1

What Is Watch Keeping?
All the machines of the ship’s engine room needs to be checked on a regular basis when the ship is at sea. In order to carry out these functions the following measures are taken • • • • • A day’s hours are divided into equal intervals of time Each interval is allotted to all the responsible officers These intervals are also known as watches Each watch is usually a four hour period Thus any 12 hour period will have three watches i.e. 12-4, 4-8 and 8-12

Therefore, if there are 4 responsible officers on board then each officer will have two watches per day with a rest period of minimum eight hours. In most of the ships, officers also work for additional hours apart from these 8 hours, wherein they carry out the maintenance work of different machinery. The roster of watch keeping for all the officers is prepared by the chief engineer. The type of machinery allotted to an officer depends on the type of the ship, type of the machinery and experience and qualification of the officer. The person in charge of the watch at a particular time acts as the chief engineer’s representative and is responsible for the safety and efficient operation of the ship. Carrying out a watch A watch will be carried out by one of the engineer officers with a junior engineer or rating as an assistant. The officer in charge will be familiar with all the operations of the ship and engine room machinery, including safety techniques and equipments. It is also necessary that the officer is familiar with the location and operating procedures of all the safety equipments and should be able to distinguish the various alarms. The officer will also be aware of all the procedures to be followed after an alarm and an understanding of the communication systems. Also, it is imperative that he is aware of all the emergency escape routes leading from the engine room. At the start of the watch, the officer will keep a watch on all the operational parameters of engine room machinery and also keep a systematic record or log of the same. At the end of every watch the engineer will take note of any special order or operation condition of a particular machine. He would also take readings of each and every tank in the engine room and maintain a log of the same. He would keep a close watch particularly on the level of bilges. In case some work is in progress on a particular machine, he would

2

inform about it while handing over the watch to the next officer or mention a note in the engine control room. Inspections would be made on regular intervals of time especially on the main engine, steering gear and auxiliaries. Apart from these, bilges level would also be checked and the pipelines would be inspected for any kind of leakages. If oily water separator is running, the water being discharged to the sea would be manually checked. Various bilge tanks would also be maintained by transferring the bilge to the main tank using bilge pump. Also, the orders from the bridge would also be carried out diligently and proper care would be taken especially during maneuvering or stand by conditions. Fuel tanks level would also be monitored on regular intervals of time to ensure that the fuel level doesn’t go beyond a certain level. Fuel oil consumption and lubrication oil levels would also be properly noted down at the end of each watch. Most, importantly engine’s exhaust temperatures would be observed and maintained around a common value. This was a general overview of the duties that are followed by a watch keeping officer. In future article we will talk in detail about some more routine activities and precautions that need to be taken by a watch keeping engineer.

A Candid Revelation of the Life of Junior Engineer Onboard a Ship
The article describes the life of a junior marine engineer and the various tasks he has to perform on board. This article has not been written with intent to scare people by showing a different side of the professional life on board but with a purpose to depict the true nature of work at sea.

3

The Common Perception The life of a merchant navy officer or personnel on board a ship is adventurous, exciting, and extremely rewarding. A marine engineer globe trots, visits beautiful places, and meets interesting people. This is true for marine engineers working on any type of ship or vessel irrespective of the people he is working for; however it is an icing on the cake if he/she happens to be on a cruise ship of any of the top 10 cruise lines, not to mention the fun if one is on the biggest cruise ship or a futuristic ship. One might blurt out "wow," for it sounds like a script of some Hollywood movie where the protagonist has the perfect job, the perfect money, and the perfect life. But is the life of a naval officer as picturesque as it sounds? Do all the naval officers in the hierarchy level have the same kind of exciting lifestyle? Or is there a totally different side beneath the facade that is created by the over-imagination of people or by ignorant word-of-mouth misconception? Well, the job of a marine engineer is definitely stimulating and rewarding, but with the package comes many desirable and undesirable attributes. Everything apart, it’s not at all a “Bed of roses,” as many people seem to think. Life on board is definitely not as glamorous as it seems or is perceived to be. It is tough for sure, and no one knows it better than the one who works on board. But as they say, “someone has to do the job" and so does their life goes on. All this might sound a bit over-exaggerating or over-the-top, but the fact remains that the life on board a ship is definitely way different from the life we live on land. For now, let’s take a sneak peek at the lives of the marine engineers working on board. Let’s start from the bottommost level, the junior engineer, also known as the "jack of all trades" (definitely, master of none), who lives the toughest and the most interesting life of all the engineers on board a ship. Grass is Greener On the Other Side The initial thoughts….. A Junior marine engineer after undergoing four years of arduous education and training supposes that the main part of his career is now behind him and henceforth the only thing that remains is work and play. But things are a bit different from what he thinks. He joins a shipping company and lands on board a ship only to realize that the real struggle has just begun. He realizes that there is a stark difference between the training work he did in workshops on land and the kind of work he is supposed to do on board the ship. Probably he even had a brief idea of the "to be" life on ship but

4

instead got a bit more than expected when he came on board. There are many incentives that come with the job of a junior marine engineer, but there are many more odd jobs that come along with it, too. Let’s get into the shoes (safety shoes!) of a junior engineer and find out what he really does on board. Kindly note that there are high chances that one might end up in a state of exhaustion or fatigue. What Do Junior Marine Engineers Really Do? The junior marine engineer, like all other engineers on the ship, is supposed to work with his own hands. When the ship is sailing, he is supposed to keep a watch in the engine room with either third or second engineer. He mainly assists the engineer in-charge of the watch in daily routine checks and other necessary maintenance work. After a few months of thorough familiarization of the engine room he might be asked to keep an independent watch of the engine room with the assistance of a motorman. If he is not working in shifts, he might be asked to do day work, which is like a normal eight-to-five job, not to mention the emergency hours and extra time that come along with it. A junior engineer is always on his toes or for that matter forced to be, assisting second, third, and even fourth engineers apart from the regular watch keeping. This means that there are no definite rest hours and the working hours are also extremely flexible. Most of the work is of practical nature, inside the engine room, which requires him to wear a boiler suit all the time. Junior engineers work mainly involves dismantling, assessing, repairing, and reassembling faulty or stand-by machinery. JE at Work

