UD 2-1E

The Norwegian Armed Forces Safety Rules and Regulation for Land based military activities

Valid thru 2010/11 Rev 04

UD 2-1 Armed Forces Safety Rules and Regulations.

ABOUT UD 2-1
Metadata
SHORT TITLE: SECURITY GRADE: VALIDITY: LEGAL AUTHORITY: UD 2-1 UNCLASSIFIED 2010-01-01 LETTER FROM THE CHIEF of DEFENCE - DELEGATION OF AUTHORITY.

Chap-0

RESPONSIBLE PROFE- INSPECTOR GENERAL OF THE ARMY SIONAL AUTHORITY: VALID FOR: ROYAL NORWEGIAN ARMED FORCES 2010

PREVIOUS VERSION: 2010/2011 3.

BACKGROUND
UD 2-1 revision 2010 - 2011 is produced i accordance with the armed forces standard for electronical publications - FS 7610-1900. Both the electonic version and the paper edition is produced from a single information source, based on the eXstencible Markup Language standard, XML

The web edition
The web edition of UD 2-1 can be found on the Armed forces database for "Rules, Regulations and directives" (FOBID). This database will hold at all times the current edition of the publication as well as previous editions

The paper edition
The paper edition can ordered from FLO Base Østerdalen, Grafisk (LMS), Rena Military camp. The adresse is listed in the next section. The CD edition can ordered, at the cost of the ordering unit, from: FLO Base Østerdalen, Grafisk (LMS), Rena leir PB 24 2451 RENA

Contributers in production
Photos on cover: Defence Media Centre (FMS) edited by M&K DOK AS Production: LWC and M&K DOK AS. Illustration and photos: FMS/M&K DOK AS Printing and binding of the paper edition: AIT Otta

Rev-04 1

UD 2-1 Armed Forces Safety Rules and Regulations.

1 av 1
Vår dato 2007-10-08 Tidligere dato
Til Kopi til

Vår referanse 2007/024301-006/FORSVARET/430 Tidligere referanse

Etterretningstjenesten Forsvarets Logistikkorganisasjon Fellesoperativt hovedkvarter Forsvarsstaben FST/ FS FST/ HST FST/ HVST FST/ LST FST/ PØS FST/ SST

Delegasjon av myndighet - Ny UD 2-1, Forsvarets sikkerhetsreglement for landmilitær virksomhet
1 Bakgrunn For å minimere risikoen for skader og tap av liv har Forsvaret rammer som regulerer trening, øvelser og operasjoner. Et nytt overordnet rammeverk – ”Forsvarets sikkerhetsregler (safety)” – er under utarbeidelse og nåværende UD 2-1 Sikkerhetsbestemmelser for Hæren vil bli satt ut av kraft når nytt regelverk for landmilitær virksomhet i Forsvaret gjøres gjeldende. 2 Delegasjon Generalinspektøren for Hæren (GIH) delegeres myndighet til utarbeidelse og utgivelse av ny UD 2-1 Forsvarets sikkerhetsreglement for landmilitær virksomhet med gyldighet fra den dato GIH bestemmer. 3 Føring Sikkerhetsreglementet skal harmoniseres med sivilt regelverk der dette er aktuelt.

Sverre Diesen General Forsvarssjef

Postmottak 2617 LILLEHAMMER

Glacisgata 1 0150 OSLO

Militær telefon/telefaks (FDN)

forsvaret@mil.no Internett www.mil.no

Vedlegg

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UD 2-1 Armed Forces Safety Rules and Regulations.

Chapters
Table of Content
From pt 0 From pt 1

ToC

Chapter 0: INTRODUCTION AND DEFINITIONS

Chap-0

Chapter 1: COMMON SAFETY RULES AND REGULATIONS Chapter 2: AMMUNITION AND DUDS, MINES AND DEMOLITIONS

Chap-1

2

Chap-2

Chapter 3: FIRING ALL WEAPONS

3

Chap-3

Chapter 4: PARACHUTE JUMPING

4

Chap-4

Chapter 5: DRIVING AND TRANSPORT DUTY

5

Chap-5

Chapter 6 EXERCISES AND OTHER DUTY

6

Chap-6

Chapter 7: MILITARY WORKING DOGS/ RIOT CONTROL Chapter 8: ACTIVITIES IN COASTAL ENVIRONMENTS, RIVERS AND LAKES

7

Chap-7

8

Chap-8

APPENDICES

App

PROFESSIONAL RESPONSIBILITY

Prof Resp

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UD 2-1 Armed Forces Safety Rules and Regulations.

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UD 2-1 Armed Forces Safety Rules and Regulations.

TABLE OF CONTENT
KAP 0. INTRODUCTION AND DEFINITIONS
PURPOSE
Preface by the Chief of Staff of the Norwegian Army’s (COS NoA)............................................................................................................ Application................................................................................................. Deviation.................................................................................................... Responsibility for the regulations............................................................ Responsibility for revision of regulations, announcements and publication.......................................................................................................... Introduction of new activities and types of materiel/equipment........... Modification/configuration change of materiel...................................... Certification............................................................................................... Materiel safety........................................................................................... Afterburner................................................................................................ All Terrain Vehicles, Summer, ATV/S.................................................... All Terrain Vehicles, Winter, ATV/W.................................................... Ammunition............................................................................................... Authority.................................................................................................... Avalanche risk area................................................................................... Barrel safe fuse.......................................................................................... Blank ammunition..................................................................................... Commanding Officer (C.O.)..................................................................... Unit weapons.............................................................................................. Duds............................................................................................................ Detonation.................................................................................................. Detonator.................................................................................................... Directive..................................................................................................... Exercise ammunition................................................................................. Explosives................................................................................................... Explosion.................................................................................................... Explosive ordnance disposal..................................................................... Fail.............................................................................................................. Firing position............................................................................................ Firing range............................................................................................... Firing sector............................................................................................... Fully restricted ammunition..................................................................... Gel............................................................................................................... High Explosives......................................................................................... Improvised Explosive Devices (terror bombs)........................................ Infantery weapon....................................................................................... Intermediary charge................................................................................. Legal authority.......................................................................................... Mines.......................................................................................................... Misfire........................................................................................................ Non-Explosive – but dangerous substance.............................................. Professional authority............................................................................... Publisher.................................................................................................... Pyrotechnical ammunition....................................................................... Restricted ammunition............................................................................. Safety stop.................................................................................................. Self ignition................................................................................................ Shooting...................................................................................................... 0.1.1 0.1.2 0.1.3 0.1.4 0.1.5 0.1.6 0.1.7 0.1.8 0.1.9

ToC

DEFINITIONS

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UD 2-1 Armed Forces Safety Rules and Regulations.

Short range shell........................................................................................ Simunition.................................................................................................. Target area................................................................................................. UTM Indication ammunition...................................................................

KAP 1. COMMON SAFETY RULES AND REGULATIONS
INTRODUCTION
Land based military activities - Risk....................................................... Risk assessment......................................................................................... Risk management...................................................................................... The responsibilities and duties of personnel .......................................... Activity management................................................................................ Reporting.................................................................................................... 1.1.1 1.1.2 1.1.3 1.1.4 1.1.5 1.1.6

KAP 2. AMMUNITION AND DUDS, MINES AND DEMOLITIONS
USING, HANDLING AND CHECKING AMMUNITION
In general................................................................................................... The responsibilities of the Discipline Authority..................................... The responsibilities of the “User unit".................................................... The exercising unit’s responsibilities....................................................... Returning ammunition............................................................................. Returning empties..................................................................................... Irregularities when using/handling ammunition.................................... Action when duds occur............................................................................ Action when misfires occur during shooting exercises.......................... Reporting after shooting/ demolition/ throwing hand grenades........... Reports of irregularities when using ammunition/explosives............... Smoking and the use of open fire............................................................. Ammunition - Test and trials .................................................................. Rules and regulations for Range Officer................................................. 2.1.1 2.1.2 2.1.3 2.1.4 2.1.5 2.1.6 2.1.7 2.1.8 2.1.9 2.1.10 2.1.11 2.1.12 2.1.13 2.1.14

DUDS, MOVEMENT WITHIN FIRING RANGES AND EXPLOSIVE ORDONANCE DISPOSAL(EOD)
Duds............................................................................................................ Firing ranges and training grounds......................................................... Explosive Ordonance Disposal(EOD)...................................................... EOD in firing ranges and training grounds............................................ EOD outside of firing ranges and training grounds............................... Clearance of improvised explosives – IED (terrorist bombs)............... In general................................................................................................... Laying mines.............................................................................................. Clearing of mines....................................................................................... Clearing of mine traps.............................................................................. In general................................................................................................... Personnel for command and control....................................................... Checking explosives and detonation devices........................................... Separate regulations for the use and handling of the materiel............. Blasting....................................................................................................... Danger area................................................................................................ Hearing protection.................................................................................... 2.2.1 2.2.2 2.2.3 2.2.4 2.2.5 2.2.6 2.3.1 2.3.2 2.3.3 2.3.4 2.4.1 2.4.2 2.4.3 2.4.4 2.4.5 2.4.6 2.4.7

MINES AND MINE TRAPS

DEMOLITION, EXPLOSIVES AND DETONATION DEVICES, ETC.

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TOLERANCE EXERCISES WITH EXPLOSIVE CHARGES

In general................................................................................................... Personnel that must not attend tolerance exercises............................... In general................................................................................................... Hearing protection.................................................................................... Blank cartridge for weapons up to and including 12.7mm/.50”........... Percussion charge (simulator for hand grenades) ................................. Smoke......................................................................................................... Dud/misfire/short round........................................................................... Explosives...................................................................................................

2.5.1 2.5.2 2.6.1 2.6.2 2.6.3 2.6.4 2.6.5 2.6.6 2.6.7

FIRE SIMULATION AND DEVICES FOR FIRE SIMULATION

ToC

KAP 3. FIRING ALL WEAPONS
FIRING
Personal protective equipment (PPE)..................................................... Division of responsibilities, firing ranges and training areas................ Direct firing weapons................................................................................ Guided weapon systems............................................................................ High trajectory weapons........................................................................... Procedure for firing 7.62 and 5.56 calibre weapons at builtin/covered stands....................................................................................... 3.1.1 3.1.2 3.1.3 3.1.4 3.1.5 3.1.6

HANDLING OF WEAPONS AND AMMUNITION – INDIVIDUAL RESPONSIBILITIES AND DUTIES
In Common................................................................................................ Safety regulations during instruction...................................................... Use of live ammunition............................................................................. Exceptions made for educational purposes – mixing live and blank ammunition................................................................................................ Using blank ammunition..........................................................................

3.2.1 3.2.2 3.2.3 3.2.4 3.2.5 3.3.1 3.3.2 3.3.3 3.3.4 3.3.5

INDIVIDUAL FIRING AND UNIT FIRING

General....................................................................................................... Leadership.................................................................................................. Basic requirements.................................................................................... Firing above and to the side..................................................................... Vapors and fumes – precautions against carbon monoxide poisoning ..................................................................................................................... General....................................................................................................... Special regulations for firing Multipurpose (MP) ammunition............ Danger area................................................................................................ Regulations for use of blank ammunition in weapons up to and including 12.7 mm......................................................................................... Firing above and to the side.....................................................................

FIRING INFANTRY WEAPONS OF CALIBER 12.7.MM OR SMALLER
3.4.1 3.4.2 3.4.3 3.4.4 3.4.5

ILLUMINATION ROCKETS, AMMUNITION FOR VERY PISTOLS, WARNING FLARES AND SMOKE
Illumination rockets.................................................................................. Ammunition for Very pistols.................................................................... Impact area for illumination ammunition.............................................. Warning flares........................................................................................... Smoke......................................................................................................... Malfunction/duds/ammunition failure....................................................

3.5.1 3.5.2 3.5.3 3.5.4 3.5.5 3.5.6

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UD 2-1 Armed Forces Safety Rules and Regulations.

SAFETY REGULATIONS FOR USE OF SIMUNITION TRAINING AMMUNITION
General....................................................................................................... The skills of the personnel........................................................................ Danger area................................................................................................ Exceptions.................................................................................................. Demonstration........................................................................................... Personnel for management and control..................................................

3.6.1 3.6.2 3.6.3 3.6.4 3.6.5 3.6.6

SAFETY REGULATIONS FOR 40MM RIFLE-MOUNTED GRENADE LAUNCHER
General....................................................................................................... Personnel for management and control.................................................. Ammunition check.................................................................................... Firing above and past/to the side of personnel ...................................... Measures should the weapon malfunction.............................................. Danger area................................................................................................ Safety regulations AG-HK 416:...............................................................

3.7.1 3.7.2 3.7.3 3.7.4 3.7.5 3.7.6 3.7.7 3.8.1 3.8.2 3.8.4

HAND GRENADES

General....................................................................................................... Personnel for management and control.................................................. Advanced throwing exercises using fragmentation and stun grenades................................................................................................................... Throwing incendiary grenades, smoke grenades, ................................. Danger area................................................................................................ Hearing protection.................................................................................... Duds............................................................................................................ Flashbang................................................................................................... DM-78 Exercise grenade........................................................................... Claymore mines, light M-19, heavy M-100 and heavy FFV 013........... Firing stand for demonstration fire of Claymores M-19 and M-100.......................................................................................................... In general................................................................................................... Personnel for managment and control.................................................... Other personnel......................................................................................... Ammunition check.................................................................................... Danger area................................................................................................ Firing over personnel using a mortar...................................................... Firing duds with a range under 100m..................................................... Hearing protection.................................................................................... Measures to be taken should the weapon malfunction.......................... Laser range finder..................................................................................... M72 LIGHT ANTI-TANK WEAPON (LAW)....................................... 84MM RECOILLESS GUN..................................................................... 149MM TOW MISSILE SYSTEM......................................................... ERYX ANTI-TANK MISSILE................................................................ JAVELIN ANTI-TANK WEAPON – MEDIUM RANGE ANTITANK SYSTEM........................................................................................

3.8.5 3.8.6 3.8.7 3.8.8 3.8.9 3.8.10 3.9.1 3.9.2

CLAYMORE MINES

MORTARS

3.10.1 3.10.2 3.10.3 3.10.4 3.10.5 3.10.6 3.10.7 3.10.8 3.10.9 3.10.10 3.11.1 3.11.2 3.11.3 3.11.4 3.11.5

ANTI-TANK WEAPONS

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UD 2-1 Armed Forces Safety Rules and Regulations.

ARMOUR ANTI-TANK GUIDED WEAPON SYSTEM NM 142
In general................................................................................................... Firing with 7.62 x 51mm medium machine gun..................................... Use of smoke bomb dischargers, Very pistol and illumination rockets, plus throwing of smoke canisters.............................................. General regulations for live firing of guided missiles from NM 142............................................................................................................... Live firing with several RPJs................................................................... Personnel to lead and control................................................................... Other personnel......................................................................................... Ammunition check and ammunition handling ...................................... Safety measures should the weapon malfunction................................... Risk of fire erupting in the target area ................................................... Blank cartridge for TOW.........................................................................

3.12.1 3.12.2 3.12.3 3.12.4 3.12.5 3.12.6 3.12.7 3.12.8 3.12.9 3.12.10 3.12.11 3.13.1 3.13.2 3.13.3 3.13.4 3.13.5 3.13.6 3.13.7 3.13.8 3.13.9 3.13.10 3.13.11 3.13.12 3.13.13 3.13.14 3.13.15 3.13.16

ToC

GENERAL JOINT PROVISIONS FOR FIRING WITH/FROM VEHICLES
General....................................................................................................... Personnel for command and control....................................................... Personnel not taking part in the training................................................ Hearing protection.................................................................................... Laser range finder..................................................................................... Ammunition inspection............................................................................. Communications........................................................................................ Warnings/marking vehicles...................................................................... Instructional firing from stands with several vehicles........................... Indirect firing............................................................................................. Firing whilst in motion.............................................................................. Shooting in and from a vehicle................................................................. Firing above and to the side of personnel............................................... Hazardous zones for tank- and machine guns........................................ Firing with a Remote Weapon Station (RWS)....................................... Use of smoke launchers, Very pistols and illumination rockets, plus throwing of smoke canisters..................................................................... In general................................................................................................... Firing over and to the side of personnel.................................................. Fire during movement.............................................................................. Fire during movement.............................................................................. Fire marker HOFFMANN....................................................................... Firing with 14,5 mm inner tube in tank gun (applies only to Leopard 1A5 NO with a 105mm gun)..................................................................... 14.5mm ammunition Duds ...................................................................... Risk of fire erupting in the target area ................................................... Laser range finder.....................................................................................

FIRING ARMOURED FIGHTING VEHICLE WEAPONS (WITH TANKS)
3.14.1 3.14.3 3.14.4 3.14.5 3.14.6 3.14.7

3.14.8 3.14.9 3.14.10

FIRING WITH WEAPONS MOUNTED ON ARMOURED INFANTRY FIGHTING VEHICLE CV9030N/F1
In general................................................................................................... Warning/marking of vehicles................................................................... Personell for ledelse og kontroll............................................................... Laser range finder..................................................................................... Automatic gun MK 30 – Bushmaster II.................................................. Firing with handheld weapons from combat hatch, section leader’s hatch and firing slits ................................................................................. Danger area................................................................................................ Firing over and to the side of personnel..................................................

3.15.1 3.15.2 3.15.3 3.15.4 3.15.5 3.15.6 3.15.7 3.15.8

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UD 2-1 Armed Forces Safety Rules and Regulations.

Firing against air targets with automatic gun........................................ Firing with blanks with automatic gun ..................................................

3.15.9 3.15.10

FIRING WEAPONS FROM/MOUNTED ON WHEELED VEHICLES (DIFFERENT VERSIONS)
In general................................................................................................... Warning/marking of vehicles................................................................... Communication......................................................................................... Personnel to lead and control................................................................... Personnel not participating in the exercise............................................. Hearing protection.................................................................................... Laser range finder..................................................................................... Ammunition check.................................................................................... Firing during movement........................................................................... Firing during tactical movement............................................................. Vehicles with mounted 12.7mm Open bolt with artillery carriage NM152 ....................................................................................................... Vehicle with mounted MG-3 with artillery carriage.............................. Firing small arms from vehicles............................................................... Instructional firing/firing from range with several vehicles................. Use of smoke dischargers, Very pistols and illumination rockets, plus throwing of smoke canisters............................................................. Firing over and to the side of personnel.................................................. Firing from a SISU/PASI vehicle.............................................................

3.16.1 3.16.2 3.16.3 3.16.4 3.16.5 3.16.6 3.16.7 3.16.8 3.16.9 3.16.10 3.16.11 3.16.12 3.16.13 3.16.14 3.16.15 3.16.16 3.16.17 3.17.1 3.17.2 3.17.3 3.17.4 3.17.5 3.17.6 3.17.7 3.17.8 3.17.9 3.17.10 3.17.11 3.17.12 3.17.13 3.17.14 3.17.15 3.17.16 3.17.17 3.17.18

ARTILLERY, FIRING TOWARDS GROUND TARGETS

In general................................................................................................... Choosing fire range for artillery.............................................................. Personnel to lead and control................................................................... Medical service.......................................................................................... Safety control using safety template........................................................ Danger area ............................................................................................... Manual use of safety template for safety check when firing:................ Using the fire control system for safety control when firing ................ Direct laying............................................................................................... Ammunition check.................................................................................... Procedures at malfunction........................................................................ Construction of safety template for field artillery.................................. Construction of templates......................................................................... Firing over target by field artillery, calibre 105mm and larger........... Burning of propellant charge................................................................... Hearing protection.................................................................................... Risk of fire in the target area................................................................... Laser range finder.....................................................................................

FIRING HELLFIRE MISSILES ARTILLERY FIRE TOWARDS AIR TARGETS
In general................................................................................................... Personnel to lead and control................................................................... Danger area ............................................................................................... In general................................................................................................... Personnel to lead and control................................................................... Check and handling of ammunition ....................................................... Precautions in case of malfunction.......................................................... Destruction of duds .................................................................................. 3.19.1 3.19.2 3.19.3 3.20.1 3.20.2 3.20.3 3.20.4 3.20.5

GUIDED MISSILE SYSTEM – ROBOT 70

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UD 2-1 Armed Forces Safety Rules and Regulations.

Danger area in front of the weapon......................................................... Danger area behind the weapon.............................................................. Firing over and to the side of personnel.................................................. Hearing protection....................................................................................

3.20.6 3.20.7 3.20.8 3.20.9 3.21.1 3.21.2 3.21.3

ARTILLERY, TESTING AND TRIAL FIRING

In general................................................................................................... Personnel to lead and control................................................................... Test and trial firing with artillery from area outside firing areas – additional regulations............................................................................... General....................................................................................................... General.......................................................................................................

ToC

PRECAUTIONS, MALFUNCTION

3.22.1 3.23.1

FIRING AT LAND BASED TARGETS WITH SHIP ARTILLERY

KAP 4. PARACHUTE JUMPING
PARACHUTING
In general................................................................................................... Personnel.................................................................................................... Materiel...................................................................................................... Aircraft/ speed........................................................................................... Jump field................................................................................................... Automatic release jumping....................................................................... Free fall jumping....................................................................................... Special regulations for parachute jumping in water.............................. Tandem jumps........................................................................................... Test jumping.............................................................................................. 4.1.1 4.1.2 4.1.3 4.1.4 4.1.5 4.1.6 4.1.7 4.1.8 4.1.9 4.1.10

KAP 5. DRIVING AND TRANSPORT DUTY
COORDINATING INSTRUCTIONS
In general................................................................................................... Transporting personnel............................................................................ Transporting materiel on vehicles........................................................... Towing personnel on skis.......................................................................... Driving military vehicles in reverse - ground guide............................... Military vehicle recovery.......................................................................... Driving with personnel in the gunner’s place in vehicles...................... In general................................................................................................... Crossing frozen rivers and lakes.............................................................. Wading....................................................................................................... Towing tracked vehicles............................................................................ In general................................................................................................... In general................................................................................................... The driver’s duty to check before transport........................................... Driver’s duty to check before unloading................................................. Check before use........................................................................................ Safety distances for setting up a fuel tanking store................................ 5.1.1 5.1.2 5.1.3 5.1.4 5.1.5 5.1.6 5.1.7 5.2.1 5.2.2 5.2.3 5.2.4 5.3.1 5.4.1 5.4.2 5.4.3 5.4.4 5.4.5

TRACKED VEHICLE P6 - 300M

COMMAND POST CONTAINER 2X1 AND 3X1 FUEL TANKFLAK 10,500 LITRES

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UD 2-1 Armed Forces Safety Rules and Regulations.

TRACTOR

In general................................................................................................... Personnel transport................................................................................... Crossing frozen rivers and lakes.............................................................. Special regulations..................................................................................... In general................................................................................................... Crossing frozen lakes or rivers................................................................ Crossing open rivers and lakes................................................................ Tracked vehicle, used as command post /communication base............ In general................................................................................................... Transit across frozen water...................................................................... In general................................................................................................... Crossing frozen rivers and lakes.............................................................. General.......................................................................................................

5.5.1 5.5.2 5.5.3 5.5.4 5.6.1 5.6.2 5.6.3 5.6.4 5.7.1 5.7.2 5.8.1 5.8.2 5.9.1

TRACKED VEHICLE 206

LIGHT ALL-TERRAIN VEHICLES, SUMMER SNOWMOBILE

MOTORCYCLES

CROSS COUNTRY VEHICLE MB 240/290 (VARIOUS VERSIONS WITH MOUNTED GUN, ETC.)
General....................................................................................................... IVECO LMV............................................................................................. 5.10.1 5.10.2

JOINT PROVISIONS FOR TRACKED ARMOURED VEHICLES, AS WELL AS SISU/PASI AND FUCHS
General....................................................................................................... Movement on roads and across terrain................................................... Reversing.................................................................................................... Co-training/ duty between armourde vehicle and footsoldiers............. Driving with periscopes/closed hatches................................................... Transit across waterways/wading............................................................ Driving across frozen rivers and lakes.................................................... Swimming................................................................................................... Recovery.....................................................................................................

5.11.1 5.11.2 5.11.3 5.11.4 5.11.5 5.11.6 5.11.7 5.11.8 5.11.9

LEOPARD TANK 1A5NO, LEOPARD TANK 2A4NO, ARMOURED RECOVERY VEHICLE (BERGEPANZER) NM217, ARMOURED COMBAT ENGINEER VEHICLE NM189 AND ARMOURED BRIDGE-LAYING VEHICLE NM190
General....................................................................................................... Boarding and alighting............................................................................. Movement on roads and across terrain................................................... Wading and driving over soft ground..................................................... The duties of personnel being transported............................................. General....................................................................................................... General....................................................................................................... Boarding and alighting............................................................................. Movement on roads and across terrain................................................... Swimming................................................................................................... 5.12.1 5.12.2 5.12.3 5.12.4 5.12.5 5.13.1 5.14.1 5.14.2 5.14.3 5.14.4

TRACKED ARMOURED VEHICLE CV9030N/F1 M113 SERIES VEHICLES

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UD 2-1 Armed Forces Safety Rules and Regulations.

SISU/PASI AND FUCHS

General....................................................................................................... Boarding and alighting............................................................................. The duties of personnel being transported............................................. Reversing.................................................................................................... Transit across waterways, wading........................................................... Swimming...................................................................................................

5.15.1 5.15.2 5.15.3 5.15.4 5.15.5 5.15.6

ToC

LOADING AND TRANSPORTATION OF WHEELED AND TRACKED VEHICLES ONTO RAILWAY TRUCKS/DRIVING WITHIN RAILWAY ZONES
General....................................................................................................... Loading and unloading from railway trucks.......................................... 5.16.1 5.16.2

LOADING AND UNLOADING OF WHEELED AND TRACKED VEHICLES ONTO SHIPS/DRIVING WITHIN PORT AREAS
General....................................................................................................... Loading and unloading from ships.......................................................... 5.17.1 5.17.2

LOADING/UNLOADING OF TRACKED AND WHEELED VEHICLES FROM AN ARTICULATED TRAILER (HEAVY GOODS VEHICLE)
General.......................................................................................................

5.18.1

STATIONARY USE OF VEHICLES/PRECAUTIONS AGAINST CARBON MONOXIDE POISONING
General....................................................................................................... 5.19.1

INSPECTION AND WORK UNDER, IN FRONT OF OR TO THE REAR OF MOTOR VEHICLES
General....................................................................................................... General....................................................................................................... General....................................................................................................... Responsibility............................................................................................. Movement at airports................................................................................ Loading and unloading............................................................................. During flights............................................................................................. General....................................................................................................... Danger zone............................................................................................... Responsibility............................................................................................. Smoking/open fire..................................................................................... Ear protection............................................................................................ Landing zone.............................................................................................. Transportation of personnel..................................................................... Transportation of materiel....................................................................... Overview of signs and signals................................................................... Procedures within loading and unloading zones.................................... Planning of NVG operations....................................................................

5.20.1 5.21.1 5.22.1 5.22.2 5.22.3 5.22.4 5.22.5

ROADBLOCKS – SENTRY DUTY AND MARKINGS AIR TRANSPORT

HELICOPTER TRANSPORT

5.23.1 5.23.2 5.23.3 5.23.4 5.23.5 5.23.6 5.23.7 5.23.8 5.23.9 5.23.10 5.23.11

SAFETY REGULATIONS FOR OPERATIONAL DRIVING IN CONNECTION WITH ESCORT SERVICES AND MILITARY BODYGUARD SERVICES
General....................................................................................................... 5.24.1

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UD 2-1 Armed Forces Safety Rules and Regulations.

Technical driving exercises....................................................................... Tactical driving exercises .........................................................................

5.24.2 5.24.3

KAP 6. EXERCISES AND OTHER DUTY
CONDUCT OF PERSONNEL ON THE GROUND WHEN TRACKED ARMOURED VEHICLES PARTICIPATE IN EXERCISES
In general................................................................................................... 6.1.1

PERSONAL SAFETY IN THE USE OF MATERIEL THAT CONTAINS OR MAY CONTAIN RADIOACTIVE MATTER, OR WHICH EMITS RADIATION DURING USE
General....................................................................................................... Radiological sources.................................................................................. X-radiation from non-medical radiation sources................................... Radio frequency radiation from radar and aerials in the frequency range 10 KHz – 300 GHz.......................................................................... Laser radiation.......................................................................................... FIBRE......................................................................................................... General....................................................................................................... Laser filters................................................................................................ Hazardous areas without laser filters...................................................... General....................................................................................................... User requirements..................................................................................... Specific provisions..................................................................................... Chemicals................................................................................................... Radiological................................................................................................ Toxic industrial materials......................................................................... Live Agent Training.................................................................................. Routines and procedures for the transportation of sample materials for analysis and verification..................................................................... General....................................................................................................... General....................................................................................................... Weapon combat......................................................................................... Unarmed combat....................................................................................... Close combat shooting.............................................................................. Exercise leader’s (instructor’s) duties..................................................... General....................................................................................................... 6.2.1 6.2.2 6.2.3 6.2.4 6.2.5 6.2.6 6.3.1 6.3.2 6.3.3 6.4.1 6.4.2 6.4.3 6.5.1 6.5.2 6.5.3 6.5.4 6.5.5

RB 70 GUIDED MISSILE SYSTEM

USE OF SIMULATORS FROM SAAB TRAINING SYSTEMS

CBRN TRAINING, EXERCISES AND OPERATIONS

DISINFECTION OF DRINKING WATER IN THE FIELD CLOSE COMBAT

6.6.1 6.7.1 6.7.2 6.7.3 6.7.4 6.7.5 6.8.1

URBAN WARFARE TRAINING (SIBO)

MOUNTAIN CLIMBING AND PASSAGE ACROSS DIFFICULT TERRAIN
General....................................................................................................... The exercise leader’s duties...................................................................... Implementation.......................................................................................... Zip lining across ravines........................................................................... Zip lining across waterways..................................................................... Rope descent..............................................................................................

6.9.1 6.9.2 6.9.3 6.9.4 6.9.5 6.9.6

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SAFETY REGULATIONS WHEN SETTING DOWN FROM A HELICOPTER VIA RAPPEL, FAST ROPE, SPIE PICKUP AND HELOCAST
General responsibility............................................................................... Rappelling.................................................................................................. Fast rope..................................................................................................... Spie pickup................................................................................................. Helocast...................................................................................................... 6.10.1 6.10.2 6.10.3 6.10.4 6.10.5 6.11.1 6.11.2 6.11.3 6.11.4 6.12.1 6.12.2 6.12.3 6.12.4 6.12.5 6.12.6

ToC

CLIMATE-RELATED INJURIES

General....................................................................................................... Special conditions in high temperatures................................................. Special conditions in low temperatures................................................... Special conditions in UV radiation (sunlight)......................................... Assault courses and steeplechases............................................................ Transit across waterways......................................................................... Transit by rope or temporary bridge arrangements............................. Use of weapons........................................................................................... Physical activity in hot weather............................................................... Competitive events in cold weather.........................................................

SPORTS FACILITIES AND SPORTS EVENTS

SAFETY REGULATIONS FOR INFUSION COURSES IN THE NORWEGIAN ARMED FORCES
General....................................................................................................... Precautionary measures........................................................................... Infusion course procedures for testing of HIV and Hepatitis............... Practical exercises..................................................................................... 6.13.1 6.13.2 6.13.3 6.13.4 6.14.1 6.14.2 6.14.3 6.14.4

WINTER SERVICE

Divisional competence requirements within winter service for landbased operations in the Norwegian Armed Forces................................ Preparation and implementation of exercises in terrain in which there is a risk of avalanches occurring......................................................... Safety regulations for snow holes/pits..................................................... Actions in special circumstances in avalanche risk terrain...................

PROVISIONS FOR HANDLING FIRE, HEATING IN A TENT, LIGHTING COOKING APPARATUS AND LIGHTING EQUIPMENT
Heating in a tent........................................................................................ Lighting cooking apparatus and lights.................................................... Carbon monoxide poisoning..................................................................... Shrubland burning and grass and heathland burning in Norwegian Armed Forces areas.................................................................................. Use of fire during exercises in forests and fields.................................... In general................................................................................................... Mechanical Bridge Layer, Leguan..........................................................

6.15.1 6.15.2 6.15.3 6.15.4 6.15.5 6.16.1 6.16.2

USE OF MACHINERY AND TOOLS

SAFETY REGULATIONS WHEN BUILDING A FIELD COMMUNICATION LINE
In general...................................................................................................

6.17.1 6.18.1 6.18.2 6.18.3

RADIO AND RADIO LINE DUTY

In general................................................................................................... Handling of accumulators........................................................................ Fastening equipment inside vehicles........................................................

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Earthing of radio/radio line equipment.................................................. Antennae.................................................................................................... Microwave equipment............................................................................... Safety regulations when building field communication lines................ Where to place communications installations, radio/ radio lines when in the proximity of high-voltage power lines................................ Hearing protection.................................................................................... Transport and handling of flammable liquids........................................

6.18.4 6.18.5 6.18.6 6.18.7 6.18.8 6.18.9 6.18.10

SAFETY REGULATIONS FOR TRAINING CONDUCT AFTER CAPTURE (CAC)
In general................................................................................................... 6.19.1 6.20.1 6.20.2 6.20.3 6.20.4

MEDICAL SERVICE

In general................................................................................................... Required competence................................................................................ Plan for first aid, treatment and evacuation........................................... Carbonmonoxide poisoning .....................................................................

HEARING, NOISE INJURIES AND PERSONAL PROTECTIVE EQUIPMENT
Noise injuries ............................................................................................ Hearing protection in the Armed Forces................................................ 6.21.1 6.21.2

SEARCH AND RESCUE OPERATIONS IN CONNECTION WITH ACCIDENTS AND INCIDENTS IN THE DEFENCE FORCES
Minor accidents......................................................................................... 6.22.1 6.23.1 6.23.2 6.23.3 6.23.4 6.23.5 6.23.6

RESCUE SERVICE

In general................................................................................................... Responsibility/leadership.......................................................................... Leadership.................................................................................................. Armed Forces’ support............................................................................. Organization.............................................................................................. Reporting and investigation of accidents and incidents in the Armed Forces..........................................................................................................

KAP 7. MILITARY WORKING DOGS/ RIOT CONTROL
USE OF MILITARY WORKING DOGS
In general................................................................................................... Personnel.................................................................................................... Materiel and equipment............................................................................ Personal protective equipment (PPE)..................................................... Transport................................................................................................... Kennelling ................................................................................................. Training and exercises.............................................................................. Injuries....................................................................................................... In general: Using military working dogs in situations characterized by constraint or where force is being used.............................................. Situations of acting in self-defence: the Criminal Code’s § 48.............. The principle of necessity: the Criminal Code’s § 47............................ Military police............................................................................................ Responsibility when using military working dogs.................................. Using military working dogs when means of force are applied............ Using working dogs for apprehending individuals................................ Marking military working dogs while training and during exercises...................................................................................................... 7.1.1 7.1.2 7.1.3 7.1.4 7.1.5 7.1.6 7.1.7 7.1.8 7.1.9 7.1.10 7.1.11 7.1.12 7.1.13 7.1.14 7.1.15 7.1.16

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Using dogs to search for explosives.......................................................... Searching for live land mines................................................................... Searching for bomblets and bomblet packaging, plus EOD (duds).......................................................................................................... Personal protective equipment (PPE).....................................................

7.1.17 7.1.18 7.1.19 7.1.20 7.2.1 7.2.2 7.2.3 7.2.4 7.2.5 7.2.6 7.2.7 7.2.8 7.2.9 7.2.10 7.2.11 7.2.12 7.3.1 7.3.2 7.3.3 7.3.4

SAFETY REGULATIONS FOR RIOT CONTROL

ToC

In general................................................................................................... Officer conducting the exercise and safety controllers.......................... The token force.......................................................................................... Medical readiness...................................................................................... Required equipment.................................................................................. Using batons/sticks.................................................................................... Vehicle use.................................................................................................. Using dogs.................................................................................................. Using open flames...................................................................................... Use of pepper spray................................................................................... Using deluge guns...................................................................................... Using CS..................................................................................................... General....................................................................................................... Definitions.................................................................................................. Pepper spray.............................................................................................. Batons.........................................................................................................

SAFETY REGULATIONS FOR USE OF LESS LETHAL WEAPONS

KAP 8. ACTIVITIES IN COASTAL ENVIRONMENTS, RIVERS AND LAKES
IN GENERAL
Introduction .............................................................................................. Professional authority............................................................................... Leadership and responsibilities................................................................ Certification............................................................................................... Duty on and near lakes and rivers........................................................... Climate....................................................................................................... Definitions.................................................................................................. Personal flotation devices/ Rescue Equipment....................................... Suggested reading...................................................................................... Wading across rivers................................................................................. Swimming across rivers............................................................................ Swimming................................................................................................... Command and control.............................................................................. Special regulations for swimming in pools.............................................. Ferry, including possible use of pontoons............................................... Vessels......................................................................................................... The Navy’s directive for diving, surface swimming and use of pressure chamber............................................................................................. Bridging...................................................................................................... Crossing frozen rivers and lakes.............................................................. The quality of the ice................................................................................. Marching order and documentation of military traffic on icecovered waters .......................................................................................... Tolerance exercise for breaking through ice.......................................... 8.1.1 8.1.2 8.1.3 8.1.4 8.1.5 8.1.6 8.1.7 8.1.8 8.1.9 8.2.1 8.2.2 8.2.3 8.2.4 8.2.5 8.2.6 8.2.7 8.2.8 8.2.9 8.2.10 8.2.11 8.2.12 8.2.13

SPECIAL RULES AND REGULATIONS FOR ACTIVITIES

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SPECIAL REGULATIONS FOR USE OF CIVILIAN VESSELS
Definition.................................................................................................... Transport on cutters/smacks.................................................................... Supplementary regulations for LCP, cutters and smacks.....................

8.3.1 8.3.2 8.3.3

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APPENDICES
CONSTRUCTION OF SAFETY TEMPLATES FOR DI- Appendix 1 RECT FIRING WEAPONS.................................................. CONSTRUCTION OF TEMPLATES FOR SECTOR Appendix 2 CHARGES.............................................................................. ENGELSK UTGAVE AV BL 750........................................ Appendix 6B REGULATIONS FOR SECURING AIR TRAFFIC DU- Appendix 7 RING FIRING AND MORTAR EXERCISES, TEST FIRING, ETC. ........................................................................... RADARSET GIRAFFE MK IV........................................... Appendix 8A ARTILLERY HUNTING RADAR (ARTHUR)................. Appendix 8B RADAR SET AN/PPS-15...................................................... Appendix 8C METEOROLOGICAL SET NO/MMQ-10......................... Appendix 8D LOW ALTITUDE SURVEILLANCE RADAR (LASR) Appendix 8E AN/TPQ 36A........................................................................... TOR ELECTRONIC COUNTER-MEASURE SYSTEM, Appendix 8F PROHIBITED AREA AND DANGER AREA................... SATELLITE EQUIPMENT................................................. Appendix 8G RC-IED JAMMER................................................................ Appendix 8H THICKNESS OF COVER.................................................... Appendix 9 TRANSPORTATION AND HANDLING OF FLAMAppendix 11A MABLE LIQUIDS AND DANGEROUS SUBSTANCES .................................................................................................. TRANSPORTATION, HANDLING AND STORAGE Appendix 11B OF RADIOACTIVE SOURCES.......................................... TRANSPORTATION, HANDLING AND STORAGE Appendix 11C OF CS AND SIMULANTS, CHEMICAL AGENTS.......... RESCUE SERVICE DURING ACCIDENTS AND INCI- Appendix 12A DENTS IN THE NORWEGIAN ARMED FORCES......... REPORTING AND INVESTIGATING OF ACCIDENT- Appendix 12 B S AND INCIDENTS IN THE NORWEGIAN ARMED FORCES................................................................................. SAFETY REGULATIONS FOR USE OF LASERS.......... Appendix 13 DIRECTIVE FOR EXERCISES ETC. AT POWER Appendix 14 SUPPLY INSTALLATIONS................................................ INPUT DATA FOR HOW TO DRAW UP SAFETY Appendix 15 TEMPLATES......................................................................... INPUT DATA FOR DRAWING UP SAFETY TEMPLA- Appendix 16 TES.......................................................................................... INPUT VALUES FOR CONSTRUCTING SAFETY Appendix 17 TEMPLATES......................................................................... INPUT VALUES FOR CONSTRUCTING SAFETY Appendix 18 TEMPLATES.........................................................................

ToC

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INPUT DATAFOR DRAWING UP SAFETY TEMPLA- Appendix 19 TES.......................................................................................... INPUT VALUES FOR CONSTRUCTING SAFETY Appendix 20 TEMPLATES......................................................................... INPUT VALUES FOR CONSTRUCTING SAFETY Appendix 21 TEMPLATES......................................................................... TESTING OF NON-QUALIFIED WEAPON SYSTEMS Appendix 22 AND AMMUNITION............................................................ FORM FOR EVALUATING/ASSESSING RISK.............. Appendix 24 LIST OF CERTIFIED EDUCATION AND TRAINING Appendix 25 IN THE ARMY...................................................................... APPLICATION FOR WAIVER FROM UD2-1................. Appendix 26

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0
0.1
0.1.1
0.1.1.1

INTRODUCTION AND DEFINITIONS
PURPOSE
Preface by the Chief of Staff of the Norwegian Army’s (COS NoA)
I lay down UD 2-1, the Norwegian Defence Forces’ safety regulations for military activity on land 1, for use in the Armed Forces. Chap-0 UD 2-1 regulates a minimum of safety regulations. Anyone who is responsible for carrying out activities must through personal risk assessments take the necessary safety measures, based on the skills of the personnel and local conditions. Should the risk assessment indicate unacceptable risk, the activity is not to be carried out as originally planned. Other ways of carrying out the activity or solving the mission must be considered. Risk is part of the nature of operations and military activities. In order to train in a realistic manner, it is important to strike a good balance between safety and risk. UD 2-1 is to contribute to striking the right balance in order to make training as beneficial as possible. UD 2-1 is a set of regulations that also apply during operations abroad. We must ensure that the difference between training at home and operations abroad becomes as little as possible. This applies to use of materiel, training, procedures and observing the safety regulations. Safety is the Chief’s responsibility, but we are all dependent on each and every one of us taking responsibility for individual safety as well as the safety of others. We are to reduce the risk of accidents and serious incidents for our personnel and the Armed Forces’ surroundings by: good attitudes – solve the mission and take care of the personnel making sure that education and training are adapted to the level of competence and skills the personnel possess having routines and procedures that give room for the fact that human error and technical failure may occur reporting accidents, near-accidents and deviations

Figure: 0.1 Chief of Staff of the Norwegian Army 1 With land based military activities is meant, education, training, exercises or operations on land, in coastal areas, lakes and rivers. More specific delimitation is set by the specific rule or regulation for each activity

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0.1.2
0.1.2.1

Application
These regulations apply to land military activity in Norway, when no other superior regulations, civilian or military; or regulations provided by the Chief JOHQ for units under his/her command say otherwise. UD 2-1 applies to units under the command of JOHQ solving missions during operations in Norway and abroad. See also § 0.1.3. These regulations apply above regulations that might be found in weapon regulations, instructions, etc.

0.1.3
0.1.3.1

Deviation
In general. These regulations can only be deviated from when emergencies or other special conditions make it necessary. Special conditions might be in connection with the carrying out of operations and training of special techniques for solving missions during operations. In all cases, an assessment is to be made, including risk assessment, weather conditions, time aspect, situation in the area, safety for personnel, etc. Deviations - operations both in Norway and abroad. Unless other regulations have been provided by the Chief JOHQ, the following regulations apply to Norwegian units under JOHQ command: 1. UD 2-1 applies, but must give way for special operational demands. Special operational demands occur when a certain way of acting is required in order to solve the mission in accordance with provided orders/instructions and within the mandate, or when deviation poses less risk than observing the regulations would. Should the situation call for it, the commander of an operational unit abroad2 is to give written approval in advance, stating when UD 2-1 might be deviated from. Deviations – exercises, training and education in Norway and abroad. These regulations may be deviated from in connection with exercises, training and education in Norway or abroad. For units who need to deviate from the regulations, the following procedure is to be used: The need to deviate from the regulations is to be presented to the one who is professionally responsible, see the appendix on professional responsibility, through the chain of command. The professional authority is to provide approval of the activity in writing, based on necessity, documented skills and approved plan for how the activity is to be conducted.

