
Acmon Bl ue, 72* Bl ack Swal l owtai l , 22*
Acrea Math, 1 1 1 * Bl ack Wi t ch, 1 1 8*
Admi ral s, 56*- 57* Bl i nded Sphi nx, 91 *
Ahol i bah Underwi ng, Bl ue Copper, 68
1 29* Bl ues, 70* -73 *
Al askan Swal l owtai l , 24* Brazi l i an Ski pper, 77*
Al fal fa Butterfl y, 30* Br i st l y Cutworm, 1 23*
Al fal fa looper, 1 26 • Broken Dash, 79*
Amer. Copper, 8 * , 68* Bronze Copper, 69*
Amer. Dogger Moth, 1 1 9* Bronzed Cutworm, 1 22*
Amer. Pai nted lady, 54 • Brown Ctenucha Math,
Angl e Wi ngs, 50* -5 1 * 1 1 7*
Angoumoi s Grai n, 1 52* Brown E l fi n, 66*
Angvi na Moth, 1 34 * Bruce Spanworm, 1 40*
Ani se Swal l owtai l , 22, 23*Brush-footed Butterfl i es,
Apantesi s Ti ger, 1 1 3* 38* -60*
Aphrodi te, 45* Buckeyes, 52*
Appl e Sphi nx, 87* Buck Moth , 1 04*
Arge Ti ger Moth, 1 1 3* Butter fl i es, 1 9* - 73*
Ar my Cutworm, 1 25 *
Armyworm Moths, 1 24 * -
1 25*
Atl anti s, 45
Azal ea Sphi nx, 92*
Bagworm Moths, 1 44 •
Bai rd's Swal l owtai l , 22,
Bal t i more Checkerspot,
Banded El fi n, 66*
Banded Hai rstreak, 65 *
Banded Wool l y Bear, 1 1 1 *
Beauti ful Wood Nymph,
1 30
Beet Armyworm, 1 24*
Cabbage But terfl y, 37*
Cabbage looper, 1 26*
Catal pa Sphi nx, 84*
Cal i forni a Dog-face, 34*
Cal i f . Hai rstreak, 65*
Cal i f . Oakworm Moth,
1 1 7*
Cal i forni a Ri ngl et , 4 1 *
Cal i forni a Si ster, 58*
Cal i f . Wood Nymph, 1 30
Carol i na Satyr, 4 1 *
Carol i na Sphi nx, 82*
Carpenterworm Moths,
1 47*
Carpet Moth, 1 53 *
Case Bearers, 1 50*
Case- maki ng Cl othes
Moth, 1 53 *
Cat al pa Sphi nx, 8 4 •
Catal paworm, 84*
Catocal as, 1 28* - 1 3 1 *
Ceanothus Si l k Math, 97*
Cecropi a Moth, 96*
Cel ery leaf Ti er, 1 49*
Cel ery looper, 1 26 •
Chai n-spot ted Geome-
ter, 1 43 *
Chal cedon Checkerspot,
Checkered Ski pper, 77*
Checkered Whi te, 37*
Checkerspots, 48*
Cher r y Scal l op-shel l ,
1 4 1 *
Ci gar Case Bearer, 1 50*
Cl earwi ng Moths, 1 44*
Cl eft-headed Span-
worm, 1 42*
Cl adi us, 29*
Cl ouded Sul phur, 3 1 •
Cl oudl ess Sul phur, 33 •
Cl ymene, 1 1 3 *
Cobweb Ski pper, 78*
Codl i ng Mot h, 1 5 1 *
Col orado Hai rstreak, 63 *
Col umbi a Si l k Moth, 98*
Comma, 6*, 5 1 *
Common Al pi ne, 42*
Common Bl ue, 7 1 *
Common Hai rstreak, 63*
Common Snout , 62 *
Common Sooty-wi ng, 77*
Common Sul phur, 31 •
Common Whi te, 37*
Common Wood Nymph,
42 *
1 57
Compton Tortoi se Shel l , Fai ry Yel l ow Sul phur, 35* Great Pur pl e Hai r -
55* Fal cate Orange Ti p, 32* streak, 63*
Coppers, 68* -69* Fal l Armyworm, 1 24 * Great Southern Whi te,
Copper Underwi ng, 1 30* F al l Cankerwor m, 1 40* 36*
Cor al Hai rstreak, 64 * Fal l Webworm, 1 1 2 * , Great Spangled Fri ti l -
Corn Earworm, 1 3 1 * 1 38 l ory, 8* , 1 1 * , 45*
Cotton lea/worm, 1 25* fawn, 5 1 * Green Cl overworm, 1 25*