Junior Engineer: The “Know It All” Guy On ships, it is mandatory that a fifth or junior engineer is well-versed with each and every system on the ship, particularly of the engine room, for his

5

own good and probably for the good of others as well. The first thing he is expected to know is the line diagrams (famously known as line tracing) of all the pipelines in the engine room, from fuel lines to bilge lines at the back of his hand. Tracing, sketching, learning and mugging each and every pipe line is supposed to be first lesson the fifth engineer is asked to undertake when he puts his foot on board. After that the second job he is probably asked to do (especially by the chief engineer) is to keep in mind the locations of all the emergency exits, blowers, and fire extinguishers in the engine room. (Senior personnel on board ships believe that a junior engineer is more prone to accidents and often moves around like “Alice in Wonderland.") According to a written rule, a fifth engineer can take orders only from the second engineer, but unfortunately that rule is never followed and therefore he has to take orders from all the engineers. As the fifth engineer is perfectly aware of all the pipelines on ship, he is of vital importance at the time of bunkering fuel or giving away sludge. By default, a junior engineer is expected to assist fourth engineer in the process of bunkering and sludge discharge to the shore. He is also required to do jobs involving transferring of bilges or sludge from one tank to another and keeping a check and log of all the levels of the tanks in the engine room. The More he Knows the Better Apart from the above mentioned duties, a fifth engineer is also required to know the starting procedures of almost all machinery like diesel generators, generator synchronization, fuel oil purifiers, fresh water generator, pumps, sewage treatment plant, boilers, refrigeration system and even the main engine. Nowadays all ships are automated and all the machinery is operated from the engine control room itself. Thus the fifth engineer is also acquainted with, and in fact the master of, starting procedures and the working of the control room console and other engine control room electronics and electrical systems. However, this is not all, but a minuscule portion of duties he performs on board. In the next article we will learn about a few more additional jobs that a junior engineer is expected to do, without denying of course.

6

Life of Junior Engineer on Ship - part 2
Few grim jobs Apart from the penned down and the expected jobs that we learned in the previous article,the fifth engineer as he knows the engine room inside out, at the time of emergencies, is expected to be extremely good at fault finding and trouble shooting (As if he is the guide of the engine room who has the knowledge of every single pipe line, valves or even machinery) At the time of emergencies he works with other engineers in repairing the broken down machinery. An emergency situation can last from two hours to forty eight hours or even more. Though the senior engineers relieve each other, the fifth engineer is supposed to work through out the emergency situation. Thus he should have high level of energy and stamina, should be flexible, dexterous and able to pitch in when the situation demands. Also to mind that in case of emergency situations such as oil spills or leakage he is expected to clean up and remove all the traces of spilled oil from the floor plates and also from the bilges. Moreover the engine room temperature is extremely high and humid, ranging from thirty-degree Celsius to fifty-five degree Celsius. For this reason he is expected to have ability to withstand long stretches of hard work in emergency situations and also have the mental and physical capability to bear such stress. Additional jobs and responsibilities Paper work There is also heaps of paper work that the junior engineer is expected to do. He is supposed to take the readings of the main parameters from different machinery gauges and log them down neatly in the log book. This is a routine exercise and is done twice a day. He is also often asked to log down all the performance tests parameters of diesel and main engine in their respective log books. All these data from the log books is then fed into an excel sheet in the computer, which is then later sent to the company. Chief

7

engineer is supposed to be the in-charge of verifying and feeding in of this data but generally fifth engineer is asked to do this job also. Other paper works such as filling of oil record book, Marpol log book and tanks measurements book is also done by junior engineer, on few occasions, under the supervision of chief engineer. In emergency Junior engineer should also know the starting procedure of all the emergency systems such as emergency generators, Co2 system, different types of fire extinguishers etc. He is also supposed to take an active part in the emergency drills such as fire drills, boat drills etc. He should be aware as to how to wear life jacket. He should also know how to wear emersion suit and oxygen mask in time of emergencies. He should be aware of the starting procedure of life boats engines and also the whereabouts of various emergency equipments in the life boat and life raft. It’s also mandatory to have knowledge of other survival techniques and equipments such as pyrotechnics, fire hoses, emergency first aid and basis idea of survival at sea. Additional assistance Maintaining inventory and requisition of various lube oils, spare parts and defective machineries along with the parts to be sent for reconditioning, is the work of fourth engineer or the engineer in charge of that particular machinery. But a Fifth engineer is often asked to carry out this work too. Thus he might have to spend several long hours in the stores rummaging through different spare parts and noting down and maintaining a record of the number of requisite spares and oils. Some more facts Now though the working environment of the engineers on board a ship has improved in the recent years due to advances in automation and technology, the lifestyle pretty much remains the same. The job of a fifth engineer is demanding in both physical and mental abilities and they have to stay away from the family and social life for a considerable amount of time. Junior engineer stays on board for the longest time for he has a contract of minimum nine months. The job also demands working in some uncomfortable environments like repairing and maintaining the machineries is confined spaces and refrigerated areas and thus he should be flexible enough to get adjusted with the situation. Merchant navy personnel, as the job demands, move from one country to another, may not be able to see a few, or probably, even a single port in his whole contract. This is for the reason that there are many responsibilities