0.1.3.2

0.1.3.3

After having received approval from the professional authority, the commander may allow deviations from the regulations and put it in writing, to be communicated through the chain of command. The following of indipendent unit is are to receive copies of the document allowing to 2 *)CO people or institutions defined as CO of a unit dipatched from NJHQ deviations from the rules to be made: CO of a multinational force such as QRF/RCN and under the command of the The Army’s Safety Inspector or CO of PRT/RCN)

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0.1.3.4

The Safety Inspector or the one holding a similar position within the relevant branch The respective professional authorities.

Levels for approving deviations to be made: The lowest levels for allowing deviations from the regulations in writing, are for the defence branches and joint institutions the following: JOHQ: Chief JOHQ for units under JOHQ’s command, in Norway and abroad. Army: Chief of the Army Staff Navy: level 3 chiefs, Chief Coastguard, Chief Coast Squadron and Chief of the Navy’s educational institutions Air Force: Chief of the Air Force Staff Home Guard: Chief of the HG Staff Joint institutions: (e.g. VPV, the NDLO, FHS, the Medical Corps: Chief of the respective institutions.

Chap-0

0.1.4
0.1.4.1

Responsibility for the regulations
The Chief of the Army Staff holds the responsibility of interpreting and providing information about the regulations, as well as the overall responsibility for general guidance and training. All commanders are responsible for making sure that their own personnel as well as personnel that have been attached to their unit, know and observe the safety regulations.

0.1.5
0.1.5.1

Responsibility for revision of regulations, announcements and publication
Responsibility for developing new regulations and making revisions of old regulations In accordance with the delegationary document issued by the Chief of Defence, dated 8 October 2007, the Chief of the Army Staff has been given the authority to publish the regulations. The Chief of the Army Staff has given the authority to develop and update UD 2-1 to the Army’s Safety Inspector and to the professional authorities within their areas of responsibility. See the division of professional responsibilities. The individual professional authority has on behalf of the Chief of the Army Staff the responsibility for implementing necessary regulations within their respective areas of responsibility. The Army’s Safety Inspector is on behalf of the Chief of the Army Staff responsible editor and publisher of these regulations. The work is being supported by the HVS staff. Publication UD 2-1, the Norwegian Defence Forces’ safety regulations for land military activity, is published on the Norwegian Defence’s internal web. The document can be found in the FOBID database under the regulations portal, as well as under Army/Safety

0.1.5.2

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0.1.5.3

0.1.5.4

web with UD 2-1. The published electronic edition is the official and at all times updated version in force of this document. The document usually gets quarterly updates. Exceptions to this are when special and absolutely necessary requirements for making changes in addition to the quarterly revision of the document occur. Revision and corrections When the document is being revised and corrected, the publisher is to ascertain that the question has been looked into as thoroughly as possible, hence consider whether consequence clarification, hearings or consultation with legal or other professional authorities should be held prior to finalising authorization of the document. A main revision of the regulations is normally carried out biannually. The Army’s Safety Inspector/Chief of Norwegian Army Land Warfare Centre is responsible for carrying out new revisions. During revisions and corrections, changes and new regulations are to be implemented in the regulations. All changes and new regulations will be updated in the electronic edition as corrections and appendices. If the changes will have major consequences for safety, they may also be issued in a safety report. The edition on the safety web must always be checked for changes before an exercise or activity is begun. Procedure for corrections is under division of professional responsibilities. All changes since the last main revision in these regulations are marked with a grey backgroud color All changes made since the latest printed version are in this document marked by being written on a red-coloured background. Note: This only applies to the web edition in the FOBID database on the Norwegian Defence’s internal web pages. Abolishment of the regulations in this document A number of regulations or individual regulations are to be abolished when this seems adequate or when the respective regulations are no longer required. Regulations can only be abolished by the one holding the professional authority within the relevant field. See § 0.1.5

0.1.6
0.1.6.1

Introduction of new activities and types of materiel/equipment
The Defence Forces are constantly developing, which means for instance that new techniques are being developed and new equipment/materiel tested. For units/personnel in the Norwegian Defence Forces who start using materiel or techniques, either for ordinary use or as part of testing procedures/equipment, the following must have been worked out and documented: Basic description of concept/technique/use (including training programme) and training in these is to have been provided. Safety regulations for the activity in question and briefing in these must have been provided. Risk assessment of the activity.

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0.1.7
0.1.7.1

Modification/configuration change of materiel
Defence Forces’ materiel must not be used beyond the limitations set in laws, directives or military regulations. Materiel is to be administered in accordance with CHOD Norway’s Directive for administration and management of of materiel in the military forces. Modification/configuration change of materiel is not to be made without authorization. All suggestions for modifications and/or other changes of the configuration on materiel must be presented to the professional authority at the NDLO. For materiel that has been modified or changed, the professional authority (in accordance with division of professional responsibilities in UD 2-1, yellow pages) will decide whether § 0.1.6 will come into play as a consequence of the modification/change. Adaptation of materiel and equipment can be made as long as this does not come under the definition modification/configuration change. .

Chap-0

0.1.8
0.1.8.1

Certification
Certification is a process leading to a technical authorization and documentation of absolute and unalterable minimum skills as a basis for further practical training and education under guidance within a defined organizational framework. Certifications ensure documentation and a minimum level of competence within areas of great risk. Through certification level of skill and qualifications are documented in the form of a certificate, stating its duration and area of application. A list of current certification arrangements for land military activities can be found in appendix 25. The list is kept up-to-date in accordance with the list of professional responsibilities.

0.1.9
0.1.9.1

Materiel safety
Safety approved materiel Materiel for use in the Norwegian Defence Forces is to be approved for safety by the Chief of the NDLO, or the one acting under his/her authority. Materiel which is to be used in the Defence Forces is to be planned, constructed and made in a way which ensures that personnel using the materiel in the intended way will get optimal function and be protected from serious health injuries. The decision to deviate from using materiel which has been authorized can only be made by the Chief of Defence, or the one acting under his/her authority. In emergency situations, it might be necessary to deviate from the safety authorization of the materiel. Such deviations are to be reported later to the professional authority. References to superior regulations for materiel safety: The MOD’s guidelines for administration of materiel in the Defence sector. Directive for administration of materiel in the Norwegian Defence Forces. Regulations for administration of materiel in the Defence Forces. Regulations for authorization of materiel and materiel systems for use in the

0.1.9.2

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Norwegian Defence. Directive for practicing health, environment and safety during operative activities etc. in the Norwegian Defence.

0.2

DEFINITIONS
Afterburner An afterburner is a delayed combustion of igniters or charges during firing. It is not possible to determine the length of the delay, but in most cases it is between a few fractions of a second up to several minutes. Since there is no way of telling whether it is an afterburner or a misfire, a misfire must be considered as an afterburner, and the precautions and time intervals for the respective weapon type must be followed. All Terrain Vehicles, Summer, ATV/S ATV/S (4- and 6 wheel terrain bikes) are systems containing both vehicle and hanger where the systems are configured for the Armed Forces special use. All Terrain Vehicles, Winter, ATV/W ATV/W (Snowmobile) are systems containing both vehicle and sled, where the systems are configured for the Armed Forces special use. Ammunition A common denominator which comprises all kinds of weaponry that can be sent in a ballistic or guided path, such as projectiles, shells, torpedoes, bombs, guided weapons with the necessary charges, igniters, fuses, detonators and charges, chemical charges or charges made of other substances. In a wide sense, the term is not limited to weaponry as mentioned above, but includes in addition all explosives and pyrotechnical devices that can be used to illuminate, salute, blow out, speed increase, speed reduction separation, ejection of personnel, operation of materiel or stopping mechanisms, demolition, deception, exercises, training, guarding, hunting or sport. Authority The competence a person, unit or equivalent has to bind itself to or decide over others (make decisions). Avalanche risk area Terrain where avalanches may occur. All snow-covered areas of a mountainside or slope, where the difference in height exceeds 5 metres, where the sloping is steeper than 30oand where there is no dense forest. Barrel safe fuse Barrel safe fuses are fuses constructed in such manner that the projectile cannot explode in the barrel or at the muzzle and thereby causing injury to personnel. Blank ammunition Blank ammunition is all types of ammunition meant to mark or simulate gunfire. Blank ammunition normally has no projectile that leaves the barrel.

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Commanding Officer (C.O.) Commanding Officers can be found at several levels of the organization, depending on the position. In daily terms the commanding officer is normally meant Battalion Commander (Army/Air Force) or Squadron Commander (Navy). However in some cases in UD 2-1 the term Commanding Officer is used on lower levels such as Company Commander/Squadron Commander/Battery Commander (Army), Captain (Navy) or Battery Commander/Squadron Commander (Air Force). Unit weapons With unit weapons are meant MG3, 12.7mm heavy machine gun, M72, 84 mm recoilless rifle, 40mm GUR and ERYX, TOW, 81mm Mortar Duds Duds are ammunition which after having been fired, thrown, dropped or tried to be ignited in other fashions, did not function normally in use. In addition, the following are to be considered as duds: Ammunition that has been damaged in fire or tossed around due to explosions Damaged ammunition that can represent a risk Ammunition that has been found. Detonation A detonation begins with a shockwave, a condensing shock, caused by an initiating device, for instance a blasting cap. This shockwave moves through the explosive compound at a speed which is higher than the speed of sound, and is followed by the chemical transformation. The speed of the detonation varies from about 1500 – 9000 m/s. Detonator A component in an explosive train which can be made to detonate either by an electrical or mechanical impulse, by a flame or glowing fragments from a deflagrating substance. Its purpose is to initiate a stable detonation in the following link in the train Directive Those rules which decide the rights and duties of personnel, or rules that dictate how sub units are to perform their tasks. Exercise ammunition Exercise ammunition is ammunition with no explosive, pyrotechnical or other dangerous substances, and is meant for use in loading exercises, drills etc. Explosives A substance or mix of substances whose purpose is to initiate an explosive or pyrotechnical effect. The term does not apply to an explosive atmosphere of gas, vapor or dust. Explosion The mechanical and heat effect from the chemical reaction within an explosive substance during a detonation or deflagration in a closed confinement.

Chap-0

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Explosive ordnance disposal By Explosive ordnance disposal (EOD) is meant all duties connected to the search, tagging, reporting, removing or destroying of duds or other ammunition that must be removed from a shooting range or areas outside a shooting range. Removing/destruction of improvised explosive devices(IED) is considered as EOD. Destroying discarded/out-dated ammunition is not considered EOD Fail A fail is a total failure to function during firing. A fail may be caused by a faulty triggering device or a faulty ignition charge or main charge. A fail is in itself not dangerous. However, if it occurs during shooting and the weapon is very hot(especially automatic weapons), special precautions apply dependent on the type of weapon. Since a fail is not immediately distinguishable from an afterburner, it must be treated as an afterburner until it has been determined whether it is a fail or not. Firing position The position from where you fire. Firing range A limited area where you can have one or more firing positions Firing sector The firing sector (right, left limitation) gives the greatest (smallest) sideways horizontal traversing and is either given as a direction in the terrain, as a compass direction or as an aiming point and with a horizontal traversing from this. Fully restricted ammunition Ammunition which is prohibited to issue and use. Gel Gel means a fire hazardous material which has a half solid coningenncy, usually a liquid which has been added a thickening agent High Explosives An explosive substance which in normal use gives the characteristic effects of a detonation. Improvised Explosive Devices (terror bombs) Improvised Explosive Devices (IED). By improvised explosives (terror bombs) is meant, charges made and placed or planned placed, made to kill, disfigure, harass or disturb persons or groups of personnel, or to destroy and/or occupy private or public property. They contain explosives or an explosive, gaseous, pyrotechnical and/or igniting materials. They can consist of or contain military materiel, but are very often made from non-military materials. Infantery weapon Weapons with a calibre of .50/12.7mm or smaller Intermediary charge The intermediary charge is a high explosive part of the explosive train between the

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detonator and the main explosive charge. Its purpose is to enhance the shockwave from the detonator in a manner that ensures a reliable initiation of the main charge Legal authority The bases which give the competence to reach a legally binding norm. (for instance law, instruction, the armed forces’ command authority, right of association and instruction, right of ownership, practice, superior directive, agreements etc.) Mines A mine is an explosive device constructed to be placed under the ground, on the ground or above the ground and which is triggered by the presence, proximity or contact with a person, vehicle, aircraft, vessel or a landing craft. Misfire A misfire is an explosive device which in the course of trying to set it off, does not fire/detonate Non-Explosive – but dangerous substance Substances which when used in combination with certain ammunition types can cause special effects, for example white phosphorus. Professional authority Professional authority involves: the authority to decide and control professional issues within a specific area of expertise. the authority to adopt rules and regulations the authority to coordinate functions and activities across the chain of command. consulting, coordinating and executive activity

Chap-0

Publisher The person, unit or equivalent who is delegated the responsibility to publish a directive. Pyrotechnical ammunition Ammunition which in addition to containing combustible substances also contains chemical ingredients that cause fire, light, smoke or sound. Pyrotechnical ammunition can under certain conditions, be explosive. Restricted ammunition Ammunition with restrictions in use. Safety stop Safety stoppers are used to hinder a weapon to be directed too high, too low or outside the allowed sector limitations. Safety stops can be made from logs, sandbags, peat (turf), firing stand etc. placed in a manner so that the weapon can not be directed in the wrong direction. This must be checked by using the aims. Self ignition Self ignition of shells and grenades in a loaded weapon means that one or more

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explosive components ignite due to high temperature in the chamber. In such cases it is very likely that the booster charge and the igniter are set off prior to the explosives in the fuse or the shell. If this is the case, the firing will be in a normal fashion for the weapon. However, it should be considered most important to avoid loading hot weapons, unless firing can be done immediately after loading. Under no circumstances is the round to be left in the chamber longer than the prescribed time for each weapon type. Shooting With shooting is also meant the use of blanks, throwing of hand grenades, demolition and other similar exercises. Short range shell A shell in which everything but the shell bottom is made from plastic. The shell casing and the projectile is cast as one piece with a breakage point that makes sure that the projectile breaks loose from the casing and is fired in a ballistic path. At short ranges the projectile has about the same ballistic properties as a live round. Even though the light weight of the projectile results in a much shorter range, and the safety zone is considerably shorter, the short range shell is still considered a live round. Short range shell with tracer is the same ammunition with an aluminium tracer cap embedded in the projectile Simunition Training system for hand weapons, such as MP-5 and pistols. The system can be used both for single side or two sided exercises, and will when hit, give a colour marking of the hit point. The system can be attached to service weapons or permanently mounted weapons to be used in simunition exercises. Ammunition for MP-5 and pistols is the army 9mm casing with an undercalibred, easily deformable, hollow light weight plastic projectile which contains a soap based colour. It is to be considered fresh produce, since the colour after some time will dry up. Dried up ammunition is not suitable for two sided exercises. At short range the projectile’s trajectory is almost equal to the trajectory of a live round. It is absolutely necessary to use protective equipment when using Simunition. Without protection a hit from the ammunition may cause serious injury. The ammunition must not be confused with Simunition COT, which is a live short range round. Target area The target area is a part of a training field where fire can be directed from a specific firing position, with predefined types of weapons. The limitations of the target area are to be defined in the shooting range instructions for each specific shooting range, and will, to the extent that it is practically possible, be visibly marked in the terrain. The target area is to be chosen so that the risk for duds is as low as possible. In the target area, targets are established based on the needs and possibilities for the user. Based on the target area, the dangerous area is defined by using the safety template(s) for the weapon(s) allowed at the specific range. UTM Indication ammunition Training system for handguns, such as the MP-5 and pistols. The system can be used for both one-sided or two sided exercises, and will when used give a color marking

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for the hit point. The weapon system can be attached to the service weapon or placed permanently on weapons dedicated for UTM. Ammunition for the MP-5 and pistols is the army 9mm casing with an under calibre, easily deformable, hollow light weight plastic projectile which contains a lipstick based water soluble colour. At short ranges the projectile’s trajectory is almost equal to the trajectory of a live round. It is absolutely necessary to use protective equipment when using UTM. Without protection a hit from the ammunition may cause serious injury. The ammunition must not be mixed up with UTM short rang Chap-0

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1
1.1
1.1.1

COMMON SAFETY RULES AND REGULATIONS
INTRODUCTION
Land based military activities - Risk

Figure: 1.1 84 mm "Carl Gustav" Recoilless gun 1.1.1.1 Introduction Land-based military activity involves great risk. In order to realistically educate and train soldiers and divisions, we must be aware of risk. A prerequisite to achieving this is to establish a culture of risk-based approaches to activities. This requires the ability to assess risk in advance of, and during, the implementation of activities, while also demonstrating the ability to handle risk at a subsequent stage of such activities. The party responsible for the implementation of activities shall be capable of establishing a picture of the relevant risk, i.e. a risk picture. The purpose of risk assessment is to reduce risk to an acceptable level that is in direct proportion to the benefit achieved from resolving a task. Risk assessment shall be carried out before, during and after all activities/operations. The assessment shall be conducted at both superior and subordinate levels within an appropriate structure, thereby ensuring that the parties carrying out the activities/operations also implement a risk assessment.

1.1.2
1.1.2.1

Risk assessment

Definitions Safety is defined as an absence of conditions that lead to undesirable events, deviations or near-accidents/accidents.

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1.1.2.2

Risk is defined as the possibility that undesirable events may occur. Or: probability x consequence. Risk assessment is defined as the process that identifies, assesses and manages different risks. Risk assessment – 5-step process schematic
Step 1 Identify dangers Step 2 Evaluate The dangers Step 3 Develope actions og and make decition Step 4 Initiate actions Step 5 Supervise and evaluate actions

Chap-1

Figure: 1.2 Risk process 1.1.2.3 5-step process – contents 1. Identify hazards: a. Analyse the task. b. c. 2. Preliminary risk assessment: list all possible hazards associated with the different phases of the operation. List possible reasons why the hazards arise.

Assess the hazards: a. Determine the consequences of the various hazards: 1. Slight – in general, absence of consequence. 2. 3. 4. Low/minor – slight consequence. Moderate – may result in minor injury, minor sickness, minor damage to materiel. Severe – may result in serious injury, sickness, damage to materiel, etc. ‘Severe injury’ is defined as: any injury, physical or mental, which leads to a permanent or long term inability to work. Refer to the routines for notification of cases of ‘severe injury’ described at www.arbeidstilsynet.no. Critical/very serious – may result in death or serious injury, loss of vital materiel.

5. b.

Determine the probability of the various hazards occurring: 1. Very improbable – very unlikely or unlikely to occur. 2. 3. 4. Low probability – incident will seldom occur. Moderate probability – reason to expect that the hazard will occur at some point in time. High Probability – likely to happen/occur.

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5. c. 3.

Very high probability– will occur immidiately or in the course of a short period of time.

Preliminary resolutions regarding different hazards based on consequences and probability.

Develop measures that determine the remaining risks and make decition to; a. Develope measures against all risks: 1. Prioritize measures against dangers with a high risk. 2. 3. Determine the remaining risk. Make preliminary decition.

4.

Implement corrective actions. a. Apply corrective actions. b. communicate the measures to every level of the organisation;

5.

Monitor and evaluate the measures; a. Ensure that the measures are carried out and complied with at all levels. b. c. Be aware that changes may take place and that adjustments may need to be made. Implement corrective actions, if required.

Appendix 24 is used in the practical implementation of the risk assessment.

1.1.3
1.1.3.1

Risk management
UD2-1 provides recommendations, frameworks and limitations in respect of how risk shall be managed. Risk management is based upon: Professional authority, in which a research community has assessed the risk of a given activity in order to establish a standard for the management of the relevant activity. Experiential learning in which recommendations, frameworks and limitations manifest after, for example, risk areas resulting from events, mishaps or accidents have been revealed. Risk assessment in accordance with steps 1-5.

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The Norwegian Armed Forces shall, to the best of its ability, strive to detect risk before activities are undertaken, thus ensuring the safest possible implementation of such activities. The individual responsible for carrying out activities shall use the stipulated framework for risk management and must adapt it to the risk picture that has emerged via the risk assessment. This may involve additional measures to those described in UD 2-1. Risk management does NOT imply a reduction in specified safety measures.

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1.1.4

The responsibilities and duties of personnel

Chap-1

Figure: 1.3 Issuing orders 1.1.4.1 General In order to reduce risk when carrying out activities, all participating personnel, officers, recruits and privates shall: be aware of the responsibility they have towards their superiors, others and themselves possess thorough knowledge of the materiel they will handle and be aware of the risks that may result from improper use exercise care during all service that involves the handling of materiel, the implementation of techniques and compliance with safety regulations report any breach of prevailing safety regulations

1.1.4.2

Before any activity commences, each individual participant (including spectators and observers) shall be familiar with the safety regulations with which the individual has a duty to comply. During training and in specific briefings, all personnel shall receive instruction in the required sections of the safety regulations. Officers shall be familiar with their specific duties. Furthermore, officers shall be familiar with the responsibilities and duties of the individual, as well as the provisions for the individual types of materiel. The responsibilities and duties of the individual Individual, in this instance, is defined as: Any military personnel, including officers, recruits or privates, or civilians who, directly or indirectly, participate in the activity (also applies to spectators and observers). No personnel are permitted to handle materiel, weapons, ammunition or explosives on their own: before the individual possesses adequate knowledge and proficiency in the

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safe handling of materiel, as well as an awareness of the safety regulations that apply to the use of the relevant materiel and technique if the individual is under the influence of alcohol and/or drugs Anyone who feels unqualified shall notify his/her immediate superior. The individual shall demonstrate caution in the use of materiel, ammunition and explosives, in order to prevent accidents occurring. The individual has a duty to intervene in the case of any improper use of materiel, ammunition and explosives that contravenes prevailing safety regulations. The responsibilities and duties of the individual officer Officers in charge of education and training shall possess a thorough knowledge of the handling and use of the materiel and techniques in which they are providing instruction, as well as the relevant (central and local) safety regulations, cf. approval system for officers and recruits. An officer shall notify his/her immediate superior in the event that he/she feels unqualified to plan, lead or implement activities. In this respect, a particular responsibility is incumbent on the individual officer. Prior to the commencement of activities, the party in charge of education/training (e.g. company commander or similar) shall ensure that the individual possesses a satisfactory level of knowledge in the use and handling of materiel/techniques, as well as being familiar with the relevant safety regulations. Before undertaking any weapons instruction (for example, knowledge of weapons, sighting practice, trigger, commissioning and de-commissioning, close combat, etc.), the relevant officer (instructor) shall ascertain, through inspection, that all weapons and equipment are unloaded. Officers assigned as exercise leaders, firing commanders, blasting commanders, safety commanders, safety officers, safety controllers, etc., have a duty to familiarise themselves with provisions relevant to the particular officer. All officers shall be familiar with risk assessment methodology. All officers shall be capable of carrying out the risk assessment process and of implementing this for every type of activity for which they are responsible. The responsibilities and duties of the commander Every commanding officer responsible for the planning and implementation of activities, or who assigns an activity for implementation, shall ensure that: assigned officers possess the appropriate skills and are qualified for the task. new assigned personnel is given the appropriate training to be abel to fully function in his/her position personnel are capable of applying the prevailing safety regulations for the materiel and techniques being used suitable training areas/facilities/courses are at their disposal safety instructions for the assigned training area (shooting range, firing zone, facility, etc.) are made available correct ammunition, materiel and other resources are at their disposal officers are given sufficient time to prepare

1.1.4.3

1.1.4.4

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among officers who have been assigned to participate in activities, there is a minimum number with a blasting certificate who possess proficiency in the detonation of unexploded shells, when such situations arise. Divisions without personnel who possess a blasting certificate and the necessary proficiency, will be assigned such support a medical service plan has been prepared and made known and designated medical materiel and equipment is used

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1.1.5

Activity management
Chap-1

Figure: 1.4 Patrol out on mission 1.1.5.1 General Activities shall only take place under the direction of an exercise leader. Exercise leader, in this instance, is defined as any qualified officer, regardless of rank. The immediate superior commanding officer shall ensure that the officer functioning as exercise leader has attained the required level of competence and is qualified to direct the specified activity. Depending on the scope of the activity, the exercise leader may assign (or have assigned) the following assistants who may be given limited responsibilities: Range officer Safety officer in charge (Safety officer) During combined activities, it is normal to have a Safety officer in charge, responsible for the whole activity. He will then have the necessary number of safety officers, safety controllers and safety guard posts under his command Safety officer Safety controller Safety guard post

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Target officer with the necessary target personnel

1.1.5.2

The officer conducting the exercise and all safety personnel will carry a red arm-band The officer conducting the exercise may in the case of activities with less scope, take over the duties of the Safety officer, safety commander, safety officer, safety controller and target commander, insofar as this does not obstruct the activity or pose a risk to safety. In instances where an exercise leader possesses a blasting certificate, he/she may also take charge of the detonation of unexploded shells and bombs. The Officer conducting the exercise The Officer conducting the exercise is responsible for planning and directing the implementation of activities in such a way that the activities do not contravene the prescribed safety regulations and instructions. The exercise leader has special duties that must be complied with, including: ensuring that the required supplementary provisions to the prevailing safety instructions are carried out, based on the relevant risk picture studying the provisions that apply to the exercise leader, stipulated for specific activities in other parts of this regulation notifying participating personnel (also including spectators and observers) and assistants of the relevant safety regulations and instructions that apply to the activity ensuring that all personnel are equipped with ear protection in accordance with provisions where relevant, determining the firing position, field of fire, hazardous zone, ammunition dump, resting zone (e.g. for non-participating personnel), OP, etc. setting up roadblocks, issuing warnings and implementing safety measures as specified in the safety instructions ensuring that first aid equipment is to hand as well as the means of transport for the transportation of the injured, and medical personnel, in accordance with the provisions of the relevant activity, as well as local instructions. be in possession of fire-fighting equipment as specified in the safety instructions for the relevant shooting range and training ground/training facility. To the extent to which it is feasible, the risk of fire shall be reduced as follows: by making an appropriate choice of training ground/field of fire appropriate choice, use and handling of ammunition and materiel If a fire should occur in an area defined as an unexploded shell area, all personnel shall leave the vicinity immediately. Under no circumstances is it permitted to carry out fire fighting with personnel in such an area. In the event of fire, an unexploded shell area shall be cordoned off and the fire permitted to burn itself out within this area. cease all firing, abort any activity, when this is necessary for reasons of safety

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where relevant, ensure that explosives and priming devices are in place for the blasting of unexploded shells and bombs and, at any given time, be aware of the location of officers who possess blasting certificates where relevant, ensure that unexploded shells and bombs are detonated immediately, or as soon as activity has ceased if special conditions should make the detonation of shell(s) and bombs unfeasible on the same day that activity is in progress, a report shall be submitted as soon as possible to the administrative commander, the area marked and a sentry duty considered where relevant, ensure that a report detailing use of ammunition/explosives is submitted after firing/blasting (Form 750), refer to appendix 6AE

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Chap-1

1.1.5.3

1.1.5.4

The Officer conducting the exercise shall be present throughout the exercise in such a manner that he/she is able to carry out the assigned duties described above. If the exercise leader is assigned to other tasks not included in the exercise, a new exercise leader must be appointed. Shooting Range officer/ demolition officer Shooting range officer and demolition officer are appointed among qualified officers, qualified NCOs and enlisted men. Enlisted men may be authorized as "shooting range officer" by the CO. This requires a minimum 2 years relevant duty as an enlisted soldier, and that the preson has the necessary personal and professional competence Recruited personnel in charge of firing/blasting shall also comply with the provisions of item 1.1.4.3: The responsibilities and duties of the individual officer. The shooting range officer/ demolition officer is the leader of a special part of the exercise. He is given his responsibility, his duties and his area of work by the officer conducting the exercise. The duties of the shooting range officer appear in chapter 3: ‘Firing and specific provisions for the respective weapons. The demolition expert’s duties appear in item 2.4.2.3 . Safety officer in charge and safety officer Safety officers are ordered among qualified officers (or among qualified NCOs). It is normal to order one safety officer for each ongoing activity. If two activities are executed in close proximity of each other, there may be, if there is a good overview of both activities, ordered a joint safety officer for both activities. If the same activity is so widely dispersed, that one safety officer cannot lead the safety duty at all activity sites, an additional safety officer(s) is be posted. If more than one safety officer is appointed, a safety officer in charge is to be ordered as head of all safety officers involved. The safety officer in charge has the responsibility for the safety at all sites of activity. The safety officer in charge has the responsibility for the activity at the site he is ordered to. He has at his disposal the necessary safety controllers and safety guard posts. The safety officer in charge answers to the officer conducting the exercise and is

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responsible for the following: that the safety officers and safety controllers know their duties all activity is stopped or reduced when necessary for reasons of safety that all firing is within the set firing sector and set limitation in range that the ammunition is controlled in the prescribed manner that no personnel is within the danger area

1.1.5.5

1.1.5.6

In addition the safety officer in charge and the safety officer are bound to follow the rules and regulations in chapter 3 for each specific weapon. The safety officer in charge is the superior officer in matters concerning safety issues. The safety officer in charge shall be located where he/she can most easily direct the activity. The safety officer in charge shall, if possible, locate him/herself in the vicinity of the officer conducting the exercise or be in direct communication with the exercise leader. Communication shall normally be established between the safety commander, safety officer and safety controller. The safety officer in charge may, when appropriate, take over the duties of the safety controller. Safety controller The required number of safety controllers is assigned from among qualified officers, sergeants, corporals and privates. Officers participating in the activity may not simultaneously render service as a safety controller, with the exceptions that appear later in the individual section. Safety controllers shall not be assigned additional tasks. The safety controller has a responsibility towards the safety commander (safety officer) for ensuring that safety regulations are complied with. The designated duties of the safety commander (safety officer) also apply to the safety controller, similarly to the special duties of the safety controller for the individual activity/materiel type, described later in this regulation. The safety controller shall not leave the weapon or the zone to which he/she has been assigned as long as the activity is in progress. Safety guard post Safety guard post , in accordance with the specific provisions of the exercise leader/safety commander, will be assigned a limited task, such as: preventing anyone from entering the danger zone reporting when an aircraft or vessel enters the danger zone reporting any fire drawing attention to signals (signs)

1.1.5.7

Target officer The target officer has a responsibility towards the officer conducting the exercise for ensuring that targets are correctly positioned and that the target personnel's safety has been safeguarded. The target officer shall locate him/herself where he/she can best direct and control the service and shall, if possible, maintain communication with the officer conducting the exercise and safety officer. The target officer has the

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following special duties: prepare and maintain order with targets and fire marking(s) instruct target personnel notify the officer conducting the exercise when the target arrangement is ready and target personnel are safely under cover notify (give a signal) when the activity must cease for reasons of safety take note of, or be informed about, unexploded shells, as well as notifying superiors when necessary, cordon off the zone if an unexploded shell has been located

1.1.6
1.1.6.1

Reporting
All personnel shall be ordered to: report any undesirable events, deviations or near-accidents using the mandatory reporting systems report any circumstances that may result in changes and improvements to the prevailing central and local safety regulations

Chap-1

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2
2.1

AMMUNITION AND DUDS, MINES AND DEMOLITIONS
USING, HANDLING AND CHECKING AMMUNITION

Figure: 2.1 Explosion

2.1.1
2.1.1.1

In general
For reasons of safety, restrictions may be imposed on the use of ammunition. Such restrictions are made known through “Ammunisjonsrestriksjoner for Forsvaret” (“Restrictions on the use of ammunition in the Norwegian Defence Forces”), or by other means of communication. Before a type of ammunition is put to use, it is to be checked whether any restrictions have been imposed on its use. This paragraph does not address regulations for storage, transport, check, maintenance and destruction of cast-off or discarded ammunition. (Detailed instructions regarding these matters can be found in the "Retningslinjer for ammunisjonstjenesten i Forsvaret" (Guidelines for the ammunition service for the armed forces).) Regulations excepted are clearly stated. Before firing commences the ammunition is to be checked and prepped according to the regulations for the particular ammunition- and weapon type. See further paragraphs in these regulations, weapon manuals and technical manuals. It is forbidden to:

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use any other type of ammunition than the one that the regulations list for the type of weapon that is to be fired use ammunition for other purposes or in ways that are not listed in the prevailing technical manuals practice live ammunition loading except during firing practice load the weapon (put in the magazine/link ) before being ordered to, or before permission has been granted. While loading (putting in the magazine/link), weapons are to be pointed in a safe direction separating ammunition, fuses or other ammunition components is prohibited, unless the Norwegian Defence Logistic Organisation, General Material Munition (FLO FELLESKAP AMM AMMSIKKERHET) has authorized it. During EOD duty, while training or in live missions, ammunition/fuses/components may be separated, under the condition that authorized procedures, publications and tools are being used. All procedures are to be in writing and authorized by the NDLO, General Material Munition (FLO FELLESKAP AMM AMMSIKKERHET) before separating ammunition, fuses or other ammunition components commences. Empty ammunition components that can be used in training or for educational purposes are to be marked and accounted for according to the authorization for the mission. The personnel leading the EOD duty, as well as EOD personnel in live missions, who may have to perform such enterprises, are to have a demolition certificate in accordance with STANAG 2389. Testing ammunition without authorization from the NDLO, General Material Munition (FLO FELLESKAP AMM AMMSIKKERHET) is prohibited.

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Chap-2

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2.1.2
2.1.2.1

The responsibilities of the Discipline Authority
The NDLO, General Material Munition (FLO FELLESKAP AMM AMMSIKKERHET) are responsible for carrying out routine ammunition checks. The professional authority is responsible for presenting regulations concerning handling and checking ammunition, maintenance, storage, transport, and they decide which regulations are to be observed when it comes to reporting after ammunition has been used. The professional authority is to ascertain that information about restricted ammunition is distributed. When it comes to ammunition safety information, this is normally communicated through the “Restrictions on the use of ammunition in the Norwegian Defence Forces”. When distributing restricted ammunition the ammunition store is to alert the receiving unit that the ammunition is restricted, and provide the unit with a copy of the said restriction.

2.1.3
2.1.3.1

The responsibilities of the “User unit"
When ammunition is distributed the receiving unit is responsible for checking that the ammunition is of the correct type. When receiving restricted ammunition, it must be checked that a copy of the particular restriction is enclosed. The receiving unit is to ascertain that restrictions that might be imposed at a later time are duly registered and the ammunition marked. The receiving unit is responsible for making sure that the ammunition is stored according to the regulations. When the ammunition is

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distributed further, the exercising unit is to be made aware of possible restrictions and receive a copy of these.

2.1.4
2.1.4.1

The exercising unit’s responsibilities
The commander of the exercising unit is to pick qualified personnel for fetching ammunition. At the ammunition store, the personnel must ensure that they know all possible restrictions on the use of the ammunition, and report such restrictions to the unit commander. Before firing, the ammunition is to be checked and prepared according to the regulations, see other relevant UD 2-1 paragraphs, weapons regulations and technical information, particularly sections concerning safety devices and detonating devices (fuses). Ammunition that has been taken out of its original packaging is to be put back in the original packaging when not used. During exercises, ammunition is to be placed where it cannot be subjected to strains that may cause accidents. Ammunition is to be handled carefully, and must be protected against humidity and high temperatures.

2.1.4.2

2.1.5

Returning ammunition

Figure: 2.2 Desarming 2.1.5.1 Ammunition left after finished exercises, is to be returned to the delivering ammunition depot. Prior to returning ammunition an inspection is to be carried out, where the following conditions are to be checked : That the ammunition is undamaged and without missing parts That all transport safety devices and other protection measures are in place.

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That the ammunition that is being returned is in its original packaging , and that the LOT numbers on the ammunition and on the packaging match. That the contents of packages that are not full, have been packed so that they cannot get damaged in transport or handling

2.1.6
2.1.6.1

Returning empties
Packaging which one is obligated to return (such as pallets, boxes, cartridges, etc.) is to be undamaged, clean and dry. Empty casings are to be returned clean and dry. It is allowed to use empty ammunition boxes as packaging when returning empty casings and other empties that are to be returned. The boxes are to be marked with a label (form 755-1(2)) which shows which unit has checked the empties for live ammunition and explosives. The person signing the form attached to the box is responsible for ensuring that there are no explosives in that box. Also, the superior officer is to sign the attached form, confirming that the check has been performed. A Chap-2 duplicate of the form is to be placed inside the box. The forms and transfer papers are to be signed with “Free form explosives”. The receiving unit is to check the empties prior to storing. Empties must not be stored with live ammunition and explosives. Compare with "Retningslinjer for ammunisjonstjenesten i Forsvaret" (Guidelines for the ammunition service for the armed forces) item 3.2.1.19”

2.1.7
2.1.7.1

Irregularities when using/handling ammunition
During firing practice with live and/or blank ammunition, if any of the listed points should occur: 2 misfires or 2 consecutive duds from one weapon during the same firing practice, or 2 consecutive ammunition failures, or if the average number of duds exceeds 10% of the total number of shots/launches/blasts

the exercise is to be stopped.

2.1.8
2.1.8.1

Action when duds occur
If the officer in charge of firing believes that the cause for duds might be: unfavourable impact angle Unfavourable impact area Too small target or bad target material

The cause should be sought eliminated by trying: A new firing stand and /or new firing direction (impact area) Larger and /or more solid target material If the irregularities still occur during firing, the shooting must stop according to the guidelines mentioned in pt 2.1.7.1 and the incident is to be reported (see pt 2.1.11.1). If the officer conducting the exercise is of the opinion that the ammunition from a specific LOT causes misfires, the shooting shall not continue unless there is ammunition from a different LOT available for use. The same goes for demolition

2.1.8.2

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2.1.8.3

exercises etc. if short round or other irregularities occur. The incident is to be reported as specified in pt 2.1.11.1 During firing with higher densities of artillery and/or with mortars the Officer in charge of firing, is to assess whether or not the shooting should be stopped, depending on the number of observed duds.

2.1.9
2.1.9.1

Action when misfires occur during shooting exercises
If a misfire is caused by a fault in the weapon itself , the officer conducting the exercise exchanges the weapon and the shooting can continue. If the weapon continues to misfire , shooting is to be stopped according to the guidelines given in pt 2.1.7.1 and the incident is to be reported according to pt 2.1.11.1.

2.1.10
2.1.10.1

Reporting after shooting/ demolition/ throwing hand grenades
In general After firing ammunition of any calibre, after blasting, throwing hand grenades, etc., any exercising unit must fill in form 750 “Firing and environmental report when using ammunition/explosives” (see Appendix 6). For missiles, special regulations apply when it comes to reporting each individual according to system. The report is to be as accurate as possible when it comes to: Ammunition type, catalogue number, lot number, total number of shells/grenades fired/thrown, and number of duds, misfires or other irregularities. Weather conditions, temperature and the condition of the impact area – whether possible duds were blasted or not.

If one or several duds have not been blasted, 6 or 8-digit map references are to be provided, to indicate where each dud is located. If any irregularities should occur, these are to be reported according to § 2.1.11.1 After firing practice is over, the information is to be registered in the FISBasis web portal, digital form 750 (DBL_750). When the firing range or training area has been booked on Remedy/KOS and the timeframe for firing has been exceeded, an e-mail will automatically be sent to the officer in charge of firing/officer conducting the exercise with a link to DBL_750, so that the used ammunition can be registered. This link has to be used, in order to register the ID of the booking and prevent further reminders. If the firing range or training area has not been booked through Remedy/KOS, the following link is to be used: http://guru.ffi.mil.no/dbl750/ An example of an already filled out copy of form 750 can be found in Appendix 6b, which is to be used by foreign units when training on Norwegian firing ranges.

2.1.11
2.1.11.1

Reports of irregularities when using ammunition/explosives
If irregularities should occur or be discovered while using ammunition and explosives (regardless of calibre, see § 2.1.7.1, 2.1.8.1, 2.1.10.1) these are to be reported as soon as possible. The report is to be written on form 750 (additional missile report) and registered on the FISBasis web portal (DBL_750), see § 2.1.10.1. It is important that the form is filled in accurately and correctly. Should accidents or irregularities involving ammunition or explosives occur, which cause injury to personnel and/or materiel, this is to be reported preliminarily to the

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NDLO, General Material Munition/"FLO FELLESKAP AMM AMMSIKKERHET" as soon as possible, on phone number +47 61 19 12 30/ +47 62 51 57 20, mobile phone +47 992 15 740/41. Reports may still be sent to the NDLO, General Material Munition (FLO FELLESKAP AMM AMMSIKKERHET), use fax number +47 61 19 03 83/+47 62 51 57 25, or E-mail: FLO FELLESKAP AMM SKYTERAPPORTER, but only in addition to the electronic registration in DNL_750.

2.1.12
2.1.12.1

Smoking and the use of open fire
Smoking and the use of open fire are forbidden within a 30 m radius of ammunition. Exempted from this rule is blank ammunition and small amounts of ammunition for hand weapons used during field exercises. Practicality and common sense must be applied .

2.1.13
2.1.13.1

Ammunition - Test and trials
Chap-2 Tests and trials carried out by the professional authority at the Norwegian Defence Logistic Organisation are given dispensation from UD 2-1 regulations. A detailed testing programme is to be established, in which the element of risk is to be reduced to an absolute minimum. For safety regulations when testing authorized ammunition and weapon systems, see Appendix 22.

2.1.14
2.1.14.1

Rules and regulations for Range Officer
Before firing Check technical category/ restrictions and visually inspect the ammunition (NATO catalogue number/Lot) that is to be used. Transport ammunition according to classification and compatibility according to the regulations in force. Observe the regulations for how to handle and how to open the packaging. Follow the required instructions for conducting firing (weapon, ammunition, firing range/training area). Bring the printed version of BL750 - “Firing and environmental report when using ammunition/explosives” After firing Ammunition that has not been used is to be put back in its original packaging and marked correctly, before it is returned to the ammunition store. Returning packaging and empties. Packaging that is to be returned must be empty of explosives. Packaging is to be checked and clearly marked ”Empty of explosives”, date, and who performed the check/signature. Register firing results in manual BL750. Note: The correct Niin/Lot/technical category has to be used. The result is to be filed on the Environmental Database (MBD) web portal, a link will be e-mailed on FisBasis if the firing range/training area was booked through Remedy/KOS. If the firing range/training area was not booked through Remedy/KOS, use

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this link: http://guru.ffi.mil.no/dbl750/

2.2

DUDS, MOVEMENT WITHIN FIRING RANGES AND EXPLOSIVE ORDONANCE DISPOSAL(EOD)

Figure: 2.3 Duds

2.2.1
2.2.1.1

Duds
After being fired/thrown, shells may fail to explode due to a malfunctioning percussion primer. The reason why shells fail to explode, as well as the hazard level of an dud, are difficult to determine. Duds can be extremely sensitive and the slightest movement can cause them to detonate with full impact. Duds that have lain in place for years are equally dangerous. Therefore, the general rule is:

DO NOT TOUCH THEM MARK THE LOCATION WHERE THE UNEXPLODED SHELL WAS FOUND NOTIFY A HIGHER AUTHORITY OF THE FIND
2.2.1.2 Handling/moving duds A dud is usually destroyed in situ by personnel possessing a blasting certificate and expertise in EOD. Personnel moving through a zone in which duds are located, or are presumed to be located, should exercise caution. Use of an open flame or starting a bonfire in an dud zone is forbidden. The ‘Handbook for EOD in the Norwegian Armed Forces – EOD in firing ranges’ (HEOD-SØF) specifies which type of unexploded shell may be moved (low risk element). If, in exceptional circumstances, an unexploded shell of a higher risk

2.2.1.3

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2.2.1.4

2.2.1.5

2.2.1.6

element has to be touched or moved, precise knowledge of the ammunition’s construction and effect is necessary in order to assess the hazard level of the shell. This type of assessment and any subsequent moving of an unexploded shell may be undertaken by personnel possessing a Class III B or III F blasting certificate, or personnel given the authority to undertake such an operation. Registration and reporting Personnel should be assigned to grenade observation and/or counting the number of detonations in order to identify any duds and ascertain their location. When foreign divisions are carrying out training exercises on Norwegian firing ranges, a Norwegian liaison officer should ensure that the above is observed and that a report is completed and submitted to the firing range administration after cessation of the training exercises. In addition, refer to items 2.1.10.1 and 2.1.11.1. Marking Chap-2 Duds located on an army firing range that is in use should be identified with marker sticks. These should be available on all firing ranges. The sticks should be around 1.5 m long with red or orange painted tips. The length of the painted area should be 20-30 cm. The marker stick should be placed at the location of each individual unexploded shell or suspicious find. In all organised searches for duds, marking should be carried out as described in the ‘Handbook for EOD in the Norwegian Armed Forces – EOD in firing ranges’ (HEOD-SØF). Sentry duty If deemed necessary, an army sentry duty should be established or the area cordoned off to prevent people or domestic animals from being killed or injured as a result of duds. Sentry duty in civilian areas is the responsibility of the civil police authority.