Cottonwood Dagger, Fi el d Crescent , 49* Green Frui tworm, 1 27*
1 1 9* F i el d Ski pper, 79* Green-stri ped Mapl e
Creol e Pearl y Eye, 40* Fi ery Ski pper, 79* Worm, 1 06*
Crescents, 49* F i ve-spotted Hawkmoth, Gri zzl ed Ski pper, 77*
Crocus Geometer, 1 43 * 9*
83* Gul f Fri t i l l ary, 43 *
Ctenucha Moths, 1 1 7* Fl annel Moths, 1 46* Gypsy Mot h, 1 36 *
Currant Spanworm, 1 4 1 * Fl a. Purpl e Wi ng, 60*
Cutworm Moths, 1 20*- Fl a. Whi te, 36* Hackberry, 59*
1 23* Forage looper, 1 27* Hag Moth, 7* , 8, 1 45*
Cynthi a Moth, 95* Forester Moths, 1 1 7* Hai rstreaks, 63* -65*
Forest Tent Caterpi l l ar, Hond-moi d Moths,
Dagger Moths, 1 1 9* 1 39* 1 33 * - 1 35*
Dogger Wi ngs, 60* Four-horned Sphi nx, 85* Hapl oa Ti ger Moth, 1 1 3
Dai nty Sul phur, 35* Fri ti l l ori es, 44 * -47* Harri s' Checkerspot, 48*
Dark-si ded Cutworm, Frosted El fi n, 67* Harvester, 70*

1 22* Frui t Tree leal Rol l er, Howkmoths, 82* - 83*
Di ana, 46* 1 46* Hedgerow Hai rstreok,
Di ngy Cutworm, 1 23* Funereal Dusky-wi ng, 76* 65*
Di ngy Purpl e Wi ng, 60 Hel i coni ans, 43*
Di opti d Moths, 1 1 7* Gal i um Sphi nx, 94 * Heml ock looper, 1 42*
� Dogbane Ti ger Moth, Garden Ti ger Moth, 1 1 2 * Henry's E l fi n , 67*

1 1 5* Garden Webworm, 1 49* Hermi t - l i ke Sphi nx, 85

Dreamy Dusky-wi ng, 76* Gel echi i d Moths, 1 52 * Hermi t Sphi nx, 85*
Dri ed leaf Moth, 1 27* Gemmed Satyr, 41 * Hi ckory Horned Devi l ,
Dwarf Bl ue, 71 * Geometer, 1 40* - 1 43 * 1 08*

Georgi a Satyr, 41 * Hi ckory Tussock Moth,
Eastern Meadow Fri ti l - Gi ant Si l k Mot hs, 95 *- 1 1 4*
" Z
l ory, 47* 1 04* Hoary-edged Ski pper,
Eastern Toi l ed Bl ue But- Gi ant Swal l owtai l , 25* 74*
terll y, 6 * , 70* Gi ant Whi te, 36* Hoar y El fi n, 67*
Eastern Tent Caterpi l l ar, Gl assy Cutworm, 1 2 1 * Hobomok Ski pper, 80*

1 38* Gl over's Si l k Moth, 97* Hog Sphi nx, 92*
Eastern Ti ger Swal l ow- Goatweed, 58* Honey-l ocust, 1 06*
tai l , 27* Gol den-banded Ski pper, Huckl eberry Sphi nx, 90*
Edwards' Hai rstreak, 64 * 75* Hummi ngbi rd Moth, 94 *
Ei ght-spotted Forester, Goldenrod Spi ndl e Gal l , Hydrangea Sphi nx, 92*
1 1 7* 1 52*
E l egant Sphi nx, 86* Gorgon Copper, 69* I mperi al Moth, 1 09*
El li ns, 66*-67* Gossamer Wi ngs, 63 *- I ndi an-meal Mot h, 1 50*
El l a Sphi nx, 88* 73* I ndi an Ski pper, 78*
El m leal Caterpi l l ar, Grape lea/ Fol der, 1 48* l ndra, 23*
1 34* Gray Hai rstreak, 63 * lo moth, 6* , 7* , 8, 1 03 *
El m Spanworm, 1 42* Great As h Sphi nx, 86* I sabel l a Moth, 9* , 1 1 1 *
Emperor Butterfl i es, 59* Great Copper, 68*
Eur. Corn Borer, 1 48* Greater Fri ti l l ari es, 44*- Juba Ski pper, 78*
Eur . Pi ne Shoot, 1 52* 46* Jul i a, 43*