8

that they have to carry out when the ship is docked. Mostly all the engineers work every single day of their full contract time, which means that there might be a single holiday to unwind themselves. Also, traveling continuously and monotonous work style might make the exciting voyage boring. To add more to it, there are chances that sometimes they might have to satisfy themselves with cramped accommodations with little recreation and entertainment activities. Also, it is to note that no person on board is spared from the mighty power of nature. All the personnel on board a ship have to face all kinds of weather conditions and even have to continue working in the same. P.S. These are some of the facts of the life of a junior engineer on board a ship. This article cannot be generalized as the life of an engineer varies from ship to ship, but still it helps to give a general overview of the real thing. Also, they are not depicted with an aim to highlight any aspect or to scare anyone but with intent to bring it to people’s notice the lifestyle of naval personnel, especially junior engineers on ship so that the future engineers are mentally prepared as to what to expect and how to face a situation when they go onboard.

Use of Electronic Log Books by Marine Engineers
Introduction Maintaining log of various activities carried out on board a ship is mandatory for administrative and regulatory reasons. Though we will be talking mainly about engine room log book here, this applies more or less to other types of log-books as well such as deck log book and so forth. With the rising use of computers on ships, manual log books are giving way to electronic log books and here are the reasons and benefits of the same

9

Log book filling: Let the Junior Engineer handle the task! All marine engineers & navigating officers are acquainted with the perils related to keeping log records on any type of ship. Not only it is a tedious and time consuming job but also an important routine activity which has no space for carelessness. Parameters are logged down manually in a specific record book known as log book. Log book is a very important reference in case of accidents and mishaps because with the help of the records of various parameters, actual reasons of the breakdown or accident can be predicted. Each month is allotted one log book. This means that at the end of 2 years there will be a stack of 24 logbooks in the cupboard. It is absolutely important to maintain these records for they contain the history of each and every machine on the ship, including running hours and important defects. But maintaining such “on paper” records is not only difficult but also risky. For example even a small fire incident can wipe off the entire history of the engine room. It is for these reasons that there is a strong need to replace paper log books with electronic log books or E-log books. In routine practice it is the Junior Engineer who is responsible for filling up and maintaining the log book even though officially it has to be filled in by the appropriate duty officer at the time of taking the log. Before we look at the advantages of E log books, let’s take a look at the disadvantages of using a paper log book. Disadvantages of paper log books • A ship always keeps a seaman on his toes. Life on ship is so busy that even an easy but tedious job of filling a simple log book may seem like a big and boring task. (It is definitely monotonous, but is unavoidable). This has always left engineers with improper filling of log books, i.e. filling of daily log on weekly basis. Engineer’s hands are often oily when filling a log book. This makes the log book untidy and the readings unreadable. Logbooks are often filled up in haste, which has always leaded to filling of parameters in wrong columns and shabbiness due to over writing. Also, due to speedy writing, handwritings are always poor and difficult to understand. Misplacing of log books is a common problem on ships.

• • • •

10

Not keeping log books in a proper place has often led to tearing of log books, mainly out of becoming obstacles in some work. The same reason has also led them to become dirty at many occasions Mishandling of log books results in loosening of its pages and eventually missing a few.

It is due to this reason, electronic log books are recommended. E-log books It is an IMO specification that log records should be properly maintained and kept safely for reference at any time. In order to overcome the drawbacks related to paper log books listed above, electronic log books are being installed on almost all the modern ships. E log books have revolutionized the way data is stored and maintained. Let’s take a look at the special features of these log books.

11

Specifications • • • • • It has a facility to store even the event based data pertaining to navigation, engine room, port calls and even bunkering process. It can be easily installed and configured according to the requirement of the ship It is so made that it satisfies all the specifications laid by IMO, SOLAS and flag states. It is extremely user friendly and easy to operate. The interface is also easy to navigate and understand.

12

• • • •

The system is capable of generating reports such as full deck log reports and daily log report. It can easily be made compatible with other ship software such as planned maintenance system (PMS) and other navigation software. In addition to manual data entry the system can be configured with GPS for time and position reference and with other automation onboard. It can be segregated into different modules such as: Deck log book, Engine Log book, Oil record book, Operational log book, Dynamic positioning log book and Radio log book.

Advantages • • • • • It is a one time investment that reduces the work load drastically As manual documentation is cumbersome, it reduces the time required in data collection and report making. It makes the whole process more efficient with accurate and correct readings. In case the records are to be sent to ship owners, E log books helps in making and compiling reports is a much speedier manner without any delay. The user friendly interface facilitates easy retrieval of data whenever necessary.

Ship Engine Room Watchkeeping Duties & Routine

13

The engineroom watches are split into three 4hr spells of duty, this 4 hours of duty goes in quite quickly as routine checks on the main and auxiliary enines are maintained by the watchkeepers Introduction A new marine engineer may need to learn several things on their own, since not everything can be taught at the marine school in a practical manner. Some of these things might seem very simple but could be quite confusing for a trainee engineer. So I thought of penning down my experiences of watchkeeping and hence will continue in the next few articles along the same line The purpose of these articles is to inform newbie engineers about the watchkeeping duties of an engineer at sea in charge of a marine diesel engine and will include the following:• • • • • • Engine-room layout Main engine components subject to pressure and temperature change The reason or cause of a rise or fall in temperature to an engineroom item of machinery. The consequences of these changes in pressure and temperature on the diesel engine efficiency The rectification of a rise or fall in temperature or pressure the affect a rise or fall has on various cooling and lubricating liquids