2.2.2
2.2.2.1

Firing ranges and training grounds
Definitions In the context of EOD, ‘firing ranges and training grounds’ refers to all firing ranges, detonation zones and training grounds within, or outside of military areas that are used by, or have been used by, the Norwegian Armed Forces. ‘Dud zone’ refers to a restricted zone in which firing, throwing and detonation exercises with ammunition and explosives are being carried out, or have been carried out, which may result/have resulted in duds being present. Movement within firing ranges and training grounds A distinction is made between: military personnel a. civilians Military personnel Military personnel may move within firing ranges and training grounds in accordance with the guidelines of the firing range administration. The desired route should be submitted to the firing range administration for approval. Personnel should be notified of the risk of duds and of any special measures

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that should be adopted. b. Civilians Civilian personnel may move within firing ranges and training grounds at their own risk. This is regulated/announced in multi-purpose plans and by general and special markings, as well as through use of the media.

2.2.2.3

Movement within an unexploded shell zone A distinction is made between: military personnel a. firing range administration personnel civilians Military personnel Any types of manoeuvres and exercises in an unexploded shell zone is forbidden. Small units are permitted to move across an unexploded shell zone in order to reach the location where an assignment is to be carried out. This should be regarded as an administrative movement. Also, the desired route should be submitted to the firing range administration for approval. Personnel should be notified of the risk of duds and of any special measures that need to be adopted. Firing range administration personnel All work in unexploded shell zones connected with the preparation and maintenance of target materiel and the installation, should be planned and directed by personnel possessing a minimum Class I blasting certificate, with expertise in duds. Standing operational procedures (SOP) or general operational procedures (GOP) for working in an unexploded shell zone should be prepared. Civilians Civilian personnel may move within an unexploded shell zone at their own risk. This is regulated/announced in multi-purpose plans, as well as by general and special markings.

b.

c.

2.2.2.4

2.2.2.5

Firing ranges and unexploded shell zones – markings and warnings The Norwegian Defence Estates Agency is responsible for markings and warnings of unexploded shell zones in accordance with ‘The handbook for firing ranges and training grounds’. Derestricted unexploded shell zones These are former zones that have been cleared of duds and derestricted by the Norwegian Defence Estates Agency. The Norwegian Defence Estates Agency is responsible for managing unexploded shell zones that will no longer be used for firing practice. Manoeuvres and exercises will usually be permitted.

2.2.3
2.2.3.1

Explosive Ordonance Disposal(EOD)
This section contains the provisions for EOD in the Norwegian Armed Forces. The

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provisions are henceforth divided into three main groups: EOD in firing ranges and training grounds 2.2.3.2 EOD outside of firing ranges and training grounds clearance of improvised explosives (terrorist bombs)

Explosives ordonance disposal categories (EOD categories) EOD assignments are divided into categories according to the order of priority in which they are to be carried out. Category classification is dependent upon the potential risk or threat that an incident represents. Category A. This category covers incidents that represent a serious and immediate risk or threat towards personnel or vital installations/buildings. Category A incidents take precedence over all other incidents and clearance operations should be implemented immediately, without consideration of the risk to clearance personnel. Category B This category covers incidents that represent an indirect risk or threat towards personnel or vital installations/buildings. Analysis of the assignment should be undertaken, together with any necessary safe waiting time, in order to reduce the risk to EOD personnel. Category C This category covers incidents that represent little risk or threat towards personnel or vital installations/buildings. Analysis and planning of the assignment should be undertaken. A safe waiting time should be included and such assignments should be carried out in a way that exposes EOD personnel to the least possible risk. Category D This category covers incidents that represent no immediate risk or threat towards personnel or vital installations/buildings. These clearance operations are planned and carried out at an agreed time. Assignments should be carried out in way that exposes EOD personnel to little or no risk. Safe waiting time is included, as described in category C.

Chap-2

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2.2.4
2.2.4.1 2.2.4.2

EOD in firing ranges and training grounds
EOD is planned and implemented in accordance with the ‘Handbook for EOD in the Norwegian Armed Forces – EOD in firing ranges’ (REF-SØF), and ‘Handbook for EOD – EOD in firing ranges’ (HEOD-SØF). Classification EOD assignments in firing ranges and detonation zones usually fall within category D, cf. item 2.2.5.2

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2.2.5

EOD outside of firing ranges and training grounds

Figure: 2.4 Dismantling explosives 2.2.5.1 General The Norwegian Armed Forces has been assigned the responsibility of rendering harmless ammunition and explosives of military origin that are found in civilian areas. Ammunition and explosives that have not been the property of the Norwegian Armed Forces and ammunition and explosives owned by private individuals, civil agencies, institutions and companies are, in principle, not the concern of the Norwegian Armed Forces. Clearance of these types of ammunition and explosives is usually carried out by the Directorate for Civil Protection and Emergency Planning (DSB). It is normally assumed that the civil police authority will be notified of any ammunition and explosive finds in civilian areas. The civil police authority may, where necessary, request assistance from the military authority in rendering harmless such finds. In respect of clearance of ammunition and explosives, attention is drawn to the separate directive issued by the Norwegian Armed Forces Operational Headquarters (FOH). Classification EOD outside of firing ranges and training grounds may fall within any category, cf. item 2.2.3.2. Responsibility and authority Responsibility has been assigned to the FOH for rendering harmless ammunition and explosives found in civilian areas. The FOH should assess the scope of the assistance required and designate an EOD officer from the Norwegian Armed Forces to provide assistance to the civil police authority. Norwegian Armed Force’s divisions receiving a request for assistance from the civilian police should route such a request to the FOH. Requests received from parties other than the police should be routed to the police authority for the area in which the find occurred. The designated commander of the EOD group should carry out the assignment in collaboration with the relevant

2.2.5.2 2.2.5.3

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2.2.5.4

police authority, in accordance with prevailing procedures for rendering harmless an explosive device. The relevant police authority is responsible for the operation, including the evacuation of civilian areas, sentry duty, medical service and fire standby. The FOH telephone numbers are: 0565 6300 / 75 53 63 00. Implementation The clearance assignment’s category is crucial to how the assignment should be carried out. Such assignments should be undertaken by an EOD group (ERG). The ERG should comprise a minimum of 2 persons. The group’s commander should possess a Class III B or III F blasting certificate. The explosive device should be rendered harmless in accordance with prescribed EOD procedures. The ERG commander should submit his/her assignment plan to the police officer at the location. The plan should include: acceptable alternative solutions with risk assessment and probable extent of damage recommended alternatives, possibly in order of priority After authorisation has been obtained from the responsible police officer, the ERG commander should then render harmless the explosive device in accordance with the approved plan. If there is any disagreement between the ERG commander and the local police authority regarding the execution of the assignment, or the commander determines that he/she is not able to carry out the assignment, he/she should immediately notify the FOH to this effect and request clarification of the issue, or support in the assignment. Communications The EOD group should be in possession of communications equipment in order to maintain contact with both the responsible police officer at the location and the FOH, as well as maintaining necessary communication within the group itself. Reporting After the assignment has been concluded, the ERG commander should forward a written report to the FOH and the relevant police district. A transcript of the report should be forwarded to FAES. The report should be classified as CONFIDENTIAL.

Chap-2

2.2.5.5

2.2.5.6

2.2.6
2.2.6.1

Clearance of improvised explosives – IED (terrorist bombs)
General The Norwegian Armed Forces has been assigned the responsibility of rendering harmless improvised explosives IED (terrorist bombs) within civilian and military areas. The relevant police headquarters requests assistance in rendering harmless the IED from the FOH, refer to item 2.2.5.3. Classification IED clearance assignments may fall within any category, cf. item 2.2.3.2.. Responsibility and authority The FOH is responsible for the clearance of IEDs. Where necessary, the FOH has the authority to assign an authorised EOD officer to assist the civil police authority. Norwegian Armed Force’s divisions receiving a request for assistance from a

2.2.6.2 2.2.6.3

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2.2.6.4

civilian police authority should immediately route such a request to the FOH. The commander of the EOD group should carry out the assignment in collaboration with the relevant police headquarters, in accordance with the prevailing procedures for rendering harmless an explosive device. The relevant police headquarters is responsible for carrying out the operation, including evacuation, sentry duty, medical service and fire standby. Implementation The clearance assignment’s category is crucial to how the assignment should be carried out. The clearance assignment should be undertaken by an EOD group. This should comprise a minimum of 2 authorised IEDD operators. The destruction of a terrorist bomb should be carried out in accordance with prescribed working methods and neutralisation techniques. The ERG commander should submit his/her terrorist bomb neutralisation plan to the responsible police officer at the location. The plan should include: acceptable alternatives with risk assessment and probable extent of damage recommended alternative, or alternatives, in order of priority After obtaining approval of the acceptable alternative from the responsible police officer at the scene, the ERG commander then commences to render harmless the IED. If there is any conflict with the local police headquarters regarding the execution of the assignment, or that the ERG commander determines that he/she is not able to carry out the assignment, he/she should immediately notify the FOH to this effect and request support and clarification of the issue. Communications The ERG should be in possession of communications equipment in order to maintain contact with the relevant police headquarters, the responsible police offer at the scene, and the FOH, as well as maintaining necessary communication within the group itself. Personal safety equipment All personnel taking part in the assignment should be in possession of personal equipment in accordance with Norwegian Armed Forces IEDD specifications. Reporting Reporting After the assignment has been concluded, the ERG commander should forward a written report to the FOH and the relevant police district. A transcript of the report should be forwarded to FAES. The report should be classified as CONFIDENTIAL.

2.2.6.5

2.2.6.6 2.2.6.7

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2.3

MINES AND MINE TRAPS

Chap-2

Figure: 2.5 Collecting mines

2.3.1
2.3.1.1

In general
By "live mines" is meant: Specially made mines with a certain amount of explosive charge and an igniter, usually a specific igniter. Grenades and airdropped bombs (rockets) with explosives and igniting devices. Improvised mines built by using pre-made charges or other explosive materials and an igniter

2.3.1.2

2.3.1.3 2.3.1.4

In peacetime, live mines can only be used for instructional purposes and for demonstrations. Arming the mine during instructions is not allowed.. During demonstrations it is only allowed to fire one mine at the time. During the rest of the training only dummies and exercise mines are to be used. For exercise mines only the exercise charge is to be used and only as described. Igniters without blasting caps may be used during exercises If the packaging does not describe otherwise, all mines and igniters are to be transported separately so that there is no risk for sparkover. A mine with explosives but with no igniter is from a safety perspective to be

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2.3.1.5

considered as an explosive charge without an igniting device. For blast demonstrations , the following applies: the mine must not be set off by an igniter but by using a blasting cap set off by a non electrical or electrical device. If this is not considered to be an adequate initiating charge, an additional charge is to be used. mines placed in the terrain are to be marked personnel not participating in the preparations for the demonstration, must be placed under safe cover at least 10 m from the mines or at safe distance such a demonstration is considered to be a regular blasting with the purpose of showing the effect of a single mine. The same safety measures as for regular blastings are to be followed, with the exception of the danger area. This is illustrated further in the following pts

2.3.2
2.3.2.1

Laying mines
In peacetime the following mines can be placed: dummy mines exercise mines The mine fields must be: registered reported guarded

2.3.2.2

All the above according to the regulations. Fields containing exercise charges and live igniters must be guarded until the field has been cleared.

2.3.3

Clearing of mines

Figure: 2.6 Marking a mine

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2.3.3.1

2.3.3.2

2.3.3.3 2.3.3.4

During EOD of live mines in peacetime the mines are to be blasted on site after being located, if this is possible. The blasting element must be prepared in advance and only one man is to place the charge on the mine. The mines are to be demolished one at the time. During this part of the task, the safety regulations concerning blasting are to be followed. Even so, cf. this chapter pt 2.2.1.1 and following pts. If a mine, due to the damage of the blast, cannot be set off on site, it has to be disarmed and removed. The mine is to be transported to a safe place to be demolished. This must be done according to the existing rules and regulations. Disarming is to be ordered by the EODG O.C. When disarming is carried out the weapon descriptions/manuals are to be followed. Carrying out the disarming of mines requires qualified personnel. Clearing mines with exercise charges and/or live igniters must be carried out with extra care to avoid injuries. Information regarding the composition of the mine field must be collected before any EOD is carried out Chap-2 Light portable mine clearing system Danger area:

15

o

15 o

800 m Dangerous Area

Direction of fire 100 m

Firing point

200 m

Figure: 2.7 Danger area Action when misfire: The rocket engine does not start: Wait for 30 min. Contact the officer conducting the exercise.

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NOTE The officer conducting the exercise destroys the rocket and the igniter at a suitable place. Detonating fuse with charges does not go off after launching. Wait for 30 min. Contact officer conducting the exercise. 2.3.3.5 Heavy portable mine clearing system Danger area:

o 15

o 15

1500 m Dangerous area

Direction of fire

200 m

Firing point

400 m

Figure: 2.8 Danger area Action when misfire: The rocket engine does not start: Wait for 30 min. Contact the officer conducting the exercise. NOTE The officer conducting the exercise destroys the rocket and the igniter at a suitable place. Detonating fuse with charges does not go off after launching. Wait for 30 min. Contact officer conducting the exercise.

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2.3.3.6

Mine-clearing Line Charge (MICLIC) In general FLO/S has earlier acquired the Mine-clearing Line Charge (MICLIC) to be mounted on the tracked vehicle BV 206. This system is now in use in the Engineer Battalion. Personnel For explosive line charge M58 Personnel within ”AREA F” must stay inside an armoured vehicle (M113, LEO 1, etc.) or similar, and wear hearing protection: ear plugs and earmuffs. Bystanders without hearing protection must not stay within the ”DANGER AREA” or the “NOISE ZONE”. Bystanders with earplugs and earmuffs are to stay at least 1,000 metres away from and behind the EOD field training area. For explosive line charge M68 Personnel within ”AREA F”, vehicle crews excepted, must stay inside an armoured vehicle (M113, LEO 1, etc.) or similar, and wear hearing protection: earplugs and earmuffs. Bystanders are not to dwell within the ”DANGER AREA” or the ”NOISE ZONE” when the charge is fired. Danger area for firing an explosive line charge, detailed sketch of splinter zone for M58 and danger area for M68 explosive line charge

Chap-2

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Line of fire

X-2538M

Noise zone The rocket ramp point to the top of the page

30

o

30

o

Fragment zone

16 00

M

Area F Launch angle 47 + o2_

o

Figure: 2.9 Danger area M58

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Line of fire

Rocket launch ramp points to the top of page

30

o

30

o

Fragmentzone Area F 30 m
412M

Chap-2
183M

778M

Figure: 2.10 Detailed sketch of splinter zone when firing explosive line charge M58

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Line of fire

Noise zone 366M radius Rocket launcg ramp points to the top of page

30

o

X-2538M
30
o

Area F 30m radius o o _ Launch angle 47 + 2

Figure: 2.11 Danger area M68 Handling rocket engine misfires DANGER! Wait for at least 30 minutes after the last attempt of firing the rocket before you go near the launching pad. 1. Check visually that the rack has the correct elevation /45-470). 2. 3. Check the connection between the control box and the firing apparatus and between the control box and the launching pad. Check that the switch on the control box is in the position ”ROCKET” and try the firing apparatus once more, while you make sure that the handle/bar is pushed all the way down repeatedly. If the rocket functions, continue as normal and fire the explosive line charge. If the electric network seems to be okay, the problem may rest in the firing

4. 5.

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apparatus. 6. 7. Disconnect the firing apparatus, and move the switch on the control box to “TEST/SAFE”. Activate the firing apparatus until the green light comes on. If the green light does not come on, switch to another firing apparatus a. and try firing the rocket again. b. 8. If the green light comes on, connect the test apparatus M51 to the circuit. Turn the switch to “ROCKET” and work the test apparatus.

If there is no light in the diode on the test apparatus, turn the switch to “TEST/SAFE” and disconnect the test apparatus. Wait for 30 minutes. Remove the rocket switch on the panel of the charge container. Install the short circuit plug instead. Connect the test apparatus. Turn the switch to “ROCKET”. Work the test apparatus. If there is no light in the diode on the test apparatus, there is a problem with the electric circuit. Continue from point 11. If light comes on in the diode on the test apparatus, the problem is located in the firing apparatus or in the rocket engine. If the firing apparatus functions, continue from point 12. Disconnect the test apparatus. Put on the safety cap on the rocket switch, on the power panel. Lower the rack, and remove the safety pin from the safety cover near the end of the rocket. Disconnect the switch to the explosive line charge and put the safety cap back on. NOTE! Measure the power panel on the charge container with a multimeter. Disconnect the test apparatus. Put on the safety cap on the rocket switch, on the power panel. Lower the rack, remove the safety pin from the safety cover near the end of the rocket. Remove the rocket from the guiding rail. Mark the rocket “DUD” and put it back in its original packaging. Mark the box “DUD”. The rocket is to be destroyed by qualified personnel.

Chap-2

9. 10.

11.

12.

13.

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Procedures if an explosive line charge misfires Disconnect the firing apparatus. DANGER! Wait for at least 30 minutes after the last attempt of firing the explosive charge before leaving safe cover/the vehicle. Check that the electric switch from the charge has been properly fastened to the power panel on the charge container. Return to safe cover/the vehicle. Try to initiate the explosive line charge again. If the electric line charge still does not detonate, reduce the stretch in the anchorage line by moving the vehicle slightly backwards. If the explosive line charge still cannot be initiated, it is to be classified as a dud. DANGER! Going near an explosive line charge that has been laid out requires extreme caution, since the igniter in most cases will be armed and sensitive to static electricity. In peace: If the explosive line charge does not detonate. Wait for 30 minutes before you contact qualified personnel. The explosive line charge may be detonated, by placing an ignition in the first C4 charge on the line. Do not touch the ignition of the explosive line charge, but if possible, see if the ignition is armed (red mark appears in the window). At war: If the explosive line charge does not detonate. Try to detonate the line charge from the vehicle itself or from an armoured vehicle nearby. If this is unsuccessful, disconnect the explosive line charge from the charge container and evacuate the vehicle. Move to a safe distance. Once there, the explosive line charge may be attempted detonated by use of artillery. Sometimes, parts of the explosive line charge do not detonate, and this is usually because of breaches in the detonating fuses where the different sections of the explosive line charge are connected. These parts may be tried detonated by qualified personnel, by use of an ignition, which is to be placed in one of the C4 charges. Should the anchorage line snap while firing/launching, the electric wire will be torn apart. It is then impossible to detonate the explosive line charge from the vehicle. Qualified personnel may try to detonate the explosive line charge by placing an ignition in one of the first C4 charges.

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2.3.4
2.3.4.1 2.3.4.2

Clearing of mine traps
A mine trap is a charge, which is triggered by a seemingly not dangerous influence from the outside. While laying down mine traps for mine clearing practice, no live charges or mines are to be used. The same goes for igniters with detonators (blasting cap) permanently mounted. Igniters with percussion cap may be used. Other live simulator devices or exercise charges are not permitted to use. When laying down mine traps, the last thing to be removed is the safety pin. This is

2.3.4.3

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2.3.4.4

to be done by using a string. The igniter must at that time be firmly placed in the dummy charge. To safely handle the specific igniters that can be used in connection with mine traps, see the weapon description and manuals. Before the exercise starts, the officer conducting the exercise ( the instructor) is to make sure that all materiel is checked

2.4

DEMOLITION, EXPLOSIVES AND DETONATION DEVICES, ETC.

Chap-2

Figure: 2.12 Blast training course

2.4.1
2.4.1.1 2.4.1.2 2.4.1.3 2.4.1.4 2.4.1.5

In general
Live detonation devices must only be placed in the charge just prior to blast. Detonation devices that have not gone off, or detonation devices and charges that have not detonated completely, are to be regarded as misfires and destroyed in accordance with the regulations. The largest allowed charge for firing fields and exercise sites is determined in the safety instructions. No personnel can be allowed to enter closed rooms, tunnels, etc, until a minimum of 15 min after the charge has been detonated or until airing has taken place, At a blasting site it might, if the extent of the field makes it possible, be carried out blasting on more than one firing stand. The field should give the possibility for observation between the firing stands. If the terrain provides absolute safety against fragments, rocks, etc. blasting can be carried out irrespective of each other. The officer conducting the exercise (officer/NCO) and/or demolition leader, must have a demolition certificate, as military proof that the person is authorized to lead demolition exercises/ demonstrations/ demolition of structures.

2.4.1.6

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2.4.2
2.4.2.1

Personnel for command and control
With blasting exercises the following functions are to be covered: Officer conducting the exercise Demolition leader Safety officer Safety controller Safety guard posts

2.4.2.2

For general areas of responsibilities and duties cf. pt 1.1.5With exercises at the firing stand the officer conducting the exercise can take on the duties of the demolition leader, safety officer and safety controllers. During exercises on squad level a sergeant may be the officer conducting the exercise. If demolition is carried out on several firing stands, a demolition leader must be ordered for each firing stand. The demolition leader can take on the duties of the safety controller, and the officer conducting the exercise can take on the duties of the safety officer. During extensive exercises, the officer conducting the exercise is responsible for having an adequate number of safety controllers and a safety chief and safety officer(s) must be ordered. During demolition exercises safety guard posts must always be ordered. The number of these is decided by the officer conducting the exercise depending on the extent of the exercise size and the size of the field. In established blasting fields, the safety instructions for the specific field are to be followed. The officer conducting the exercise must in addition to his normal duties described in pt 1.1.5.2 make sure: that the civilian authorities and the local police authorities are contacted to clarify the special safety precautions that are demanded, if demolition work is to be carried out close to populated areas, public communication lines, etc. that only the strictly necessary number of personnel preparing the demolition and the placement of charges are present that all other personnel is under cover or outside the risk area that explosives, charges and other demolition equipment are kept apart and under guard. that regulations of treatment, storage and transport of explosives and charges are followed (Manual in ammunition service TfF 78 series)

2.4.2.3

If blasting is carried out on several firing stands that partly overlap each other’s danger area, the officer conducting the exercise are to give orders of detonation. Cf. also: regulations for the safety of air traffic, appendix 7 pt 6. The demolition leader must see to: that all safety regulations are followed that himself or a subordinate officer checks that the explosives, blasting machines and mudcapping are in accordance with the instruction manual that the largest allowed charge weight is not exceeded

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that the key to the electric blasting machine or other blasting machines are kept unavailable to intruders that the explosives and blasting machines are protected from detonasjoner during the ongoing exercises that he allows personnel to take of their helmets, should these make the blasting preparations difficult that the officer conducting the exercise is notified when everything is ready for blasting that all personnel in the risk area are under cover for splinters and protected against detonation waves, before blasting orders are given that the blasting personnel alert the surroundings by shouting “Fire in the hole” three (3) times, and when all personnel who are not directly involved with the blasting are under cover, shout “firing”, and then light the fuse or connect the blasting machine and detonate the charge that there is a time delay between each blast so that these easily can be observed and counted. The number of blasts is to be registered that he or someone else can observe the course of detonation that he can examine all of the blasted objects, or allow someone else to examine these that when the order “Come on” is given, he gives permission to leave cover. Demolition area(s) must be checked before the order is given that misfire are detonated as soon as the waiting period is over that the safety officer checks that demolition equipment, explosives and blasting machines are not abandoned after the exercise

Chap-2

2.4.2.4 2.4.2.5

The safety officer is ordered only on extensive demolition exercises. His duties are listed in 1.1.5.4. The Safety controller must , in addition to his normal duties described in pt. 1.1.5.5, also: : Check personal equipment (helmet, hearing protection, field dressing) see that explosives, blasting machines and mudcapping are checked keep the key to the blasting machine and hand it over only when it is ready to detonate or the order for detonating has been given by the exercise leader check that the safety guard post that is assigned, repeats the signal/shouts “Fire in the hole” before the detonation count the number of detonations examine all of the demolition objects that have been detonated, asingend by the demolition leader check that no one leaves cover before the safety guard post has repeated “Come on”

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2.4.2.6 2.4.2.7

make sure that no mobile phones are brought to the demolition site

The safety guard post must in addition to his normal duties described in pt. 1.1.5.6 repeat the call “Fire in the hole”, “firing” and “Come on”. All other personnel. The only personnel allowed on the firing stand where demolition is being prepared, are those who are necessary for estimating and placing the individual charges, for placing detonation circuits, for placing blasting machines and personnel for management and control. The exception is during training and demolition demonstrations. This permission is to be given by the company commander or a high- ranking officer. The placing of blasting caps in charges or in contact with detonation circuits is not to take place until observers and bystanders are in the area that has been marked for this purpose in advance.

2.4.3
2.4.3.1

Checking explosives and detonation devices
Before training commences, explosives and detonation devices must be checked in accordance with the existing regulations. See TFF class 7.

2.4.4
2.4.4.1 2.4.4.2

Separate regulations for the use and handling of the materiel
Explosives are to be handled in accordance with the existing weapon regulations. Gauge-, detonation- and initiation devices are to be used and handled in accordance with the existing weapon regulations. In addition the following points must be observed: a. Detonation fuse. The smallest allowed length with the use of a fuse in connection with a blasting cap is 25 cm. When using a fuse to initiate explosives, the shortest length allowed is 100 cm with an addition of 1 cm for every second it takes to seek cover. The fuse is lit with matches or a fuse igniter. When lighting several charges simultaneously , the fuses are to be cut in different lengths, this is to make it possible to count each detonation. About 15 cm difference in length is considered suitable. b. c. d. e. f. Detonating fuses. Detonating fuses are explosives, and must be handled in accordance with the existing weapon regulations. Coupling of fuses and blasting caps. Blasting caps are attached to the detonation fuses with a crimping plier or other suitable pliers. Fuse igniting. For the lighting of fuses a number of different lighters can be used (impact, rip and friction igniters etc) shock tube. ( e.g. . “Nonel”). shock tube only is not considered as an explosive, unless a blasting cap is attached. Electrical detonation. When using electrical detonating the following points apply : Electrical detonation must not be used during thunder storms or during weather where electrical discharge is possible. the electrical detonation device must be connected to the circuit before “Fire in the hole” is called out. Demolition close to radar must not take place unless the radar is turned off – electrical detonation must not be used closer to high-voltage lines

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and cables than what is listed in the following table. It is prohibited to have mobile phones turned on where electrical blasting caps are in use. When using NPED technique (lights without primary explosives) the blasting cap contains a small steel casing. Due to this a safety distance of 50 m is set, when setting off just an uncovered fuse. This applies to our new electric igniter GR U (1a).

1.

Group 1 igniters Overhead cable, distance in m 20 50 70 100 200 Group 2 – and group 3 igniters Overhead cable, distance in m 5 6 10 12 16 Earth cable distance in m 2 3 10 10 16 Earth cable distance in m 2 3 6 10 16

Distributing net’s working plan(kV) 0.4- 6 0.4- 6 13 - 24 25 - 52 >52 2.

Chap-2

Distributing net’s working plan(kV) < 24 25-72,5 72,6-123 124-245 > 245

The distances are calculated horizontally except for loading work under ground, where the distances should be seen as the total distance Electric detonation close to transmitters that radiate electro- magnetic energy must not take place closer than what is defined in the table below: 3. 4. Group 1 igniters1 Radiated effect in Distance in metkilowatts res 1 40

Radiated effect in Distance in metwatts res 5 4

1 By using slow igniters in gr. 2 and 3, the distances may be reduced to half of the given values. Information about the radio transmitters effect and frequence can be obained by contacting the producer of the radio.

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10 50 100 200 300 500

10 15 20 25 30 35

5 10 50 100 200 300 500 750 1000 2000

75 95 150 200 250 300 350 400 500 650

-

The safety distances do not apply for radar equipment With serial coupling of fuses, the redundant wiring must not be cut, (this will change the resistance and sensitivity in the blasting caps). Too long Igniter cables must be folded carefully.

2.4.4.3

Detonating system, radio controlled (TASS – Tactical Activating- and Safety System). Before using original codes must be coded in the receiver(s). This is to avoid that codes from other units can be remnant in the receiver(s).

2.4.5

Blasting

Figure: 2.13 Blast 2.4.5.1 Every blast is to be carried out in accordance with the existing weapon regulations. In addition the following regulations must always be followed: before the blasting caps are entered into the explosives blasting cap wells are to be made

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when loading drilling holes only a loading stick made of wood must be used. If the explosives get stuck, they must not be slammed into position, but blasted in their stuck position after burning, drilling in the hole is prohibited. Explosives that have not detonated may still lie in the hole before the hole is reloaded, it must cool for at least 30 min mudcapping must not contain any rocks.

-

2.4.5.2

When misfires occur, the fixed waiting period applies (cf. the next pt). When using electric firing, the blasting machine is to be disconnected and controlled if the circuit is closed. If one does not find a fault in the circuit, the firing can be tried again with another blasting machine. Do not detonate the charge after this, one must then assume that the blasting caps are defect(ed). Defect blasting caps must not be removed from the explosive(s), but an extra blasting cap is to be added, after which Chap-2 the whole charge is to be set off. When a primed charge has not gone off (misfire), or when there is doubt whether it has gone off, no one must leave cover until the following time has passed: with powder fuse charge: 30 min with electrical igniter and shock tube (such as NONEL): 10 min. The blast hole charges that misfire must not be drilled or picked out. Any mudcapping is to be removed carefully to 15 cm from the old charges – never closer (loading height appears in the drill plan). New blast hole charges with blasting caps are to be placed over the old charges, and the hole is to be blasted again. One can also drill a new blast hole at least 1 m from the old hole no further down than to loading height. The distance must increase in mountainous terrain where there are cracks and openings. The new blast hole is to be parallel to the old one. When the new charge is blasted, there will be debris of explosives from the loaded hole that misfired. These explosives must be destroyed as soon as possible. Liquid explosives and explosives based on ammonium nitrate and fuel oil (such as Anolit), can be neutralized with water. With blast hole demolition it may occur that explosives that have not gone off will lie among the exploded masses. Before emptying or loading up exploded masses it must be visually controlled that there are no unexploded explosives in the mass. Such explosives are to be removed by hand and destroyed, preferably by burning. During the clearing work, if unexploded loose explosives are found, the work must immediately be stopped and the explosives removed as mentioned above.

2.4.5.3

2.4.5.4

2.4.6
2.4.6.1

Danger area
The danger area is defined as a circle where the charge is at the center of the circle. With blasting, the following effects will occur : fragmentation shock wave ground vibrations

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2.4.6.2

The extent of the danger area is determined by the size of the explosive charges, materials used in the blasting area, mudcapping, ground conditions, and the surrounding terrain. A guideline for the decision on the extent of the danger area is based on the following tables: Danger area due to fragments Blasting object Size of Charge The danger area’s radius in open terrain and blasting site without cover 50 m 50 -150 m At least 200 m 400 m At least 500 m 500 m 800 m 1000 m

Wood, stone free Dirt and sand and ice Stones and stony dirt

Up to 0,1 kg 0,1- 0,5 kg Over 0,5 kg Up to 0,5 kg Over 0,5 kg

Iron, wood and Iron toget- up to 0,5 kg her 0,5 - 5,0 kg Over 5,0 kg

2.4.6.3

The danger area can be reduced if objects are covered in a satisfactory manner with blasting mats, connected logs and similar. When duds are to be demolished, cf. the section on fragmentation distance for the different types of grenades. Fire simulation , see this chapter pt. 2.6.7.1. The danger areas due to the shock wave effect on windowpanes. Size of Charge Up to 0,1 kg 0,1 - 0,5 kg 0,5 - 2,0 kg 3,0 kg 4,0 kg 5,0 - 10,0 kg 10,0 - 15,0 kg 15,0 - 20,0 kg 20,0 - 25,0 kg Above - 25,0 kg Danger area’s radius in open terrain and at demolition site without cover 75 m 75 - 150 m 150 - 225 m 230 m 275 m 300 - 400 m 400 - 450 m 450 - 500 m 500 - 550 m at least 700 m

In narrow gorges and such, detonation waves have a stronger impact than in open

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2.4.6.4

terrain. The danger area then becomes larger than mentioned above. Danger areas because of ground vibrations. This must be evaluated in each case, so that buildings, bridges, pipe lines, etc. are not damaged. When blasting in drilling holes close to buildings or other objects of value that can be damaged by vibrations, the blasting hole must not be too deep or overloaded. The following data must be observed : Allowed distance to object Charge hole depth 1 m (min avstand) 1,0 - 1,5 m 1,5 - 2,5 m 2,5 - 5,0 m 0,6 m 0,8 m 1,2 m 2,0 m Charge 0,2 kg 0,3 kg 0,4 kg 0,7 kg

2.4.6.5

Danger area for blasting cap. Blasting caps contain explosives and are to be handled accordingly. When setting off a single blasting cap in open blasting site the danger area’s radius is 20 m. See also item 2.4.4.2 e and f.

Chap-2

2.4.7
2.4.7.1

Hearing protection
All personnel within a radius of 1,000 m from the blast must normally use both earplugs and ear muffs cf. also item 6.21

2.5
2.5.1
2.5.1.1

TOLERANCE EXERCISES WITH EXPLOSIVE CHARGES
In general
In tolerance exercises the following must be observed: all personnel must wear helmets, hearing protection and first aid pack during the detonation the head must be positioned in a manner that prevents the detonating wave from ripping the helmet off exercises are to be led by an officer (if possible company commander or equivalent) exercises must increase charges gradually (progression norm 1-3-5 kg) personnel must be in safe cover for splinters, falling rocks and such. No one is to be closer than 5 m when concentrated charges up to 5 kg are being detonated. With a charge of 5 kg one is exposed to a shock wave of about 1 bar = 1 atmosphere = 194 dB, which is the limit of what a person can tolerate without getting internal shock wave injuries (cf. the next pt) when detonating concentrated charges of 5 kg or more, increase the safety distance to 10 m for charges of 5 kg or more only one exposure per 24 hour period is allowed concentrated charges larger than 15 kg must not be used in tolerance exercises. The charges are to be set so that rocks will not be ripped up and

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thrown. when detonating lengthy charges weighing more than 15 kg (obstacle demolition), personnel must be placed in the charges’ length direction and at least 5 m from the charges’ closest part, because of the shock wave effect. firing explosives during combat tolerance exercises, see pt 3.4.5.4. charges are not to be packed in metal, wood, cardboard or the like, and must not contain such materials

-

2.5.2
2.5.2.1

Personnel that must not attend tolerance exercises
The following personnel should not attend tolerance exercises: personnel with a hearing measuring number of 2 (cf. item 6.21) personnel that during earlier tolerance exercises or upon hearing a bang from a large caliber weapon shows signs/symptoms of hearing damage (lowered hearing, ear aches, ringing in the ear, beyond a short time period) personnel that after the last detonation of an explosive charge showed symptoms/signs of hearing damage (lowered hearing, ear aches, ringing in the ear, beyond a short time period). In the case of such symptoms the person must immediately be taken out of noise duty and immediately have his/her hearing examined by a doctor. Personnel that show symptoms of internal shock (lowered attention, heavy breathing, heart palpitation, headaches and stomach pains) after an explosive charge has been detonated must immediately be examined by a doctor.

-

-

2.6
2.6.1
2.6.1.1

FIRE SIMULATION AND DEVICES FOR FIRE SIMULATION
In general
Fire simulation must only take place with appoved devices: blank ammunition percussion charge (simulate hand grenade charge) smoke explosive/detonation device

2.6.1.2

Safety regulations for the different types of devices for simulation of firing appear under the individual weapons/calibers, and in the following points. The use of blank ammunition Refer to item 3.2.5

2.6.2
2.6.2.1

Hearing protection
Noise from the use of devices for fire simulation /blanks can cause the risk of hearing damage. When using these kinds of devices all personnel within a radius of 25 m from the weapon/charges must wear hearing protection, at least ear plugs. A small number of shots, for instance with accidental engagement, can be accepted without wearing hearing protection. Should suspicion of hearing damage occur

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(lowered hearing, ear aches, ringing in the ear, beyond a short time period), the person is to be examined by a doctor immediately. Cf. item 6.21.

2.6.3
2.6.3.1

Blank cartridge for weapons up to and including 12.7mm/.50”
Refer to item 3.4.4

2.6.4

Percussion charge (simulator for hand grenades)
Percussion charge (simulator for hand grenades) must not be thrown closer to personnel than 20 m. Using percussion charges (simulator for hand grenades) in closed rooms where personnel are located is prohibited. The protection cap must only be taken off the scratch surface immediately before its use. When not in use, the cover for the match head must always be left on the percussion charge (simulator for hand grenades). If there is suspicion of a misfire, do not put the cover back on until after the waiting period. Cf .pt 2.6.6.

2.6.4.1

2.6.5 2.6.6
2.6.5.1

Smoke
Regulations for the use of smoke are found in pt 3.5.5.1.

Chap-2

Dud/misfire/short round
Devices for fire simulation that do not function in their normal fashion when fired, are to be handled in accordance with the following regulations: Blank ammunition for pistols, rifle, machinegun. See the individual weapon/caliber Misfire/short round for PERCUSSION CHARGE (SIMULATOR FOR HAND GRENADES) and SMOKE CANISTERS must stay in their firing contraption/ lie in their position on the ground for minimum 30 min before they are touched. After the specified waiting time the devices for fire simulation are to be handled by the user and destroyed by personnel with a minimum class I blasting license. If necessary they are to be marked where they lie, so that they can be found for later destruction.

2.6.6.1

2.6.7
2.6.7.1

Explosives
For fire simulation with explosives, the following regulations apply: each charge is to be at maximum 0.1 kg if the distance to personnel is less than 50 m. For longer distances, the table in this chapter is to be used – charges are to be detonated electrically or with shock tube. Normally, charges are to be detonated in a detonating pit (cf. pt 2.6.7.2) if the distance from personnel is less than 50 m) There must only be one charge in each pit If detonation cannot be fired from a place with overview over all charges, the officer conducting the exercise or safety controller with such an overview site must have telephone or radio contact with the officers/NCOs detonating the charges (when using electric firing, see pt ) 2.4.4.2) Personnel in a standing position must not be able to get closer to the charges (edge of the pit) than 7 m, and personnel in a crawling position or in slit pits,

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not closer than 2 m when the charge detonates 2.6.7.2 All personnel must wear a helmet, ear muffs and ear plugs cf. item 6.21. Blasting pits as mentioned in pt 2.6.7.1 are made by digging out a crater at least 1 m in diameter and at least 0.6 m deep. The sides of the crater must slant towards the middle. The dirt mound that the crater is dug in must not contain rocks larger than 1 cm in diameter. If this is the case, the crater must be dug larger and “lined” with fine-grained sand at least 10 cm thickness all-around so that the shape is as mentioned above. The pit can be filled with water. If so the charge is to hang on a line (string) so that it does not touch the bottom or the sides of the pit (cf. pt 2.6.7.3). The water must be free from any floating objects such as sticks, tin cans, ice and so forth. In the winter the pit can be dug in snow. The snow must not contain ice or frozen ice lumps. The charges must not be covered with other than water or snow. To keep personnel from getting close to the charges, the pits are to be surrounded by a barbed wire fence or other forms for obstacles. There must be a distance of at least 10 m between each pit. The fence is set up in a distance of 2 m from the edge of the pit. Detonation cables or shock tubes are to be buried or laid so that personnel cannot come in contact with these. Fire simulation with explosives can also take place with out the charge being placed in detonation pit. If the distance to personnel is less than 50 m, the charge is to be at maximum 0.1 kg and hung in a rope/string at least 25 cm from the ground or from the object that can cause fragments (stones, wood, metal, ice and so forth). The charges must not be packed in metal, wood, cardboard and such, and must not contain such materials (the exception is blasting caps with a wire). Blasting caps are to be covered by explosives. Personnel must be obstructed from getting closer to the charge than 20 m. The charges must be placed in a manner to avoid their being hit by fragments. There must be a distance of at least 5 m between each charge. Detonation cables are to be treated as mentioned in pt 2.6.7.2. At distances over 50 m, the regulations for blasting are to be followed, cf. pt 2.4.5.1 and the following pts.. Fire simulation with explosives is permitted during combat tolerance exercises (cf. item 3.4.5.4). Fire simulation is to be carried out in accordance with the regulations in pt 2.6.7.1 – 2.6.7.3. As far as for combat tolerance exercises the simulation charge must not be larger than 0.1kg. There must be a distance of at least 10 m between demolition pits. Detonations must not occur while shooting or immediately after shooting over the charges or in their proximity. Only one charge must be detonated at a time. Detonation must only occur when personnel can be seen clearly from the firing stand and weapon. Before the exercise starts, check that the demolition pits are made as described in pt 2.6.7.2, and that there are no objects that can injure personnel (stones, twigs etc).

2.6.7.3

2.6.7.4

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3
3.1

FIRING ALL WEAPONS
FIRING

Chap-3
Figure: 3.1 Attacking Leopard Tank

3.1.1
3.1.1.1

Personal protective equipment (PPE)
In general Double hearing protection (earplugs and ear muffs) must be worn during all live firing. See § 6.21. Protective goggles should be worn while firing all infantry weapons. Use of helmet Helmet is to be worn by personnel who stay within the danger area, participate in tolerance exercises, mine exercises, explosives and any kind of live shells. Chinstrap is to be fastened. Excepted from wearing helmets are: Personnel in safe cover. Personnel who stay in the marker’s pit/target pit. Personnel who load ammunition on fighting vehicles. Personnel who handle artillery ammunition, and during live firing of field artillery.

3.1.1.2

3.1.2
3.1.2.1 3.1.2.2

Division of responsibilities, firing ranges and training areas
The Chief of the Army Staff is responsible for determining which national norms should form the basis for developing safety templates. Safety templates are developed according to the methodology presented in these regulations. The Norwegian Defence Estate Agency is to authorize firing ranges, training areas for firing/ mortars, and demolition fields that are to be used by units in the Military Organisation. The Norwegian Defence Estate Agency is to update and administer the

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3.1.2.3

regulations for technical construction of ranges and installations. The NDEA is to ascertain that ranges, training areas and safety instructions are in accordance with the Safety Regulations in force. During live firing exercises outside military areas permission must always be obtained from landowners and the local police authority. Using random fields for training is to be avoided or reduced to a minimum. Head of a Management Unit is to give suggestions for and approve security instructions and approve the use of firing ranges, bombing and demolition fields before any such activity takes place. Are there several Management Unit heads in the same area the one who is the most frequent user is responsible. He/she is also responsible for: Coordinating the fire when several units are firing at the same time at the range/fields Report place and time for fire Report to the civilian population when and where firing is taking place in accordance with current procedures Changes of ranges/fields are to be approved by the Head of Management Unit and FB

3.1.2.4

The NDEA is responsible for administering firing ranges, firing/mortar fields and demolition fields, and is to ascertain: That production of safety templates according to the provided data or input are available locally, so that standard templates are available to the local user. That safety regulations for the firing range/field etc., with users’ requests incorporated, have been established and approved by the NDEA and Head of Management Unit. Regulations are to include: Division into particular ranges (for rifles, machine guns, heavy machine guns, mortars, hand grenade throwing, etc.) Limitation of fire directions and limitation of distance for the individual weapons Required obstruction and guard posts. Regulation for how firing is to be announced, and who is responsible for this. Regulations concerning blindage, target arrangements and other materiel. User instructions, particular instructions such as requirements of materiel/equipment, special activities, required level of skill.

That target butts, blindage, cover, signal arrangements, phones, etc. are maintained in accordance with the safety regulations and instructions in force. That the facilities are locally checked annually, biannually on the central level and by an external controller every 5 years.