Eurynome, 46* Greater Wax Mot h, 1 49* Juvenol 's Dusky-wi ng,
Eyed Brown, 40* Great leopard, 1 1 0* 76*
1 58
large Mapl e Spanworm,
1 43 *
lasi ocampi ds, 1 38* -
1 39*
laurel Sphi nx, 87*
leaf Mi ners, 1 50*
leaf Rol l ers, 1 46*
leafwi ng Butterfl i es, 58*
least Ski pper, 78*
leonard's Ski pper, 78*
leopard Moth, 1 47*
lesser Fri t i l l ari es, 47*
lesser Vi ne Sphi nx, 93*
li nden looper, 1 42*
li ttl e Metal mark, 61 *
li ttl e Sul phur, 34 *
li ttl e Wood Satyr, 4 1 •
locust Underwi ng, 1 30*
long Dash, 79*
long Tai l ed Ski pper, 75*
loopers, 1 26* - 1 27*
lorqui n's Admi r al , 57*
luna Moth, 1 02 *
lunate Zal e, 1 27*
Noctui ds, 1 1 8* - 1 3 1 * Pl ume Moths, 1 46*
Nort hern Cl oudy Wi ng, "Pocahontas , " 80*
75* Pol ydamas Swal l owtai l , 2 1 *
Northern Metal mark, 6 1 • Pol yphemus, 6 • ¿ 99*
Northern Pearl y Eye, 40 Popl ar Tentmaker, 1 32 *
Northern Pi ne Sphi nx, BB* Promethea Moth, 9* , 1 00*
Oakworm Moths, 1 07*-
1 09*
Ocol a Ski pper, 80*
Ol ethreuti ds, 1 51 •
Ol ive Hai rstreak, 65*
Ol ympi a Marbl e, 32*
One-eyed Sphi nx, 90*
Orange-barred Sul phur,
Orange-bordered Bl ue,
Orange Sul phur, 30*
Ori ental Fr ui t , 1 5 1 *
Promi nents, 1 32*
Purpl e Wi ngs, 60*
Purpl i sh Copper, 69*
Puss Caterpi l l ar, 7* , 8,
1 46*
Pygmy Bl ue, 7 1 *
Queen, 39*
Questi on Mark, 50*
Ragweed Pl ume Moth, 1 46*
Ranchman's Ti ger, 1 1 5 *
Range Caterpi l l ar, 1 05 •
Reaki r t's Bl ue, 72*
Red Admi ral , 54*
Pai nted lady, 53* Red-banded Hai rstreak,
Pal amedes Swal l owtai l , 64*
24 • Red-humped Caterpi l l ar,
Pal e-si ded Cutworm, 1 20* 1 35*
Mari ne Bl ue, 72 * Pal e Swal l owtai l , 28* Red- humped Oakworm,
Meal Mot h, 1 50* Pal e Tussock Moth, 1 1 4* 1 35*
Medi i . Fl our Moth, 1 50* Pal e W. Cutworm, 1 2 1 * Red-spotted Purpl e,
Metal marks, 61 *- 62* Pandora Mot h, 98* 1 9* , 57*
Mexi can Fri t i l l ary, 44 Pandorus Sphi nx, 93* Regal Fri t i l l ary, 44*
Mi l bert's Tortoi se Shel l , Parnass i us, 20, 29* Regal Moths, 1 06*
55* Pawpaw Sphi nx, 85* Ri di ng's Satyr, 42*
Mi l kweed Butterfl i es, Peach Tree Borer, 1 44* Roadsi de Ski pper, 80*
38* - 39* Pearl Crescent, 49* Rosy Mapl e Moth, 1 06*
Mi l kweed Tussock Moth, Pearl y Eye, 40* Rough Promi nent, 1 35*
1 1 6* Pearl y Wood Nymph, Royal Moths, 1 06*
Mi mi c, 60* 1 30* Royal Wal nut, 1 08*
Mi mosa Webworm, 1 53* Peck's Ski pper, 79* Ruddy Copper, 68*
Monarch, 6*, 38* , 39 Peni tent Underwi ng, 1 29* Ruddy Dagger Wi ng, 60*
Mormon Metal mark, 62* Pepper-and-sal t , 1 42 * Rusti c Sphi nx, 83*
Morri son's Gootweed, 58* Phaon Crescent, 49* Rus t y Tussock, 1 37*
Moths, 8 1 * - 1 52 * Pi ne El fi n, 66*
Mottl ed Dusky-wi ng, 76* Pi ne Tussock Moth, 1 37*
Mountai n Swal l owtai l , Pi ne Whi te, 36*