Certainly it is not possible to indulge in all these in a single article as that would be an impractical idea so will proceed step by step and will start by talking about the standard temperature and pressure checks to be performed during a watch. Before I proceed with that, I would like to suggest another article about basics of marine watchkeeping that will give you a broad idea about the entire concept in case you are not familiar with it. The duties of a watchkeeping engineer on a marine diesel engine in relation to temperatures and pressures are considered to be part of a normal watch. I was at sea as an engineer for many years sailing on steamships and motor ships; the article will be mainly on motor ships with maybe a few references to steam turbines or boilers. When coming on duty the engineer should start his checks at the top pf the engine; cylinder heads;

14

• • • • • • • •

Check exhaust temperatures displayed on pyrometers - high exhaust temperature could signify a exhaust valve leak or a scavenge fire in that particular cylinder. Put hand on pipework from relief valves - is it too hot? this could signify a leaky relief valve. Put hand on air start valve pipework - is it too hot? this could signify a leaky air start valve Check fuel oil injector cooling water temperatures, to high or low will have a detrimental affect on the injector efficiency next platform down is turbo blowers, check air inlet temp before and after cooler, this affects the engine scavenge air temperature and ultimately the efficiency of the main engine check round the other side - scavenge air chamber doors - put hand on doors- high temp may indicate scavenge fire check scavenge sludge funnels, - high temperatures as above I will continue along this vein until we reach the bottom plates and finish checking the generators, tunnel bearings and stern gland.

In my next article I will continue talking about this stuff and catch hold of a single aspect in more detail. So just keep a look out for my further articles

A Week in the Life as an Engineering Officer on Ship
Have you ever wondered what life is like for an Engineering Officer. For those considering a career as an Engineering Officer at sea this article will provide a look into the typical week you can expect. Introduction Maritime engineering officers have a job that is varied in many ways as the above-deck officers and one that often involves working directly alongside

15

their counterparts on the deck. Where their job differs is in the more technical aspects of the craft’s running. A Maritime engineering officer will be called upon to ensure the smooth mechanical running of a ship, and depending on rank may stretch as far as the design and construction of complicated systems to ensure the same. Roles and Responsibilities The maritime engineers on board any craft are the people responsible for ensuring, in short, that the craft moves. They operate and maintain the systems that allow a ship to operate – from the propulsion system to the living facilities on board, including but not limited to the sewage, lighting and water systems on board. From all of the above it is easy to gather that the Maritime Engineering Officers on board a ship are responsible for nothing less than allowing the ship to function as a seagoing vessel and as a living quarters for all on board, and that the job is as varied as any job on any ship. If a ship needs to take on fuel in bulk, it will be a member of the engineering staff that oversees this to ensure that it is carried out fully, promptly and safely. Other tasks in that spirit may include helping with the loading and unloading of gear on the boat – although this task is limited to equipment necessary to the smooth running and safe journey of the boat – all issues to do with cargo and passengers are the sole responsibility of deck officers. Diverse Knowledge Arenas An engineer may not have the glamorous role on board a ship of those working above deck, but it would be wholly incorrect to even suggest that the job is limited to the heavy “grunt work” of moving sturdy equipment. A modern engineering officer will have knowledge and practical experience of many different forms of technology from simple mechanics to far more complicated technical matters, going through electrical, pneumatic, hydraulic and chemical systems and even as far as having some expertise with nuclear technology. A maritime engineer’s eyes will need to not only be on the inner workings of the ship on which they are employed, but also overboard, where natural resources indispensable to the smooth running of a passenger, cargo or other craft may be found. A knowledge of systems and how to apply them – and also ideas on how to develop them – are key parts of the job of a maritime engineering officer.

16

3 Diverse Areas It is held that there are three main areas of maritime engineering: 1. Offshore 2. Marine 3. Shore-Based The offshore element involves the knowledge of oil, gas and minerals and how they can be used and developed. The marine element concerns itself with the design, production and operation of propulsion systems and onboard equipment, while the shore-based maritime engineer will be involved with designing ships and building them for various purposes. All three elements can be and are closely involved at numerous levels. A Typical Routine Here is typical day for a marine engineer on a normal commercial vessel and this could be different based on the type of ship, automation of the engine room and so forth. Basically the modern ships have Unmanned Machinery Spaces (UMS for short) where the work done is of typically 9-5 in nature. But since there are hundreds of types of machineries which are running continuously one senior engineer is in charge for the night. He does not have to be present physically in the Engine Room all the night but only comes down whenever any fault occurs in any of the systems which is notified to the engineer's cabin via an automated alarm system. In the older ships or even in the modern ships under certain circumstances such as navigation in close waters, there is another system where each engineer gives four hours of duty and then gets 8 hours of rest in the 4 On, 8 Off manner. But this is mostly in theory and if you are planning to be a marine engineer do not expect such exact schedules, but these watch or duty hours often get extended due to some reason or the other. Moreover there is difference in the type and nature of duties depending on your rank on the ship. The typical day of an engineer at different ranks will be discussed in detail in future articles so if you are interested just wait and watch.