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3.1.3
3.1.3.1

Direct firing weapons
Constructing safety templates Construction of safety templates for direct firing weapons is to be carried out according to ratified NATO STANAG no. 2240 and 2401. These can be found on the Norwegian Armed Forces’ intranet – FOBID – NATO documents. When drawing up safety templates and constructing facilities, the starting point must be worst-case scenarios rather than differing between varieties of scenarios/ways of firing. This means that where safety is concerned, the facility can be used for the kind(s) of firing described in the instructions for the particular facility. When drawing up safety templates, TWO different forms of firing are to serve as starting points. (See below). Details for construction of safety templates see Appendix 1. Data/input for drawing up safety templates for individual weapons are provided in appendices 15 to 21. Basic firing Definition: firing where the shooter’s and the target’s positions have been determined before firing commences. The following method must be used: Chap-3 As a starting point for establishing safety template and background height, angles from the weapon’s line of sight towards the centre of the target are to be calculated. Figures for spray in height are provided in appendices 15-21 and in the illustration below.

3.1.3.2

Target background hill

Target a up a down Firing stand Aiming line

Min. background hight 3,5m

Terrain profil

Bullit sand pit

Figure: 3.2 Drawing up safety template and background height 3.1.3.3 Firing in the field Definition: firing where the shooter’s and the target’s positions are optional within the range’s/the exercise field’s limitations. The following method must be used: Starting point for establishing safety template and background height is the same as for basic firing, with the same values. In addition, the following factors apply: If it is possible to fire in several different directions from the firing stand towards a target or target area, the safety templates in total must be construed as the sum of all possible single templates.

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The illustration below shows the general situation where both the firing stand and the target is within one area. The illustration shows only 4 of the possible safety templates that make up the total. In principle, all possible combinations of positions for shooter/ordnance and target are to be taken in to consideration. All these templates will form a rim curve which will serve as the total template, shown in the illustration.

Targ et ar

ea

Firing stand

Figure: 3.3 Drawing up safety templates in the field In practice, it will suffice to limit the combinations so that they apply to different points along the edge/rim of the firing stand area and the edge/rim of the target area. Points in such constructions may have a distance between them of 100 metres. The illustration below shows how such points can be picked and the suitable firing directions. For practical purposes, the templates are not shown here.

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Target

Chap-3

Firing stand

Figure: 3.4 Drawing up safety templates for firing in the field, example

3.1.4
3.1.4.1

Guided weapon systems
In general When construing safety templates, the 2 forms of firing listed in the paragraph above must be used as a starting point. Other factors and details for construing safety templates are presented under each weapon.

3.1.5
3.1.5.1

High trajectory weapons
In general The actual basis for making safety templates is indicated under each weapon. The method for calculating safety templates in accordance with the ratified NATO Stanag 2240 and 2401 will be introduced as soon as the technical materiel for fire control has been upgraded and the basis has been established.

3.1.6
3.1.6.1

Procedure for firing 7.62 and 5.56 calibre weapons at built-in/covered stands
During firing exercises, participating divisions should observe the following: Firing commanders and gunners should be made aware of the importance of

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avoiding unnecessary exposure to dense gun smoke• Reduce the frequency of firing. Firing should take place in accordance with approved firing lines in UD 5-10, UD 6-86-2, and approved training programmes If all stands have not been used, increase the distance between gunners Before firing commences, the responsible firing commander should open all doors/firing hatches on the course or ensure that there is optimum ventilation The firing commander should ensure that 10 minute breaks are taken every hour and that such breaks are taken outside of the stands In the case of any health complaints, the sick bay or occupational health service should be contacted

3.2

HANDLING OF WEAPONS AND AMMUNITION – INDIVIDUAL RESPONSIBILITIES AND DUTIES

Figure: 3.5 Weapons control during inspection

3.2.1
3.2.1.1

In Common
General Loading of weapons should take place at stands or at the location where the firing activity is to commence Detailed provisions for individual weapons/ammunition types are specified under the provisions for the individual weapon An individual has a duty to intervene in the event of any use of weapons or ammunition that contravenes prevailing safety regulations An individual should never touch unexploded shells/bombs or objects that he/she is not familiar with. In the event of the discovery of unexploded

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shells/bombs or unknown objects, the location should be marked and an immediate superior should be notified at once 3.2.1.2 Weapon regulations 1. Weapons should always be handled as if they are loaded. 2. 3. 4. 5. Never point or aim at anyone you are not prepared to enter into combat with. Only prime the weapon once it has been pointed towards the target. Keep your finger away from the trigger until the sights are on the target and you intend to fire. Familiarise yourself with the target – what is around, in front of and behind it.

Exceptions to regulation no. 2 may be made: on the command of an officer in connection with preparations for firing exercises, close combat, etc. during instruction and exercises in dispersed order with and without blank ammunition

Chap-3

Weapons/magazines/equipment should be inspected and examined by the officer in charge of the exercise, or similar. It is forbidden to: use any type of ammunition other than that which has been prescribed use ammunition for other purposes or in any way that is not specified in prevailing technical regulations undertake loading exercises with live ammunition, except in connection with firing load a weapon and/or insert a magazine/band before receiving the command to do so or before permission has been granted attach non-approved devices to a weapon in order to reinforce the weapon against recoil detach ammunition, fuses or other ammunition components without the express permission of the Norwegian Armed Forces Logistics Competence Centre/Ammunition (FLO FELLESKAP AMM AMMSIKKERHET) Exceptions to this are during EOD service, including training and live manoeuvres. It is a prerequisite that approved procedures, authorised publications and approved tools are used. Personnel in charge of EOD training and personnel on live EOD manoeuvres who are obliged to undertake such actions should be in possession of a Class III blasting certificate.

3.2.2
3.2.2.1

Safety regulations during instruction
Using live ammunition during instruction in materiel description/materiel knowledge is allowed. The instructor in charge must during such instruction carefully ascertain that no one gets to touch or handle ammunition without guidance. He/she must particularly emphasize that touching the safety mechanisms is strictly prohibited.

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When live ammunition is used for educational purposes, the instructor must check: That the ammunition is of the correct type, that it is clean and undamaged. That the ammunition safety devices are in accordance with the regulations. That handling of ammunition takes place in a safe manner and under total control. That all ammunition is collected when the lesson is over.

In other respects observe the regulations for the relevant ammunition type.

3.2.3
3.2.3.1

Use of live ammunition
Short range ammunition is to be treated as live ammunition and must under no circumstance be used as or mixed with blank ammunition. See regulations for the respective weapon and precautions/measures concerning malfunction. All firing must immediately stop: When humans or animals are discovered within or moving into the danger area. When other conditions that are perceived as dangerous arise. Anyone who sees or hears the things described above is bound by duty to alert others, and possibly repeat the warning. When firing needs to be stopped for such causes, all weapons must immediately be secured and put down. Machine guns and heavy machine guns are to be emptied. Whoever is in command decides whether all weapons should be emptied. In other respects observe the regulations for the relevant weapon type. Before firing commences each man or woman is to check: That the ammunition he/she has received is of the correct type (live, armour-piercing, tracer, etc.) That the ammunition is clean and undamaged That wrong type of ammunition or damaged ammunition is returned That the weapon has the correct barrel That the correct recoil amplifier and bolt have been mounted hat a blank firing device has not been mounted That the barrel has been swabbed, that it is clean and undamaged, and that the flash eliminator is securely fastened That the weapon has been correctly adjusted (MG) That the muzzle cap has been removed.

3.2.3.2

3.2.3.3

While firing, each man/woman is responsible for: Never pointing the muzzle in an unsafe direction Ascertaining that muzzle, barrel, chamber, and magazine are kept free from external objects (sand, dirt, snow, ice, water, remnants of projectiles and cartridges/casings, etc.)

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Making sure when firing that the muzzle does not come closer to the next person’s ear than what is allowed for this particular type of weapon Ascertaining that the weapon is kept in the firing position, should it malfunction, and that it is not opened until after the set interval for the weapon type in question (afterburner).

3.2.3.4

After firing, each person must (without being ordered to): Make sure that the weapon is empty. Return all the left ammunition, and ascertain that ammunition that has not been used does not get mixed with empties/casings. Tear up used ammunition packaging. It is an individual responsibility only to throw or discard packaging that has been checked. Check and ascertain that he/she is not in possession of ammunition unknowingly, in his/her clothing or other equipment Not leave the firing range or exercise field with live ammunition without having received special permit.

3.2.4
3.2.4.1

Exceptions made for educational purposes – mixing live and blank ammunition
During firing exercises with live and short-range ammunition on the firing range, the instructor may mix in (load with) blank or drill ammunition. This to identify faulty triggers/outlets etc. The instructor in charge of the activity is to ascertain: Before firing: That the ammunition is of the correct type, approved for use, that it is clean and undamaged That devices for blank, short-range and live ammunition have not been not mixed up That blank, short-range and live ammunition is kept separate and not transported together, unless the blank and the live ammunition is packed in different packaging.

Chap-3

After firing: That unused ammunition is collected That weapon, magazine, ammunition cases, combat gear and uniform are checked.

3.2.5
3.2.5.1

Using blank ammunition
Everyone must show caution when using blank ammunition, so that accidents can be avoided. Opening and/or sharing means for fire simulation is prohibited. Individuals are to be held responsible for breaching the safety regulations. All officers/NCOs are to check that the regulations are being observed. Before training using blank ammunition, each participant is to check, without having been ordered to: That there is no live ammunition in weapon, clothing, or in other equipment.

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That no live ammunition has been received along with the blank ammunition (checking cartridge belts, magazines, charger/cartridge clips, etc.) That blank firing devices (recoil amplifier, light bolt, blank firing casing) have been mounted and securely fastened That the barrel has been swabbed, that it is clean and undamaged.

While training using blank ammunition each participant is responsible for: Not firing the weapon when somebody is within the danger area for the relevant weapon type Not touching or in any other way affecting other participants’ weapons Ascertaining that the muzzle, barrel, chamber, and magazine (cartridge band) are kept free of external objects (sand, dirt, snow, etc.) Observing the regulations for the relevant weapon/ammunition type in detail.

After training the same regulations as those provided for live ammunition when it comes to handing in spare ammunition, checking weapons and equipment, etc. apply.

3.3

INDIVIDUAL FIRING AND UNIT FIRING

Figure: 3.6 The new armed forces assault rifle, HK416

3.3.1
3.3.1.1

General
All firing is to be conducted within the regulations provided in the manual for the relevant range/field. Each range and facility has safety templates that have been construed based on the activity allowed in the instructions. When training new techniques, firing methods, etc. is considered necessary the instructions must be changed and authorized in terms of safety, before firing commences. The Norwegian Defence Estate Agency is responsible for checking that such changes are in

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accordance with the regulations in force.

3.3.2
3.3.2.1

Leadership
All firing is to be conducted under the leadership of a professional officer conducting the exercise, according to the regulations presented in *Leading activities’. Firing training in patrol hand-to-hand fighting is to be led by an instructor who has passed the courses authorized by the professional authority. The instructor must in addition receive approval from the local unit commander. Firing training ’Fire and manoeuvre’ is to be led by a professional officer conducting the exercise, usually platoon commander or his 2IC, depending on qualifications. The officer conducting the exercise must therefore have been appointed by the local unit commander.

3.3.3
3.3.3.1

Basic requirements
All firing is to be conducted according to skill, with progression listed in tables and regulations. Before firing using fire and manoueuvre (soldier/unit providing covering fire while another soldier/unit is moving) participants must master the following basic skills: Chap-3 Safe weapon handling (checking the direction of the barrel and the surroundings, also when executing firing techniques) Index finger (is to rest alongside the trigger mechanism when the weapon is not in firing position) Securing the weapon (between each round of fire and during movement) Drill and situation awareness (movement pattern, where are other soldiers/units relative to own position)

3.3.3.2

Fire and manoeuvre All firing that implies that one element is providing covering fire from one position while another element is moving, is referred to as ‘fire and manoeuvre’. During all fire and manoeuvre the following basic rule applies: ’The 45 degree rule’: meaning that the distance between the soldier/unit who is moving forwards or backwards, and the soldier/unit who is providing covering fire (firing) is no longer than the gap between them. The angle is measured from the weapon’s muzzle in the firing direction. Should there be a risk of impacts between the soldiers/units, the distance must be reduced or the gap increased so that satisfactory safety is achieved.

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Direction of fire

45

O

45

O

45
Marksman

O

Muzzle The foremost body part

Marksman

Marksman

Figure: 3.7 The 45 degree rule This type of firing will be conducted by soldiers/units of different levels of proficiency, depending on at what level they are at in their progression and training standard. For that reason, the activity cannot be regulated in detail for everyone. The officer conducting the exercise therefore has a special responsibility for adapting level of ambition to skill, and adjust the plan for safety according to the following criteria: Participants master basic requirements/skills. The activity has been adjusted to the participants’ progression. The activity is carried out as simulation or with blank ammunition as part of the progression. The unit commander (coy/sqn or similar) is to decide which units are considered to be at a level of proficiency enabling them to train with live ammunition directly. The participants, weather and light conditions on the day of training are to be assessed. That the soldier/unit providing covering fire is not moving, but in a good

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firing position while firing (a few particular firing tables in UD 6-86 allow movement, and are exempt from this rule). That the soldier/unit providing covering fire is in control of what is closest to the line of fire. That the number of safety controllers is adequate in order to control the activity (soldiers/units moving), and in order to intervene should dangerous situations arise. A norm for the number of safety controllers is listed for the relevant weapon type. In addition, each platoon is to be accompanied by a safety controller. That fire sector limitations are known and understood by each participant. This is especially important when firing in the dark. During firing in adverse terrain, firing while moving (from the hip or shoulder) and when charging positions, the pair(s) performing the breach must be on level with each other. Weapons are to be pointed in the firing direction at all times.

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3.3.3.3

3.3.3.4

Requirements of safety controllers when training patrol (hand-to-hand fighting) Chap-3 close quarter combat Soldiers who are being trained in patrol close quarter combat can be used as safety controllers during individual firing. This presupposes that they understand what they are to check and that they know how to act or react towards a shooter should the safety regulations be breached. In addition, they must know how to alert the officer in charge should irregularities occur. During unit firing for patrols/sections/squads the safety controllers are to be grenadiers or officers/NCOs who have participated in similar exercises/tables and have detailed knowledge of them. Firing in darkness and in poor light conditions Firing in darkness and in poor light conditions places greater demands on risk management. The exercise should be carried out in accordance with the criteria specified in the section on firing and movement in this chapter. Additionally, the following provisions apply: General: The exercise should be practised in daylight The officer in charge of the exercise determines whether all weapons should be unloaded during movement The exercise is not normally undertaken with a division larger than a company, or similar Safety stoppers should be used for the division’s weapons when deemed necessary Sighting tools should be used on support weapons being fired in darkness (cf. weapons regulations)

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Requirements for personnel engaged in exercises: The division should be well trained in combat technique in daylight and darkness The division and personnel should master the correct use of optical sighting tools, eyeglasses and illuminators Participating personnel should be aware of the precise limits of the advance, the lines of advance, signals (markings) and the limitations of the firing range The exercise should be approved by the division commander

Requirements for safety controllers: As a ground rule, one safety controller should be attached to each unit (e.g. rifle group/partner team) carrying out a movement Safety controllers should be able to observe at least as well a personnel carrying out the actual exercise (e.g. night vision) All safety controllers should possess a whistle in order to stop the exercise if necessary All safety controllers should possess a torch Safety controllers should wear reflective vests

Markings: It should be possible to distinguish the safety controller from personnel engaged in an exercise Personnel engaged in an exercise and safety controllers should be marked with at least two light sources on their bodies, e.g. lightsticks on their helmets and backs All personnel should be marked in such a way as to be visible to all participants, e.g. lightsticks and IR flashers All hand held weapons should be marked with lightsticks on the handguard, or similar location. This is in order to mark rifle barrel orientation during movement

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3.3.3.5

Fire support from trained sharp-shooters/snipers Weapons School templates classify snipers in different levels based on their skills. These levels, or categories, are: Level 1: Section/ squad sniper Level 2: 12.7 anti-materiel rifle sniper Level 3:Sniper/ spotter in a pair of snipers Level 4: Leader of the sniper section/squad Level 5: Sharp-shooter instructor

Based on level of training/ skill, snipers may be used to provide covering fire, or precise fire support for advancing or static personnel. Snipers must only fire where the area defined by the line of sight is free of terrain obstacles or unidentified

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objects. Exceptions can be made if the target is located directly behind the obstacle. (E.g. behind a window pane or behind the wall/door of a vehicle, building or fortification.)

3.3.4
3.3.4.1

Firing above and to the side
General This is a particular form of firing which requires careful planning. It also requires a number of practical safety measures, particularly when firing non-stabilized weapons. Firing above and to the side is allowed, in accordance with the following regulations, for units who possess a satisfactory degree of skill when it comes to handling weapons and unit performance. Before training firing above and to the side: Aiming device, barrel and firing position are to be adjusted and checked. Fully automatic weapons and weapons of caliber > 20 mm are to be calibrated. The caliber must not exceed the largest allowed caliber for the relevant weapon.

The boundaries of the danger area to the side and in depth must be made known to safety officers/NCOs and participating personnel so that the boundaries can be found without difficulty. The officer conducting the exercise is to ascertain that the boundaries are clearly marked when this is deemed necessary. Firing above and to the side is prohibited: From moving vehicles. For tank gun, see § 3.14.3.2 3.3.4.2 Towards moving targets. Using a pistol, revolver, sub-machine gun, anti-tank rocket launcher, rifle grenades or hand grenades. Using under-calibrated ammunition. Using the 84 mm recoilless gun. Using anti-tank weapon ERYX.

Chap-3

Regulations for firing above and to the side are listed for the respective weapons. Safety angles for qualified marksmen when firing to the side of personnel Safety assumptions: Personnel who are to discharge weapons, as well as spotters, are qualified in accordance with the Norwegian Army’s Standards for Marksmen, levels 1-5. Firing is only permitted if the maximum wind speed at the stand, 90 degrees to the direction of fire, is less than 10m/s. Friendly personnel who are to be fired at in their flanks must be neither in line with nor further away from the marksman than the actual target that the marksmen is firing at. When using 5.56 mm ammunition, the maximum distance to the target is 400 metres.

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When using 7.62 mm ammunition, the maximum distance to the target is 800 metres, depending on classification level. When using a 7.62 mm calibre marksman’s rifle, the maximum distance to the target is 1,000 metres. omplete shield clearance should be maintained between the barrel and the target, i.e. free flight of the bullet throughout the whole trajectory. However, the target may be partially shielded behind hard or soft materials, although it may be a maximum of 1 metre from any obstacle (e.g. glass, car door, wooden wall). It is only permitted to use full metal jacket, steel-free ammunition in every calibre of weapon because of the risk of a ricochet or splinter occurring. If practical, test firing should be undertaken prior to commencing exercises that involve firing to the side of personnel.

-

This forms the basis of all safety angles at a distance of less than 800 metres. Safety is further enhanced by ensuring that the maximum permissible distance to the target is regulated by the marksman’s classification level. Safety angles in lines/metres: Le- Weapon vel type Distance to target in metres 50 – 100 250 350 450 550 600 650 700 750 800 850 950100 1000 250 350 450 550 600 650 700 750 800 850 900

1

HK416N 40` 40` 40` 40` with mag- 4m 10m 14m 18m nifying lense (>3x) HK417 med 12,7MØR HK417 40` 40` 40` 40` 4m 10m 14m 18m 40` 40` 40` 40` 40` 40` 40` 40` 40` 10m 14m 18m 22m 24m 26m 28m 30m 32m 40` 40` 40` 40` 40` 40` 4m 10m 14m 18m 22m 24m 40` 40` 40` 40` 40` 40` 40` 40` 40` 40` 4m 10m 14m 18m 22m 24m 26m 28m 30m 32m

1 2 2

3/4/5 HK417

3/4/5 >7.62 mm 40` 40` 40` 40` 40` 40` 40` 40` 40` 40` 40` 40` 40` calibre 4m 10m 14m 18m 22m 24m 26m 28m 30m 32m 34m 36m 40m

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3.3.5

Vapors and fumes – precautions against carbon monoxide poisoning

Figure: 3.8 Gunsmoke i connection with firing 3.3.5.1 When firing live, drill and blank ammunition from covered and built-in positions, IFVs, etc. the fumes may cause carbon monoxide poisoning. During training it is important to observe the following factors: If there is a ventilator (hatch) this is to be in function (open) A total airing-out is to be conducted as soon as possible The position and/or the vehicle must under no circumstance be locked or shut from inside

Chap-3

Normal filter cartridges for protective masks do not protect against carbon monoxide poisoning. For indoor firing ranges specific regulations apply, according to environmental legislation, these are to be included in the regulations for the particular range.

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3.4

FIRING INFANTRY WEAPONS OF CALIBER 12.7.MM OR SMALLER

Figure: 3.9 Firing with .50 calibre machinegun mounted og "wingfoot"

3.4.1
3.4.1.1

General
Details concerning the drawing up of safety templates are described in Appendix 1, ‘Constructing templates for direct-firing weapons’ and values for the different weapon types’ templates can be found in Appendices 15 and 16, ‘Entrance values for construing safety templates’. A copy of a calculated template for use in the planning process is to be made available by the Norwegian Defence Estate Agency locally. Weapon manuals and education/training directives provide regulations for use of weapons and ammunition. The firing range manual provides special regulations adapted to the conditions on site. The officer in charge is to ascertain that the provided regulations are being observed. When firing weapons of calibers less than or equal to 12.7 mm, firing is prohibited when the next person’s ear is closer to the muzzle than 1 metre. If the distance is increased in depth, the gap is to be increased accordingly. Impact areas for projectiles that are closer than 20 metres from the shooter are to be checked, so that it is ascertained that spurt and throwback will not bother or injure personnel. If automatic weapons become so hot that there is a danger of self-ignition, the weapon is to be emptied within 10 seconds. Should this be impossible, one has to wait at least 5 minutes before emptying the weapon. Short-range ammunition is to be treated as live ammunition and must under no circumstance be used as or get mixed with blank ammunition.

3.4.1.2

3.4.1.3 3.4.1.4 3.4.1.5 3.4.1.6

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3.4.2
3.4.2.1

Special regulations for firing Multipurpose (MP) ammunition
When firing 12.7 mm Multipurpose (MP, MP-T) and APS ammunition, special regulations apply for firing towards ground targets and air targets. The projectile is to be considered a dud, should it not be disposed when firing. The impact area for firing towards ground targets is to be a dud field, preferably with a hard surface in order to increase the chance of disposal. Shortest allowed firing distance (A min) for live ammunition (MP, MP-T and APS) towards authorized ground targets is 100 metres. Firing towards air targets is to be conducted in authorized training fields where the impact area is in water.

3.4.3
3.4.3.1

Danger area
The danger area is presented in the safety templates for the relevant weapon. Table of entrance values for construction of safety templates for the individual weapon/caliber is included in Appendices 15 and 16. Method for construction of safety templates is presented in Appendix 1. The Norwegian Defence Estate Agency is responsible for making sure that tools for production of safety templates according to the provided entrance values are available locally, so that standard templates are available to the local users. Dangerous distance for impacts beyond the impact area (l). Ammunition Risk sce- Risk sce- Risk sce- Risk scenario IV nario I nario II nario III (meter) (meter) (meter) (meter) Rebound distance to the side (c) (meter) 5

3.4.3.2

Chap-3

7.62mm 240-0,7 A 180-0,5 A 120-0,3 A Merknad short range, max max max (b) plastic, all models 12.7mm 320-0,7 A 240-0,5 A 160-0,3 A 200 short range, max max max plastic Cal 22( 5,6 1100-0,7 mm long rif- A max le) 7.62mm gun, 2600-0,7 medium A max machinegun, heavy machine-gun 9 mm mp1400-0,7 og pistol A max ammunition 900-0,5 A 600-0,3 A 500 max max 2000-0,5 A max 1400-0,3 A max 700

100

100

200

1100-0,5 A max

700-0,3 A 600 max

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How to use the table: example Firing a 7.62 med mer rifle with a maximum range of 400 metres at risk scenario IIl=2000m – 0.5 x A max = 2000m – 0.5 x 400m Calculation of (l) for weapons not mentioned in the table) For weapons not mentioned in the table the following is used in the calculation of l : Risk scenario I: l = 0,8 D max - 0,7 A max Risk scenario II: l = 0,6 D max - 0,5 A max Risk scenario III: l = 0,4 D max - 0,3 A max Note a. The values for medium dense forest (risk scenario IV) apply when the targets are placed in the forest or on the edge of the forest. When the firing stand is placed in front of the edge of the forest, Q is to be at least 1,000 mils (56 degrees) measured from the edge of the forest. The value for l only applies when the forest (medium dense) has a depth behind the target equal to at least l at risk scenario IV in the table above. b. For 7.62 mm short-range ammunition, l= 0 from where impacts in the background (trees) are 100% certain. Otherwise, calculate as for risk scenario III.

3.4.4
3.4.4.1

Regulations for use of blank ammunition in weapons up to and including 12.7 mm
General Pointing the weapon towards living targets at distances shorter than 20 metres is prohibited when firing blank ammunition made of plastic with a caliber smaller than 12.7 mm. a. Safety distance for MP5/AG3/MG3 can be reduced to 5 metres if an approved recoil amplifier is mounted and protective goggles are being worn. b. If situation demands it, the safety distance for: MP5 with mounted recoil amplifier be reduced to 0.5 metres. AG3 with mounted recoil amplifier be reduced to 2 metres.

3.4.4.2

Handling of malfunction/duds/misfires Blank ammunition for pistols, rifles and machine-guns that is not disposed when fired is to be handled according to the following regulations: The ammunition is to be kept by the individual and given to the closest superior. The unit is to ascertain that the ammunition is returned to the ammunition store.

3.4.5
3.4.5.1

Firing above and to the side
When firing above and to the side using weapons of a caliber equal to or smaller than 12.7mm towards close targets, ammunition with the same lot number is to be used.

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3.4.5.2

Above-firing using machine-guns, automatic rifles and rifles can take place under the condition that: The line of sight is at least 70 mils (but no less than 6 metres) higher than the unit being fired above. The angle (distance) is to be measured from the ground. If there are trees on the ground, the line of sight must be at least 70 mils (but no less than 4 metres) higher than the lowest treetop or feature in the terrain. Only short bursts are being fired when using machine-guns, 3-4 shots. Firing long series is prohibited. Only single cartridges are fired from automatic rifles. The distance to the point being fired above using machine-guns, automatic rifles and rifles does not exceed 300 metres. Safety stoppers are used so that the line of sight is not lowered unknowingly. The sight is good. The limits of the danger area are made known to the shooter. Particularly the nearest limit (lowest line) allowed fired towards must have been made clearly known. The shooter at all times knows where the unit he is firing above is, and the distance to this point. Registration firing has been conducted beforehand.

Chap-3

3.4.5.3

Firing above using machine-gun (7.62mm and 12.7mm) may be conducted: When the line of sight to the point being fired above and the target being fired at is equal to or larger than the angle in the table below. The angle is measured from the ground or from the highest treetop/ terrain feature. When the distance to the point being fired above does not exceed 1,000 metres for 12.7mm and 600 metres for 7.62mm with live(cold) ammunition, or if the distance to the point being fired over does not exceed 500 metres with tracer ammunition. Even so, for long distances the trajectory should be checked using tracers before firing commences. Firing above using machine-gun 12.7mm, M2 or HPS is only allowed from tripod M3 or Vingfot. Firing above is only allowed using cold ammunition (not MP, MP-T or APS). For guns mounted on armoured fighting vehicles, see own regulations. When the pods on the tripod are being weighed down using sandbags. When safety stoppers are being used to prevent the line of sight (trajectory) from being lowered involuntarily below the allowed point, for instance if the tripod slips or the laying gear loosens. This regulation applies regardless of whether there is a particular safety stopper mounted on the weapon. As long as the weapon is not fired when abnormally hot. When the firing rate does not exceed about 70 rounds per minute. Barrels that have fired 750 rounds or more, with a higher firing rate, are to bee cooled or changed before firing continues.

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When firing series of more than 7-8 shots are prohibited. When the limits of the danger area are made known to the shooter. Particularly the closest limit (lowest line) allowed firing towards must have been made clearly known, and the distance to this must be known (measured). Before firing commences this limit is to be checked by means of registration firing. The officer conducting the exercise or other personnel in charge must at all times know where the unit being fired above is located. Distance to point being Angle for 7.62mm and 12.7mm fired above

-

100 200 300 400 500 600 700 800 900 1000 3.4.5.4

90 mils 45 mils 39 mils 34 mils 37 mils 37 mils 39 mils 41 mils 47 mils 52 mils

Firing above units using machine-guns at distances shorter than 100 metres. The purpose of battle seasoning is to let the personnel get familiar with the sound and feel of enemy fire. The following regulations apply to battle seasoning exercises when firing from ranges shorter than 100 metres. Fire simulation may be allowed. The regulations in the previous points are to be observed unless other regulations are provided below. Participating personnel are to be well trained. Particularly the gunners on the HMG and MMG need to be highly professional. Before battle seasoning using live ammunition commences, the training must have been conducted at least once without ammunition. Battle seasoning is allowed using all types of machine-guns caliber 7.62mm. The barrels that are to be used must be measured using burnout gauge (NATO no. 5210-12-137-4345) before firing, and the highest allowed burnout is indicator 10. The barrel is to be measured again every 750 rounds. If the muzzle on the barrel is visibly oval, or has other visible damage, the barrel must not be used. Materiel readiness check of the weapons is to be carried out before firing commences. The weapons must also be checked while firing. It is especially important to ascertain that all clamp screws are screwed on tightly, that the pivot lock is locked and flash eliminator firmly mounted. Up to 4 weapons can be fired simultaneously. Tripod is to be weighed down by sandbags or in other ways be

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securely anchored to the surface it is standing on. Safety stoppers above and to the side are to be used. Safety stoppers must be construed in a manner that blocks the possibility of involuntarily lowering the line of sight or moved to the side. Safety stoppers are to be checked before and while firing. Before battle seasoning commences, weapons and ammunition are to be test fired. Targets are to be put up at a distance of about 75 metres from the weapons. At least 250 rounds are to be fired from each weapon. Test firing is meant to determine the fragmentation/dispersal in height. Lowest hit in the fragmentation/dispersal pattern is to be used for determining the correct height for firing above a unit. During test firing it must also be checked whether irregularities such as tumbling or faulty discharge occur. If such occur, the weapon and ammunition must not be used. Test firing is to be conducted immediately before battle seasoning commences. The following types of ammunition are allowed used: For MG-3 used as medium machine-gun: Live cartridge NM 60 Tracer cartridge NM 62.

Chap-3

For other types of machine-guns: Ball Armourpiercing Tracer.

3.4.5.5 3.4.5.6

The same lot number is to be used for test firing and training. When personnel are crawling or stomach crawling, the height of fire above must be at least 3 metres. The height is measured form the highest feature (obstacle on the ground) that personnel will have to crawl over, to the lowest hit in the dispersion pattern. Should there be items protruding higher up, the height is to be measured from these. When personnel are moving in an upright position, the height of fire above them is increased to 5 metres. When several machine-guns are being fired simultaneously, they must each be assigned a fire sector. The fire sectors must not overlap in the area where personnel are being fired above. Firing to the side of personnel is allowed using rifles, automatic rifles, light/medium machine-guns and heavy machine-guns. The regulations for firing above personnel also apply to firing to the side of personnel with the following additions: The target(s) fired at must lie beyond the unit that is being fired past/to the side of. The only requirement demanded of line of sight (line of fire) weapon – target is that all rounds fired with certainty hit beyond the unit that is being fired past/to the side of (bearing). The angle (distance) between the unit(s) being fired past/to the side of and closest fire sector boundary is to be at least 100 mils (still no less than 6 metres).

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The possibility of moving the weapon sideways is to be limited by safety stoppers. Additionally the regulations for safety stoppers during firing above personnel apply, in order to prevent the line of sight from being lowered involuntarily so that there is a danger of impacts between the weapon and the unit that is being fired past. The gunner must know where the unit he/she is firing past is located and the distance to them.

3.4.5.7

Safety personnel are to ascertain that: The requirements for firing above and past/to the side of personnel have been met. The rest and the safety stoppers are securely mounted and in accordance with the safety angle. The gunner knows the limits of the smallest allowed elevation (side angle) and at all times knows where the unit he/she is firing above/past/to the side of is located. The gunner uses the correct aiming device. The personnel being fired above/past/to the side of know the boundaries of the danger area.

3.4.5.8

Hearing protection. All personnel within a radius of 100 metres from the weapon/weapons are to wear both earplugs and earmuffs. See § 6.21 in this chapter.

3.5
3.5.1
3.5.1.1

ILLUMINATION ROCKETS, AMMUNITION FOR VERY PISTOLS, WARNING FLARES AND SMOKE
Illumination rockets
Illumination rocket NM 152, L5A4 and HELIOS Check before firing that the launch pipe/discharger is without dents, and that the rocket has a free line of path. When firing a small heat blast will occur. For that reason the launch pipe is to be held on the left – (right) side of the body when firing. If there is a malfunction or for some other reason the rocket is not fired, this is to be handled according to § 3.5.6. When moving such rockets one must keep in mind that delayed firing/discharge may take place. The rocket must therefore have a free path at all times. Hearing protection.. Earplugs are to be worn by the shooter as well as by personnel in the near vicinity. See § 6.21 in this chapter. Also see § 3.5.3.1 and § 3.5.6 on malfunction. Firing illumination rockets from armoured vehicles: Preparing and firing hand held illumination rockets is to be done with the flare above and to the side of the edge of the hatch.

3.5.1.2

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3.5.2
3.5.2.1

Ammunition for Very pistols
Ammunition for Very pistols is also allowed used in other approved firing devices for signal light. Very pistols and firing devices must to be directed towards personnel or living beings, or be mounted in a way that poses risk to personnel. Hearing protection.. Earplugs must be worn by the shooter as well as by personnel in the near vicinity. See § 6.21 in this chapter. Should the weapon malfunction, it is to be fired again at least twice. If the round does still not discharge, act according to § 3.5.6. Also see § 3.5.3 Firing Very pistols from armoured vehicles: The Very pistol must not be charged inside or be kept while charged inside the vehicle. Very pistols must be charged immediately before use and with the muzzle outside the vehicle.

3.5.2.2 3.5.2.3

3.5.3
3.5.3.1

Impact area for illumination ammunition
The impact area must be chosen so as there are no buildings, flammable materials or items (in the terrain) within a distance of 250 metres. The light source tube can in Chap-3 certain cases burn abnormally long. The Very pistol and firing devices are to be aimed sufficiently high, so that the light source tube has burned out before it hits the ground. The chute is to be collected if possible.

Figure: 3.10 Recommended firing position for Very pistol

3.5.4
3.5.4.1

Warning flares
In order to prevent outbreak of fire and injury to personnel: The warning flare must only be used outdoors.

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The warning flare must be placed above an average person’s height, and in a way that will not pose risk of injury to personnel. If possible, the fulminate on warning flare NM 4 is to be fired straight up. The person mounting the flare must ascertain that the base holder is securely fastened so that it cannot be pulled out of position by the tripwire. Flammable materials around the flare must be removed to a distance of 0.5 metres. Posted warning flares are to be registered on a simple sketch of the area, with map reference and grid reference. Posted warning flares are to be collected by the unit who put the flares out when leaving the area. If the flares have not been detonated, this is to be handled in accordance with § 3.5.6.

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3.5.5
3.5.5.1

Smoke
Personnel who are to release or throw smoke must have been trained in using and handling the relevant type. Particularly, knowledge and understanding of the launching sector, range and effect of the smoke must have been acquired, to be able to assess safety in relation to own manoeuvre and the personnel being exposed to smoke. For handling of smoke ammunition, see the current regulations for smoke ammunition and for the weapons that may have been delivered with the ammunition. The smoke that is spread, particularly HC smoke, is poisonous. This is caused by particles of smoke entering the air cells of the lungs (the alveola) when being inhaled, damaging and possibly destroying these. It is hard to determine a lower limit for exposure time or for the concentration of smoke where one with certainty may say that the smoke will cause no injury. Smoke must not be used in confined or partially confined rooms such as pipe lines, except during special exercises training use of authorized firefighting equipment. Outdoors smoke is to be used to an extent where the purpose is achieved without causing injury to personnel. Normally, the intention will be to block vision or produce cover, and the concentration must not be higher than what is necessary in order to train according to the intention.

3.5.5.2

AN SCBA (SELF-CONTAINED BREATHING APPARATUS) MUST BE WORN WHEN PASSING THROUGH OR STAYING IN SMOKE
When training it is important not to light several smoke canisters that are lined up with a following wind simultaneously. Smoke must not be laid so that thick smoke starts drifting over areas where there may be civilians or livestock, populated areas, trafficked roads, etc. If anybody shows symptoms of smoke poisoning (strong fits of coughing, burning, headache, nausea, difficulty breathing, etc.) he/she is to be provided with fresh air, rest and oxygen mask if required. The patient is to be brought horizontally to a medical doctor as soon as possible.

3.5.5.3

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3.5.5.4

3.5.5.5

Using smoke grenade launchers on vehicles When firing smoke grenade launchers, a sector with a radius of 80 metres and a width of 120 degrees must be free of personnel. When charging/emptying the fumes the facility’s power switch must be turned off. Throwing smoke from vehicles When throwing smoke canisters from vehicles, the canister is to be held on the outside of the vehicle when the pin is pulled out.

3.5.6
3.5.6.1

Malfunction/duds/ammunition failure
Should malfunction occur, the launching device for smoke, illumination rockets, warning flares and Very pistols must be kept pointing in the firing direction for at least 30 seconds. The ammunition must then be put aside, or remain on the ground, and marked. Smoke canisters in launching devices are to remain in the device for at least 30 minutes. Illumination rockets, warning flares and ammunition for signal guns are to be laid down pointing in a safe direction. After a 30-minute wait, the ammunition may be destroyed by personnel with dud competence.

3.6
3.6.1
3.6.1.1

SAFETY REGULATIONS FOR USE OF SIMUNITION TRAINING AMMUNITION
General
These are safety regulations developed for the use of SIMUNITION FX, which means that they must not be applied for use of UTM-SIMUNITION FX and not get mixed with SIMUNITION short-range ammunition (SIMUNITION CQT) or with SIMUNITION SHORT STOP. UTM. SIMUNITION FX is to be used during unilateral or bilateral training, indoors as well as outdoors. All personnel participating or staying in the training area’ s danger area while training with SIMUNITION FX must wear personal protective equipment. Danger area is defined as a 75 metre radius from where the training takes place. If the training takes place in a confined area where it is physically impossible for shots to get outside the area, the danger area is equal to the restricted area. The personal protective equipment consists of field uniform with hood, or at least two layers of clothing over the whole body, head included. Helmet, neck protector, groin protector and gloves are to be worn. For face protection a special facemask which when adapted covers the whole face is to be worn. The mask must be designed in a way that prevents all face and eye protection from splintering if or when broken. The mask (all eye and face protection) must withstand ballistic projectiles made of plastic, with an initial velocity of up to 250 m/s. A list of authorized equipment can be obtained from the professional authority (Manoeuvre). Personnel within the training area must not remove personal protective equipment while training, but may, if experiencing discomfort, order a halt in the exercise. Personal protective equipment cannot be removed until the officer conducting the exercise has ordered halt, empty weapon, check and a halt in the exercise. All personnel within the safe zone of the training area may order a halt in the exercise, if reasons of safety require it. This applies to the training personnel, token

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3.6.1.2

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3.6.1.3

forces, safety officers, the officer conducting the exercise or personnel in the near vicinity of the danger area (see this paragraph). The order to be given is HALT, all participating personnel including token forces freeze in their positions, secure weapons and await further orders until the officer conducting the exercise appears, in order to assess whether the exercise may be continued. If the exercise is to continue, the officer conducting the exercise is to give the order GET READY – CONTINUE! If the exercise has to be called off, the officer conducting the exercise gives the order EMPTY WEAPONS – CHECK – END OF EXERCISE. SIMUNITION FX is to be looked upon much in the same way as fresh food: after some time the dye (soap, colour and water) will dry up. All packaging of SIMUNITION FX has the production date stamped on. Storage should hold a temperature of between 5 and 20 degrees Celcius. Storing the ammunition at a temperature of about 20 degrees C, or below 5 degrees C, may result in shorter durability. At ammunition temperatures below 5 degrees C, the dye in the projectile may get harder, and in such cases the ammunition must not be used during bilateral exercises. Dried up SIMUNITION FX must not be used during bilateral exercises. SIMUNITION FX has the following velocity speed: 9mm. P-80 or equivalent: 125 m/s 9mm. MP-5 or equivalen- 150 m/s t: 5,56. C-8 or equivalent: 200 m/s

3.6.1.4

Weapons that are to have SIMUNITION FX training system mounted on them are to be well maintained and the barrel must be kept free of any obstruction. Weapons and magazines used for SIMUNITION FX training system must be marked with blue tape, in order to distinguish them from other weapons. The officer conducting the exercise should assign a highly qualified person the responsibility of converting all the weapons and mark the weapons that are to be used. Magazines must only be filled up to 70% of their capacity, in order to prevent malfunction. When about 100 rounds have been fired, the training system’s barrel is to be cleaned with a copper brush (4-5 times), in order to remove plastic that may have got stuck in the barrel. This prevents the projectile from getting jammed inside the barrel.

3.6.2
3.6.2.1

The skills of the personnel
All personnel participating in exercises/training with SIMUNITION FX must listen to an introduction on weapon and training system use and maintenance. This introduction is to be given by the officer conducting the exercise. All personnel participating in exercises/training with SIMUNITION FX must know which routines are to be observed should the exercise be called off abruptly, as well as routines for emptying weapons.

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3.6.3
3.6.3.1

Danger area
For personnel without personal protective equipment, the danger area is a 75 metre radius from the place where fiiring is going on. At distances above 75 metres, the projectile, should it reach thus far, cause minimal effect irrespective of whom or where it hits. Only personnel wearing authorized personal protective clothing, see ‘General’, can stay within the danger area.

3.6.4
3.6.4.1

Exceptions
During some unilateral exercises, as described below, the required use of personal protective equipment described in § 3.6.1.2 may be disregarded by training personnel. Nonetheless, protective goggles and helmet must be worn. Token forces during unilateral exercises must always wear personal protective equipment, as described in § 3.6.1.2. In order to be allowed disregarding the regulation concerning PPE the following factors need to be present: Only one person is being trained at a time. Targets or token forces make up the game. Token forces involved in the exercise cannot possess weapons that may fire SIMUNITION FX at the personnel who are training.

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Safety personnel who at all times stay behind the person who is training can wear the same personal protective equipment as he/she is. Safety personnel with the token force or in the target area must always wear personal protective clothing according to § 3.6.1.2. Other personnel in the area must wear personal protective equipment when staying in the danger area, as described in paragraphs 3.6.1.2 and 3.6.3.1.

3.6.5
3.6.5.1

Demonstration
During demonstrations of how to use SIMUNITION FX onlookers/ observers outside the danger area are to wear protective goggles.

3.6.6
3.6.6.1

Personnel for management and control
During all exercises using SIMUNITION FX, an 1.1.5.2 must have been appointed. It is the officer conducting the exercise’s responsibility to ascertain that the exercise is conducted in accordance with these safety regulations, and with the duties presented in § 1.1.5.2 onwards. During minor exercises the officer conducting the exercise also functions as safety officer. During large and complex exercises, the officer conducting the exercise is to appoint an adequate number of safety officers for the different elements. The unit commander appoints well-trained personnel as officer conducting the exercise and safety officers, and ascertains that these possess the required competence. The officer conducting the exercise must have passed the instructor course in the use of SIMUNITION FX training systems. The course must have been implemented or approved by the chief of the professional authority (Manoeuvre), in accordance with the programme and regulations provided by him/her. The officer conducting the exercise ascertains that safety officers possess the required competence. The officer conducting the exercise must implement necessary measures in order to prevent trespassers from entering the danger area while the

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exercise is going on. The officer conducting the exercise and the safety officers are to wear kevlars clearly visible, as well as the personal protective equipment listed in § 3.6.1 The officer conducting the exercise is to ascertain that all weapons that do not have exercise equipment mounted are checked before they are used during the exercise, as well as establish routines for checking that ammunition of the wrong kind does not get into the training area. Using any other type of small arms ammunition during exercises where SIMUNITION FX training ammunition is being used is prohibited. Blank ammunition is excepted from this rule. It is the officer conducting the exercise’s responsibility to ascertain that the personnel’s skill/level and personal protective equipment is adequate before the exercise/training commences (see § 3.6.1 and ) 3.6.3. The officer conducting the exercise is to ascertain that all participating personnel have experience from being hit by SIMUNITION FX. The officer conducting the exercise must especially ascertain that all participants know which routines apply should the exercise need to be called off abruptly, as well as the routines for empty weapons – check.