23* Pi nk-edged Sul phur, 3 1 *
Mournful Dusky-wi ng, 76* Pi nk-spotted Hawk moth,
Mourni ng Cl oak, 55* 82*
Mustard Whi te, 35* Pi nk-str i ped Oakworm,
Myl i tta Crescent , 49* 1 07*
Nai s Metol mork, 62*
Nessus Sphi nx, 92*
Nevada Arct i c, 42*
Nevada Buck, 1 04*
Nevada Fri ti l l ar y, 46*
Pi pevi ne Swal l owtai l ,
9* , 1 9* , 20* , 2 1 *
Pi stol Case Bearer, 1 50*
Pi tch Twi gmoth, 1 52 *
Pl ai n Ri ngl et, 4 1 •
Pl ebei an Sphi nx, 8 1 *
Saddl eback, 7* , 8, 1 45 *
Saddl ed Promi nent, 1 34*
Saepi ol us Bl ue, 73*
Sal t Marsh Caterpi l l ar,
1 1 1 *
Sara Orange Ti p, 32*
Sati n Moth, 1 36*
Satyr Angl e Wi ng, 50*
Satyrs, 40*- 42*
Sequoi a Sphi nx, 89*
Sheep Mot h, 1 03*
Short-tai l ed Swal l ow-
tai l , 23
1 59
1 60
Showy Hol omel i na, 1 1 6 *
Si l k Moths, 1 05*
Si lvered-bordered fri t i l ­
l ary, 47*
Si l very Checkerspot, 48*
Si l ver-spotted Ski pper,
Si l very Bl ue, 73*
Si sters, 56, 58*
Ski ff Moth, 1 45*
Ski ppers, 74* - 80*
Sl eepy Dusky-wi ng, 76*
Sl eepy Orange, 35*
Sl ug Caterpi l l ar, 1 45 *
Smal l -eyed Sphi nx, 90*
Smeared Dagger, I 1 9*
Smi ntheus, 29*
Snout Butterfl i es, 62*
" Snout Moths, 1 48* - 1 50*
o � Snowberry Cl earwi ng,
� 94*

1 50*
� Sonora Bl ue, 73 *
< Southern Cl oudy Wi ng,
Southern Cornstal k
Borer, 1 49*
Southern Dog-face, 34 * ·
Southern Hai rstreak, 64 *
Sothern Sooty-wi ng,
Spanworms, 1 40* - 1 43*
Spear-marked Bl ack­
moth, 1 4 1 *
Sphi nx Moths, 82* -94*
Spi cebush Swal l owtai l ,
Stri ped Garden Cut­
worm, 1 2 1 *
Stri ped Hai rstreak, 65*
Sul phurs and Whi tes,
30* -37*
Sumac Caterpi l l ar, 1 33 *
Swal l owtai l s , 20*- 28*
Swamp Metal mar k, 61 *
Sweetpotato Hornwor m,
Sycamore Tussock Moth,
1 1 4
Syl van Hai rstreak, 65*
Wal nut Sphi nx, 91 *
Waved Sphi nx, 84*
Webbi ng Cl othes Moth,
1 53 *
Wei demeyer's Admi r al ,
West Coast lady, 53*
Western Banded E l fi n, 66
Western El fi n, 67*
Western Meadow Fri ti l -
l ary, 47*
Western Tai l ed Bl ue, 7 1 *
Western Tent Caterpi l ­
l ar, 1 3B*
Tawny Emperor, 59* Western Ti ger Swal l ow-
Tentacl ed Promi nent, tai l , 27*
1 32* Western Tussock, 1 37*
Tent Caterpi l l ars, 6* , Wheat Head Armyworm,
1 38* - 1 39* 1 24*
Thi stl e Butterfl i es, 53 * - Whi te Admi ral , 56*
54* Whi te Cutworm, 1 22 *
Three-spotted fi l l i p, 1 43 * Whi te- l i ned Sphi nx, 94*
Three-tai l ed Swal low- Whi te-marked Tent-
tai l , 28 maker, 1 32 *
Ti ger Moths, 1 1 0* - 1 1 6 * Whi te-marked Tussock
Ti nei d Moths, 1 53 * Mot h, 1 37 *
Ti ny Nymph Underwi ng, Whi te-M Hai rstreak, 64'
1 29* Whi tes and Sul phurs,
Tobacco Hornworm, 82* 30*- 37*
Tomato Hornworm, 83 * Whi te Underwi ng, 1 28 *
Tortoi se Shel l s, 55* Whi te-vei ned Dagger,
Tropi c Queens, 60* 1 3 1 *