17

Ship Engine Room Watchkeeping Duties & Routine
The engineroom watches are split into three 4hr spells of duty, this 4 hours of duty goes in quite quickly as routine checks on the main and auxiliary enines are maintained by the watchkeepers Introduction A new marine engineer may need to learn several things on their own, since not everything can be taught at the marine school in a practical manner. Some of these things might seem very simple but could be quite confusing for a trainee engineer. So I thought of penning down my experiences of watchkeeping and hence will continue in the next few articles along the same line The purpose of these articles is to inform newbie engineers about the watchkeeping duties of an engineer at sea in charge of a marine diesel engine and will include the following:• • • • • • Engine-room layout Main engine components subject to pressure and temperature change The reason or cause of a rise or fall in temperature to an engineroom item of machinery. The consequences of these changes in pressure and temperature on the diesel engine efficiency The rectification of a rise or fall in temperature or pressure the affect a rise or fall has on various cooling and lubricating liquids

Certainly it is not possible to indulge in all these in a single article as that would be an impractical idea so will proceed step by step and will start by

18

talking about the standard temperature and pressure checks to be performed during a watch. Before I proceed with that, I would like to suggest another article about basics of marine watchkeeping that will give you a broad idea about the entire concept in case you are not familiar with it. The duties of a watchkeeping engineer on a marine diesel engine in relation to temperatures and pressures are considered to be part of a normal watch. I was at sea as an engineer for many years sailing on steamships and motor ships; the article will be mainly on motor ships with maybe a few references to steam turbines or boilers. When coming on duty the engineer should start his checks at the top pf the engine; cylinder heads; • • • • • • • • Check exhaust temperatures displayed on pyrometers - high exhaust temperature could signify a exhaust valve leak or a scavenge fire in that particular cylinder. Put hand on pipework from relief valves - is it too hot? this could signify a leaky relief valve. Put hand on air start valve pipework - is it too hot? this could signify a leaky air start valve Check fuel oil injector cooling water temperatures, to high or low will have a detrimental affect on the injector efficiency next platform down is turbo blowers, check air inlet temp before and after cooler, this affects the engine scavenge air temperature and ultimately the efficiency of the main engine check round the other side - scavenge air chamber doors - put hand on doors- high temp may indicate scavenge fire check scavenge sludge funnels, - high temperatures as above I will continue along this vein until we reach the bottom plates and finish checking the generators, tunnel bearings and stern gland.

In my next article I will continue talking about this stuff and catch hold of a single aspect in more detail. So just keep a look out for my further articles

19

Engine Room Watch-keeping Duties: Temperatures & The Sense Of Touch
Engineroom Watchkeeping Engineers can rely on their natural sense of touch as well as instruments and gauges, in checking equipment such as relief valves and air start valves for leakage or incorrect operation. Introduction We previously looked at the duties of a watch-keeping engineer taking over a watch on a marine diesel engine, where he has to satisfy himself that the main engine and auxiliaries are running normally. We shall now look at how we not only depend on instruments to tell us the engines condition, but also how we rely on the human sense of touch; so let us understand how does the sense of touch work for the marine engineer on watch-keeping duty. As we walk along the top plates we check for the relief valves and air start valves that they are not leaking back by resting a hand on the connecting pipework. The reason for this action is that if a relief valve is leaking back the pipework will be hot, due to hot combustion gases, sometimes this is caused by the relief valve having lifted and not re-seating properly. A sharp tap on the top of the valve with a hammer can reseat it. However if leaking for some other reason, this will affect the efficiency of the combustion process and the valve should be replaced. Similarly if an air-start valve is leaking back, the pipework will be hot due to the combustion gases. Here however the similarity ends! A leaking airstart valve can allow the gases to flow back down the air supply pipework and into the air-start vessel, where it can combine with the compressed air/oil vapour and cause the vessel to explode. To avoid the possibility of such an explosion involving compressed air, the individual air-start isolating valves and compressed air vessel outlet valves should be shut at all times except when manoeuvring. Any suspect air-start valves should be replaced, and compressed air vessels drained of the mixture of air, water and oil, the oil having been carried forward by the air compressor lubrication. (See adjacent sketch)

20

A hot crankcase door can be indicative of a bearing or other engine component running hot. An oil mist forms on the inside of the crankcase and the crankcase gets progressively hotter due to lube-oil overheating in an attempt to cool the bearing/s. One sure-fire way of confirming this is by walking along the bottom plates of the engine room and running a hand along the crankcase doors; any overheating problems will soon manifest themselves through the skin on the back of a hand, much faster than relying on the oily-mist detector or in the extreme situation of the crankcase explosion doors lifting. Lastly we will look at the propeller drive shaft bearings and stern gland. The propeller shaft will have been aligned to the main engine at the shipyard where the ship was built, and alignment subsequently checked in

21

drydock during yearly survey. However, the larger ships of today such as VLCC, LNG or Container ships have a lot of for and aft movement, especially if sailing light-ship or in ballast, so there is a lot of stress on the prop shaft which is transmitted as torque to the shaft bearings. I remember on one occasion we lost the tip of our prop in Toronto Ontario, we were allowed to proceed to UK at half speed; such was the vibration that we had a junior engineer on constant prop shaft bearing watch. So it is always worthwhile and, indeed part of a good watch-keepers duties to walk along the tunnel regularly, checking the bearing oil levels on the level glass (these bearings are white metal and lubricated by ring splash feed) again resting a hand on top of the bearing checking for any undue heat or vibration will ensure that the bearing and shaft are running correctly. Moving on down the tunnel the rest of the bearings are checked in the same manner, until we reach the stern gland. The stern gland should always have a trickle of seawater running out of it and this ensures not only a cool running gland but also that the gland packing and shaft are being lubricated. Again laying a hand on the gland will tell if it is running hot – carefully slackening off the gland adjusting nuts in sequence will increase the flow of seawater through the packing and cool the whole stern gland down. All this touching of pipes and components by hand to check for excessive heat soon becomes second nature to the experienced watch-keeper.