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3.7

SAFETY REGULATIONS FOR 40MM RIFLE-MOUNTED GRENADE LAUNCHER

Chap-3

Figure: 3.11 40mm grenade launcher on AG-3

3.7.1
3.7.1.1

General
Firing the 40mm grenade launcher requires two types of firing ranges. The training grenade can normally be fired on all ranges where AG-3 firing is conducted. The user must know the regulations concerning outbreak of fire on the firing range, etc. since there is a tracer charge in the grenade which burns as far as about 200 metres. The HE grenade requires an authorized dud field with the same requirements made when it comes to fencing in and marking as for the M-72 impact area, see the firing range manual. All firing positions for firing the AG-3 can also be used when firing the rifle-mounted grenade launcher.

3.7.2
3.7.2.1

Personnel for management and control
When firing 40mm grenades the following personnel must normally be appointed: Officer conducting the exercise (officer conducting firing) Safety controllers. The HE grenade has a built-in self-detonator which sets off the grenade after about 8 seconds. The officer conducting the exercise is responsible for filling in form 750 B in Appendix 6B after firing. Should duds be fired, he/she is to register where these

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landed and report this to the person in charge of the training field immediately after firing. The safety controller is to ascertain that: The weapon is being pointed in the firing direction. That the muzzle of the grenade launcher is free of snow and dirt, that the shooter knows where the target is That the grenade has a free trajectory

Firing HE grenades requires a safety controller at each weapon when training simultaneous fire. The officer conducting the exercise (officer conducting firing) is to appoint the required number of safety controllers in order to conduct firing in accordance with the stated criteria.

3.7.3
3.7.3.1

Ammunition check
The grenade must be checked visually by its user before launching. The grenade must show no sign of outer damage, and must to the extent that this is possible be kept in its original packaging. Faulty or damaged ammunition must not be used.

3.7.4
3.7.4.1

Firing above and past/to the side of personnel
Firing above and past (to the side of) personnel is prohibited.

3.7.5

Measures should the weapon malfunction
If the weapon does not discharge or if it malfunctions, it must immediately be cocked and fired again. If the weapon still does not discharge it is to be aimed in the firing direction, wait for 1 minute, and pull the trigger for the third time. If there is a snap in the percussion cap the grenade is to be handled as a dud and be transported to a suitable location for demolition.

3.7.5.1

3.7.6
3.7.6.1

Danger area
Danger area is presented in the safety templates for the respective weapon. A table of entrance values for calculating safety template for 40mm rifle-mounted grenade launcher is provided in Appendix 15. Method for constructing safety templates is provided in Appendix 1.

3.7.7

Safety regulations AG-HK 416:

Figure: 3.12 HK416 with RMGL

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3.7.7.1

When training for operations with the grenade launcher, the following regulations apply: Advancing is allowed with the weapon charged and secured, however, it must be pointed in a safe direction at all times, and the safety lever must not be released until the target has been localized and the weapon is pointing towards this. The ammunition is to be handled carefully and should for the most part be kept in its original packaging or in a cartridge belt, to the extent that this is possible. Due to the location of the barrel, it is important that the weapon has a muzzle cap mounted in winter or in areas with a lot of dust and sand. The muzzle cap will prevent strange items from entering the weapon. When the grenade launcher is not mounted on the HK 416 or is not being used as the primary weapon, loading is to take place when in position. Should ammunition failure occur whilst firing, the following procedureds are to be observed: 1. Secure the AG_HK416. 2. 3. Tap the barrel at the back left side, in order to check that it is not in a locked position. Pull the trigger for the second time immediately.

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Should the weapon continue to malfunction, do as follows: 1. Empty the grenade launcher and recharge using a different grenade. 2. Fire the weapon.

Wait for 1 – ONE – minute before removing a grenade that did not discharge. Grenades that did not discharge but malfunctioned are to be handled in the same way as duds.

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3.8

HAND GRENADES

Figure: 3.13 Practicing grenade throwing

3.8.1
3.8.1.1

General
Basic throwing exercises using fragmentation grenades and shock grenades are to be conducted from a throwing pit. Throwing exercises are normally only allowed from a pit. Throwing from several pits within the same danger area is allowed in permanent exercise fields, but only from one pit at a time. The throwing pit is to provide safe cover for the thrower and the safety controller (instructor). During advanced throwing exercises, throwing from natural places of cover, which provide safe cover, is allowed. Such throwing is only allowed when the thrower has reached a sufficient level of skill. If the ground is covered with snow, the snow is to be shovelled away or trampled before throwing commences. See § 3.8.8.

3.8.1.2 3.8.1.3

3.8.2
3.8.2.1

Personnel for management and control
When throwing hand grenades, the following personnel are normally to be appointed: Officer conducting the exercise (officer conducting firing) Safety controllers (instructors) in each throwing pit. The officer conducting the exercise can function as a safety controller (instructor) when throwing is being conducted from one pit. An officer/NCO is to be in charge of the waiting and resting area. The officer conducting the exercise (officer conducting firing) must in addition to the regular duties listed in § 1.1.5.2: Order personnel other than the grenade thrower and the safety controller (instructor) to take cover.

3.8.2.2

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3.8.2.3

Give the order that the grenade is to be thrown. Give the order that the thrower is to be relieved. Ascertain that duds are blasted immediately, before the exercise continues (in accordance with UD 16-15). Decide how the duty is to be done in each separate case.

The safety controller (instructor) must in addition to the regular duties listed in § 1.1.5.5: Stay with the thrower in the throwing pit. He/she must not disturb the thrower, but be placed where he/she can intervene immediately should the hand grenade be handled incorrectly. Check that the thrower is not wearing equipment that might get in the way of throwing. Check the priming of the hand grenades. Alert the officer conducting the exercise when the hand grenade(s) has been primed. Check that the safety pin is not pulled (that the ignition is not made functional) until on orders. Ascertain that the thrower and himself/herself are following the grenade’s trajectory visually, in order to determine whereabouts it will hit. Then ascertain that both take cover immediately. Be aware that the flying time for particularly high throws may equal the burning time of the igniter, and that in such a case cover must be sought earlier than what is normal in relation to the trajectory of the grenade. Pick the grenade up and throw it, should the grenade fall down next to the thrower after the safety pin has been pulled out (the igniter set in function).

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3.8.2.4 3.8.3.1

Then seek cover immediately. Should throwing the grenade prove impossible, take cover immediately (outside the throwing pit or in the pit(s). Standard throwing pit is described in ‘Firing range manual (FB)’. Other personnel Only the grenade thrower and the safety controller (instructor) must stay in the throwing pit. Other personnel are to be in safe cover or outside the danger area. During educational throwing, the grenade is to be carried to the throwing pit in its fibre container. When throwing is about to commence, the container is to be opened, and it is to be checked that the safety lever and safety pin with loop are in place before the grenade is taken out of the container. When throwing in the field, the grenade may be taken out of the fibre container before the training commences. This must be done at a good distance form ammunition stores or dumps, and at least 100 metres from buildings. When drill grenades and training grenades are being used they are to be handled as live grenades as far as the construction allows. Using improvised hand grenades is prohibited in peacetime. This does not apply to improvised devices such as the Molotov cocktail, as long as they do not contain

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explosives other than the percussion cap.

3.8.4
3.8.4.1

Advanced throwing exercises using fragmentation and stun grenades
During advanced throwing exercises and exercises in the field where hand grenade throwing is part of the training, the officer conducting the exercise decides the order of duty. Advanced throwing exercises are allowed when the participants have acquired a good level of skill. During advanced throwing exercises, the following regulations apply: The training must have been worked through beforehand. The place(s) grenades are being thrown from and places of cover must have been picked out in advance. When choosing cover for the thrower and participating personnel within the danger area, it must be taken into account that grenade splinters may move in quite irregular and high trajectories. Throwing is prohibited when it is dark and when visibility is poor. Throwing is prohibited in forests. Only one hand grenade is allowed to be thrown at a time from each throwing pit/place.

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3.8.5
3.8.5.1

Throwing incendiary grenades, smoke grenades,
For reasons of safety, incendiary grenades, smoke grenades, signal grenades and training grenades are to be handled as if they were fragmentation grenades or shock grenades. The danger area for the different categories (models) will be described in the next paragraph. Training grenades can also be thrown from positions in the field. Throwing place and cover must be picked in advance.

3.8.6
3.8.6.1

Danger area
The danger area for hand grenades is limited to a circle which centre is the middle of the target area (fig 7).

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Da ng

ero

us

rad ius

X

Target Area Throwing pit Waiting Area

Resting area

Figure: 3.14 Danger area for hand grenades Danger radius can be found in the following table: Type of hand grenade (model) Live grenades FRAGMENTATION HAND GRENADE, DM 61 SHOCK GRENADE, M 100 SHOCK GRENADE, MK3A2 SHOCK GRENADE, HGR 85 150 m Prohibited in (partly)confined rooms and near walls because of blast injuries, see . 2.5.1.1 See above See above These are not prohibited in (partly) cofined rooms See above. Distance may be set to 0,5m if regulations in new section 3.8.9 are followed. See above Danger radius Note

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100 m 100 m 75 m

SHOCK GRENADE, flas- 5 m h-bang

HAND GRENADE, sound & flash Training grenades:

5m

TRAINING GRENADE, 10 m

Distance may be set to

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DM 78

0,5m if regulations in new section 3.8.10 are followed. 0m

Dummy grenades: DUMMY GRENADES (all types) Incendiary grenades: INCENDIARY GRENA- 10 m DES (all types) Gas grenades: CS GRENADES (all type- 5 m s) Prohibited in confined spaces. Protection mask to be used closer than 5 metres Prohibited in confined spaces/Staying in/passing through smoke protection mask is to be used. HC smoke Som pkt over Som pkt over Som pkt over Som pkt over Som pkt over Poisonous Prohibited in confined spaces. When passing through or staying in smoke wear protection mask.

Smoke grenades/Smoke canisters

Giftig

SMOKE GRENADE, M88 HC SMOKE GRENADE, M8HC SMOKE GRENADE, SPONTANEOUS SMOKE GRENADE, RED M 18 HAND GRENADE, coloured smoke (all types) For 76 mm launcher

5m 5m 10 m 5m 5m

SPONTANEOUS GRE- 25 m NADE – HC, DM 45 and DM 45 F1

3.8.7
3.8.7.1

Hearing protection
All personnel within a radius of 100 metres from the weapon(s) must normally wear both earplugs and earmuffs. See § 6.21.

3.8.8
3.8.8.1

Duds
If a dud is thrown, all personnel are to stay in cover for 30 minutes, nevertheless, see

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possible memorandum which may state other lengths of time. No grenades are to be thrown on the same range in the waiting time. The dud is to be found and blasted before throwing continues. Only personnel who have a blasting certificate category III are allowed to move duds.

3.8.9
3.8.9.1

Flashbang
General Safe distance from Flashbang is 0.5 metres. Using Flashbang is prohibited in bilateral exercises. Personal protective equipment All personnel who are training are to wear: Uniform covering the entire body, with a hooded jacket Combat goggles Gloves/wind mittens Helmet Double hearing protection

3.8.9.2

3.8.9.3

Using Flashbang during bilateral exercises is prohibited. Safety regulations when using token forces When using token forces the officer conducting the exercise is to ascertain the following: Check the rooms that Flashbangs will be thrown into, in order to reduce the risk of the grenade rebounding and hitting the training unit. Check that there are no closets, shelves, etc. which may cause the grenade to roll down on the token force. Tell the token force what their duties are. Place the token force where they (or he/she) are least likely to get hit by the grenade when it is thrown into the room. Check that there are no obstacles that may prevent the token force from moving. Stop the training if the sight is poor (smoke, dust, etc.). The token force is to stand while the training is conducted in order to reduce the risk of having FB land on the body.

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All token forces are to wear: Field uniform (cotton) with hood Helmet, neck protection and groin protection (hard shell) and gloves Face protection that will not splinter should it get broken. Gloves/ wind mittens.

Personnel in the training area must never take off personal protective equipment while training is going on. Personal protective equipment can be taken off when the

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3.8.9.4

officer conducting the exercise gives the order: Halt, empty weapons, check, end of exercise. Personnel competence Personnel are to be well trained and must have conducted advanced throwing exercises for using Flashbang in combat. All personnel participating in Flashbang training must be instructed in Flashbang usage, handling and safety. All personnel participating in Flashbang training must know the routines and signs/signals that apply, should the exercise need to be stopped abruptly.

3.8.10
3.8.10.1

DM-78 Exercise grenade
General The safety distance to DM-78 may be set at 0.5 metres providing the following safety gear is used: Helmet Combat goggles Ear protection

3.8.10.2

Safety provisions regarding the use of DM-78 during bilateral exercises Participating personnel should be made familiar with the following provisions: The practice grenade should be inspected for cracks and chips. If any cracks and/or chips are found, the grenade should not be used in bilateral exercises Efforts should be made to ensure that an opponent is not struck physically by a practice grenade Participating personnel should position themselves away from any immediate danger of being directly struck by the grenade If a mock victim has to move, there should be no obstacles blocking his/her path If a practice grenade should land within 0.5 metres of personnel, such personnel should relocate to a distance of 0.5 metres from the practice grenade A grenade that has been thrown should not be retrieved until it has exploded In addition, during exercises in urban terrain, the following measures should be implemented: Inspect spaces in which the DM-78 is to be thrown, in order to minimise the risk of the grenade rebounding and hitting participating personnel The mock victim should be placed where there is the least likelihood of a grenade striking the position

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3.9

CLAYMORE MINES

Chap-3

Figure: 3.15 Claymore mine M-100

3.9.1
3.9.1.1

Claymore mines, light M-19, heavy M-100 and heavy FFV 013
Details for construction of safety templates and data for making a safety template see appendix 23 if blindage is used the given distances may be reduced in accordance with UD 2-1, appendix 9.(The splinters from the explosive are considered as projectiles from rifles) the exception is the navy’s FFV 013 where personnel are not to to stay closer to the explosive than 200m even if blindage is being used For discharge/firing of the explosive personnel are to be ordered as pointed out in UD 2-1, paragraph 2.4.2.1. In case of possible afterburners the regulations applying to the materiel used for discharge are to be observed.

3.9.2
3.9.2.1

Firing stand for demonstration fire of Claymores M-19 and M-100
Personnel can stay behind the blindage when discharging M-19 and M-100 in blindage built in accordance with illustrations 62 and 63. Minimum distance from the personnel to the blindage is 50m.

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3.9.2.2

There are no restrictions in the use of radio controlled discharging systems (TASS – Tactical Activating and Safety System) when using explosives M-19 and M-100. Before use the original codes are to be punched in the receiver(s). This is done to avoid that codes from other units can be stored in the receiver(s).
Armered concrete with 20mm steelplate on top Armered concrete Filling of sand/gravel/dirt The thickness of the protecting sand mass must be at least min 60 cm, min 100 cm above ground level

min 1,05 m 1,50 m

0,60 m

3,50 m

0,60 m

Figure: 3.16 Firing stand seen from the side

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7,50 m 3,00 m

1,50 m 1,50 m 3,25 m

5,00 m

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3,50 m

Armered concrete with 20mm steelplate on top Armered concrete Back- and side walls must be covered with 10mm steelplates Filling of sand/gravel/dirt The thickness of the protecting sand mass must be min 60 cm, min 100 cm above ground level

Figure: 3.17 Firing stand seen from above

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Main firing direction = 00

Dangerous area when using protective mass o 80 (1425)

Armered concrete with steelplate on top Armered concrete Filling sand/gravel/dirt The thickness of the protecting sand mass must be min 60 cm, min 100 cm above ground level

Figure: 3.18 Horizontal danger area

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3.10

MORTARS

Figure: 3.19 Firing mortar from tracked vehicle

Chap-3

3.10.1
3.10.1.1

In general
In the coast artillery firing from fortified positions will normally be conducted with the target area(s) at sea. Target area(s) when firing at target(s) on land should be picked where the ground is firm and, to the extent that it is possible, free of shrubbery, heather, tall grass, etc. which may make it difficult to find duds. When firing smoke or illumination ammunition, special consideration must be given to the risk of fires erupting. See regulations regarding fire in the local target range instructions.

3.10.2
3.10.2.1

Personnel for managment and control
When firing mortars the following personnel must be appointed: Officer conducting the exercise (officer conducting firing) Safety chief (safety officer) at headquarters, calculating firing data One safety controller per firing weapon. Section/squad leader may function as safety controller even if he is participating in the training, since his duties during firing equal those of the safety controller.

3.10.2.2

The officer conducting the exercise/officer conducting firing must in addition to his regular duties listed in § 1.1.5.2: Determine safety restrictions for the firing, including the boundaries of the danger area, fire sector boundaries and target area, where to place observation posts, etc. Brief participating personnel on safety restrictions. Ascertain that all weapons are pointing in the correct direction.

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Based on the registration firing, observations, experience, etc. change the fire sector boundaries (boundaries of the impact area), should this be deemed necessary. Changes may be reported in advance and be implemented on orders. Check that nobody is firing over or to the side of personnel. Ascertain that duds are registered, to the extent that this is possible. Disrupt firing if an aircraft is approaching or gets into the danger area at a height where it may be hit. If necessary, set up air observation post(s) (see Appendix 7).

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3.10.2.3

The safety chief (safety officer) must in addition to his regular duties listed in § 1.1.5.4: Instruct the safety controllers of the fire sector boundaries and the largest and smallest allowed tangent sight and loading before firing check that the fire technical basis and calculation of firing data are so accurate that rounds do not hit outside the target area during registration fire before firing check the mortar’s position and orientation before firing check the fire control terminal, that plotting table/board are prepared correctly and that the necessary data, also data concerning safety, are correctly programmed/plotted/ marked inform the OCE when firing can commence

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When firing with dispersed weapons the section leader can perform the duties of the safety officer which are: if firing takes place from a ground placed mortar each base plate is to be checked before firing before firing use a compass to check that right and left fire sector boundaries are correctly marked for each mortar using markers which cannot be confused with aiming posts before firing check that there is at least 20m between each mortar

3.10.2.4

The safety controller at the firing stand will in addition to the general duties in 1.1.5.5 and 1.1.5.4: check that the barrel is dry cleaned (using button stick and clean cotton waste) when firing in winter be especially aware of condense in the barrel in case of precipitation check that there is no water in the barrel and that the ammunition is protected order marking of the fire sector boundaries in accordance with the current restrictions and check that the marking is satisfactorily done firing in winter and on bad ground be especially aware of how the weapon is positioned so that it does not fall over during firing

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check carefully that the base plate is placed correctly. Hold the fire and report to the safety officer if the setting results is more that 10 mills per round check that branches, twigs, etc. do not interfere with rounds being fired check that the mortar(s) is not aimed outside the marked fire sector boundaries note and make sure that demanded restrictions concerning loading and tangent sight are followed check that the fire order has been correctly understood by the crew ontinuously check that only ONE man is loading the mortar (double loading not permitted) ascertain that the safety devices are checked by the crew and that the ammunition is made ready in the correct way be personally present and check that the misfire procedure is being followed and that the emptying takes place in the correct way check that ear plugs are being used. See paragraph 6.21

3.10.3
3.10.3.1

Other personnel
Personnel No more personnel than those needed for fire control, handling and checking the weapons are to stay on the mortar stand. Exceptions can be made during demonstration firing, and such permissions can be obtained from the OC or higher-ranking chief. Onlookers are to stay behind the mortars and never get closer to these than 50 metres.

Chap-3

3.10.4
3.10.4.1

Ammunition check
Before firing, all shells (fuses) are to be checked carefully and all shells (fuses) are to be primed and checked according to the regulations (see weapon regulations and technical manual): it is to be checked that the shell with propellant cartridge are clean and dry and that the charges are intact, dry and securely fastened immediately before firing it has to be checked if the shell has the right number of charges. Releasing of safety devices (removal of transport safety device) is only allowed immediately before loading the weapon. is it possible that the fuse is damaged, the shell is to be put aside and be blown up as soon as possible (see paragraph 2.1.3 and the following)

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3.10.5
3.10.5.1 3.10.5.2

Danger area
Danger area is presented in illustration 3.20. The following data are to be used: 81 mm mortar D max = longest distance for the actual loading l= M= W= Type of round 20 % of A max 500 mils 100 mils WPG 40 (SMOKE), NM 150 (ILLUNINATION) Larger or equals 300m 100 m Larger or equals 300m 0,4 x A min, but at least 200m
min

NM 123 (HE)

Amin k l+k f+k Table for A Type of round Charge 0 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8

Larger or equals 500m 500 m Larger or equals 500m 0,4 x A min, but at least 500m

and A max, for charges, 81mm mortar rounds. NM 123 (HE) *) 500 500 840 1160 1480 1740 2010 Dmax 520 1480 2440 3380 4240 5030 5800 WP G40 (SMOKE) *) 300 300 450 650 800 950 1100 Dmax 450 1200 2100 300 3800 4500 5200 600 1000 1300 1700 2000 4500 1300 2300 3200 4000 4700 5500 NM 150 (ILL) *) Dmax

*) : Shortest range for the actual charge

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k

W

l

Target f k

Chap-3

k

M

Only in use when (k) is not covered by (M)

Weapon

Figure: 3.20 Danger area when firing barrel safe fuses. Personnel at the mortar stand without cover

3.10.6
3.10.6.1

Firing over personnel using a mortar
Firing over personnel using a mortar is prohibited unless the personnel being fired over are in safe cover, even from direct hits. By ‘safe cover from direct hits’ is meant: the M113 family (or vehicles with better armour) under closed hatches (shut and locked with the locking device). Splinter distance (k) is 50 metres for all ammunition types. Nevertheless, mortar fire over personnel is prohibited when the proximity function of the fuse is chosen.

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3.10.7
3.10.7.1

Firing duds with a range under 100m
When firing cold grenades with longest range less than 100 metres, it must be ascertained that no one is in the direction of the shot, within the maximum distance. Other safety measures are not required.

3.10.8
3.10.8.1

Hearing protection
All personnel within a radius of 100 metres from the weapon(s) are to wear hearing protection, earplugs and earmuffs in combination, or other devices providing equal protection. See also § 6.21 and onwards.

3.10.9
3.10.9.1

Measures to be taken should the weapon malfunction
If there is no discharge when dropping the shell into the tube it is a misfire. Then wait for 1 minute after the attempt of discharge before the shell is removed from the tube. The safety controller is to be called over to check the work of emptying the misfire, in accordance with UD6-20-1, § 191-193. If there is no visible damage on the shell, it may be attempted fired again, in the next round of fire and without changing position (this is a change, seen in relation to UD6-20-1 §193). After trying to discharge a shell two times unsuccessfully, the fuse is to be secured, the shell is to be put at a designated place to be blown up. Duds . See § 2.2 and the following.

3.10.9.2

3.10.10

Laser range finder

3.10.10.1 See § 6.8 and onwards.

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3.11
3.11.1

ANTI-TANK WEAPONS
M72 LIGHT ANTI-TANK WEAPON (LAW)

Chap-3
Figure: 3.21 Firing live M-72 3.11.1.1 In general The firing range must provide open line of sight and should be free of trees, bushes, heather, tall grass, etc. The impact area should, if possible, be picked where the ground is firm and bare. Marshes, swamps, snow, etc. will easily cause duds. The hind area should be tall enough to catch all grenades that do not hit their targets. Consideration must be made of the risk of fire erupting due to the gas flow behind the weapon. When firing the M72 LAW the following personnel must normally be appointed: Officer conducting the exercise (officer conducting firing) Safety chief (safety officer) One safety controller at each weapon.

3.11.1.2

3.11.1.3 3.11.1.4

The officer conducting the exercise may, if the extent of the activity allows it, function also as safety chief and safety controller. The safety chief (safety officer) may similarly take on the duties of the safety controller. The officer conducting the exercise (officer conducting firing) must in addition to his regular duties give the order to load and fire one weapon at a time, if the firing of several weapons is being led centrally. The safety chief (safety officer) is responsible for safety on the firing range. The safety chief has the following special duties during this type of activity: Check that the gunner has safe cover in front. Ascertain that there is no steep slope or vertical wall closer than 2 metres behind the weapon, and that the back edge of the weapon is being held al least

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20 centimetres above ground. 3.11.1.5 Prohibit firing from covered positions and from (partially) confined rooms due to the risk of high pressure injuries (see § 2.5.1.1) Prohibit firing when temperatures are higher (lower) than what is stated in the regulations for the relevant ammunition type.

The safety controller is responsible for safety around and behind the weapon. During this type of activity, the safety controller has the following special duties: Be in full control of the danger area of the flareback and ascertain that no one is within or is moving into this area while the weapon is loaded. Ascertain that the gunner has no body part in a position where injury might occur as a result of the flareback. Ascertain that ammunition check, priming, firing techniques and weapon handling are according to the regulations, including drawing out the weapon so there is locking between the inner and outer tube. Allow the rocket’s safety mechanism to be released only while loading. Prohibit movement (changing positions) while the weapon is loaded. Immediately report duds to the safety chief (safety officer, OCE). Ascertain that steps taken should the weapon misfire or malfunction are according to the regulations.

3.11.1.6

3.11.1.7

3.11.1.8

3.11.1.9

Personnel for management and control Other personnel The only personnel allowed on the firing stand are those needed for leading the activity and for checking and handling the weapon. Exceptions can be made during demonstration firing when training ammunition is being used. Onlookers must in such cases stay at least 10 metres away from and to the side of the weapon. Ammunition check Before firing commences all ammunition is to be checked carefully according to the regulations. Damaged weapons are to be marked, put aside and blasted as soon as possible on the officer conducting the exercise’s orders. Danger area The danger area for M72 LAW consists of an area in front of and and area behind the weapon. Danger area is presented in the safety templates for the relevant weapon. A table of entrance values for constructing safety templates for M72 is provided in Appendix 17. Method for construction of safety templates can be found in Appendix 1. Danger area flareback Fragmentation dispersion must be expected within the danger area for the flareback (see 3.22). Wartime provisions can be found in UD 6-21.

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u=40 m

y=25 m

Figure: 3.22 Danger area flareback, rocket system NM72 (left), the M72-models and the 21mm training system (right). Minimum distance for firing the Light Anti-Tank Weapon is 75 m. 3.11.1.10 Safety measures should the weapon malfunction When firing rocket system M-72 LAW and the NM72 models: a. Should the weapon misfire (malfunction, ammunition failure or afterburner) the following steps are to be taken: o Pull the trigger again o Report “malfunction /jam”, wait 10 seconds, and then pull the trigger’s safety catch back towards SAFE until it catches (if a jam has occurred, it will only move about 1 cm before it stops) o Wait for 1 minute with the weapon pointing in the direction of the target, then take the weapon down from your shoulder, and press the locking plate to release the locking mechanism o Pull the weapon together 15 centimetres (the firing mechanism’s return spring will prevent the firing mechanism from igniting the detonator) o extend the weapon, place it on your shoulder, release the safety catch and fire the weapon.

Chap-3

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Should the weapon still misfire, wait for 10 seconds, secure the weapon, report “malfunction /jam”, wait another minute, then transport the weapon away and blast it at an appropriate location (§ 3.11.1.13). 3.11.1.11 Blasting duds If a dud is fired from the M72 or NM72 models, all personnel must wait in safe distance or in safe cover for at least 5 minutes after the dud landed before entering the impact area. 3.11.1.12 Duds from the M72 and NM72 models must not be touched or moved, but blasted on site. If the rocket motor pipe has broken with the fuze and/or parts of the warhead

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still intact, it must be considered a dud and blasted on site. If it is determined that the rocket motor pipe does not contain explosive components, it may be discarded. For more on the handling of duds, see UD 16-15. 3.11.1.13 Blasting misfires/malfunction Rocket systems M72 and NM72 which, after having been handled according to UD 6-21 after malfunction, still cannot be fired, are to be handled very carefully. After the prescribed waiting period, the weapon system is to be carried to a suitable place and be demolished. The demolition is to be conducted in accordance with UD 16-15. 3.11.1.14 Regulations for firing training system 21mm M72-S When firing the training system the following points apply: Firing the systems is prohibited when personnel, vehicles or equipment is within the safety templates in force for the 21mm training system. Firing the systems is prohibited when personnel stay within a sector behind the weapon, see 3.22. The training systems must be free of grease, sand, moisture, white frost, snow and other contamination before loading. The weapons used for firing the training systems must not get mixed with live weapons. Fragmentation discharge must be expected within the danger area of the flashback.

3.11.1.15 Special regulations for using the training system 21mm M72-S Check that the tube is free of dirt, moisture, white frost, snow, grease and remnants of cleaning devices such as steel wool, etc. Check that 1005-25-122-1566 Gauge can easily pass through the tube. The tube MUST be cleaned and gauged before each round. Use the rough-haired brush first then finish using the wool brush. Check that the rocket is free of corrosion and is not crooked or has received other injuries. Protect the rocket from moisture. Before loading, check that the stud plate is tight. Check that the contact pins are spring-loaded.

3.11.1.16 Loading Inserting the rocket into the tube is done by holding/lowering the percussion igniter. The rocket should slide easily until the plastic ring on the rocket meets the contact pins. The plastic ring on the rocket can be pushed further in, over the fikseringsstiftene, so that these protrude behind the rocket. After cocking the weapon on the firing stand before the order to fire has been given, safety controllers are to check all weapons by ascertaining that the contact pins are in their correct position behind the rocket. This must be checked sloping sideways behind the rocket. After the check has been performed, the order to fire is to be given, releasing the detent lever and trigger assembly.

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3.11.1.17 Modification of exercise system 21mm M-72-S In a transition period there will be two types of exercise rockets for the M72-S. The new rocket is called NM 36 F1. This rocket has an O-ring (rubber ring) on the rocket head which is meant to lock the rocket in the tube and no lock is required at the rear end, i.e. no contact pins. The exercise systems will be adapted as new ammunition is being introduced. This means that the sabot with the contact pins will be removed.

This new rocket NM 36 F1 must ONLY be used in exercise systems where there are no sabots and contact pins. Furthermore it is PROHIBITED to use the old rocket in the modified exercise systems.
3.11.1.18 General Irregularities occurring while firing are to be reported immediately. All forms of improvisation in connection with firing the 21mm M72-S is prohibited. 3.11.1.19 Hearing protection All personnel staying within a radius of 100 metres from the weapon(s) must normally wear both earplugs and earmuffs. See 6.21. 3.11.1.20 Blank cartridge for M72 When firing blank cartridges the following points apply: Firing is prohibited when personnel or vehicles are within a sector in front of the weapon, shown in illustration 74.

Chap-3

r = 40 m

20 m

Direction of fire

Figure: 3.23 Danger area in front of the weapon Only fire weapon(s) on the order of the officer conducting the exercise when training. When moving a loaded M72 the weapon is to be secured and locked. Firing is prohibited when personnel stay within a sector behind the weapon, shown in illustration 75. When ammunition is not carried in its original packaging it is to be packed in a way that prevents it from being damaged.

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y = 25 m

u = 40 m

Direction of fire

Figure: 3.24 Danger area behind the weapon 3.11.1.21 Malfunction/dud/ammunition failure Should malfunction occur when firing a blank cartridge, M72, the cartridge is to stay in the firing device/ on the ground for at least 30 minutes before it is touched. After the prescribed waiting time, the cartridge is to be taken care of by the user and be destroyed by personnel who have a blasting certificate category I, minimum. If necessary, the cartridge is to be marked on site, so that it can be found and destroyed at a later stage.

3.11.2

84MM RECOILLESS GUN

Figure: 3.25 84mm Carl Gustav during firing 3.11.2.1 In general The firing range must provide open line of sight and should be free of trees, bushes, heather, tall grass, etc. The impact area should, if possible, be picked where the ground is firm and bare. Marshes, swamps, snow, etc. will easily cause duds. The hind area should be tall enough to catch all grenades that do not hit their targets. Consideration must be made when it comes to the risk of fire erupting due to the gas flow behind the weapon, and when firing smoke grenades and illumination grenades.

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3.11.2.2

No more than 9 recoilless 84mm guns must be fired from the same firing stand. In addition, the following points apply: When several weapons are being fired from the same firing stand under central command, the weapons must be placed at least 5 metres apart. When firing is being led by an officer/NCO at each weapon, the distance between the weapons must be at least 25 metres. Firing from moving vehicles is prohibited. Firing from (partially confined) vehicles is prohibited. Firing from covered positions and from (partially) confined rooms is prohibited due to the risk of high pressure injuries.

3.11.2.3

Personnel for lead and control When firing the recoilless gun the following personnel must normally be appointed: Officer conducting the exercise (officer conducting firing) Safety chief (safety officer) One safety controller at each weapon.

Chap-3

3.11.2.4

3.11.2.5

The officer conducting the exercise may, if the extent of the activity allows it, function also as safety chief, safety officer and safety controller. The safety chief (safety officer) may similarly take on the duties of the safety controller. The officer conducting the exercise (officer conducting firing) is to lead the firing, and perform the OCE’s regular duties. He/she may during field exercises give orders of loading and firing to a section/squad leader who is in charge of up to 3 guns. This is on the condition that the section/squad leader performs the special duties of the safety chief and the safety controller. The safety chief (safety officer) has the following special duties during this type of activity: Check that there is no steep incline/vertical wall closer than 5 metres behind the weapon. Prohibit firing from covered positions. Prohibit firing over personnel. Ascertain that personnel, gunner, loader and safety controller excepted, who stay in the danger area near the weapon are in safe cover (see safety regulations for the range/area). Ascertain that illumination grenades only are fired from a standing or kneeling position. Ascertain that personnel who stay closer to the weapon than 100 metres wear earplugs and earmuffs. See 6.21.

3.11.2.6

Safety controllers have the following special duties during this type of activity: Check that the weapon has been correctly assembled and mounted. Check that hearing protection is being worn.

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Keep full control of the flareback’s danger area and ascertain that no one is staying in or moving into this area while the weapon is loaded. Monitor the priming of the gun as well as the firing technique, and ascertain that all orders are observed. Ascertain that no part of the gunner’s body or the loader’s body is within the flareback’s danger area. When in a lying position the gunner is to place his right foot across his left ankle. Should firing be disrupted /if the gun malfunctions, ascertain that it is still being aimed at the target area. Observe the instructions given in the weapon regulations. Check before loading that the firing pin does not protrude into the tube when the breeching is open.

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3.11.2.7

Other personnel On the firing stand, there should be no more personnel than those who are required in order to lead, check and assist the gunners. Other personnel are to stay in safe cover or outside the danger area of the backblast. When firing in unit formation and when firing training grenades personnel may stay closer to the weapons, but never closer than 5 metres away and never within the backblast’s danger area. 3.11.2.8 Ammunition check (See § 2.1.3.1) Ammunition is to be handled carefully and be protected from strong impacts, sunlight and high temperatures. An 84mm shell which has been taken out of its packaging but not fired, must immediately be put back in its box. The box is to be marked, and the shell must be used as soon as possible. Illumination shells have black rubber caps protecting the fuzes. The cap is to be put back on after the shell has been timed, due to the risk of moisture. Before firing, the ammunition and fibre casing must be checked in order to ascertain that no gunpowder has spilled. Faulty or damaged ammunition is not to be used. Such ammunition must be carefully marked and put aside for demolition. Demolition is to be conducted as soon as possible, on the orders of the officer conducting the exercise. 3.11.2.9 Danger area The danger area for light anti-tank weapons consists of one area in front of and one area behind the weapon. The danger area is presented in the safety templates for the relevant weapon. A table of entrance values for constructing safety templates for M72 is provided in Appendix 17. Method for construction of safety templates can be found in Appendix 1. The flareback’s danger area – see § 3.11.2.18 below. 3.11.2.10 Safe distance from splinters (k) Ammunition HE shell Anti-tank shell 84 mm 400 m 150 m

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Smoke shell Illumination shell

150 m 100 m

For training shells and 7.62mm and training systems, k = 0 m. When miniature firing is conducted with the 7.62mm and towards metallic targets k = 15 m. 3.11.2.11 When firing from shorter distances than those listed in the table below, all personnel on the firing stand must be in safe cover. 3.11.2.12 Minimum firing distance (A min). Launching shells from shorter distances than the ones listed in the table below is prohibited, unless all personnel within the danger area are in safe cover. When firing HE shells, minimum launching distance is 150 metres even when in safe cover. Ammunition HE shell Anti-tank shell Smoke shell Illumination shell Excersise shell 84 mm 400 m 150 m 150 m 300 m 50 m

Chap-3

3.11.2.13 Firing over and past/to the side of personnel Firing the 84mm recoilless gun over and to the side of personnel is prohibited in peacetime. 3.11.2.14 Parachute illumination rockets/flares To avoid harming animals the landing area for parachute illumination rockets/flares is to be registered, and the parachute(s) removed immediately after firing. 3.11.2.15 Procedures malfunction When firing the 84mm recoilless gun: the weapon is to be cocked immediately after a misfire, trigger again (if there is no firing – REPORT “MALFUNCTION”) then wait one minute before the mechanism is opened and the round is removed from the chamber If the weapon is hot, so that there is a danger of it self-igniting, it is to be left should it malfunction, and all personnel must be evacuated to a safe place. The weapon may be emptied after 1 hour. After the charge has been removed from the weapon, it is to be kept separate from other ammunition until it has been checked whether it was the ammunition or the weapon that caused the malfunction. Should it be revealed that the ammunition is faulty, the charge is to be removed from all other materiel and be destroyed as soon as possible. If the weapon is faulty, the charge may be reloaded and fired, either from another weapon or the same weapon, after it has been repaired or fixed.

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3.11.2.16 Hearing protection All personnel within a radius of 100 m from the weapon(s) must normally wear both earplugs and earmuffs. See § 6.21 3.11.2.17 Firing with 63mm training system for 84mm recoilless gun The training system is to be used according to the handling, safety and user procedures applying to 84mm recoilless gun. UD 6-22 and TH 9-1010-25/202-13 (Training system 63mm for RFK) must be followed. The rocket must not be fired from a 84mm RFK unless the inner tube is in place. If this is done there is risk of dispersion of powder particles towards the gunner. Pressure and noise will in such circumstances be considerably higher than compared to a correct use of the training system.The self-ignition temperature for powder in the rocket is about 170 degrees celsius. If the chamber casing gets too hot to be handled with bare hands during firing, it is to be cooled down before further use. Before live firing with the training system the inner tube is always to be gauged. If the weapon has been exposed to rough treatment the tube must be gauged again before use. During live firing only the telescopic sight included in the exercise system is to be used because it has been calibrated for the exercise rocket. Protective goggles are to be used during live firing. 3.11.2.18 Danger area of the flareback

Direction of fire

y= 60m

u= 40m

Figure: 3.26 Danger area behind the weapon 3.11.2.19 Firing with an inner tube and training system can take place at a miniature range, short range, ordinary range or an approved firing range. In relation to the danger area behind the weapon all personnel, both those who operate the system and others, are to behave as if live ammunition is being used, see ill 17. 3.11.2.20 Dangerous area for the backblast when firing duds, inner tube and training system

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15m

Direction of fire

15m

Figure: 3.27 Danger area behind the weapon 3.11.2.21 Blank cartridge for recoilless gun When firing blank cartridges with the recoilless gun the following must be observed: firing is prohibited when personnel, animals or materiel are within a sector in front of the weapon, shown in illustration 76.

Chap-3

r = 40 m

20 m

Direction of fire fire

Figure: 3.28 Danger area in front of the weapon Only fire weapon(s) on the order of the officer conducting the exercise when training. Moving with a loaded recoilless gun is prohibited. Firing is prohibited when personnel stay within a sector behind the weapon, shown in illustration 17. When ammunition is not carried in its original packaging it is to be packed in a way that prevents it from being damaged.

3.11.2.22 Malfunction/dud/ammunition failure Blank cartridge that is not discharged when being fired must be handled according to the following regulations: Blank cartridge for recoilless gun is to remain in the firing device/ on the ground for 30 minutes before it is touched. After the prescribed waiting period it is to be handled by the user and destroyed by personnel who have a blasting certificate category I, minimum. If necessary, the cartridge is to be marked on site, so that it can be recovered for destruction at a later stage.

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3.11.3

149MM TOW MISSILE SYSTEM

Figure: 3.29 Firing of TOW missile 3.11.3.1 In general In addition to the regulations provided in this directive, weapon regulations apply, as well as any further regulations presented by the officer conducting the exercise before each firing. When choosing a firing position considerations have to be taken concerning the possibilities of fire behind the weapon due to gas. The field of fire is to be chosen so that there are no high voltage cables within the danger area. It is particularly important to pay close attention during firing if electric firing mechanisms are used in the field, since these may affect the TOW system. Safety distances from the danger area to possible electric sources are to be found in table in paragraph 2.4.4.2. No firing is to take place during thunder storms. There must be free line of sight between the firing stand and the target area. The line of sight from the weapon to the target must have a bearing which at no point can be less than a 1 metre radius. The exception is when the weapon is being fired from a position with normal cover in the front of 1-2 metres, where the muzzle of the tube is to be at least 30 centimetres above the cover. The distance is measured with the weapon pointing towards the target providing the lowest elevation. The position must not have a steep slope (vertical wall) closer than 15 metres behind the weapon. Firing from head covered positions is prohibited. The target area must, if possible, be picked where the ground is firm. Marches, swamps, snow, etc. may cause duds. The hind area should be tall enough, in comparison with the line of sight, that all rockets missing their targets will get caught. Looking directly at the sun or other strong light sources such as searchlights through

3.11.3.2

3.11.3.3

3.11.3.4 3.11.3.5 3.11.3.6

3.11.3.7

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the telescope sight is prohibited, as the result may be severe eye injuries. The target(s) must be placed so that this can be avoided. 3.11.3.8 Firing with greater elevation than 20 degrees is prohibited, unless special permission has been obtained . If permission has been granted, the ground directly behind the weapon must slope sufficiently downwards. 3.11.3.9 Firing with live ammunition is prohibited if temperatures are below –30 degrees C or above +60 degrees C. 3.11.3.10 After live firing the guiding wires are to be rolled in. This has to be done in accordance with the traffic regulations in the target area in the particular firing range. 3.11.3.11 Hearing protection. All personnel who stay closer than 100 m away from the weapon must normally wear both earmuffs and earplugs (see § 6.21). 3.11.3.12 Personnel to lead and control For firing, the following personnel must normally be appointed: Officer conducting the exercise (officer conducting firing) Safety chief (safety officer) One safety controller at each weapon. The officer conducting the exercise may, should the extent of the activity allow it, function as safety chief, safety officer and safety controller. The safety chief (safety officer) may under the same condition take on the duties of the safety controller.

Chap-3

3.11.3.13 The officer conducting the exercise (officer conducting firing) must in addition to the normal duties give the order to load and fire one weapon at a time. He/she must also ascertain that all guiding wires are collected after firing. The officer conducting the exercise is responsible for completing form 750, see Appendix 6B, and ‘Report of TOW live firing’ after firing. The report is to be sent to the professional authority for TOW. The officer conducting the exercise is also responsible for ascertaining that trained personnel go through with a 3-line check of the weapon before live firing. 3.11.3.14 The safety chief (safety officer) is responsible for safety at the firing range. The safety chief has the following special duties during this type of activity: Ascertain that there is no steep slope (vertical wall) behind the weapon closer than 15 metres. Prohibit firing from head covered positions. Prohibit firing above and to the side of personnel. Check that personnel who stay closer than 100 metres away from the weapon wear earmuffs and earplugs. Brief the platoon commanders, section/squad leaders/safety controllers on firing stands and firing range boundaries, including marking of the fire sector, and: Give orders on the signals for holding fire Ascertain that communication functions satisfactorily Order ‘hold fire’ if/when he discovers that safety regulations and weapon regulations are being breached, or when the situations for some other reason

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gets dangerous. 3.11.3.15 The safety controller is responsible for safety around and behind the weapon. The safety controller has the following special duties during this type of activity: Stay where he/she can hear the shooter and see the entire rocket field. Check that the weapon has been assembled/mounted and primed according to the procedures described in the weapon regulations. Be in full control of the danger area of the flareback and ascertain that no one stays in or is moving into this area after the weapon has been loaded. Monitor the handling of the weapon when it is being primed and handled and ascertain that all orders are observed. Physically check that the operating handle is in the lowest position after loading. Check that no part(s) of the gunner’s or loader’s body is in the danger area of the flareback. Should misfire/ammunition failure occur, ascertain that the weapon is still being pointed towards the target area and that personnel do not enter the danger area of the flareback. In addition the regulations provided in § 3.11.3.18 and in the weapon regulations are to be observed (measures should firing get interrupted).