True Si l k Moths, 1 05* Wi dow Underwi ng, 1 28'
Tul i p-tree Si l k, 1 0 1 * Wi l d Cherry Moth, 1 39*
Tussock Moths, 1 36* - Wi l d Cherry Sphi nx, 87*
1 37* W-Marked Cutworm, 1 2<
Twi n-spot ted Sphi nx, 91 *
Two-tai l ed Swal l owtai l , Xerces Bl ue, 1 2 *
Spi ny Oak-sl ug, 1 45* Yel l ow-necked Caterpi i -
Spi ny Oakworm, 1 07* Uncas Ski pper, 78* l ar, 1 33 *
Spotted Cutworm, 1 20* Underwi ngs, 1 28 * - 1 3 1 * Yel l ow-stri ped Army-
Spotted-si ded Cutworm, Uni corn Caterpi l l ar, 1 35* wor m, 1 23 *
1 2 1 * Yel l ow Wool l y Bear, 1 1 5 *
Spotted Tussock Moth, Vari abl e Oak leo/ Cat- Yucca Moth, 1 53 *
1 1 4 * erpi l l ar, 1 34 * Yucca Ski pper, 80*
Spr i ng Cankerworm, Var i egated Cutworm, 1 23 *
1 40* Vari egated fri ti l l ary, 44 * Zebul on Ski pper, 80*
Spruce Budworm, 1 46* Vernal Ski pper, 79* Zanol i ds, 1 39*
Square-spotted Bl ue, 7 3 * Vi ceroy, 9* , 56*
Zebra, 43*
Squash Vi ne Borer, 1 44* Vi rgi ni a Ctenucha, 1 1 7* Zebra Caterpi l l ar, 1 25*
Stal k Borer, 1 3 1 * Vi rgo Ti ger Mot h, 1 1 3 * Zebra Swal l owtai l , 28*
Strawberry leaf Rol ler, Zephyr, 5 1 *
1 5 1 * Wal nut Caterpi l l ar, 1 33 * Zi mmerman Pi ne Moth,
Stri ped Cutworm, 1 22* Wal nut Spanworm, 1 41 * 1 48*

o�· °
HERBERT S. ZIM, Ph. D. , S. D. , an originator and former
editor of the Golden Guide Series, was also an author for
many years. Author of some ninety boks and editor of
about as many, he is now Adjunct Professor at the Uni­
versity of Miami and Educational Consultant to the Amer­
ican Friends Service Committee and other organizations.
He works on educational, population and environmental
ROBERT T. MITCHELL, Wildlife Biologist (retired), Pa­
tuxent Wildlife Research Center, Laurel, Maryland. A
graduate of Ohio State University in applied entomology
(M. Sc. , 194), he was associated with Fderal agencies for
over 3 years, conducting research on insects and birds,
especially in relation to agriculture and wildlife areas. His
knowledge of butterfies and moths stems mainly from a
hobby started in his youth and from subsequent special­
ized avocational studies on parasites of Lepidoptera.
ANDRE DURENCEAU is a well-known painter of mu­
rals as well as a book and magazine illustrator. He ren­
dered the illustrations for this book from specimens sup­
plied by the Smithsonian Institution, United States
National Museum, as well as from color photographs
taken by the author of Lepidoptera eggs, larae, and
adults raised in his laboratory. The artist also did paint­
ings for the Golden Press special edition for young read­
ers of Oliver L Farge's The American Indin. Durenceau
received his art training in France.
u s $5. 95 I ¯ I ®
Can $8 95

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