Watch Keeping Change Over Procedures
Read about the important points to be kept in mind by the engineer taking over watch, and the one handing it over on a ship Introduction to Keeping Watch and Change Over Procedures We have been learning about the ship engine room, control room and the duties and life of a marine engineer on board ships. We know that the main officer incharge of engine room is the chief engineer. He is responsible for safe operation of the ship and machinery spaces. Theoretically the C/E

22

inspects, operates and tests all machines and the equipments in the engine room though in actual practice this is done by subordinate engineers Watchkeeping defined Any mariner does not need explanation of a watch but I am explaining it for the sake of other readers. Basically watchkeeping is what is says keeping a watch. The watch has to be kept on hundreds of machineries and equipment that are there on the ship, especially in the engine room and bridge. We will focus on engine room watch keeping in this article Watchkeeping means that for a specific time interval (normally 4 hours) one (or more) certified engineer and one or more ratings are responsible for the the engine room operations and maintenace Watchkeeping can only be done by certified personnel and engineering watches have to be accompanied by a qualified rating (oiler/ wiper) Following points must be kept in mind 1. Type of the ship 2. Type and condition of the machinery 3. Adequate supervision at all times 4. Operation of the ship at bad weather, ice, and in contaminated/traffic waters 5. Qualification and experience of engineer on the watch 6. Safety of life, ship and cargo 7. Protection of environment 8. Observant of international, national & local regulations 9. Maintaining the normal operation of the ship Handing over watch The watch of an engineer (even it applies to navigating watches) is certainly tiring so when the time for change comes, the person getting relieved should not rush out but should keep certain points in mind • Handing over Watch keeper should judge the releving watch keeper whether the relieving engineer is in the state of taking over the watch and capable of carrying out the duties; if not he has to inform to the chief engineer immediately • The handing over watch keeper should satisfy himself that the person who is taking over the watch will do his duty properly and effectively

23

Taking over watch 1. Any standing orders and the special instruction of the chief engineer relating to the operation of the ship systems and the machinery have to be carried out during the watch. 2. Nature of all work being performed on the machinery, in the engine room and in the system, personal involved and note any potential hazards. 3. The level of the bilges, ballast and the deballast works, sounding of slop tanks, sewage tanks and special requirements for the disposal of the above contents 4. Level of fuel oil, diesel oil in storage tank, service tank & daily tanks 5. Condition of operation of the main and auxiliary engine and the power distribution system 6. Condition of the monitoring and the control console equipments 7. Boiler control system, flame and combustion control, fuel supply and other safety trips in boiler 8. Bad weather, ice, other contaminated water or shallow water ready to face adverse condition 9. Alternative operation if some equipment fails 10. Engine room rating duties to be assigned 11. Fire fighting appliance availability 12. Engine room log book, checking for oil measurements and all necessary entries has to be checked

How To Fill The Marine Log Book?
Introduction Record keeping is an important aspect of the life of a navigating officer as well as a marine engineer. There are various types of records which need to be maintained. From the perspective of the ship's engine room, the engineers need to keep a clear record of machinery parameters, running hours and several other things. This has been done traditionally using paper daily log books, although with the increasing use of computers on ships, these daily log books might be totally replaced with electronic log books, but currently these paper books are in popular use. Moreover, whatever be

24

the media for recording, the prime importance is of noting down the relevant information at a place for future reference and retrieval as and when required. Engine room log book is also an important document in case of accident and this gives the clear picture of the engine room working condition and the situation existed in the engine room. Normally this is filled in by the junior engineer of the ship. In deck log book all the entries regarding navigation and charts are mentioned. The official log book is only for the official entries made by only captain and chief engineer about the crew and their behaviour. In case of any discipline related problem is encountered with any crew, it will be recorded in this log book. Types of Entries Main Engine 1. Timing of Watch (1200-1600; 1600-2000; 2000-0000) 2. Fuel lever settings (notches) 3. Speed setting of air 4. Engine load 5. Engine Revolution counter 6. Average rpm 7. Flow meter reading 8. Main Engine fuel consumption for 4 hours 9. Main Engine all units Exhaust temperature 10. Main Engine all units pcw & jcw temperature 11. Main Engine fuel oil inlet temperature 12.All coolers sea water inlet/outlet of air, lube oil, piston and jacket cooler temperature Pressures 1. Sea water pressure 2. Jacket cooling water pressure 3. Piston cooling water pressure 4. Lube oil pressure (bearing, crosshead, cam shaft)

25

5. Fuel oil pressure 6. Air bottle pressure (1 & 2) Turbochargers 1. Turbo charger rpm 2. Cooling water in & out temperature 3. Air cooler in & out temperature 4. Pressure drop across turbocharger air cooler filter to judge the blockage 5. Air temperature in and out of the turbocharger 6. Exhaust gas temperature in & out Other Temperatures/Levels 1. Heavy oil service and settling tank temperature 2. Thrust bearing temperature and pressure 3. Stern tube temperature and pressure 4. Sea water temperature 5. Engine room temperature 6. Main engine sump level RAC Units 1. Suction pressure and discharge pressure of refrigerent 2. Lube oil pressure 3. Lube oil suction and discharge pressure 4. Air inlet and outlet temperature Compartment Temperatures 1. Meat room 2. Fish room 3. Vegetable room 4. Dairy room 5. Handling room Fresh Water Generator 1. Jacket cooling water in & out temperature

26

2. Condensor sea water in & out temperature 3. Shell temperature 4. Vaccum pressure 5. Ejector pump pressure 6. Distillate pump pressure 7. Feed line pressure 8. Flow meter reading for fresh water Auxilliary Machinery 1. Exhaust temperatutes of all units 2. JCW temperatures of all units 3. Alternator forward and aft bearing temperatures 4. Scavenge air pressure and temperature 5. Air cooler in & out temperatures 6. Lube oil in & out temperatures 7. Sea water in & out temperatures 8. Turbo charger of auxiliary engine exhaust temperature Tank Levels 1. Heavy oil service & settling tank readings 2. Diesel oil service & settling tank readings 3. Cylinder lube oil storage and Daily tank reading 4. Main engine crank case lube oil storage tank reading 5. Auxiliary engine crank case lube oil storage tank reading 6. Stern tube Gravity tank (high/low) tank readings 7. Stern tube aft & fwd seal tank level Engine Control Room Most of the readings and entries shown above can also be taken from the ship's control room, although it is advisable to take local readings. Yet these readings can be compared to those of the remote indications. This will also give an idea about the variation in the two so that in case of any large deviations, necessary checks can be performed. Also in case of rush hours such as maneuvering, the engineers would know the actual readings if they are familiar with the deviations in control room and actual readings.