3.11.3.16 Other personnel Only the personnel needed for leading the activity, and for checking and handling the weapon, are allowed on the firing stand. Other personnel are to stay in safe cover, or outside the danger area at least 40 metres behind or directly to the side of the weapon. Exceptions can be made during unit formation combat firing, where other personnel may stay as close as 5 metres directly to the side of the weapon. 3.11.3.17 Ammunition check and ammunition handling The following regulations apply to armour piercing missiles. The sealed missile is to be treated carefully and be protected from, impacts, sunlight, high temperature and humidity/moisture. The missile must not be taken out of the box it was transported in until it is to be used. Inside this box the sealed missile is well protected from impacts and being shook. Nevertheless, the missile may be taken out of the box after ammunition check, described in this section, be placed in the vehicle’s ammunition storage compartment, in order to achieve a more true resemblance of actual combat. On reception, the following steps must be taken: Check the transport/storage case. If the case has visible damage indicating that it has been exposed to a strong impact, or similar, the sealed missile must not be used. Check the sealed missile. If the case has visible outer damage, the missile is not to be used. Check the humidity sensor. If it has a light red colour, the sealed missile is not to be used. Separating the missile from the case is prohibited. If a loaded weapon is emptied without having been fired, the front cap and the contact lid

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are to be put on the sealed missile. 3.11.3.18 Precautions in case of malfunction If the procedure for what to do in case of stop is not followed by a discharge, emptying is to start only after 30 minutes. In this time span the weapon is to be directed towards the target area, and personnel are not allowed to enter the danger area of the back blast. After the emptying the sealed missile is to be placed at a safe distance from the crew with its warhead pointing towards the target area. A complete gunner’s test and inspection of the weapon will take place after a malfunction. If there is something wrong with the weapon the missile is to be fired from another weapon. If there is still malfunctioning, ordinary procedure for fire break is to be followed. After emptying the weapon the missile is to be considered as a dud and will be demolished at a designated place. If nothing wrong is found with the weapon a new missile will be fired from the same weapon, if possible. If there is a discharge the first one is considered a dud. If a new missile also fails, both are to be fired from another weapon. 3.11.3.19 Blasting duds Armour piercing missiles which have not detonated on impact either in the target or Chap-3 because the flight engine has not ignited, are to be blown up there and then, if possible. It is prohibited to approach a dud till 60 minutes has passed. When placing charges before 100 hours has passed it is strongly forbidden to touch the missile. The charge is to be placed close to the missile (See UD 16-15). Training missiles in which the flight engines do not ignite are to be considered as duds and will be demolished in accordance with the same rules as for armour piercing missiles. Other regulations are to be found under duds in general. 3.11.3.20 Danger area The danger area’s features are described in illustration 3.30. . 3.11.3.21 Side explosion angle (W), dangerous range in the fire direction (h), splinter distance (k), safety angle (M), minste tillatte firing distance (Amin) and longest firing distance (Amax) can be found in the table below. Missile W h k 750 m M 1300 mils A min 950 m A max A max TOW 1 TOW 2 3000 m 3750 m

Armour 500 mils 5150 m piercing BGM 71A Exercise 500 mils 4500 m BTM 71A

100 m

1300 mils

250 m

3000 m

3750 m

( For reasons of simplicity the target area’s length and width are simply not given.) 3.11.3.22 When measuring the danger area for fire against moving targets the template’s middle line is put towards the target area’s outer boundaries. Thus the right and left boundaries of the area will show.

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Direction of fire

Parallell h k-armour piercing k-exercise W M u y Weapon h

Figure: 3.30 Danger area for 149mm Missile system TOW

u=40 m

y=50 m Width

Figure: 3.31 Danger area for flareback for 149mm Missile system TOW 3.11.3.23 Flight safety Firing is prohibited when aircraft enter the danger area. 3.11.3.24 Firing over personnel Firing the TOW over personnel is prohibited. 3.11.3.25 Blanks cartridge Blank shots have the same flareback danger area as live rockets in peacetime. See ill. 78.

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The blank is to be placed INSIDE the expanding chamber in the dummy missile.

y = 50 m

u = 40 m

Direction of fire

Figure: 3.32 Danger area behind the weapon Measures if firing gets interrupted. Ascertain that personnel do not get into the danger area of the flareback and proceed as described in the weapon regulations for how to act should firing get interrupted. Emptying the weapon can be done in the following manner: Blank cartridge for TOW may be removed from the dummy missile after 2 minutes. The TOW crew is responsible for taking care of the cartridge(s) and returning them to the store.

Chap-3

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3.11.4

ERYX ANTI-TANK MISSILE

Figure: 3.33 ERYX during firing 3.11.4.1 In general In addition to the regulations provided in this directive, weapon regulations apply, as well as any further regulations presented by the officer conducting the exercise before each firing. Launching unit is to be checked by use of the MES test kit before each live firing exercise. This is in order to limit the number of possible sources of malfunction during live firing. The test is to be conducted by well qualified personnel the same day firing is to take place. The test may, due to availability of the test kit, be conducted 1 week before firing, but not earlier. This requires adequate storing of the relevant live fire launching unit. When choosing firing position the risk of outbreak of fire due to the gas flow behind the weapon must be taken into consideration. There must be free sight between the firing stand and the target area. The line of sight from the weapon to the target must have a bearing which after 5 metres at no point must go below 0.5 metres in any direction. Firing is prohibited during thunder. Firing is also prohibited near installations emitting radar radiation. The position must have no steep slope (vertical wall) closer than 2 metres behind the weapon. Firing from head covered positions is allowed. When firing from head covered positions, the following safety templates for the cover are to be observed, at a minimum: - width in front and behind : - length : 150 cm 100 cm

3.11.4.2 3.11.4.3

3.11.4.4 3.11.4.5

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- height - depth

: :

75 cm 100 cm 10° 30° 20 cm 100 cm 200 cm 20 cm 40 cm

- maximum elevation and : plonge - max sideways movement : - height above the cover at : the weapon’s front edge - width of flareback pit - length of pit - depth of pit : : :

- width of tripod platform :

TOP COVER

Chap-3
10 o 10 o 20

75

ca 20 40

Figure: 3.34 All metering in centimetres

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Level for tripod 200 50 Weapon

30 150 30

o o

100 Position

Figure: 3.35 All metering in centimetres 3.11.4.6 Firing from confined rooms is allowed. The room must have an open door and an open window. When firing from rooms the following safety templates apply, at a minimum: - Size of room (base) - Height - Window opening - Door opening - The room’s volume : : : : : 280 x 280 cm 250 cm 1 m2 2 m2 - 19,5 m 3

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Firing axis

100cm

Vindu 1 m 2 1 m above the floor

20cm

Rocket casing 280cm 100cm Min 180cm 110cm

280cm Door 2 m
2

Chap-3
Hight 2,50 m Volume 20 m 3

Figure: 3.36 Description of confined room 3.11.4.7 3.11.4.8 3.11.4.9 3.11.4.10 3.11.4.11 3.11.4.12 3.11.4.13 3.11.4.14 The target area must, if possible, be picked where the ground is firm. Marches, swamps, snow, etc. may cause duds. The hind area should be tall enough to catch all rockets missing their targets. Looking directly at the sun or other strong light sources such as searchlights through the telescope sight is prohibited, due to the binoculars’ magnifying effect. The result may be severe eye injuries. The target(s) must be placed so that this can be avoided. Firing with greater elevation than 20 degrees is prohibited, unless special permission has been obtained from the officer conducting the exercise. If permission has been obtained, the ground directly behind the weapon must slope steeply downwards. Live firing is prohibited when temperatures are below –30 degrees C or above +50 degrees C All personnel closer than 50 metres away from the weapon are to wear hearing protection. See 6.21. The loader must in addition wear protective goggles in order to avoid getting combustion residues in their eyes. When several weapons are being fired from the same stand, towards the same target area, the distance between each weapon is to be at least 5 metres. After live firing the guiding wire is to be rolled in. This can be done from the firing stand because the wire moves easily because of its insulation. Movement in the dud area should not take place. Personnel to lead and control For firing, the following personnel must normally be appointed:

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Officer conducting the exercise (officer conducting firing) Safety chief (safety officer) Safety controllers at each weapon.

3.11.4.15 The officer conducting the exercise is to lead the firing and perform the general duties expected. He/she can, if the activty allows, also function as safety chief and safety controller at the same time. He/she is to make sure that the guiding wire is gathered after the firing. After the firing form 750 “Report on use of ammunition and explosives” is to be filled in. See appendix 6B and registration form for live firing with Eryx. The form is to be sent to the manoeuvre section in the Norwegian Army Land Warfare Centre and the Norwegian Materiel Command Ammunition. 3.11.4.16 The safety chief (safety officer) is responsible for safety on the firing range. The safety chief can also function as safety controller, if the extent of the activity allows it. The safety chief has the following special duties during this type of activity: To check that there is no steep rise (vertical wall) closer than 2 metres behind the weapon. To prohibit firing over or to the side of personnel. To check that all personnel who stay closer than 50 metres away from the weapon wear hearing protection. To brief the personnel on the firing range on the boundaries of the training area. To give orders concerning signals for ‘hold your fire’. To ascertain that devices used for alerting people or for communication function properly. To give the order ‘hold your fire’, if or when breaches of the safety regulations or weapon regulations are discovered, or when a dangerous situation arises.

3.11.4.17 The safety controller is responsible for safety around and behind the weapon. During this type of activity, the safety controller has the following special duties: Check that the weapon has been assembled and mounted correctly Monitor the priming of the weapon and firing techniques, and ascertain that all orders from the officer conducting firing or safety chief are observed. Make sure to make visual contact with the officer conducting firing at regular intervals. Stand to the side of the shooter before firing commences. Maintain full control of the danger area and ascertain that no one moves into the area after the weapon has been loaded. Check that no part(s) of the shooter’s or loader’s body is within the danger area of the flareback, and that the loader is wearing protective goggles. During fire break ascertain that the weapon is still being directed towards the target area and that no personnel enter the danger area of the flareback.

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Additionally, proceed according to the regulations for how to handle malfunction, and the regulations in the weapon manual Measures during fire break. 3.11.4.18 Other personnel Only the personnel needed for leading the activity, and for checking and assisting the gunner and loader, are allowed on the firing stand. Other personnel are to stay outside the danger area. 3.11.4.19 Ammunition check and ammunition handling At the firing range the bulk load and/or boxes of missiles are to be placed so that they do not get inside the danger area.The ammunition is to be taken out of the bulk load and/or the boxes where they are placed. Then the missile with the end cover on is carried to the weapon. Here the end cover is removed and a visual inspection of the ammunition is performedbefore the weapon is loaded. Remove front and end cover and check: that there is no visible damage to the launch tube that the two horizontal steering taps on the coupling box are intact that the gliding plate to protect the coupling works that there is no oxidation or damage to the contact points that the electric circuit is intact and lies against the tube that there is no damage to the front of the missile that there are no extraneous matters in the front part of the tube that the cut circuit is intact that the IR light is not broken and clean.

Chap-3

Any irregularities discovered will make the ammunition unfit for use. 3.11.4.20 Transport Live ammunition is always to be transported as bulk load or in boxes. Primarily the bulk load is to be used. In cases where this is not possible or practical the boxes ARE to be fastened well before transport. Never put loose boxes on top of each other without securing them. The missile can take impacts and vibrations which may occur during transport if packed in bulk/boxes. The ammunition is to remain in the package until being used. Preferably there should be two persons to lift a box of ammunition. 3.11.4.21 Before priming the ammunition, it must be stored for a minimum of 8 hours in the temperature in which it will be used: -31°C to +51°C. During short-term storage, the ammunition must not be exposed to direct sunlight, great temperature changes, or be placed directly on the ground. The ammunition should be stored in a box when this is possible. 3.11.4.22 Steps to be taken should the weapon malfunction No discharge after the weapon has been attempted fired may be due to a fault in the weapon or in the missile. When discharge does not occur 2 seconds after the weapon has been attempted fired, the crew should initially act as they would when dealing with an afterburner or delayed discharge. The following steps are to be taken:

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-

The gunner tries to fire the weapon again. If there is no discharge, the gunner is to alert the rest of the crew by reporting ‘MALFUNCTION’. The gunner must continue to point the weapon towards the target area for 1 minute, the trigger is to be pressed in the whole time. If there has been no discharge after 1 minute, the gunner is to secure the weapon. In peacetime, wait for 30 minutes before emptying the weapon. The launching unit must as soon as possible be tested for MES in order to rule out potential source of fault.

Any irregularities uncovered will result in the ammunition being classified as unfit for use. 3.11.4.23 During measures taken in connection with a fire break, no one is to walk in front of the weapon or enter the danger area of the flare back. Missiles that have not been fired are to be placed in a suitable location, at a safe distance from personnel. The warhead must at all times point towards the target area. 3.11.4.24 Blasting duds. There may be several reasons why a missile does not detonate: features of the impact area, impact angle, technical error, the missile impacts too early (before 50 metres) or a rupture in the guiding wire before 50 metres (arming distance). If a missile does not detonate it must not be approached until at least 45 minutes has passed. Keep in mind that the missile might have been broken, and that there are 4 dangerous elements (charge, main charge, flight engine and start engine) that must be destroyed. Blasting of the dud, the entire missile or parts of it, must only be carried out by experienced personnel. The officer conducting firing must note where the missile lands, whether it is broken or not, and then alert the responsible personnel. Other regulations are described under duds in general. 3.11.4.25 Danger area Danger area of the flareback is presented in illustration 24. The area is the same for training missiles as for live missiles.

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u=15m

y=15m Width Figure: 3.37

Danger area of flareback, ERYX anti-tank missile 3.11.4.26 Side dispersal angle (W), dangerous distance in the fire direction (h), splinter distance (k), safety angle (M), shortest possible fire range (Amin) and longest fire range (Amax) can be found in the following table: Rocket Mis AC 136 ERYX F1 Mis AC X 136 ERYX F1 W 500
-

Direction of fire

Chap-3

h

k

M 1000
-

A min 150 m 50 m

A max 600 m 600 m

3170 m 150 m 3070 m 50 m

500 -

1000 -

3.11.4.27 When measuring the danger area for fire against moving targets the template’s mid line is put on the target area’s outer boundaries. Thus the area’s RIGHT and LEFT boundaries can be found.

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Direction of fire

Parallell

K-armour piercing K-exercise

h

h

w M u y Weapon

Figure: 3.38 Danger area Anti-tank weapon ERYX 3.11.4.28 Special regulations Firing over or to the side of personnel Firing ERYX anti-tank missiles over or to the side of personnel is prohibited. 3.11.4.29 Firing from the hatch of IFV (M-113 and CV- 90). During live firing the following applies (see 3.39, 3.40, and 3.41): the vehicle must stand still when firing from the hatch of the M-113 the elevation of the weapon must be in relation to the bed of the vehicle. The weapon may be plonged. inside the vehicle personnel are not to sit at the side of the back blast sector of fire for M-113 and SISU is from 4-6 o’clock and 8-10 o’clock sector of fire for CV-90 is from 2-3 o’clock and 9-10 o’clock the fire is to take place over the side of the vehicle with turret at 12 o’clock the hatches of the tank commander, the gunner and the driver are to be locked the gun is to be loaded and emptied over the rim of the hatch only the gunner is to stand in the hatch after loading firing is to be trained beforehand wirhout live ammunition and the officer in

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charge of the exercise is to approve of the firing position before the llive firing starts

Chap-3
Figure: 3.39 Figure 26a - Sector of fire M113

Figure: 3.40 Figure 26b - Sector of fire SISU

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Figure: 3.41 Figure 27 - Sector of fire CV 90

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3.11.5

JAVELIN ANTI-TANK WEAPON – MEDIUM RANGE ANTI-TANK SYSTEM

Figure: 3.42 Training with Javelin 3.11.5.1 General In respect of the choice of firing position, it should be noted that fire may occur in the exhaust gases vented from the rear of the weapon and directly in front of the firing position. With regard to the selected field of fire, there should be no overhead power lines within the hazardous area. There should be a clear view between the stand and the target area.The line of sight from the weapon to the target must have a shield clearance in which no vegetation should be present above the missile, in proximity to its anticipated trajectory. Sighting should take place along the missile’s tube. The missile will not fall below the position that the Javelin is being fired from. The line of sight from the weapon to the target must have a shield clearance in which no vegetation should be present above the missile, in proximity to its anticipated trajectory. Sighting should take place along the missile’s tube. The missile will not fall below the position that the Javelin is being fired from. If possible, the target area should be located on solid ground. Marshy terrain, snow, etc, may result in unexploded shells if the missile fails to hit the target. It is not permitted to look directly through the CLU (command launch unit) at the sun or any other strong light source (e.g. searchlights). This may result in serious injuries to the eyes. It is not permitted to undertake live exercises if the temperature is below -30 degrees C or above + 60 degrees C. All personnel located closer than 25 m to the weapon should wear ear protection, refer to item 6.21. Firing is not permitted if an aircraft enters the hazardous zone.

Chap-3

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3.11.5.2

Firing over personnel with a JAVELIN is not permitted. Firing to the side of personnel is permitted in accordance with the 45 degree regulation. Personnel When firing is being undertaken from several stands, a safety controller should be present at each weapon. If firing is only being undertaken from one stand, one safety controller will be sufficient. The exercise leader (firing commander) should issue the command to fire one weapon at a time. The safety controller is responsible for safety around and to the rear of weapons. With this type of activity, the safety controller has the following special duties: Ensure that all gunners are wearing helmets and splinter-proof vests, as a minimum. In addition, the loader (second) should wear protective goggles. This applies to all personnel located within caution area 1 Be positioned in such a way that he/she is able to hear the gunner and see the whole of the missile’s trajectory Ensure that weapons have been assembled and made ready in accordance with the procedures described in weapons regulations Ensure that no part of either the gunner’s or the loader’s bodies are within the backblast hazardous zone. When firing from a lying position, the body should be located at least 30 degrees away from the bore axis A face shield should protect the gunner’s face during weapon discharge. The face guard may become damaged between the sight and the CLU to the left of the day sight. If the face guard should disappear, the gunner must sight with his/her left eye so that the face receives the necessary protection during weapon discharge If firing is interrupted, ensure that the weapon continues to be held towards the target area and that personnel do not enter the backblast hazardous zone. In addition, the provisions for measures during an interruption to firing, specified in the weapon regulations, should be complied with Other personnel should be located under safe cover or outside of the hazardous zone at a minimum distance of 100 m to the rear of the weapon or 25 m to the very side of the weapon. Exceptions to this may be made in the case of combat firing during divisional exercises whereby other personnel may be located up to 5 m to the very side of the weapon

-

-

-

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Figure: 3.43 Caution areas 3.11.5.3 Materiel/ammunition inspection The sealed missile should be handled with care and should be protected from blows, sunlight, high temperature and humidity. It should not normally be removed from its transportation and storage case before it is ready to be used. In connection with operations and planned live exercises in which there is not a suitable or practical option to convey missiles in transportation cases, missiles may be removed from cases. After the ammunition has been inspected, the missile should be placed on the vehicle's ammunition stand. The aim is to achieve a more combat-suited stand service. Upon receiving the missiles, the following measures should be taken: Inspection of transportation and storage case. If the case is damaged in a way that gives reasonable grounds to suspect that it has been subject to a strong blow or similar, the sealed missile should not be used Inspection of the sealed missile . If the exterior of the LTA – Launch Tube Assembly is visibly damaged, it should not be used

Chap-3

3.11.5.4 3.11.5.5

Inspection of the humidity indicator If the humidity indicator is light red or pink, the sealed missile should not be used. It is forbidden to detach the missile from the casing. If a loaded weapon is emptied without its trigger being engaged, the front cover and contact cover should be immediately placed on the sealed missile. Precautionary measures in the event of functional failure Refer to UD 6-27-1 and UD 6-27-2 Unexploded shells Armour piercing missiles that have not exploded upon impact, or because the flight motor has not ignited, should be detonated on site, if possible. It is not permitted to detonate an unexploded shell until after 60 minutes have elapsed. Upon placement of a charge less than 100 hours after a missile has been fired, it is absolutely forbidden to touch the missile. The charge should be placed close to the missile. After 100

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3.11.5.6

hours have elapsed, the charge may be placed on the missile (Cf. UD 16-15). Firing from buildings The Javelin may be fired from the inside of a building. The minimum size of the room must be as specified in the table below. The following safety regulations apply in addition to item 3.11.5.2: Loose objects to the rear of the weapon should be removed Doors and windows should be opened in order to release the backblast and excess pressure Exhaust gases from the launch motor are hot and may ignite combustible materials. Easily combustible materials should therefore be removed before firing. Fire-fighting equipment should be available when firing from closed rooms

Room dimensions when firing from a closed room: The following minimum safety templates apply when firing from a room: - - Dimensions of room (base) Width x depth - Height - Window’s opening : : : 370cm x 460 cm 215 cm 0,45 m 2(61cm x 77 cm) 1,8 m2 (90cm x 201cm) 36 m 3

- Door’s opening (should : remain open) - Volume of room :

The gunner should use either the window frame for support or a tripod. When using a tripod, the gunner should ensure that the launch motor is able to thrust the missile through the window. The room should comprise at least one window and one door of a dimension referred to in the above table. This is so that harmful exhaust gases may escape from the room.

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Chap-3
Figure: 3.44 Firing position in a closed room

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3.12

ARMOUR ANTI-TANK GUIDED WEAPON SYSTEM NM 142

Figure: 3.45 NM 142

3.12.1
3.12.1.1

In general
In addition to the regulations given in this manual the regulations given in UD 7-5-2-, Drill regulations for RPJ crew, UD 6-24 Rocket system TOW, UD 6-4 Machinegun MG 3 and technical handbooks apply.

3.12.2
3.12.2.1 3.12.2.2

Firing with 7.62 x 51mm medium machine gun
General. When fiiring with 7,62x51 mm MMG on RPJ the following regulations apply, see paragraph 3.4 and following, MS 5 –46 and TH 9- 1005-25/042-14. Firing with MMG from RPJ against ground targets When firing with 7.62x51mm MMG from RPJ the following regulations apply: When the weapon is not in use it is to be secured and the stand is to be locked (sideangle lock and swing arm lock) the swing arm is to be placed in a suitable firing position and the locks are released before aiming and live firing

3.12.2.3

Firing with MMG from RPJ during movement towards ground targets When firing with 7.62x51mm MMG from RPJ during movement towards ground targets the following regulations apply: The Armour Anti-Tank Guided Weapon System NM 142 (RPJ) is to move on even ground so that no unexpected movements occur. If necessary the route should be reconnoitred beforehand max speed 30 km/h the driver’s hatch is to be closed. (closed and locked)

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-

the loader’s hatch is to be closed. The gunner’s hatch is to be closed or in observation position the firing is to take place from 11 o’clock (right hand side of the driver’s hatch) to 3 o’clock (Just to the right of commander’s hatch). the gunner of the MMG is to be alert and make sure that the weapon is not directed towards the roof or parts of the roof of the vehicle

3.12.3
3.12.3.1

Use of smoke bomb dischargers, Very pistol and illumination rockets, plus throwing of smoke canisters
See the regulations in this chapter, § 3.5 .

3.12.4

General regulations for live firing of guided missiles from NM 142
When choosing firing position for NM 142, the regulations in § 3.13 apply. The vehicle is to be placed so that the sideways sloping at no place in the firing sector is more than 10 degrees. Firing with elevation/plonge greater than 10 degrees is prohibited. The vehicle is to be placed with the front in the firing direction. Firing over the front of the vehicle within the sector 5580 mils to 380 mils is allowed.

3.12.4.1 3.12.4.2

3.12.5
3.12.5.1

Live firing with several RPJs
The officer in charge of the exercise carries out the live firing in accordance with the commanding officer’s orders and the Cavalry’s firing programme, but the following points must be observed: a. The folowing regulations apply during coordinated firing with TOW – Basic missiles o distance between RPJ min 100 metres b. o the gunners must engage different targets o the guiding wires must not get crossed

Chap-3

When coordinated opening of fire is not an option the opening of fire will take place on the orders of the officer in charge of firing, platoon leader and in accordance with the firing programmes. Notice that when firing with TOW – BSIC missiles the same target must not be engaged simultaneously. When fire sectors cross each other and when the the same target is to be engaged the opening of fire has to be coordinated.

3.12.5.2

Radio communication must be established between the officer conducting the exercise, the safety chief and the safety controller. Inside the vehicle, communication over the interphone between the safety controller, gunner and loader must be established.

3.12.6
3.12.6.1

Personnel to lead and control
During firing, the following personnel must normally be appointed: Officer conducting the exercise (officer conducting firing) Safety chief (safety officer) One safety controller in each vehicle.

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3.12.6.2

3.12.6.3

The officer conducting the exercise may function as safety chief. The safety controller in the vehicle may also function as vehicle commander. The officer conducting the exercise must in addition to his/her regular duties listed in 1.1.5.2, give the order of loading and firing one weapon at a time. He/she must also ascertain that all guiding wire is collected after firing. The OCE is responsible for filling in and forwarding form 750 (Report after use of ammunition and explosives) according to UD 2-1 and Report after live firing TOW, according to appendix C in KUP 7-3-25. The reports will help form the basis for further evaluation and control of all TOW-firing in the Army. The report will also form the basis for possible weapon modifications, ammunition, blocking of LOTs, test firing and UD 2-1 updates. The OCE is also responsible for ascertaining that technical personnel carry out third line check of the RPJ turret and launchers immediately before live firing commences. The safety chief must in addition to his regular duties described in § 1.1.5.4: Check that the sideway sloping is of no more than 10 degrees. Prohibit firing over personnel. Check that personnel closer to the weapon than 100 metres wear earplugs and hearing protection. Brief the platoon commander, vehicle commander/safety controller on the firing stand(s) and boundaries of the training area, including marking of fire sector. Give orders concerning signs for ’hold your fire!’ Ascertain that the ordered communications work adequately. A scertain that the front of the vehicle covers the assigned fire sector and that the target is within the sector 5580 mils to 380 mils on the vehicle. Order fire break when he/she discovers breaches of the safety regulations, regulations in the weapon manual or when risk of danger arises for some other reason. Keep full control of the danger area of the flareback and ascertain that no one is witin or is moving into this area after the weapon has been loaded. Check that the driver’s hatch, the vehicle commander’s hatch and the ramp are closed. Be placed in a manner that makes it possible for him/her to follow the missiles flight towards the target area. Check that the system functions properly by firing TOW blanks with heavy dummy missiles from both launchers. Have measured the distance tot the targets using a laser range finder, hence know the missiles flying time from being fired to target impact. Check on the duties of the safety controller. Prohibit elevation/plonge of more than 10 degrees Know the other safety regulations for 3.11.3.1 and 3.12.1.1.

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3.12.6.4

Safety controller The safety controller will in addition to general duties listed in 1.1.5.5: check that the gunner’s test of the weapon system is in accordance with the manual, supervise the duties in the vehicle, order loading of the weapon system on orders from the officer conducting the exercise, check that the loading doors are completely locked and that the air vents are closed, and give the gunner orders to arm check that the side sloping of the turret is no more than 10 degrees within right and left boundaries check that the lamp that indicates correct arming on the commander’s control box is on after the gunner has armed the weapon order the gunner to open fire after having received the order for fire from the officer in charge of the exercise in case of a misfire report to the officer in charge of the exercise and check that the turret is turned in the direction of the impact area Otherwise follow the regulations in UD 6-24-2 under How to handle misfire Check that the driver’s and commander’s hatches are locked when using termic sights check the mounting and use of collimator including correct paralelling of the sights carry out a test of the system with TOW blanks on orders from the safety officer know the other Safety rules for 3.11.3.1 and 3.12.1.1.

Chap-3

he following is to be especially observed when arming the right or left launcher: when placing the rocket and arming the rocket the procedure described in TH 9-2300-25/210 § 4.2.11-4.2.12 have to be observed When the rocket is armed the cam on the arming handle for the rocket launcher tube which is fired has to be pressed and then drawn back. The indicator for arming on the commander’s control box may light even if the arming handle is not drawn all the way back During live firing in peacetime the commander is to check that the arming handle is in full backward position to avoid causing wire cut

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3.12.7
3.12.7.1

Other personnel
Only the personnel needed for leading and checking the activity are allowed on the firing stand. Other personnel are to stay in safe cover, or outside the danger area at least 40 metres behind or directly to the side of the weapon. Exceptions can be made during unit formation combat firing, where other personnel may stay as close as 10 metres directly to the side of the weapon.

3.12.8
3.12.8.1

Ammunition check and ammunition handling
Regulations for check and handling of ammunition can be found in § 3.11.3.17 for TOW. Driving with ammunition in the ammunition storage compartment in the

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vehicle is allowed. During field exercises using the NM 142 for live fire, driving with the missiles in the launchers from the forming-up area to the firing position is allowed, if the following requirements are observed: All driving with missiles in launchers is to take place as part of the firing exercise. All movement is to take place within the military training area. The missiles must not be armed until the vehicle has reached the firing position from where the missile is to be launched. Before movement commences, the vehicle commander is to ascertain that the missiles in launchers have not been armed.

3.12.9
3.12.9.1

Safety measures should the weapon malfunction
Dud. If the procedures for how to handle fire breaks do not cause a discharge, emptying is not to take place till after 30 minutes has passed. During this time the turret is to be aimed at the target area with the personnel remaining in the vehicle. After empying has taken place the sealed rocket is to be placed at a safe distance from the crew with the warhead pointing towards the target area. A complete gunner’s test and inspection of the weapon is to be undertaken after a misfire. If there is something wrong with the weapon the rocket is to be fired from another weapon. If a misfire occurs again the normal procedure for fire break are to be observed. After emptying the rocket is considered a dud and will be blown up at designated place. If nothing wrong is found with the weapon a new rocket should be fired with the same weapon system. If there is a discharge the first rocket is considered a dud. In case also the next rocket is a misfire both rockets are to be fired from another weapon. The regulations in 3.13.6.1. para TOW apply. Hearing protection. All personnel within a 100 metre radius from the weapon(s) must normally wear both earplugs and earmuffs. See § 6.21"

3.12.9.2

3.12.10 3.12.11

Risk of fire erupting in the target area Blank cartridge for TOW

3.12.10.1 See regulations regarding fire in the local target range instructions. 3.12.11.1 In peacetime, the blank shot has the same flareback danger area as live missiles. See illustration 78. The blank cartridge is to be placed INSIDE the expanding chamber in the dummy rocket.

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y = 50 m

u = 40 m

Direction of fire

Figure: 3.46 Danger area behind the weapon 3.12.11.2 Malfunction/duds/ammunition failure Steps to be taken. Ascertain that no personnel are within the danger area of the flareback and proceed according to the regulations provided in the weapon manual concerning fire break.The weapon may be emptied as follows: Blank cartridge for TOW can be removed from the dummy rocket after 2 minutes. The weapon crew are responsible for taking care of the cartridge(s) and for handing them in.

Chap-3

3.13
3.13.1
3.13.1.1

GENERAL JOINT PROVISIONS FOR FIRING WITH/FROM VEHICLES
General
The following items regulate all firing from vehicles with turret-mounted and hand-held weapons. In addition to these provisions, safety regulations specified in drill books, Training Directives, technical handbooks and firing range instructions also apply. In the case of vehicles which have not been issued with separate firing tables, reference should be made to ‘Firing lines for IVECO crews and IVECO companies, to Test from the Commander for Manoeuvres, from 2009’, and ‘Regulations for armoured vehicle crews, CV9030N/F1, Hatch combat’. These should also form the basis for firing from other wheeled platforms.

3.13.2
3.13.2.1

Personnel for command and control
The following personnel should be assigned: Officer conducting the exercise(OCE) Officer conducting firing, when the OCE is unable to carry out this task Safety officer, when the officer in charge of the exercise or the firing commander are unable to carry out this role to the extent that is required Safety officer(s), when the officer in charge of the exercise is unable to carry

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out this task A safety officer should be assigned: During exercises at a higher level than platoon During exercises involving the coordination of fire and movement between vehicle personnel and foot soldiers at platoon level or higher In the case of exercises involving divisions that have not been trained in conjunction with armoured vehicle divisions, a safety officer should be assigned during exercises at section level or higher

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Safety controller(s) A tank commander usually functions as the responsible safety controller on his/her own vehicle For training purposes, a separate safety controller for the vehicle’s crew may be designated. For vehicles fitted with an intercom system, the safety controller for the vehicle’s crew should be connected to such a system

Requirements for safety controllers: During divisional firing exercises, safety controllers should be qualified personnel and should have undertaken similar tables/exercises themselves Such personnel should be informed of what should be controlled and how they should control it, how they should intervene/react in the event of a breach of safety, and how they should notify the firing commander of any irregularity

3.13.2.2

Tasks In addition to the general duties in item 1.1.5.2 relating to field exercises, the Officer conducting the exercise should prepare a separate training plan (or ensure that such a plan is prepared). Where no prior instructions have been issued for the relevant firing range and/or exercise directives/firing lines, the plan should contain: A sketch indicating the exercise’s layout and hazardous areas Sector of fire and targets A summary of specific safety measures

The training plan should be distributed to OCE(s), safety chief, safety officer(s), platoon commanders and tank commanders, where applicable The Safety chief is under the authority of the OCE and has duties in accordance with items 1.1.5.3 and 2.1.14. The Safety chief may also function as the OCE and the safety officer, if activities permit. It is usually the responsibility of the Safety chief to carry out the practical part of the exercise and to also ensure that this is undertaken in accordance with the prevailing provisions. The Safety chief should possess the following qualifications: Firing Commander course for Manoeuvres (normally as part of a company commander/squadron commander course, or platoon commander course) The Safety chief is under the authority of the OCE and has duties in accordance with

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item 1.1.5.4. The Safety chief should be in possession of the following equipment: UD 2-1: The Norwegian Armed Force’s safety rules and regulations for land-based military activities Instructions for the firing range and a summary of ongoing exercises, when such material has been prepared Maps and protractor Signal pistol with ammunition Red armband

The Safety chief should: Prior to firing: Delineate the firing range boundaries and points (areas) with restrictions on the map Brief platoon commanders and safety controllers/tank commanders about stands and firing range restrictions to the sides and above, including the marking of right and left hand firing sector restrictions Ascertain that equipment designated for communication with participating tanks/vehicles is functioning properly

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Chap-3

During fire: The safety commander should order firing to cease if he/she detects a breach of safety regulations and/or the provisions of the weapons regulations, or when, for any other reason, a hazard arises Issue the order to signal a ceasefire

-

The safety officer is under the authority of the safety chief when a safety chief has been assigned and, in such cases, is responsible for the safety of parts of the exercise. The safety officer may be assisted by safety controllers placed under his/her authority When a safety commander has not been assigned, he/she will be under the authority of the officer in charge of the exercise. The safety officer will then have the same duties as the safety commander and should be in possession of the equipment referred to in item 1.1.5.4 The safety controller is under the direct authority of the safety officer. In addition to the general duties referred to in item 1.1.5.5, the safety controller should: Prior to firing: Receive directives from the safety officer in respect of safety provisions, including signals and signs Familiarise him/herself with stands and the markings of line of fire restrictions to the right and left hand side erify that vehicles’ internal communications are functioning properly

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During firing: Position him/herself at a location where he/she has the best overview at any given time Pay particular attention to ensuring that participating personnel on the ground and in vehicles do not enter the weapon’s hazardous zone

-

On vehicles with their own tank commander (usually sergeant or higher rank), such personnel may be assigned as a safety controller during exercises. In exceptional cases, a corporal/grenadier deemed suitable may be assigned as a tank commander and safety controller. The post should be assigned by a squadron/company commander, or higher commander, and entered in writing into the firing journal If the tank commander has dismounted his/her vehicle in order to direct combat on foot/from the ground, a new safety controller should be assigned to the vehicle The officers’ responsibilities Activity management: refer to item 1.1.5.

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3.13.3
3.13.3.1

Personnel not taking part in the training
Personnel not taking part in the exercise should remain at least 50 metres behind the vehicle(s), or in a designated area.

3.13.4
3.13.4.1

Hearing protection
The tank crew (tank commander, gunner and driver) should always use the tank’s own helmet headsets as ear protection (as well as ear plugs, when required). Personnel required to assemble within, around or in proximity to a vehicle in combat should normally use both ear muffs and ear plugs. No personnel should assemble within 100 metres of a weapon/s without using ear protection. Refer also to item 6.21

3.13.5
3.13.5.1

Laser range finder
When using a laser range finder, the general provisions for use of laser, item 6.2.5, are applicable, as well as any special provisions for individual weapons systems.

3.13.6
3.13.6.1

Ammunition inspection
Ammunition should be inspected before being loaded (undented, clean) (cf. provisions of item 2.1.4 onwards). Ammunition should be placed in accordance with technical provisions, drill regulations and packing plans for individual vehicles.

3.13.7
3.13.7.1

Communications
Line or radio communication should be established between the officer in charge of the exercise and the firing commander, and all participating vehicles, as well as the safety commander/safety officer, when this is deemed necessary. If vehicles contain an intercom, this should be used. In the event of loss of communication, firing (the exercise) should cease.

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3.13.8
3.13.8.1

Warnings/marking vehicles
During target practice in daylight, vehicles should display flags. During hours of darkness, coloured lights should be used. Flags and lights should be clearly visible. These provisions apply to all forms of target practice from a vehicle, both in Norway as well as in Norwegian divisions stationed abroad. The provisions apply to both regular firing ranges and on improvised courses. Green flag or light Signifies that weapons are unloaded and under control Should be displayed by all vehicles carrying live ammunition Should be used by vehicles not actively participating in ongoing firing exercises Personnel may be mounted on the vehicle or remain dismounted

Red flag or light Signifies that weapons are loaded and ready to fire Should be used by all vehicles actively participating in the firing exercise from the point at which weapons have been loaded Personnel should neither mount nor dismount the vehicle without first ensuring that weapons have been unloaded and inspected – and that a green flag has been raised (Exception to this rule: The vehicle’s foot soldiers may either remain mounted on the vehicle or dismounted during ongoing firing exercises)

Chap-3

-

Red and yellow flag or light Signifies that weapons are loaded and that a technical error has occurred Should be present on all vehicles in which a technical fault has occurred and in which weapons remain loaded Personnel should neither mount nor dismount the vehicle without first receiving a command from the firing commander

-

Green and yellow flag or light Signifies that weapons are unloaded and under control and that a technical error has occurred Should be present on all vehicles in which a technical fault has occurred and in which weapons are unloaded and under control Personnel may be mounted on the vehicle or remain dismounted

If flags have not been supplied, marksmen/vehicles may, as an alternative, be equipped with clearly visible vests in order to separate firing vehicles from vehicles that are not engaged in firing (applies to daylight exercises). For vehicles with weapons stations (RWS), flag sets should be used (as well as lights

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during hours of darkness). Red and green lights should be used when firing is to take place during hours of darkness.

3.13.9
3.13.9.1

Instructional firing from stands with several vehicles
During exercises, tanks/vehicles usually stand in line. There should be a gap of at least 5 metres between vehicles. Vehicles should be parked without any axle pitch.

3.13.10 3.13.11

Indirect firing Firing whilst in motion

3.13.10.1 Indirect firing (target designation from an OP) is not permitted. 3.13.11.1 This type of firing places great demands on both the officer in charge of the exercise and personnel participating in the exercise. Units intending to undertake this type of activity must receive prior approval from the division commander. During an advance, when the ‘COMBAT’ procedure has been carried out and in the event of ‘RED FLAG', the following regulations apply: The number of vehicles and complexity of the exercise should be adapted to the training level of personnel in accordance with the provisions of the division commander. The level of experience and expertise of the individual tank commander is of particular importance in respect of how difficult/realistic/complex an exercise may be Cannons/barrels should never be pointed directly at personnel or other vehicles. When moving behind the vehicle, for example, weapons should be secured – electrically, for weapons systems that provide this option – elevated, and not released before the line of fire is clear again Safety is primarily maintained through personnel focusing on and being made aware of details at every level from day one of their training, together with the adaptation of movement and target practice in accordance with the condition of the terrain, in respect of safety angles and, not least, adapting the exercise to the level of training In respect of placement in terms of width and depth, reference should be made to the safety template for all types of weapons and ammunition In the case of field exercises involving the movement of several vehicles, there should be a gap of at least 5 metres between each vehicle. In the case of Leopard tanks, the gap should be at least 20 metres it should always be taken into account that there is sufficent lateral freedom for each individual vehicle. Side ways safety angles are determined by the various ammunitiontypes safety template When personnel are seated, special consideration should be given to the distance between vehicles and personnel, and the danger of firing over and to the side of personnel

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The following regulations apply when firing in motion on a combat course/firing

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course: Only one vehicle at a time, with weapon ready to fire, is permitted on each course The safety controller should be equipped in such a way that he/she is able to maintain contact with the vehicle’s crew via intercom Test runs or reconnaissance/inspection of the firing course should be carried out, if required, by the firing commander and tank commander before firing commences, in order to assess and determine the minimum permissible elevation during vehicle movement

3.13.12

Shooting in and from a vehicle

3.13.12.1 Every type of small firearms may be fired from a vehicle The exception to this is firing a pistol from a gun slit/grate, in view of the absence of a fastening point for the weapon and the consequential risk of a ricochet occurring An initial dry run of the exercise should be carried out During firing: The gunner should sit/stand firmly and point the weapon towards the designated sector t least one-third of the weapon should extend out beyond the edge of the hatch (shield clearance) On a vehicle in motion, the vehicle’s speed should be adapted to the condition of the terrain, as well as the experience level of the gunner, in order to avoid an uncontrolled weapon discharge With small firearms from a tank hatch or team leader’s hatch, all handling of weapons (loading and emptying) should be carried out over the edge of the hatch Loaded weapons (cartridge in the chamber) are not permitted in the crew compartment, except when firing through a gun slit The following regulations should be observed when firing though a gun slit or grate: The mouth of the weapon should be inside the gun slit/grate Before the weapon is loaded, it should be secured to the vehicle by a strap through the weapon’s trigger guard

Chap-3

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When firing from a unarmoured vehicle in which the window frames and body are being used as support, the weapon’s flash eliminator should, as a minimum, be on the outside of the vehicle when the weapon is being fired

3.13.13

Firing above and to the side of personnel

3.13.13.1 Firing above and to the side of personnel is permitted in accordance with this item, as well as the provisions for individual vehicles/vehicle types. Firing above personnel is permitted with tank cannons and machine cannons when

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firing from a distance that is greater than the sum of r+f+k, providing that: When firing above personnel, the trajectory is at least 8 metres above the point where personnel are located (the division being fired over), calculated from the ground. The same regulation applies to masks, the tops of trees and other terrain objects The furthest boundary of the area in which personnel are located is at least f+k from the closest boundary to the field of fire APDS/APFSDS/TPDS/TPFSDS ammunition is not used There is no tank movement during firing. Refer also to general part item 3.3.4 onwards That no firing occurs at the STAB ENGAGED level of operation for the Leopard 1A5, Leopard 2A4, and with full firing guidance functionality with the CV9030N/F1

When firing over personnel with tank cannons and machine cannons at A min < 2000 m, r+f+k is calculated thus: When A min >2000m, the value of (f) is set to 400m. Amm type 30mm TP 30mm MP 105mm HEAT 105mm HEP 120mm ØV 120mm HEAT 120mm HE r 250 m 250 m 250 m 250 m 250 m 250 m 250 m f 200 m 200 m 200 m 200 m 200 m 200 m 200 m 200 m k 75 m 150 m 100 m 400 m 400 m 100 m 500 m 500 m r+f+k 525 m 600 m 550 m 850 m 850 m 550 m 950 m 950 m

105mm HEATØV 250 m

r = hazardous distance in front of weapon f = hazardous distance for hits on this side of target area k = splinter distance When firing over personnel with a turret-mounted machine gun, the provisions of 3.4.5.3 are applicable. Safety stoppers are not required. Refer also to general part item 3.3.4 onwards.