27

28

Read more: http://www.brighthub.com/engineering/marine/articles/55523.aspx#ixzz1B mkRGCHY

29

Engine-room checks Engine-room checks is a must for several reasons, the reasons are as follows; a. Fire prevention b. Accident prevention c. Flooding prevention d. Pollution prevention With each of the reasons above, the M.C.A. usually asks this question;

30

(Q) What checks are carried out in the engine-room to prevent fire/accidents/Flooding/Pollution? (a) (i) Kept spotless (ii) No cloths lying around (iii) Starter and radio batteries contained in a steel box and the box closed (iv) Starter and radio batteries serviced often (v) No bare electrical wires (vi) No fuel leaks (vii) No oil leaks (viii) No oil-drums stowed in the engine-room (ix) Bilges kept dry as possible (x) No oil in bilges (xi) Extractor fans used to minimise fumes and air condition (xii) Walkways kept clean and dry (xiii) Bilge pumps serviced (maximum of 6 months) (xiv) Bilge pipes checked often (xv) Bilge sensors checked often (Test them) (xvi) Fire detection sensors checked often (xvii) If freezing gas motors are in engine-room, check the sensors (below motor as the gas is heavier than air) (xviii) While pumping bilges, have a watch looking over the side to make sure no oily waste is being pumped overboard (xix) Test Co2 fire sensors (xx) Have the valve stems for the sea-cocks raised (xxi) Maintain Sea-cocks and while in drydock withdraw them and get them serviced, clean any barnacles from the intakes to the sea-cocks (xxii) Fit CCTV (xxiii) Check non-return valves when in drydock only (xxiv) Check 24v 110v and 240v lights (xxv) Have plenty fire-extinguishers in the engine-room and serviced (Mostly foam extinguishers)

Watch Keeping Change Over Procedures Watch and Change Over Procedures We have been learning about the ship engine room, control room and the duties and life of a marine engineer on board ships. We know that the main officer incharge of engine room is the chief engineer. He is responsible for safe operation of the ship and machinery spaces. Theoretically the C/E

31

inspects, operates and tests all machines and the equipments in the engine room though in actual practice this is done by subordinate engineers Watchkeeping defined Any mariner does not need explanation of a watch but I am explaining it for the sake of other readers. Basically watchkeeping is what is says keeping a watch. The watch has to be kept on hundreds of machineries and equipment that are there on the ship, especially in the engine room and bridge. We will focus on engine room watch keeping in this article Watchkeeping means that for a specific time interval (normally 4 hours) one (or more) certified engineer and one or more ratings are responsible for the the engine room operations and maintenace Watchkeeping can only be done by certified personnel and engineering watches have to be accompanied by a qualified rating (oiler/wiper) Following points must be kept in mind 1. Type of ship 2. Type and condition of the machinery 3. Adequate supervision at all times 4. Operation of the ship at bad weather, ice, and in contaminated/traffic waters 5. Qualification and experience of engineer on the watch 6. Safety of life, ship and cargo 7. Protection of environment 8. Observant of international, national & local regulations 9. Maintaining the normal operation of the ship Handing over watch The watch of an engineer (even it applies to navigating watches) is certainly tiring so when the time for change comes, the person getting relieved should not rush out but should keep certain points in mind • Handing over Watch keeper should judge the releving watch keeper whether the relieving engineer is in the state of taking over the watch and capable of carrying out the duties; if not he has to inform to the chief engineer immediately The handing over watch keeper should satisfy himself that the person who is taking over the watch will do his duty properly and effectively

32

Taking over watch 1. Any standing orders and the special instruction of the chief engineer relating to the operation of the ship systems and the machinery have to be carried out during the watch. 2. Nature of all work being performed on the machinery, in the engine room and in the system, personal involved and note any potential hazards. 3. The level of the bilges, ballast and the deballast works, sounding of slop tanks, sewage tanks and special requirements for the disposal of the above contents 4. Level of fuel oil, diesel oil in storage tank, service tank & daily tanks 5. Condition of operation of the main and auxiliary engine and the power distribution system 6. Condition of the monitoring and the control console equipments 7. Boiler control system, flame and combustion control, fuel supply and other safety trips in boiler 8. Bad weather, ice, other contaminated water or shallow water ready to face adverse condition 9. Alternative operation if some equipment fails 10. Engine room rating duties to be assigned 11. Fire fighting appliance availability 12. Engine room log book, checking for oil measurements and all necessary entries has to be checked

33

Read more: http://www.brighthub.com/engineering/marine/articles/52285.aspx#ixzz1B melDXAU

Read more: http://www.brighthub.com/engineering/marine/articles/52285.aspx#ixzz1B mehv8Ka

Read more: http://www.brighthub.com/engineering/marine/articles/53228.aspx#ixzz1B meFhV2M

34

Read more: http://www.brighthub.com/engineering/marine/articles/53228.aspx#ixzz1B meB7u9I