3.13.14

Hazardous zones for tank- and machine guns

3.13.14.1 Hazardous zones are shown in the prepared safety template for individual weapons. A table containing the input values for the preparation of safety templates for tank cannons and machine cannons has been included as appendix 16, 19 and 20. The construction method for a template is specified in Appendix 1. When firing from a tank in a built-up area, the placement of buildings in close proximity to a tank engaged in combat may result in pressure injuries to personnel located on the

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ground. In such cases, a safety zone of 50 metres should be established around vehicles engaged in combat, where it is deemed necessary to use protective gear such as helmets, goggles and ear protection. Attention should also be paid to glass and other building materials that may shatter/disintegrate and fall down during discharge of weapons.

50 m

10 m

Figure: 3.47 Safety zone around a firing vehicle Unseated personnel may be injured by the backblast from a discharging weapon and must therefore place themselves at least 10 metres to the rear of a vehicle engaged in combat. Vehicles engaged in combat should use their horns to warn other friendly forces, before discharging their weapons. During joint manoeuvres in which an infantry telephone mounted at the rear of a tank may be utilised, personnel should be trained and coordinated to ensure that they are aware of the agreed procedure for its use. Hazardous zone for tank ammunition – refer to table item 3.13.14. 3.13.14.2 Danger sector for AFV weapons and automatic guns DANGER SECTOR 30 MM APFSDS and TPFSDS 500m 500105MM APFSDS and TPFSDS 700m 500120MM All Spreng All kald amm APFSDS Amm and TPFSDS 700m 1000250m 500250m 100-

Chap-3

Range in front Side angle

This area is dangerous because of the sabots falling off. It is prohibited to fire at shorter ranges than the sum of danger range for impacts to this side of the target (f) and splinter distance (k). See table para 3.14.3.1

3.13.15

Firing with a Remote Weapon Station (RWS)

3.13.15.1 Great care should be taken when footsoldiers are cooperating with RWS in firing exercises, due to the gunners limited visual area close to the vehicle. The RWS

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gunner is dependent on the help from the vehicle commander or vihicle driver to stay in control of own forces. Firing can only commence on vehicle commanders order. Operating weapon mounted in the RWS, should only be done by personnel who are trained on the RWS. When loading and emptying the weapon the RWS should be set in "ammo-reload” position kl 1, and teh arming switch should be set to "SAFE". When adjusting the sight using a boresight, only the lowest turn rate should be used.

3.13.16

Use of smoke launchers, Very pistols and illumination rockets, plus throwing of smoke canisters

3.13.16.1 See regulations in item 3.5.

3.14

FIRING ARMOURED FIGHTING VEHICLE WEAPONS (WITH TANKS)

Figure: 3.48 Lepoard 2 in winterconditions

3.14.1
3.14.1.1 3.14.1.2

In general
Safety regulations presented in the weapon manual and the drill book are only partially included in this paragraph. The regulations presented in such directives and in firing range manuals apply in addition to the regulations presented here. Adjustment of sight and zeroing of weapon have to be carried out before the firing exercise starts, if necessary previous zeroing is to be checked. Before firing starts, the tank weapons are to be ready in accordance with the regulations applying to these weapons. Special for Leopard 2A4: The casing for 120mm tank ammunition is made of cellulose and cannot withstand strong heat and impacts. It is therefore prohibited to remove an

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extra rocket/shell from reserve stocks in the turret before the shell in the chamber has been fired. The door of the reserve stocks is to be locked at the moment of discharge, and the loader is to hold on to something and observe the breeching of the gun when firing is taking place. The safety controller is to make a technical check of the reserve stock before firing commences. The safety controller must perform a technical controll of the readiness bunker prior to firing. 3.14.1.3 3.14.1.4 3.14.1.5 For other safety Regulations applying to Leopard 2A4 see manual for Leopard 2A4 NO

3.14.1.6

3.14.2.1

During peacetime firing, the weapons are to be pointed towards the fire sector until they have been emptied. During firing, steel helmet or armoured fighting vehicle helmet is to be worn by personnel on the outside of the vehicle. The driver’s hatch is to be shut. Helmets are not obligatory when loading ammunition. Turret machinegun and Anti-Aircraft Artillery Turret machinegun . When firing the turret gun from an armoured fighting vehicle Chap-3 standing still, the regulations in item 3.4 apply. The danger area will constitute a part of the safety template described in the § above. Anti-Aircraft Artillery. When firing AAA towards ground targets, the regulations in § 3.4 apply. When firing during movement, A is to equal maximum allowed distance for the ammunition being used. When firing AAA against airtargets, the regulations in § 3.4 apply. The saftey controller must in addition to his obligations in item 1.1.5.5 and 3.13 make sure that: drivers hatch must be closed during firing of the vehicles weapon participating personnel on the ground and in other vehicles do not enter the weapons dagerous area

3.14.3
3.14.3.1 3.14.3.2

Firing over and to the side of personnel
Firing over personnel with AAA is prohibited. Firing to the side of personnel with tank gun is allowed under the following conditions: that the distance to passing point is at least "r" to make sure that there is no chance of hitting the ground between the tank and passing point(personnel) that the angle between gun firing sector limitation and gun personnel is at least 70 mils when the vehicle is standing still that the angle between gun firing sector limitation and gun personnel is at least 100 mils when the vehicle is in motion (firing during motion cf item 3.14.4.1) that the distance between personnell and fire sector limitation is no less that 6 m that firing is only allowed on standing targets or emerging targets in fixed

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position within the firing sector limitation that only approved ammunition (cf item 3.3.4) is used, APDS/APFSDS/TPDS/TPFSDS ammunition is not permitted. that the gun barrels wear is within the allowed limits that the lateral and horizontal limitations of the relevant dangerous area is marked in a manner that the participating personnel easily can see or find them. See also item 3.3.4.

Firing to the side of personnell with turret mounted machineguns is permitted and is comparable to firing machineguns with tripod or "Vingfot" cf item 3.4.5.3 and consecutive and item 3.3.4and consecutive). Firing over personnel with front- or anti-aircraft MG is prohibited.

3.14.4
3.14.4.1

Fire during movement
Firing the tank gun during movement is only allowed for vehicles that are equipped with side and height stabilizers.

3.14.5
3.14.5.1

Fire during movement
When firing during movement in a combat course/firing course the following applies: that test driving or alternative reconnaissance/inspection of the firing course is made by the officer conducting firing and the tank commander to evaluate and set the minimum elevation accepted during driving before commencing firing that position for loading is used if suitable during loading and firing with fire marking equipment (Hoffmann) all personnel participating are to wear ear plugs and ear muffs dangerous area is 50 m in front of the muzzle and 25 m to each side of the fire direction it is prohibited to fire blanks DM 54 in built up areas or closer to buildings than 150 m blanks DM 54 have no delay and are discharged immediately. This materiel is not to be used in improvised ways or by using improvised firing mechanisms loading, main switch and fuze are to be switched off on the control box (Hoffmann). The blanks’ plugs are to be covered by the short circuit cap until all the blanks are placed in the tubes. The loader is to stand beside or behind the launching tubes during loading. When the blanks’ plaugs are put into the socket no personnel are to be inside the danger area emptying is done in reverse order of loading. The main switch and fuze are to be switched off on the control box (Hoffmann)

3.14.6
3.14.6.1

Fire marker HOFFMANN
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3.14.6.2

How to handle misfire/dud Fire marker HOFFMANN will remain in its firing device for min 10 minutes. After this time these fire markers are to be taken care of by the user and destroyed by

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personnel holding at least a demolition certificate level 1.

3.14.7
3.14.7.1 3.14.7.2

Firing with 14,5 mm inner tube in tank gun (applies only to Leopard 1A5 NO with a 105mm gun)
For danger area, see illustration 3.49. Highest allowed elevation is 5 degrees. Farthest allowed firing distance is 170 metres. Firing is to be carried through in accordance with the regulations in § 3.14.1.1 and § 3.14.5.1above. Firing over and to the side of personnel is prohibited.
200 m 200 m

h = 600 m

Chap-3

x

Mål A max < 170 m Weapon

Figure: 3.49 Dangerous area with 14,5 mm inner tube in tank gun

3.14.8
3.14.8.1

14.5mm ammunition Duds
When firing cartridges with tracer light NM 106 or cartridge with simulation charge NM 114, the projectiles that do not detonate on impact are to be considered as duds and blasted on site. Projectiles with brown coloured tips contain simulation charges. Precautions in case of malfunction when firing with tank guns See drill book for LEOPARD 1A5NO, UD 7-4-4

3.14.9
3.14.9.1

Risk of fire erupting in the target area
OCE is responsible for extinguishing fires arising according to the regulations regarding fire in the local target range instructions.

3.14.10

Laser range finder

3.14.10.1 See § 6.2.6 and onwards.

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3.15

FIRING WITH WEAPONS MOUNTED ON ARMOURED INFANTRY FIGHTING VEHICLE CV9030N/F1

Figure: 3.50 Firing from CV9030N/F1

3.15.1
3.15.1.1

In general
The following points regulate all firing using turret-mounted and handheld weapons from the CV9030N/F1. Safety regulations are presented in the drill book (Manual for Armoured infantery fighting vehicle CV9030N/F1), in technical manuals (TH-10 Turret and arming CV9030N) and in the firing range manual apply in addition to these regulations. When firing in peacetime, weapons must never be pointed towards personnel or other vehicles (”never point or aim…” as long as the ”RED FLAG” is being used. Before firing the safety controller is responsible for checking that the fire sector is clear and that the weapon has bearing to 100 m so that the ammunition is not discharged unintentionally before having crossed the safety zone. Before firing the weapons are to be made ready in accordance with KTS cp Manual for Armoured infantery fighting vehicle CV9030N/F1.

3.15.1.2

3.15.1.3

3.15.2
3.15.2.1

Warning/marking of vehicles
When firing is being conducted in peacetime, the vehicles are to carry flags. In darkness, lanterns with coloured lights are used to signal the status of the weapons. Flags and lanterns must be clearly visible. See also Manual for Armoured infantery fighting vehicle CV9030N/F1.

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Green flag or white lantern

Gun: emptied and checked MG: emptied and checked or Gun: loaded (shell in rotor) and : electrically secured mechanically secured axle shaft in free position

MG: emptied and checked Red flag or red lantern: Gun and MG: loaded axle shaft in (only gun) mechanically unsecured electrically unsecured (depending on the situation see 3.17.10.1. Firing with movement.)

Chap-3

Red and yellow flag or lantern:

Same as for ’red flag’ plus technical error has occurred.

Green and yellow flag or Same as for ’green flag’ plus technical error has lantern: occurred.

3.15.3
3.15.3.1

Personell for ledelse og kontroll
See item 3.13.2 and onwards. Note that: When required, the safety controller for the foot squad or vehicle squad may stay sitting in equipment compartment 10 or 11. The safety controller must wear a helmet or a helmet headset, as well as hearing protection and splinter goggles. The vehicle commander must during such a circumstance show special caution when moving the vehicle.

3.15.4
3.15.4.1

Laser range finder
The laser is safe for the free eye. There must be no laser firing on personnel which use optical devices with 8x magnifying, closer than 80 metres from the vehicle.

3.15.5
3.15.5.1

Automatic gun MK 30 – Bushmaster II
a. ‘Empty weapon – check’ to be carried out before dealing with the gun (cp Weapon drill 3.2.1.1). Rotor, breech-block and chamber are to be checked carefully, if possible using a torch to verify that emptying is complete. Before firing the gun it has to be checked that: there is no foreign object like snow and ice in the barrel the procedure KTS, in accordance with Manual for Armoured infantery

b.

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fighting vehicle CV9030N/F1, has been carried out c. the procedure COMBAT, in accordance with Manual for Armoured infantery fighting vehicle CV9030N/F1, has been carried out.

During firing: the fresh air fan is to be switched on (and remain on for at least 10 minutes after firing is over) during gun firing all personnel with their heads over the hatch and personnel within a radius of 15 metres are to wear splinterproof goggles or cover their eyes in another way, for instance by using field glasses or hands during firing at a lower operational level, parts of the system’s safety functions may or will be disconnected. The tank commander will therefore have to show the utmost vigilance.

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d.

After firing: o a link break may occur during firing. This may cause some of the ammunition to slide back into the flexichannel/magazine. This must therefore be checked carefully after firing.

3.15.6
3.15.6.1

Firing with handheld weapons from combat hatch, section leader’s hatch and firing slits
General see also Manual for Armoured infantery fighting vehicle CV9030N/F1 Action from hatch. it is prohibited to fire with M72/NM72, 84mm recoilless gun, RFK/or similar from the combat hatch or the section leader’s hatch. For ERYX see para 3.11.4.29. the gunner is to stand firm with controlled direction of his weapon the weapon is to be held with at least one third of the weapon outside the hatchway when firing from a moving vehicle the speed is to be adjusted to the nature of the ground and the gunner’s experience in order not to cause any uncontrolled weapon handling on part of the gunner. When firing handheld weapons from the combat hatch and the section leader’s hatch the firing technique (loading and emptying) is to be done over the edge of the hatch loaded weapons are not allowed in the combat compartment except when firing through a slit when firing through a slit with MP-5, AG-3 and HK-416 the weapon is to be fastened to the vehicle with a strap in the trigger guard before the weapon is loaded and it is to remained fastened until it is emptied and checked

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all firing from the combat hatch, section leader’s hatch or slit on the CV9030N/F1 is to be done from the shoulder. fire sector for firing with 30mm MK (automatic gun) from CV9030N/F1 at the same time as there is fire from the combat hatch/section leader’s hatch during movement is from 11 o’clock – 1 (see ill 3.51). for other fire sectors in combat from hatch see ill 3.51.

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Chap-3

Figure: 3.51 a. b. c. Fire sector CV9030N/F1 when section leader’s hatch is closed Limitation 30mm MK combat fire from hatch Fire sector combat hatch Fire sector fire slit

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Figure: 3.52 a. b. c. d. Fire sector CV9030N/F1 when section leader’s hatch is open Limitation 30mm MK combat fire from hatch Fire sector combat hatch Fire sector section leader’s hatch Fire sector firing slit

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Chap-3

Figure: 3.53 a. b. c. Fire sector CV9030N/F1 when the combat hatch is closed Limitation 30mm MK combat fire from hatch Fire sector section leader’s hatch Fire sector firing slit

3.15.7
3.15.7.1

Danger area
Danger area is described in the established safety template for the relevant weapon and ammunition type. A table of entrance values for constructing safety templates for heavy machine-guns and MK30 can be found in appendices 15 and 16. An explanation for how to construct safety templates is provided in appendix 1. For heavy machine-guns, see also § 3.4 and onwards. Danger area in front of the muzzle is respectively l sa and &#x03B2;sa, see appendices 15 and 16 (also defined as safe distance and safety angle).

3.15.8
3.15.8.1

Firing over and to the side of personnel
In general This type of firing requires careful planning. High standards for weapon knowledge and weapon handling are set for each vehicle commander and for the unit as a whole. a. automatic gun, see para 3.14.3.1 and 3.14.3.2

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b. c. 3.15.8.2

turret MG, see para 3.16.8.2 see also general part para 3.3.4 and onwards

Firing over personnel Firing over personnel with MK30 is allowed on the following conditions: full fire control function is used the vehicles are not to move during firing NOT to use APFSDS/TPFSDS ammunition (because of sabot) the trajectory in the area being fired over is at least 8 m above the point being fired over (the unit being fired over) above the ground. The same rule applies to bearing, treetops and other terrain features. the firing range is larger than the sum of l sa+f+s the far boundary of the area being fired over is at least f+s from the impact area’s closest boundary l sa= safety distance – danger area in front of muzzle f = 20% of lm (A min) but minimum 200m s = splinter distance Firing over personnel with MG is allowed on the following conditions: See para 3.4.5.3, but safety stops are NOT required

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3.15.8.3

See para 3.4.4 and onwards Firing to the side of personnel Firing to the side of personnel is allowed on the following conditions: the distance to the point for firing to the side of (the unit being fired to the side of) is at least like ?sa, so there will be no possibilities of impacts between the gun and the point being fired to the side of the angle made by the fire sector boundary and the point being fired to the side of and the gun is no less than 70 mils when firing from a still vehicle. the angle made by the fire sector boundary and the point being fired to the side of and the gun is no less than 100 mils from a vehicle which is moving. the distance between the point being fired to the side of and the fire sector boundary is at least 6m APFSDS/TPFSDS ammunition is NOT to be used (because of sabot). firing only towards static targets or static targets popping up inside fire sector boundaries

For firing to the side of personnel with MG the same rules apply as for firing from tripod: See para 3.4.5.3. and para 3.4.4.

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3.15.9
3.15.9.1

Firing against air targets with automatic gun
When air target mode is used, uncontrolled direction of weapons may occur if the target diappears out of reach of the gun’s limitation in height. For this reson the combat hatch/section leader’s hatch is to remain open and ‘sikkerhetssløyfe’ connected during all firing against air targets in peacetime. This implies that electric aiming outside sector 9 o’clock to 3 o’clock is not possible. In addition there is to be at least 20 metres distance between the vehicles. See para 3.19.1.2.

3.15.10

Firing with blanks with automatic gun

3.15.10.1 When firing blanks with the 30mm automatic gun the safety distance is 30m and the safety angle is 20 degrees to each side of the barrel.

3.16
3.16.1
3.16.1.1 3.16.1.2

FIRING WEAPONS FROM/MOUNTED ON WHEELED VEHICLES (DIFFERENT VERSIONS)
In general
Safety regulations in the weapon manuals, technical manuals, firing tables and firing Chap-3 range(training area manuals apply in addition to these regulations. During peacetime firing the weapons are to be sighted into the fire sector until they are emptied and checked. It has to be checked that the fire sector is free in front of the weapon so that the ammunition does not explode unintentionally before it has passed the safety zone. Special precautions have to be taken during exercises with several vehicles and personnel on foot near the vehicles. Indirect fire (fire control from OP) is prohibited. Before firing commences the weapons are to be primed in accordance with the regulations for the relevant weapon. When changing barrel, hot barrels must not be placed inside the vehicle due to the risk of burn injuries to personnel and materiel.

3.16.1.3 3.16.1.4 3.16.1.5

3.16.2
3.16.2.1

Warning/marking of vehicles
When firing is ongoing, the vehicles are to carry flags, in darkness lanterns with coloured glass. Flags and lanterns must be clearly visible and accessible to the gunner. Green flag or lantern: Red flag or lantern: Weapon emptied and checked. Weapon loaded and ready to be fired. No mounting or dismounting. This does not apply to personnel participating in the firing exercise. Weapon loaded. Technical error has occurred.

Red and yellow flag or lanterns:

Green and yellow flag or Weapon emptied and checked. Technical error has lanterns: occurred. As an alternative to flags, if such have not been distributed, gunners may be

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equipped with clearly visible vests in order to separate the firing vehicle from the vehicles that are not firing (only applicable when firing in daylight). For vehicles with weapon station (RWS) a set of flags must be used. When firing in darkness, lanterns with red and green lights are to be used.

3.16.3
3.16.3.1

Communication
Field communication line or radio communication must be established between the officer conducting the exercise/officer conducting firing and all participating vehicles, as well as to the safety chief/safety officer when this is deemed necessary. The firing/exercise is to be stopped should communication break down.

3.16.4
3.16.4.1

Personnel to lead and control
See ’Firing armoured fighting vehicle weapons’, § 3.16.4.1 in this chapter. Also note that: The vehicle commander may function as safety controller on his own vehicle when vehicle unit weapons primarily are being used. If the vehicle commander has to dismount the vehicle in order to lead the advance/combat on foot/from the ground, a new safety controller for the vehicle is to be appointed. When members of the vehicle crew have been dismounted, there must be 1 safety controller per unit on the ground.

3.16.5
3.16.5.1

Personnel not participating in the exercise
Personnel not participating in firing are to stay at least 50 metres behind the vehicle(s), or in a designated area.

3.16.6
3.16.6.1

Hearing protection
Other personnel staying in, around or near a vehicle that is firing, must normally wear both earmuffs and earplugs. No one must stay within a distance of 100 metres from the weapon(s) without wearing hearing protection. See § 6.21.

3.16.7
3.16.7.1

Laser range finder
When the vehicle commander uses a laser range finder, general regulations apply. See § 6.8 and onwards.

3.16.8
3.16.8.1

Ammunition check
Ammunition is to be checked before it is loaded (free of dents, clean, etc.) (see regulations in § 2.1.4 and onwards). Ammunition is to be placed according to the relevant vehicle’s packing plan.

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3.16.9
3.16.9.1

Firing during movement
This type of firing requires a lot of the officer conducting the exercise and all participants, and is only allowed as follows. Units that are to carry through this type of activity must in advance be approved by the unit commander, based on competence, level of experience/progression/plan, as well as on understanding of risk elements. The regulations for firing which are listed in the following paragraphs are emphasized.

3.16.10

Firing during tactical movement

3.16.10.1 When firing in the field during movement with several vehicles there is to be a distance of at least 10 m between each vehicle. It has always to be taken into consideration that there is sufficient side direction freedom for each vehicle. Under no circumstances are the vehicles to be further apart in depth than what is necessary to maintain the safety of all vehicles (distance in depth must never exeed the distance in side). When personnel are on foot special precautions apply concerning the distance between vehicles. Chap-3

3.16.11

Vehicles with mounted 12.7mm Open bolt with artillery carriage NM152

3.16.11.1 Barrel and trigger check before commencing firing. Both the barrel and the reserve barrel to be given a pull-through Barrel change after 100 rounds (peace). At fire break cock the gun immediately. All personell participating in the exercise are to wear a helmet, combat goggles, ear plugs and ear muffs.

3.16.12

Vehicle with mounted MG-3 with artillery carriage

3.16.12.1 Both the barrel and the reserve barrel to be given a pull-through. Barrel change after 200 rounds (peace). At fire break cock the weapon immediately. All personnel participating in the exercise are to wear ear plugs and ear muffs.

3.16.13

Firing small arms from vehicles

3.16.13.1 All types of small arms may be fired from the vehicle. The exception is firing pistols through the grating, due to the risk of ricochet/possibility of getting stuck). Only especially well trained personnel are allowed to fire from the vehicle commander’s place when the vehicle is moving. Standard 45 degree rule applies to firing from vehicles. When firing from moving vehicles, the ground must be level, so that no rash and unexpected movements occur. The speed must be maximum 30 km/hour. The weapon is to be held with at least one third of it protruding from the body of the vehicle. When firing through the grating (the barrel must be on the outside due to the risk of ricochet) the weapon is to be fastened to the grating with straps before it is loaded, and it is to remain fastened until it has been emptied and checked.

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Unit weapons are normally to be fired from vehicles where an artillery carriage is mounted. Weapons with flareback must only be used by dismounted vehicle personnel.

3.16.14 3.16.15 3.16.16

Instructional firing/firing from range with several vehicles Use of smoke dischargers, Very pistols and illumination rockets, plus throwing of smoke canisters Firing over and to the side of personnel Firing from a SISU/PASI vehicle

3.16.14.1 During instructional firing the vehicles are to be on line at least 5 m apart, 8 m when firing at air targets. The vehicles should stand as horizontal as possible.

3.16.15.1 See the regulations in § 3.5.

3.16.16.1 See this chapter, § 3.4.5.

3.16.17

3.16.17.1 When two people are standing in the hatches simultaneously for observation/firing purposes, basic equipment should not be worn. This is to prevent personnel from becoming trapped in the hatch in the event that the vehicle overturned. 3.16.17.2 When firing from a hatch and gun slit simultaneously, two safety controllers should be present, one inside the vehicle and the other on top of the vehicle. In respect of firing whilst the vehicle is in motion, the safety controller may ride on top of the vehicle. The vehicle’s speed should not exceed 10 km/h and the safety controller should be secured. 3.16.17.3 Sectors: When the rear hatches are being used, the gunner’s sector is from 9 o’clock to 3 o’clock When firing from the tank commander’s hatch, the gunner should not wear a combat vest

When both hatches are being manned simultaneously the following sectors apply: The gunner(s) at the right-hand hatch has the sector from 1 o’clock to 6 o’clock The gunner(s) at the left-hand hatch has the sector from 5 o’clock to 10 o’clock

When the tank commander is using the foremost right-hand hatch, the gunner’s sector is from 2 o’clock to 11 o’clock. 3.16.17.4 Firing whilst the vehicle is in motion is permitted with vehicle mounted weapons. Refer also to items 3.16.9 to 3.17.13 regarding firing whilst in motion.

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3.17

ARTILLERY, FIRING TOWARDS GROUND TARGETS

Chap-3
Figure: 3.54 155mm field artilleri M109

3.17.1
3.17.1.1 3.17.1.2 3.17.1.3 3.17.1.4

In general
The regulations in this directive apply before possible weapons manual regulations. Special safety regulations concerning the handling and use of the weapon, and which are not described in this directive, apply in full extent. The word ’gun’ is used as a joint reference for both guns and howitzers. Loaded gun is to be pointed towards the target area. Fire warning is to be conducted in accordance with the firing range manual.

3.17.2

Choosing fire range for artillery
Training area for artillery fire is the area artillery may be fired towards when all factors forming the basis for determining the danger area around the target have been taken into consideration. When firing, it must be checked whether the danger area around the target is within the training area. The check must be carried out relative to the training area’s outer boundaries with the fire control system or safety templates. The exception is certain training areas where risk of ricochets may be disregarded due to high mountains. The firing range/training area manual regulates such conditions. A fire range for artillery is to be indicated by the shortest and longest target height within the range and a 10-digit map coordination for all break points on the fire range boundary. The officer in charge of the exercise is responsible for defining the fire range and to make this known to the officer in charge of the firing, the chief safety officer and the safety officer (cp para 3.17.3.2). A ten-digit grid reference for certain fire ranges for artillery may be listed in the regulations for the fire range in question. If this is not the case, a ten-digit grid reference for the break points must be

3.17.2.1

3.17.2.2

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established by using an artillery protractor. Notice: When using a fire control system the inner angle of a break point is NOT to be more than 3,200 mils.

3.17.3
3.17.3.1

Personnel to lead and control
During firing, the responsibility for safety is assigned to the following personnel: The officer conducting the exercise (OCE). The officer conducting firing, when the OCE for professional reasons cannot or should not function as officer conducting firing. Safety chief. Safety officer. Safety guards/posts. Target chief, when this is deemed necessary for the exercise/training to work properly.

3.17.3.2

The officer conducting the exercise Firing field artillery can only be carried out under the leadership of an officer conducting the exercise, who is in charge. Normally, the officer conducting the exercise is the commander of the training unit. When this is undesirable or inconvenient, an experienced officer/NCO may be appointed as OCE. Examples: When firing in battalion formation, the battalion commander is the officer conducting the exercise. When firing in battery formation, the battery commander is the officer conducting the exercise. During educational firing, demonstration firing, unit testing, etc. an OCE is to be appointed.

All duties of the OCE in connection with firing field artillery towards ground targets are described in this paragraph. The OCE is responsible for planning, leading and running the exercise/training (combined exercise) in a manner that is in accordance with safety regulations and instructions in force. He/she is to: Produce required regulations in addition to the safety regulations in force, and give these in writing to all safety personnel. Inform participating personnel (including bystanders and observers) and assistants about the safety regulations and instructions which apply during the exercise. Point out the firing positions, OP positions, fire range, preferably also the target area, and make certain that all safety personnel are informed. Decide fire sector for safety personnel occupied with direct laying. Make sure that all blocking and safety measures are in accordance with the safety manuals. Ascertain that the medical service is in accordance with § 6.20 and onwards.

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3.17.3.3

Ascertain that fire protection measures are in accordance with The local firing range instruction Order ’hold your fire’ or call the training off, when this is deemed necessary for reasons of safety. Register and report duds in accordance with § 2.1.11.1, § 2.2.1.4 and the manual for the firing range or training area. Ascertain that all personnel staying closer than 100 metres away from the guns wear hearing protection (see § 3.17.16.1 and § 6.21).

The officer conducting firing The officer conducting firing is to be picked from among well experienced and skilled personnel. Normally, he/she will be picked from among the training unit’s officers/NCOs. When several officers conducting firing use the same target area, communication must be set up between them. For training-related purposes, he/she should be equipped with a map where assigned firing range/training area, preferably also the target area, plus areas where restrictions have been imposed, are marked. He/she is to: Chap-3 a. Before firing commences: receive directives for the positioning of OPs and possible area of manoeuvre for OPs check that the positions of the OPs are sent to the command post and that the OPs are present in the positions sent to the Command Post. If there are more than one OP in the same position it is acceptable for safety reasons that that one OP sends his/her position. When the position of an OP is calculated at the Command Post it has to be checked that the OP is the position the Command Post sends back to the OP. Report to the safety chief and all officers conducting the fire in the same target area of possible movements changing the OPs’ positions for training purposes choose targets which for safety reasons can be fired at. The target area should be indicated on his/her map if possible.

b.

During firing: report to the command post possible unnormal rounds and if necessary stop the fire if these cause danger outside the boundaries of the fire range or within a restricted area stop the fire if personnel are observed or reported being inside the danger area register possible duds (position) to be reported later.

c.

After firing: o fill in and hand over Form 750 (see appendix 6B) to the management of the firing range (see para 2.1.10.1.). Firing, using direct laying, see para 3.17.9.3.

d.

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3.17.3.4

Safety chief When firing in battalion formation (or higher levels), a safety chief is to be appointed, usually the unit’s S-3. He/she must have communication with the officer(s) conducting firing and the safety officers, as well as with safety posts regulating traffic on the safety chief’s orders. All safety chief duties in connection with firing field artillery towards ground targets are described in this paragraph. To the OCE, he/she is responsible for: Implementing the posting of safety guards, on the OCE’s directive. Ordering ‘hold your fire’ when this is necessary due to reasons of safety (e.g. when he/she has authorized traffic in the danger area). Ascertaining that all reported observation posts and restrictions are known by the safety officers.

3.17.3.5

Safety officer There is to be a safety officer in each battery (position area). The fire control officer is normally the safety officer. In his absence the duty officer acts as safety officer. If the battery is firing from two different positions simulataneously there is to be a safety officer in each position. All the duties of the safety officer are to be found in this and the following paragraphs. He/she is responsible to the exercise officer that all safety regulations are being observed, thus: preparing calculator before firing commences changing of OP positions and dispatching of calculated OP positions back to the OPs (if this has not been calculated by the OP) checking the zero line (see para 3.17.3.9.), firing data and safety control at the same time checking the position of the battery target against the artillery map transmitting the firing data to the guns use, handling and check of ammunition in the battery hold the fire when necessary for safety reasons positioning of safety posts

3.17.3.6 3.17.3.7

Manual plotting of data into the fire control system All manual plotting of data is to be double checked, i.e. one person plots the data and a second person reads and checks that the data are correct. Preparation of the fire control system before firing Before firing, the safety officer is to check that the following is entered correctly into the computer: the gun’s gunnery data OP positions and restricted points the boundaries of the artillery range and minimum and maximum elevation invalid data for Vo and weather telegram are to be nulled or replaced with standard data

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The following is to be entered when the data are ready:: top crest data when needed by the actual battery position 3.17.3.8 Vo data for the guns (calibration data) for batteries with calibrated guns Vo data for ammunition (lot Vo) weather data powder temperature and shell weight class

3.17.3.9

Distibution of OP positions The safety officer is to check that all OP positions are distributed to the safety officer in charge. If the OP position has been calculated at HQ the OP positions are to be distributed to the OP for control (6-digit grid reference, height and direction to the gunaiming mark). Check of zero line a. The team leader/controller reports ready to HQ when the zero line has been checked Firing is not to be started before the zero line has been checked and found in Chap-3 order.

3.17.3.10 Transfering gunnery data to the guns a. Digital transfer. The gunnery data are primarily to be transfered digitally to the guns by the fire control system. b. Oral orders. If the didital transfer fails thy gunnery data are to be transferred orally. In this case the gunnery data are to be read back to the fire control system from the gun. The duty officer is to employ an assistant who sees the data screen or the artillery form at the same time as the duty officer reads the gunnery data to the guns. The assistant is to say “wrong….” if the data read to the guns are wrong. When back-up systems are being used the assistant filling in the artillery form is to say “wrong” in the same manner as above. Example: Duty officer: 1st gun direction 1426, elevation 211. Assistant: Wrong elevation. Duty officer: Correction, elevation 311. Gun: 1st gun direction 1426, elevation 311.

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3.17.3.11 Use, handling and check of ammunition in the battery The safety officer is to ascertain that the battery: Handles ammunition carefully, protecting it from rough weather, heavy impacts, sunlight and high temperatures. Observes the provided regulations when using ammunition that has had restrictions imposed. Does not remove the transport safety mechanism on mechanical time fuzes or the rubber cap on proximity fuze until immediately before loading.

3.17.3.12 Interrupt firing when this is necessary for safety reasons The safety officer is to interrupt all battery firing when this is required due to reasons of safety. Reasons of safety may include: Danger area outside the boundary of the firing range or training area. Observation post(s) or areas where restrictions have been imposed within the danger area. Personnel within the dangerous area in front of the gun Aircraft or helicopter within the danger area Other reasons laid down in the firing range/training area manual.

The safety officer is to report to the officer conducting firing/safety chief if firing must be interrupted or called off due to reasons of safety. 3.17.3.13 Posting of safety guards The safety officer must post the required number of safety guards (in addition to guards ordered by the Oce/safety chief) to direct possible traffic in the danger area in front of the guns. He/she is to ascertain that the safety guards know their duties. 3.17.3.14 The gun commander The gun commander is responsible to the safety officer that his gun fires on orders from battery HQ using the correct ammunition and gunnery data. All safety duties for the gun commander during indirect firing are described in this paragraph. He/she is to make sure that: handling of ammunition in/near the gun is safely done operating the gun is done the way it is described in the manual for the gun the crew use hearing protection the crew do not move into dangerous area in front of other guns in the position area

Before each round is fired he/she is to check especially that:: a. b. the gun is loaded with the ordered: shell b. fuze and timing charge

the gun is directed with the ordered :

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c.

direction elevation

from the gun is not observed: personnel in the danger area in front of the gun aircraft/helicopters in or on their way into dangerous areas

d.

there is no firing top crest or other obstacles in the danger area

Note: When it is suitable, e.g. with self-propelled vehicles, he/she orders one of the gunners who works outside the vehicle to observe and warn. 3.17.3.15 Course students When course students as part of their training perform duties which normally require safety responsibility, other officers are ordered to bear this responsibility. The exercise leader may decide from the standpoint of the student that he/she is to cover the safety responsibility linked to the job he/she holds.

3.17.4 3.17.5
3.17.4.1

Medical service
See § 6.20 and onwards.

Chap-3

Safety control using safety template
Safety control using safety template is always to be performed before sending gunnery data to the guns. When the fire control system is being used to calculate the gunnery data, the safety control is to be done with the safety programme in the computer. If the gunnery data is produced by use of graphic back-up equipment, the safety control may be done either with the safety template or with the fire control system. (The fire control system may be used if graphic HQ back-up equipment is used for training purposes.)

3.17.5.1

3.17.6
3.17.6.1

Danger area
The danger area on the horizontal plane can be found in the safety templates for the relevant ammunition and ordnance type. The danger area can be divided into the following three areas (illustration 3.55 ): Danger area around the weapons. Danger area around the target. Area where one might fire over somebody (area between the danger area around the weapons and the danger area around the target). Danger area around the guns. The danger area around the guns is limited by the safety angle (M) in relation to the firing direction and dangerous distance in front of the guns. The safety angle (M) is 500 mills and indicated on the safety template. Danger area in front of the guns is 300 m and may, if necessary, be put on the template using a grease pencil or similar. In some templates distance(s) is marked. This distance has no practical purpose using the templates. Danger area around the target. In the danger area around the target the following is included:

3.17.6.2

a.

b.

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-

dangerous distance to impact on this side of the target (f) dangerous distance to impact beyond the target (I) side spray angle (W) ricochet angle (Q) and ricochet distance (c) splinter distance (k).

Since the effects of some of these factors are dependant on firing distance the danger area around the target will vary accordingly. c. The area being fired over. In this danger area is included: safety angle (M) splinter distance (k). Firing over this area is accepted when special requirements are met (see para 3.17.14.1). 3.17.6.3 The danger area in height is the airspace above the danger area(s) up to the highest altitude that will be used during firing, plus splinter distance (k). Highest altitude is determined based on ammunition, charge and elevation. Safe height is calculated based on this and rounded up to closest 1,000 feet (see appendix 7).

3.17.7
3.17.7.1

Manual use of safety template for safety check when firing:
When safety templates are used for safety check, this is to be carried out by the safety officer. It must be carefully ascertained that the templates have the right scale and charge. Example of safety template can be found in illustration 36.

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2000 3000 4000 5000 6000 Dr -Dmaks Dotted line shows the danger area if ITG is uncurtain and when firing is decided by gun firing table Dangerous area around target for Firing distances from 2000-7000 m

+
2-4000 5000 6000

D r Dmaks

2000 (Amin)

Chap-3
3000 Area for firing above 4000 (Not in scale)

5000

6000

7000 (Dr)

M M

Dangerous area by gun

Figure: 3.55 Example of danger area given on safety template 3.17.7.2 Preparations for firing are : a. Mark on the map: the outer boundaries of the designated firing range b. the position of gun 1 OPs and possible other restricted points in the area

When firing over an area the lowest acceptable elevation to the area being fired over for charge(s) in question is decided like this: a. decide the elevation to the point to be fired over, add the saftety

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addition in height (20 mills) 3.17.7.3 b. put down the lowest acceptable elevation on the safety template for the charge in question (ill 3.60).

Check when firing a. Mark the point (target) on the map for which the gunnery data have to be established. Check that the given target height is between the lowest and highest acceptable target height. b. Put the safety template’s target point over the marked point and adjust the template so that the centre line (BM line) lies over the gun position. Check that the correct safety template is used (scale and charge). Check that no part of the line representing the danger area around the target is outside the boundaries of the firing range. Check that no restrictive points are in around the target around the target. When firing over the target check in addition to points a-d that the elevation is larger than the lowest acceptable elevation marked on the template. When firing with other shells/combination of fuses than mentioned under 3.17.14.1. check in addition to points a-d that areas with personnel are not inside the area being fired over. If the firing is done on the basis of an uncertain fire technique or if the gunnery data are based on a gunnery scale, the first round is to be safety controlled like this: a. Danger area on this side of the target is limited by the line Dr – Dmax, danger area beside the target is limited by a broken line on the safety template and the danger area beyond the target is limited by the line indicating the firing distance in question. Firing over the target is prohibited for the last fourth of the trajectory. If the firing is in the upper register the danger of ricochets can be neglected. The line Dr – Dmax limits the danger area.

c. d. e. f.

g.

h.

3.17.8
3.17.8.1

Using the fire control system for safety control when firing
firing in peacetime. This programme is based on the same basic data used for the construction of safety templates. When the fire control system is ready as described in 3.17.3.7 the fire control system will automatically perform safety control before gunnery data are displayed. The check is done for each gun and the check is done in the following order: a. The target height used lies between the indicated lowest and greatest acceptable height. This check is done to make sure that possible grave errors in height at the target do not have consequences in the danger area outside the firing area. b. Danger area around the target is inside the indicated firing area.

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c.

Stored OP points are outside the danger area. This check is done to make sure that no OP or restrictive points (stored as OPs) are inside: danger area around the target the area being fired over when firing with HE shells with proximity fuze

d. e. 3.17.8.2

The height of the trajectory is higher than the height of the area being fired over plus safety addition If a safe fire technical base has not been established the safety control must be performed manually ( see 3.17.7.3 bullit pt g).

3.17.9
3.17.9.1

The safety programme in the fire control system stops the calculation of the gunnery data to a target which cannot be fired at for reasons mentioned under 3.17.8.1 points b-d. Special warners in the fire control system indicate the reason why gunnery data cannot be calculated. A warner about the target height (paragraph 3.17.8.1) makes it possible to calculate fixation data and gunnery data. Firing can take place in cases like this if after plotting of the fixation data on the map it turns out that the given target height is the same as the height on the map. Chap-3

Direct laying

During firing using direct laying the responsibility for safety lies with the following personnel: the officer in charge of the exercise the officer in charge of firing the gun commander

3.17.9.2 3.17.9.3

The officer conducting the exercise is to perform the relevant duties listed in para 3.17.3.2. When deciding danger area a special safety template for direct laying is to be used (ill 3.57). The officer in charge of firing is responsible to the OCE that current safety rules are observed. All duties related to safety during firing, direct laying, are described in this point: He/she is to: make sure that all guns are in line make sure that the targets are inside the fire sector make sure that the distance gun – target is more than 800 m for 155mm field howitzer and 600 m for 105 mm field howitzer make sure that the gun is not directed outside the fire sector. Sector markers or sector stoppers can be used to indicate the fire sector make sure that all received instructions for the use of ammunition are followed hold the fire when breeches in the safety regulations or when for other reasons danger may arise

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3.17.9.4

The gun commander is resposible to the officer in charge of firing that his gun only fires against designated targets. All duties related to safety during firing, direct laying, is described in this paragraph: He/she is to make sure that: the gun is loaded with the ordered type of shell and charge the gun is directed against the target in question the handling of ammunition in/around the gun is in accordance with safety rules the operating of the gun is done as described in the gun’s drill regulations the gun crew use ear protection

3.17.10 3.17.11

Ammunition check Procedures at malfunction

3.17.10.1 See chapter 2.

3.17.11.1 A misfire is a malfunction where nothing ‘happens’ after pulling the trigger once and then repeating it twice. This may be due to an error in the trigger mechanism, the ignition, propellant or a clogged flame canal. It is not possible to immediately distinguish between an afterburner and an incomplete functioning of the trigger mechanism and/or the ignition. Therefore a misfire is considered an afterburner until this possibility has been ruled out. Removing the ignition cartridge, or opening of the sliding wedge/breech is not to take place till 10 min after the last time the trigger was pulled. The gun is to be directed towards the target all the time. a. When a misfire has occurred the following is done: if possible secure the gun b. the firing lanyard is loosened (if possible) and handed over to the gun commander the personnel are evacuated under full control

After waiting for 10 min the gun commander appoints an assistant from the gun crew. The assistant removes the ignition cartridge and shows it to the gun commander: Has the ignition cartridge not been discharged the error may be the cartridge itself or the trigger mechanism. Is there a clear mark of impact on the cartridge a new one is put in and the firing can continue. The removed cartridge is kept separately from the others until it can be destroyed. Is there no impact or only a very weak one in the cartridge, the error lies in the trigger mechanism. The sliding wedge/breech is opened, the charge removed and the error put right. The firing can now continue.

3.17.11.2 For all ammunition types with fuzes, the rule is that shells having been removed from the chamber from the front of the gun are not to be used. To avoid ejection it is

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always wise to try and fire shells that are already loaded. An ejected shell is to be removed from the battery area and destroyed.

3.17.12

Construction of safety template for field artillery

3.17.12.1 For live firing in peacetime, safety templates are to be constructed for the charges in question. The template are to be in scale 1:50 000 and/or 1:25 000. A separate safety template is constructed for direct laying. Each template applies to a certain charge and to a certain interval of muzzle velocity (Vo). If two types of guns are ballistically similar they can use the same templates. The final decision about this rests with the higher authority for artillery and AAA. The templates are to be marked with scale, type of gun, charge and Vo area. The lay-out and marking of safety templates can be seen in illustration 3.60.

3.17.13

Construction of templates
The following factors are taken into consideration when constructing templates: Max firing distance which can be achieved with a certain charge/combination of shells Shortest accepted firing distance for a certain charge/ combination of shells If the firing distance is larger that D r the danger of ricochets can be ignored The actual firing distance (each 1000 m from A min to D max) The distance from the target to the point from which the ricochet angle Q is to be measured Ricochet distance The width of the danger area on this side of the target Splinter distance Safety angle Ricochet angle Side spray angle Danger distance beyond the target anger distance on this side of the target Survey of D max, Dr and Amin for 155 mm and 105 mm guns: Calibre 155mm Charge 3W 4W 5W Dmax 8000 9000 11000 Dr 7000 8000 10000 Amin 2000 4000 5000 Vo-area 275-310 310-355 370-415

3.17.13.1 a. Dmax: Amin: Dr: A: Qp: c: BRh: k: M: Q: W: l: f:

Chap-3

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6W 7W 9/8 BB 9 BB 105mm 1,2,3 4 5 6 7 b.