Read more: http://www.brighthub.com/engineering/marine/articles/53228.aspx#ixzz1B me7Cs6A

Read more: http://www.brighthub.com/engineering/marine/articles/51272.aspx#ixzz1B mb1Atxb

Read more: http://www.brighthub.com/engineering/marine/articles/51272.aspx#ixzz1B mb1Atxb

35

Read more: http://www.brighthub.com/engineering/marine/articles/24784.aspx#ixzz1B mdig1rm

Read more: http://www.brighthub.com/engineering/marine/articles/24784.aspx#ixzz1B mddCElM

Read more: http://www.brighthub.com/engineering/marine/articles/24784.aspx#ixzz1B mdX9BZQ

Bunkering Operations: Precautions, Checklists, Calculations & Corrections Explained The actual Bunkering operation is carried out with bunker checklists. In this article, emphasis is made on the checklists, safety precautions, SOPEP locker & SOPEP equipments, temperature & density correction to calculate the quantity of oil bunkered. Formula for calculation has been included. Bunkering Oil Earlier we learnt about the bunkering and what is means. Now we will study the process of actual bunkering operations and the practical details of

36

the process of bunkering oil. All types of ships needs fuel oil, lub oil etc and hence it is important for everyone to understand the actual process of bunkering so here we go. Pre-bunkering preparations. The most important aspect of bunkering operation is the "checklists", which forms a part of company's safety management system (SMS) and I.S.M.,eliminating the possibility and negligence of human and other operational errors. The pre-bunkering checklist must be followed inconsultation with the Chief Engineer (C/E), as he is the person-in-charge for the bunkering operation. Before bunkering, ususally it is 4th engineering officer, taking "soundings" of bunker tanks and calculates the volume of fuel oil available in every fuel oil tank of the ship. Then a Bunker-plan is made to plan the distribution of total quantity of bunker fuel oil. Bunker Procurement Ordering of Bunker oil: The ship Managers (superintendents) monitor the performance of a fleet of ships. For eg. On owning a car, we tend to keep a check on its fuel consumption widely called as "mileage". It is the distance travelled by the vehicle for a unit volume of fuel used. In the same way, as the ship consumes humungous quantity of fuel, whose costs are forming the major part of ship's operation, The Managers tend to keep a check on it. This is measured in terms of specific fuel oil consumption of the main propulsion engine.

On knowing the fuel oil consumption for a day & next voyage plan, the quantity of fuel oil required is calculated and compared with the available bunker tank capacity. A requisition is placed through the C/E & Master of the vessel to the Managers. The requisition is processed and evaluated for the quality & quantity of fuel to be supplied for the particular ship. Planning is done for the delivery of bunker at a

37

particular port where the oil is available at a comparitive lesser cost. On taking all these aspects into consideration, the Managers, deliver bunker to the vessel. Upon receiving the bunker, a sample collected during bunkering operation is sent for lab analysis to confirm the delivered oil meets the required standard for the safe & efficient operation of the auxiliary engines & main propulsion engine. Pre-Bunker Checklist: Pre-Bunkering Procedure: 1. State of adjacent waters noticed 2. Vessel properly secured to dock 3. Check suppliers product corresponds to ordered product 4. Agree quantity to be supplied 5. Check valves open 6. Day tanks full and supply valves closed 7. Warning signs in position e.g. No Smoking 8. SOPEP plan available 9. Clean up material in place 10. Oil Boom in place 11. Foam fire extinguisher placed at bunker station 12. Alfa Laval and transfer pumps off 13. Fuel tank supply valves open 14. Agree stop/start signals between vessel and barge/truck 15. Bravo flag flying/red light showing 16. Agree pumping/transfer rate 17. Agree emergency shut down procedure 18. Specification sheet received 19. Check hose and couplings are secure and in good order 20. Fuel nozzle and hose secured to vessel 21. Check barge/truck meters Reading: 22. Check on board meters Reading: 23. Bunker Valve open 24. Unused manifold connections blanked off

38

25. Master informed 26. Signal pumping to commence The above checklist has to be completely filled religiously by both the ship & barge personnels. Please move on to the next page by clicking below Read more: http://www.brighthub.com/engineering/marine/articles/35476.aspx#ixzz1B md5LarA

Read more: http://www.brighthub.com/engineering/marine/articles/35476.aspx#ixzz1B mczHOfI

Read more: http://www.brighthub.com/engineering/marine/articles/35476.aspx#ixzz1B mcslLiK

Read more: http://www.brighthub.com/engineering/marine/articles/51272.aspx#ixzz1B mb1Atxb

39

Read more: http://www.brighthub.com/engineering/marine/articles/39915.aspx#ixzz1B maWZJ00

Read more: http://www.brighthub.com/engineering/marine/articles/39915.aspx#ixzz1B maLGd8d

Read more: http://www.brighthub.com/engineering/marine/articles/26219.aspx#ixzz1B mZDsiSa

Read more: http://www.brighthub.com/engineering/marine/articles/25992.aspx#ixzz1B mZP0NzV

Read more:

40

http://www.brighthub.com/engineering/marine/articles/26219.aspx#ixzz1B mZ7vGpW

Read more: http://www.brighthub.com/engineering/marine/articles/25992.aspx? p=2#ixzz1BmYmlSiO

Read more: http://www.brighthub.com/engineering/marine/articles/25992.aspx#ixzz1B mYSOJqV

41

Read more: http://www.brighthub.com/engineering/marine/articles/25992.aspx#ixzz1B mYJKrcS

Read more: http://www.brighthub.com/engineering/marine/articles/25992.aspx#ixzz1B mY4i9cl