13000 15000 25000 30000 5000

11000 13000 16000 19000 22000 4000 5500 7000 8500 10000

6000 7000 10000 13000 18000 2000 3000 4000 5000 6000

445-490 530-580 640-715/530-580 790-860/640-715 790-860 -245 250-270 290-310 350-380 450-475

8/7W BB 20000

When firing Base Bleed ammunition it has to be observed that there is a theoretical possibility that the Base Bleed element does not function and that the shell therefore will have a considerably shorter range than estimated. To include this in the calculation of the safety template Danger distance on this side of the target is to be calculated on the basis of a shortened firing distance A according to the table below: Charge: 7 BB Charge: 8 BB Shortened firing distancce (km) Charge: 9 BB Shortened firing distancce (km)

Firing distancce(km) 10 11 12 13 14 15 16 17 18 19 20 21 22 23 24

Shortened firing distancce (km) 8,7 9,4 10,2 11,1 11,9 12,7 13,6 14,1 15,2 15,6 15,6

11,1 12,0 12,7 13,4 14,3 15,1 15,9 16,7 17,6 18,4 19,1 19,6 15,2 16,0 16,8 17,6 18,5 19,2 20,0

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25 26 27 28 29 30 c. l c BRh f

19,6

20,8 21,6 22,4 23,2 23,4 23,4

Danger area is calculated like this: For A <Dr (ricochet may occur) =0,4 x Dr - 0,3 x A = 0,001 x (Dmax x W) + 0,1 x (Dr -A) = 0,001 x Dmax x W = 0,1 x A NB! f min = 400 metres For A > Dr (Danger of ricochet is not taken into account)

Chap-3

l c

= f = 0,1 x Dr = BRh = 0,001 x Dmax x W

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Avst < D r
c+k

Avst > D r

l+k

l+k

f+k Br h +k Q f+k Qp +k

Figure: 3.56 Construction of safety templates for field artillery 3.17.13.2 Common data a. Qp= 0,1 x Dr + k NB! Qp min = 1200 metres W = 20 (mils) Q = 400 (mils) M = 500 (mils) b. The value for k depends on calibre and can be found in this table: k (metres) 600 400 150 100

Calibre 155 mm 105 mm 40 mm 20 mm

The calculation gives all distances in metres. Danger area beyond the target is

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found by drawing a cicular crescent around the target with radius (l+k). Danger area on this side of the target is found by drawing a circular crescent around the target with radius (f+k). c. The area being fired over The area being fired over has a width BR h where the danger area on this side of the target ends and narrows to a width of k 300 m in front of the gun. Danger area when the fire technical basis is uncertain The area is found by drawing the line Dr – Dmax to the maximum width of the danger area beyond the target and then draw the line for maximum width down to the contact point. The lines are to be broken. The construction of the template is in ill 3.56.

d.

e.

3.17.13.3 For artillery ranges with designated position areas and limited impact areas, a special template where Dmax is equal to the longest acceptable firing distance in the range in question is made (Daccept). The template is to have additional marking SPECIAL TEMPLATE FOR POSITION AREA GRID………ARTILLERY FIRING RANGE…. Chap-3 Daccept=.........M. 3.17.13.4 Safety template, direct laying (ill 3.57) is constructed for the following firing distances: 155 mm FH 800-2000 m 105 mm FH 600-2000 m. If the firing goes beyond 2,000 m, a template for indirect laying is to be used. The basic data for the construction of a safety template can be found in the following table:

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Dangerous distan- Splinter disce for impacts on tance (k) this side of the target (f)

Ricochet ang- Ricochet dis- Danger disle (Q) tance (c) tance beyond the impact area(l) 0.1 (D max - A D 0.4 x D max min) 0.3 x A max

20% of A min but at 155mm:600 m 400 mils least 200 m 105mm:400 m

If ricochets are neglected the ricochet angle (Q) and the ricochet distance can be left out. Dangerous distance for impact beyond the impact area (l) is then calculated like this: l = 0,1 x Dmax. The side spray angle W is: 20 mils with static targets 100 mils with moving targets

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2000

Chap-3

600

Gun Scale 1:25000 105/Charge 6 Direct laying Shortest distance Greatest distance

600 m 2000 m

Figure: 3.57 Example of safety template, direct laying. NB! Not in scale A safety template for direct laying applying to both static and moving targets can, practically speaking, be constructed like this: a. Danger area on this side of the target is calculated like this (ill 35): decide f+k b. draw a semicircle around the shortest firing distance with a radius f+k

Danger area beyond the target is calculated like this (ill 35): mark off Q

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c.

mark off k from Q mark off f+k from the firing direction where it is larger than Q+k decide c+k and mark off this from the firing direction where it is smaller than Q+k decide l+k and with this as radius draw a circular arc from 2,000 m.

Example of marking off the template, see ill 34.

l+k c+k

w

Q 2000 k

f+k

800

f

Gun
Figure: 3.58 Construction of safety template, direct laying

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3.17.14

Firing over target by field artillery, calibre 105mm and larger

Figure: 3.59 Field artillery firing 3.17.14.1 Firing over the target means firing over personnel staying in the area being fired over between the gun position and the target. Firing over the target is allowed with the following ammunition: HE shells with percussion fuse HE shells with time fuses in the part of the trajectory which is more than the splinter distance k above the ground WP shells with percussion fuses illumination shells with time fuses smoke shells (HC) with time fuses bomblets with time fuses in the part of the trajectory which is more than 1,540 metres over the ground

Chap-3

firing other types of ammunition is prohibited. When firing over the target the following conditions have to be met: the personnel inside the safety angle (M) must be at least 300 m from the guns the personnel must be at least f+k from this side of the target boundary (if precautions have been taken to protect the personnel against splinters the effect of rk can be reduced) the height of the trajectory at the point being fired over must be higher than the point’s height plus an additional safety addition in height. 1

-

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2000 3000 4000 5000 6000 Dr -Dmaks

+
2-4000 5000 6000 D r Dmaks

2000 (Amin)

Min elev 250 min tp 13,6

3000

4000

(Not to scale)

5000

6000

7000 (Dr)

M M

TEMPLATE 1:50000 155/CHARGE 3 W Vo: 275 - 310 m/s

Figure: 3.60 Example of marking off the lowest elevation on the safety template

1 To avoid impact in the point fired over because of the weapon’s spray in height, irregularities in calculating height of battery and point being fired over, and variations in weather conditions, an additional safety height is to be used. By using a calculator the safety addition is 4fs + 75 m (in metres). Firing with HE/time fuses and bomblets the additional height mentioned above is to be added. When there is manual safety control the safety addition is 20 mils.

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3.17.15

Burning of propellant charge

3.17.15.1 The following regulations apply concerning burning of powder bags which have not been used after live firing at an artillery range. These regulations form the background for burning powder bags in small amounts (up to 30 kilograms) near firing positions. Regulations concerning destruction (demolition) of large amounts of powder can be found in TFF 763. Possible restrictions at the different artillery firing ranges (e.g. seasons etc.) have to be considered in connection with the regulations. 3.17.15.2 The burning is to take place at an appropriate place near the respective gun groups before the gun commander leaves the area. If not the powder bags are to be gathered and taken away in tagged quivers. a. Section leaders and gun commanders are to be trained in the technique of burning small amounts of powder. Personnel who are to burn large amounts of powder are to have a demolition certificate class I or class III. The safety officer is to make sure that the personnel know the extensive regulations applying at the firing range. b. The section leader will decide an appropriate place for burning to his crew and appoint one of the gun commanders to be responsible for the burning in his Chap-3 area.The section leader will point out the place to burn the powder to the appointed leader of the burning, and make sure that he knows the regulations and gives the necessary additional information about the burning.

When choosing an appropriate place to burn the powder the section leader will consider: Wind direction wind force which may cause danger to personnel and antenna material, vegetation, etc. the place of burning is to be at least 300 m from residential areas, public transport, etc. a danger zone with a 100 m radius so that personnel and materiel are not damaged the place of burning is to be chosen so that vegetation and other material do not add to the fire

3.17.15.3 The gun commander who is appointed responsible for the burning is responsible to the safety officer that the burning is in accordance with the regulations. Assistant is the other gun commander in the section. 3.17.15.4 Regulations for the burning Simultaneously up to 20 (155 mm FH), possibly 75 (105 mm FH) powder bags can be burned. The powder bags are laid out in one layer as shown in ill 37. For ignition is used a one-metre long black powder fuse to which a bunch of matches are attached. If special matches are not available a box of ordinary matches can be used. The box is opened about 10 mm so that the sulphur ends are clearly visible. The black powder fuse is to be put into the box from the other end till it reaches the sulphur. The sulphur is to have contact with the first powder bag. Powder is never to be ignited directly by use of one match stick. This may cause severe burns to

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personnel. Powder is not to be thrown on the fire to increase the fire. After the burning it has to be made sure that the fire has completely died out so that the surrounding vegetation is not ignited later on. Possible residues of powder are to be gathered and burnt separately. Burning of powder is not to take place more than once in the same place per day. If a new burning is to take place the same day this will have to be moved at least 50 m from the area in which the previous burning took place.
Wind direction

5 bags 5 bags 5 bags 4 bags 3 bags 2 bags 1 bags For 105 mm FH: maximum 75 chargebags For 155 mm FH Maximum 20 chargebags

Ignition site

Construction of the ignition system 1. Storm matchstick methode Firing hose Tape 2. Matchstick methode Firing hose A storm matchstick placed in front of the firing hose in the middle

Figure: 3.61 Burning of powder bags

3.17.16

Hearing protection

3.17.16.1 All personnel staying within a radius of 100 metres from the weapon(s) must wear hearing protection, earmuffs and earplugs in combination, or other approved devices providing equal protection. See also § 6.21 and onwards.

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3.17.16.2 Firing with large charges With large charges is meant charges equivalent to charge DM72 4 modules or larger. Firing with large charges the guns are to be grouped with at least 50 metres of distance. The gun crew is to stay at the gun or closely behind it.

3.17.17 3.17.18

Risk of fire in the target area Laser range finder

3.17.17.1 See regulations regarding fire in the local target range instructions. 3.17.18.1 See § 6.8.1.1 and onwards.

3.18 3.19
3.19.1
3.19.1.1 3.19.1.2

FIRING HELLFIRE MISSILES
(Safety regulations for firing Hellfire missiles are to be found in ’The Navy’s instructions for firing guns and missiles – SDP-103.)

ARTILLERY FIRE TOWARDS AIR TARGETS
In general
When radar tracking is used to direct guns the firing is to stop when the target Chap-3 aircraft no longer can be seen. To recover loosened wire the officer conducting the exercise is to order personnel if not special reasons prevent this from being done (for instance because of the current contract rules with the air company). The personnel are to be told not to touch the wire until it has been established that it is not in contact with any electrical wiring. When firing with direct laying the telescopic aiming device is to be equipped with eye protection and head support if this is part of the equipment. In case of misfire the weapon is to remain pointed in the firing direction. Personnel who are not in cover are not to stay in front of or at level with the muzzle when the error is being put right. Besides they are to act in accordance with the weapon manual (see para 3.22.1.1 and onwards). When firing across water one (if deemed necessary two) manned motorboat(s) are to be present and having communication with the exercise leader so that both sector boundaries can be guarded effectively against vessels trying to pass. A safety boat may not be necessary if the exercise leader has the necessary control/view of the firing sector from the firing position or by using observation posts outside the firing position to check all traffic into the firing area. When weapons have mounted uxiliary weapons the Safety regulations apply also for this weapon. When Norwegian units conduct firing at firing ranges/areas abroad the Safety rules applying to the firing area in question are to be observed. If the regulations do not break with this manual the foreign regulations apply fully. In case of of disagreement between the two regulations, the strictest interpretation of the regulations apply.

3.19.1.3 3.19.1.4

3.19.1.5

3.19.1.6 3.19.1.7

3.19.2
3.19.2.1

Personnel to lead and control
When firing the following personnel are normally appointed: OCE/exercise leader safety officer(s)

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3.19.2.2

safety controller(s) assisting safety controller(s) safety plotter safety plotter post(s) safety post(s)

The OCE appoints firing leader(s) when necessary, e.g. when there is firing going on from two different positions at the same time or with different weapons. The OCE has in addition his normal duties listed in para 1.1.5.2: a. Before firing: make sure that the ammunition is checked b. check the direction of the weapon

After firing: o make sure thet the remaining ammunition is counted o check that the weapons are empty o check possible transport of ammunition o post guards to look after ammunition not being transported

3.19.2.3

The safety officer is to be a commissioned officer. He is in charge of all safety personnel in the unit. He is responsible to the exercise leader that the safety duties are in accordance with the safety regulations and given orders, and for the carrying out of the safety duties. In addition to the duties given in para 1.1.5.4 he is to: teach the safety controllers the rules that apply for the exercise in question check the work of the safety controllers and constantly keeping them updated on vessels, aircraft, etc. in the area checking the personnel’s equipment (helmet, hearing protection, flag, etc.) Make sure that the regulations for misfire are followed make sure that no one stays in front of the muzzle after the order to load has been given instruct the safety posts place, instruct and check the safety plotter posts when guns fire individually make sure that firing can take place before the order to fire is given report to the OCE when ready to open fire and if something obstructs the firing for safety reasons stop all firing: 1. when the barrel points against or in front of the target aircraft or a point behind the aircraft which is closer than ¼ of the towing wire’s length 2. when air and/or sea vessels are inside (or during firing expected to

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enter) the danger area 3. 4. 5. when the target aircraft is exposed to danger because of ricochets etc. when he sees the shell(s) (tracer) passing close to the target aircraft (within half the length of the towing wire) if the target aircraft is about to crash, has engine trouble or has given a signal to stop the fire (radio or light signal).

3.19.2.4

The safety officer is to have a siren to stop the fire if necessary for instance when the firing prevents the personnel from hearing a normal whistle signal. The safety controller. A safety controller is appointed to each weapon/gun. A safety controller is appointed to the tracking radar when the firing is remote controlled. The gun’s safety controller will in addition to his normal duties in para 1.1.5.5:: make sure that the gun is not directed outside the boundary for the side angle and elevation given by the safety officer and that the barrel is not directed at or in front of the target aircraft or at a point behind the aircraft which is closer to the aircraft than ¼ of the towing wire’s length (see para 3.19.2.3) -

Chap-3 when the target is followed give a sign when for safety reasons there is nothing to prevent opening fire. As a sign that firing may start he can hold up a red flag. If the guns are under remote control he is to stay in a place in which he will not be injured when the barrel is turned quickly.

3.19.2.5

The radar safety controller is to survey the materiel and target and give permission to open fire when everything functions normally and the guns’ safety controllers hold up their red flags. Assistant safety controller. An assistant safety controller is to be posted to each gun: when there is firing over or to the side of troops when firing against approaching targets when the attack angle’s horizontal projection is < 20 degrees

An assistant safety controller at the gun is to: report to the safety controller when the gun is directed outside the given boundary for the angle of traverse or elevation 3.19.2.6 assist the safety controller on his order. See paragraph 3.20.2.1 for the duties of the assistant safety controller before firing RB 70.

3.19.2.7

The safety plotter. He is appointed when the observation conditions make it necessary. The safety plotter is on the basis of the reports from the safety plotter posts all the time to plot vessels etc. in the danger area and brief the safety officer about this. The safety plotter post. The safety plotter post is appointed when the observation conditions make it necessary. The plotter post can consit of a suitable number of men (at least two) who are experienced in operating the instrument. The plotter post is to: continuously survey the sea and/land area in question report to the safety plotter vessels etc. that do not participate in the exercise, stay in or approach the danger area

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3.19.2.8

report if the task cannot be accomplished because of fatigue, poor visibility, etc.

Safety post: Is to be posted when it is necessary to monitor the air space.

3.19.3

Danger area
During firing (except mirror firing) the target pilot and the necessary personnel for firing may stay in the danger area. Special rules apply for the safety of the pilot. Other personnel do not have to take cover when there is firing. The nature of firing at air targets (large firing area, fast moving targets) makes it necessary to simplify the establishment of the danger area compared to firing against ground targets. Normally it is impossible to seal off the danger area completely. Therefore it often becomes necessary, in addition to the danger area, to expect a random inner danger area which is moveable with the target. Simultaneous firing against two towed target counts as two (inner) danger areas. If vessels etc. enter the danger area the firing can continue as long as it possible to establish beyond doubt that the vessel will not enter the inner danger area. The danger area is established flexibly as indicated in the field firing drill book. The appearance of the danger area can be seen in illustrations 3.62. Danger area for firing RB 70 see para 3.20.6.1. A divided danger area is acceptable provided: that the firing takes place in a combination of projectiles and barrels/tubes which accept a divided danger area (see para 3.19.3.6) that the trajectory inside the area being fired over is at least 6m above terrain features

3.19.3.1 3.19.3.2

3.19.3.3 3.19.3.4

3.19.3.5 3.19.3.6

During firing over and to the side of troops with anti-aircraft machine gun and automatic anti-aircraft gun and with guns that have machine tracking, precautions have to be taken to prevent that the barrel is directed in a dangerous direction. Dangerous distance for direct hit (air blast) on this side of the firing area (f), plus dangerous distance for splinters (k), danger area around the gun and side spray angle and safety angle firing at air targets with different combinations of projectiles and barrels can be seen in the table below. (For firing at groung targets, see paragraph 3.17.1.1 and onwards). Projectiles and fuzes Split danger Muzzle disarea allowed tance r in metres 50 50 Vo Vo Safety angle M in clicks 100 100 250 250 Side spray angle W in clicks 100 100 100 100

12,7 mm and smal- Yes ler calibers 20 and 40 mm, All Yes massive projectiles All HE shells in- Yes cluding MP shells All anti-tank shells No

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3.19.3.7

The inner danger area is made up of one sector: the point in the weapon the centre line through the predicted point the further limitatation like an arc with radius h with side spray angle W

An inner danger area is not to be established when there is firing with guns that are remote controlled with radar direction. This means that the danger area always has to be free of personnel and vessels. An inner danger area can be established when manual laying and remote optical laying can be used. All firing will stop immediately when aerial vehicles (except tow target aircraft) enter the danger area whether the inner area is established or not. The danger area around the gun is decided by: safety angle (M) muzzle distance (r) splinter distance (h).

These figures are found in the tables 3.19.3.6. The inner danger area for RB 70, see 3.20.6.1.. MKI rocket: 13,500m, k: (warhead) 158.5m (see TO 60A-1-1-4) MKII rocket: 13,500m, k: (warhead) 178.5m (see TO 60A-1-1-4)

Chap-3

Centre line = prolonged core line Movable target Lead point

k

k Movable inner dangerous area W M W M h

M W W k

M

k

r

r

Figure: 3.62 Example of moveable inner danger area when firing at air targets

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Lead point Target course lead Movable target Dangerous area Movable inner dangerous area

Firing sector

Dangerous area around the gun Firing stand

Figure: 3.63 Example of danger area and inner danger area which can be used when firing at air targets using manual laying and remote optical laying. With remote radar laying the firing sector is similar to the danger area sector minus 25 degrees on either side. (Inner danger area is not used during remote radar laying)

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3.19.3.8

Dangerous distance firing direction (h) and splinter distance (k). K Calibre h HE and MP shells Cold projectiles and exercise shells Anti-tank shells 12,7 mm 20 mm 40 mm L/60 40 mm L/70 7 000 m 7 200 m 12 000 m 14 000 m 50 m 75 m 400 m 400 m 25 m 40 m 75 m 75 m Exercise ammunition 25 m 40 m 75 m 75 m

3.19.3.9

Danger area (inner danger area) is decided with the extent of the front area on the ground (sea). When firing this is included in the danger area (inner danger area) the air space above this ground (sea) to the following altitudes Calibre 20 mm 40 mm L/60 40 mm L/70 >40 mm Altitudes 5 000 m 8 000 m 9 000 m 12 000 m

Chap-3

3.19.3.10 The highest accepted elevation is 65 degrees. This elevation can only be exeeded for special trial firing. When using anti-aircraft machine gun (except auxiliary weapons of 40mm or larger guns) and 20mm anti-aircraft automatic gun against approaching targets (the attack angle horizontal projection <20 degrees) it is only accepted to open fire when the tow aircraft has reached 65 degrees (target angle).

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3.20

GUIDED MISSILE SYSTEM – ROBOT 70

Figure: 3.64 Firing RB70

3.20.1
3.20.1.1

In general
skytingIn addition to these regulations, the directions laid down in the weapon manual and additional rules for the exercise leader for each firing apply. When choosing firing position the possibility for fire in the gas outlet behind the weapon must be taken into consideration. No firing during thunder storms. There must be good visibility between the firing stand and the target area. The aiming line to the target is to have a minimum of 1m bearing. The position is not to have a steep slope closer than 50m behind the gun.

3.20.2
3.20.2.1

Personnel to lead and control
At the artillery range there are to be no more personnel than necessary for leading, control and service. Other unprotected persons are to stay under safe cover or outside the danger area, at least 100m behind and straight to the side of the gun. When firing the following personnel are normally to be appointed: The OCE is in addition to his/her normal duties in para 1.1.5.2. tomake sure that form 750 see appendix 6B is filled in accordance with para 2.1.10.1. He/she is responsible that technical personnel go through third line check of the weapon before the live firing starts. The OCE can function as officer conducting firing. 1.1.5.2 The officer conducting firing will in addition to his/her normal duties laid down in para 1.1.5.3 run the firing and give orders about loading and firing of the weapon. He/she is responsible for control of communication to the air traffic service’s local air control body so that it functions during the period of firing and make sure that the firing area is ready before the firing commences. The safety officer will in addition to his/her ordinary duties laid down in para: 1.1.5.4

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-

check that there is no steep slope (vertical wall) behind the weapon closer than 50m will not allow firing over personnel check that only necessary personnel are on the artillery firing stand check that there are no personnel inside the danger area for rear blast after the weapon has been loaded brief the section leaders and safety personnel about the artillery firing range and the boundaries of the firing area, order firing sector and signals to stop the firing make sure that the safety communication works satisfactorily report to the officer in charge of firing when safety measures are met and firing can start stop the firing when he finds breaches of regulations and when for other reasons danger occurs

-

A safety controller is to be appointed for each gun. He/she is responsible for Chap-3 maintaing the weapon system’s safety and will in addition to his/her general duties in para 1.1.5.5. and the local firing area’s regulations: monitor the gun duties in making the weapon ready as well as firing technique and check that orders are followed check that the weapon terminal is correctly mounted and made ready including that all parameters are correctly entered observe and check that the weapon terminal is correctly used before, during and after engagement when a live missile has been loaded check that the FIRE button on the weapon terminal is not pushed before firing permission is given by the firing leader check that personnel at the firing range wear helmets and use hearing protection inform the safety officer when the safety of the weapon has been taken care of and fire can be opened order firing to be stopped if anything occurs which might jeopardise safety

An assistant safety controller is ordered for each weapon. He/she is responsible for safety of the launching unit and is to: check that the weapon is correctly assembled and that all switches at the left handle are in correct position make sure that no one stays in front of the muzzle or inside the danger area for rear blast after the launching unit has been loaded make sure that the launching unit is not laid ouside the firing sector after it has been loaded make sure that the launching unit is not laid towards target aircraft or closer to

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target aircraft than ¼ of the towing wire’s length inform the safety controller when the safety of the launching unit is maintained and fire can be opened be placed so that he can see all of the rocket trajectory order stop firing if anything happens that may jeopardise safety make sure that the launching unit during fire break and misfire still is laid in the firing sector and that personnel move into the area of rear blast

Safety plotter, safety plotter post, see para 3.19.2.6 and onwards.

3.20.3
3.20.3.1

Check and handling of ammunition
The sealed rocket is to be treated carefully to avoid impacts, sunlight, high temperatures and moisture. It is not to be removed from the transport and storing box until use. In this box the sealed rocket is specially protected against impacts and shaking. However, the rocket can be removed from the box for check of ammunition included in this paragraph. It is then placed in the ammunition rack of the trailer or similar in order to achieve a more warlike firing range atmosphere. Upon reception the following is to be done: check of transport and storing box. If there is damage which makes it reasonable to to assume that it has been exposed to a heavy impact or similar the sealed rocket is not to be used check of the sealed rocket. If the box/quiver has visible signs of damage, the rocket is not to be used check of the moisture indicator. If it has a pink colour the sealed rocket is not to be used

3.20.4
3.20.4.1

Precautions in case of malfunction
When there is break in the fire the procedures given in the technical handbooks for this weapon system are to be followed. When there is misfire – and activated missile, the missile can be removed from the launching unit only after 60 minutes. All personnel will be moved under cover at least 200m from the unit during the wait. In case of no booster ignition, and the rocket lands in front of the firing stand, all personnel are to be evacuated at least 200m from the impact area. In case of a misfire no radio transmitters are to be used within 30m from the missile. All radio transmitters within the distances described in paragraph 2.4.4.2 are to be turned off.

3.20.5
3.20.5.1

Destruction of duds
A rocket which has not detonated on impact or by means of self destruction is to be blown up there and then, if possible. No one is to approach the dud until after 60 minutes. The destruction of dud is to be performed by certified EOD personnel.

3.20.6
3.20.6.1

Danger area in front of the weapon
Moveable inner danger area is formed by a sector with its point in the gun, 45 degrees to each side in relation to the rocket’s trajectory. The sector has also a maximum width of 1,000m to each side of the rocket’s trajectory. The length of the area is equal to the danger distance in the firing direction which is 13,500m. The

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altitude of the danger area is 8,000m above the firing stand. The total limitations of the firing area are called danger area. Firing sector RB 70 is decided by establishing a safety sector (danger area) into the area. The rocket’s trajectory is under no circumstance to exceed the approved firing sector. If the rocket leaves the approved firing sector the rocket’s guiding beam is to be turned off (the rocket is destroyed). Firing with RB 70 is not allowed if personnel, vessels, boats or vehicles are within the area covered by the firing sector and moveable inner danger area.

3.20.7
3.20.7.1

Danger area behind the weapon
Danger area of backblast Robot 70 is an area behind the RB 70 unit. The area extends itself 6 metres to each side, in a straight angle, and from thence in an angle of 25 degrees out and backwards in relation to the firing direction. Safe distance is 50 metres.

3.20.8
3.20.8.1

Firing over and to the side of personnel
Firing the RB 70 over and to the side of personnel is prohibited.

3.20.9

Hearing protection
All personnel within a 100 metre radius from the gun mounts must normally wear both earplugs and earmuffs, see also § 6.21.

3.20.9.1

Chap-3

3.21

ARTILLERY, TESTING AND TRIAL FIRING

Figure: 3.65 New equipment is tested

3.21.1
3.21.1.1

In general
The regulations in the paragraph called ”Artillery, firing against ground targets” also apply for this paragraph. The regulations mentioned in this paragraph are additional. The following is meant by test and trial firing: all firing with not qualified weapons and/or ammunition. Weapons and ammunition are to be approved for the test/trial by the authorities in

3.21.1.2

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charge.

3.21.2
3.21.2.1

Personnel to lead and control
During test and trial firing the following personnel responsible for safety are to be appointed: test and trial leader (may also be firing leader) firing leader (officer conducting firing) safety officer safety controller safety posts (according to rules and type of test)

3.21.2.2

The test and trial leader is appointed from among well qualified personnel from the unit/institution responsible for the test/trial. The one who is appointed is to possess great knowledge of the materiel to be used in the test/trial. At test and trial firing the test and trial leader takes over the responsibilities of the OCE (see para 3.17.3.2). In addition he is to: make a plan (desription) for the test/trial with the necessary Safety rules. The plan will be presented to the professional authorities for approval 1 month before the test/trial is to take place brief all involved personnel on the test/trial and make sure that all personnel have received and understood instructions and orders allow for deviations from the plan if this is deemed necessary and does not involve considerable consequences for safety

3.21.2.3

The officer conducting firing/firing leader is appointed from among well qualified personnel. He/she can also act as test and trial leader, and is then to be appointed from the unit/institution that is responsible for the test/trial. His/her duties are described in para 3.17.3.5. In addition he/she is to: decide left/right limitations and max/min elevation A safety controller is appointed if the test and trial leader deems it necessary in order to carry out the test/trial. A safety controller is always to be appointed at test and trial firing with artillery from areas outside a firing area. The safety controller’s duties are described in para 3.21.3.7. Safety posts are appointed in accordance with the current firing range instructions and if the test/trial leader deems it necessary in order to carry out the test/trial.

3.21.2.4

3.21.2.5

3.21.3
3.21.3.1 3.21.3.2 3.21.3.3

Test and trial firing with artillery from area outside firing areas – additional regulations
The area to be used has to be approved by the DIF. Warning is done in accordance with the Firing area regulation and the Firing area drill book and appendix 7. In addition the test and trial leader has to decide whether further measures have to be taken in each single case. Firing can normally not take place over public roads, rail roads or residential areas unless the area can be sealed off/checked for personnel during firing. Firing may however take place over small roads which can be sealed off/checked and over built

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3.21.3.4

3.21.3.5 3.21.3.6 3.21.3.7

up areas where there are no people, e.g. areas of cabins, summer houses (see warning in the firing area drill book). To check that personnel are not in the area being fired over a search has to be performed. Primarily a search is made from the air by helicopter/aircraft every day before the firing commences. Possible search on the ground can be carried out if this is found to be more practical. The correct number charges of the right size are to be prepared and checked before firing starts. Charges that are left over and powder bags are to be removed from the gun before firing starts. When firing with mechanical time fuzes the timer is to be checked by the gun commander and safety controller. A safety controller per gun is to be appointed. The safety controller has the following duties: check that firing takes place within the left and right limitation and max/min elevation mark the guns to carry out the above check check ready ammunition – correct number and size of charges check extra powder bags, number and condition check the timer of the time fuze when necessary stop the firing if needed for safety reasons

Chap-3

The safety controllers cannot be ordered to perform other duties that have nothing to do with safety.

3.22
3.22.1
3.22.1.1

PRECAUTIONS, MALFUNCTION
General
Firing with automatic gun 20mm or larger, except tank guns (see para 3.16.16.1) and machine cannon MK 30 – Bushmaster (see para 3.17.9.2) the following precautions have to be taken in case of malfunction: a. If there is malfunctioning (no firing) a new attempt at firing is to be made if the trigger mechanism can be cocked without having to open the sliding wedge or the breech block or locking of this is revoked. If there is still no firing wait for one minute until the sliding wedge or the breech block is opened and the cartridge is removed from the chamber. b. For guns where the trigger mechanism cannot be cocked again without opening the sliding wedge or the breech block or/and revoke the locking, wait for one minute after after trying to fire before opening the sliding wedge and the breech block and removing the cartridge. After the cartridge has been removed from the gun it is to be kept separate from other ammunition until it has been examined to find out if there is something wrong with the ammunition or the gun that has caused the malfunction. If it is established that that there is something wrong with the ammunition (cartridge), it is to be removed from all other materiel and be

c.

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destroyed as soon as possible. d. e. If the error lies in the gun the cartridge can be loaded again and fired in another weapon or the same after the error has been put right. Before the sliding wedge and the breech block is opened to remove a cartridge which has not fired, personnel who do not have to take part in the operation are to be evacuated to cover or to a safe distance from the gun. The muzzle of the gun is all the time to be pointed towards the target and all personnel are to stay away from possible muzzle blast. If a gun with a very hot chamber is loaded and the cartridge does nor fire and cannot be removed from the gun within 15 seconds, no attempt is to be made to remove the cartridge until the chamber has cooled. For 20 mm RH 202 gjelder følgende rutine når funksjoneringsfeil oppstår: In case of malfunction wait for 30 seconds before the cartridge is removed from the chamber. If more than 75 rounds have been fired the gun is to be considered as hot. When the gun is considered to be hot the cartridge is to be removed from the chamber within one minute. If the cartridge cannot be removed from the chamber within 1 minute from the time the malfunctioning occurred, extra personnel are to be evacuated and the barrel is to be cooled until it can be touched without any problem. Then the cartridge can be removed from the chamber.

f. g.

h.

3.22.1.2

Firing with: 40mm guns all types of ammunition (except automatic guns and tank guns, see para 3.16.16.1 and the paragraph above) 75mm guns all types of ammo 105mm guns, all types of ammunition, the following precautions are to be taken when malfunctioning occurs: a. If there is a malfunction (no firing) two more attempts at firing are made if the trigger mechanism can be cocked again without opening the sliding wedge or the locking is revoked. If there is still no firing wait for 2 minutes after the latest attempt before the sliding wedge is opened and the cartridge is removed. b. For guns where the trigger mechanism cannot be cocked again without opening the sliding wedge or the locking is reversed, wait for 2 minutes from the latest attempt at firing before the sliding wedge is opened and the cartridge is removed. After the cartridge has been removed from the gun it is to be kept apart from other ammunition until it has been established whether it is the ammunition or the gun that has caused the error. Is it established that the error lies in the ammunition, the cartriidge is to be removed from all other equipment and destroyed as soon as possible. If the error lies in the weapon the cartridge can be loaded again and fired either in a different gun or in the same gun after the error has been

c.

d.

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put right. e. Before the sliding wedge is opened to remove a cartridge which has not fired, personnel who do not take part in this operation are to be evacuated to a safe place. The muzzle of the gun is all the time to be directed towards the target (safe direction) and all personnel are to stay away from possible muzzle blast. If a gun with a very hot chamber is loaded and the cartridge cannot be fired or removed from the gun within 5 minutes all personnel are to be evacuated to a safe or remote place for two hours. After two hours the weapon is to be moved to a safe or distant place, and the cartridge removed. If the weapon is moved the following has to be observed: the use of separate ammunition requires the sliding wedge to be closed, then the casing is to be removed before moving the weapon and the chamber and the sliding wedge are covered with e.g. cotton waste to protect the chamber and the front side of the breech in case the shell falls out during transport Chap-3 h. 3.22.1.3 when using fixed ammunition, emptying of the gun has to wait to the gun has been taken to a new place

f.

g.

When emptying guns under conditions mentioned above an ammunition officer should be present.

3.22.1.4

Special remarks. For all types of ammunition with fuses shells/cartridges that have been pushed out of the chamber from the front are not to be used. If the cartridge is stuck in the chamber it might be because of a wrong dimension (casing and/or projectile), in addition the fuse may be damaged during the process of pushing out. High pressure in the gun a. Certain conditions however may cause too high pressure and to eliminate this possibility the following has to be observed: ammunition holding temperatures outside given limits is not to be used avoid loading with too hot chamber only booster charges for the types of ammunition in question have to be used no more powder bags than required as full charge for the special ammunition and weapon type must be used

3.22.1.5

Added information is to be found in the respective weapon drill books.

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3.23

FIRING AT LAND BASED TARGETS WITH SHIP ARTILLERY

Figure: 3.66 Double 3" firing from Oslo class frigate

3.23.1
3.23.1.1

General
When firing with ship artillery against land targets SPD 103 regulates the safety and everything that takes place on board the vessel. According to SPD 103 the captain and his crew that man the traditional posts as officer conducting firing, safety officer and safety controller for the weapons on board the vessel. What is described here are the duties and responsibilities that rest on the land range safety officer and are special for firing ship artillery against land targets. In addition to the special duties the safety officer is to observe and instruct his subordinates in the the points described under the personnel’s responsibilities and duties in chapter 1. Safety regulations and map of firing area for firing with ship artillery against land targets are to be made and used for the firing range in question. Where the regulations in this paragraph cannot be applied the regulations in chapter 1 have to be used. Suggestions for safety instructions and map of firing area are made by KNM/T and are to be forwarded for approval at JOHQ Range safety officer: the range safety officer is to be approved for his duties by MJVT or KNM/T make sure that the area is published as NOTAM and announced in accordance with the safety regulations responsible opening and closing of the area before and after firing make sure that danger close reports are given in accordance with safety

3.23.1.2

3.23.1.3 3.23.1.4 3.23.1.5 3.23.1.6

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distances I ATP 4 (E) responsible that the spotters are not placed inside the danger sector, the safety officer is to focus especially on the danger area behind the impact area marking the area in accordance with the safety regulations deploy and instruct the safety posts in accordance with the safety regulations and chapter 1 check that communication between the firing unit and the guard boat is in accordance with the safety regulations

Chap-3

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4
4.1

PARACHUTE JUMPING
PARACHUTING

Figure: 4.1 Parachuter in flight

4.1.1
4.1.1.1

In general
Safety regulations for parachuting apply to: Personnel Materiel Aircraft Jump field Static line jumping Free fall jumping Regulations for water jumping Tandem jumping Test jumping

4.1.1.2

Units that are to be allowed to conduct parachute duty independently, must have been approved by the Chief of FSK/HJK, after evaluation of the personnel’s level of competence/skill. The unit is to be referred to as a parachute unit.

4.1.2
4.1.2.1

Personnel
General Recruiting personnel for parachute training and duty is to take place on a voluntary

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4.1.2.2 4.1.2.3

4.1.2.4 4.1.2.5

4.1.2.6 4.1.2.7

4.1.2.8

4.1.2.9

basis. Should personnel during training wish to be taken off parachute duty, they may be transferred to different service or to a different unit. Trained personnel may be ordered to conduct parachute duty, like any other duty. Before education/training commences, all personnel must meet the current physical requirements. Personnel with authorized Norwegian military parachute training may participate in military parachuting. If the parachuter has not met the maintenance standards, training with an instructor is to be carried throughout until a satisfactory level of skill has been reached. Civilian personnel holding a valid parachute certificate may, on approval from the Chief FSK/HJK, participate in military parachuting. Military personnel still in duty, who have gone through military parachute training abroad, may submit their application to the Chief FSKHJK to get their training approved as equivalent to Norwegian training. Each person is to be checked out by Chief FSK/HJK. Allied military personnel may participate in Norwegian military parachuting at their own risk, after having been approved by the commander of the jumping unit. All personnel are bound by duty to report any circumstances that may pose risk of injury to personnel and/or materiel. Responsibilities of personnel Chap-4 The officer in charge of jumping is responsible for carrying through all parachuting in accordance with the safety regulations, directives and manuals in force. He/she is in command of all personnel involved in parachute duty, and is to ascertain that these act in accordance with the regulations. The officer conducting jumping must be a jumpmaster, approved by Chief FSK/HJK. The officer conducting jumping may participate as jumpmaster while training is going on. The officer conducting jumping is to be an officer. NCOs may be approved for such duty after having been approved by Chief FSK/HJK. The jumpmaster is to carry through the parachuting according to the safety regulations, directives and manuals in force, as well as the instructions from the officer conducting jumping. The jumpmaster must have gone through jumpmaster training and been approved by Chief FSK/HJK to lead the type of jumping that is to be conducted. When necessary (e.g. when jumping from large aircraft, dropping cargo, etc.) several jumpmasters are to be appointed. The jumpmaster in charge is to be referred to as JM1, the others JM2, etc. JM1 must be trained to lead the relevant type of jumping. The jumpmaster must observe the jumpmaster instructions in the Parachute Manual FSK/HJK. The officer in charge at the jump field is to carry through jump field duties in accordance with the safety regulations, directives and manuals in force, as well as the officer conducting jumping’s instructions. The officer in charge at the jump field can be NCOs or equivalent, or qualified privates approved by the officer conducting jumping. In special cases, the officer in charge at the jump field may be appointed from among

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4.1.2.10

4.1.2.11

the paratroopers in the aircraft. The officer in charge at the jump field is to observe the instructions provided for this duty in the Parachute Manual FSK/HJK. During basic training, water jumping, nighttime jumping and jumping in the field, a medical doctor or ambulance must be available to present himself/herself/itself at the jump field within 10 minutes after being summoned. The doctor may go along on the aircraft, ready to jump if required. The pilot is responsible for ascertaining that the duties aboard the aircraft are being carried through in accordance with the regulations in force for the relevant aircraft type, and that the sortie is being conducted in accordance with current regulations for air security and air traffic. He/she holds the overall command over all personnel aboard the aircraft.

4.1.3
4.1.3.1

Materiel
General Parachute materiel, including the actual chutes, instruments, equipment for oxygen jumping, and parachute training materiel (harness, etc.) must be approved for use by the professional authority. Two parachutes must always be used when jumping, a main chute and a spare chute. The main chute is to be equipped for manual or automatic activation (line activation). The spare chute is to be equipped for manual activation. During free fall jumping the spare chute is to be equipped with an automatic release, except when planning to land on water, during special types of jumping such as test jumping, or if the difference in altitude between the planned loading site and the planned jump field exceeds the adjustment tolerance for the automatic release. Other equipment: The parachutist is to be equipped with a helmet during all parachuting. During free fall jumping, the parachutist is to be equipped with an altimeter, except during water jumping. Life jacket to be used during parachuting must be approved by Chief FSK/HJK.

4.1.3.2 4.1.3.3

4.1.3.4

4.1.3.5

Parachute materiel used for jumping must be subject to military checking and maintenance routines. Civilian parachute equipment is to be approved by a military materiel controller or by the jumpmaster before it may be used.

4.1.4
4.1.4.1 4.1.4.2

Aircraft/ speed
When military aircraft are being used for parachuting, the duty is to be carried through in accordance with the regulations in force for the relevant aircraft type. When civilian aircraft are being used for parachuting, the relevant category of aircraft must have been approved by Chief FSK/HJK. Specific approval must be obtained for use of automatic chutes and free fall chutes. Further, it must be stated whether door loader can be used. Automatic jumping requires an anchor cable withstanding minimum 500 kilograms. During basic training of automatic jumps the speed of the aircraft is not to exeed

4.1.4.3 4.1.4.4

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80kts when jumping.

4.1.5

Jump field

Figure: 4.2 Over the dropzone 4.1.5.1 General All jump fields are to be reconnoitered by qualified personnel and approved by the military jumpmaster. The nature of the field must in each case be considered in relation to what type of jumping is to be conducted and the jumpers’ level of experience. Around the jump field there is to be a safety zone. The safety zone must not contain any high voltage lines, buildings taller than one floor, railway line, trafficked road, or densely built-up areas. Should there be deep water (e.g. a lake) within the safety zone, a manned rescue boat must be on site, and paradivers must be equipped with life jackets. Rescue personnel may be on land if the deep water is a river less than 10 metres wide, or a lake with a size of less than 500 square metres. Round parachutes When parachuting using round chutes, the jump field must be of the following size: Length of the area must be 100 metres minimum, with an additional 70 metres per following diver in the pack (one diver per second). Around the landing area, there is to be a safety zone of an additional 200 metres in width and 300 metres in length. Square parachutes When parachuting using square chutes the jump field must be of the following size: The landing area must have a width of 50 metres in relation to the planned landing direction. The length of the area must be 100 metres minimum. Around the landing area there is to be a safety zone of an additional 100 metres in all directions. When parachuting in the field and during other non-educational jumping, the regulations concerning the extent and nature of the jump field described above may be deviated from. Permission to deviate from the general regulations concerning extent and nature of

Chap-4

4.1.5.2

4.1.5.3

4.1.5.4 4.1.5.5

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4.1.5.6 4.1.5.7 4.1.5.8 4.1.5.9

the jump field is to be obtained for one single exercise/jump from the officer conducting jumping. The jump field is to be marked with a wind indicator, T or similar device indicating the landing direction. During demos and tactical jump fields, and when training for this, marking may be omitted. In darkness or when conditions make it necessary, the jump field is to be marked with light spots. On tactical jump fields, marking may be omitted. During all kinds of jumping, a plan for how to signal ‘Hold! Do not jump!’ must have been made in advance, should communication between the officer in charge at the jump field and the aircraft be interrupted. The jump field for show jumping is to be reconnoitred by qualified personnel and has to be approved by the jump master. The parachutists are to be approved by the jumpmaster individually.

4.1.6
4.1.6.1

Automatic release jumping
Wind speed limits The following ground wind limits apply for automatic released round chute: Students: 7m/sec Other jumping: 10m/sec Water jump: 12m/sec

4.1.6.2

Jumping altitude The lowest acceptible jumping altitude using automatic release is 500 feet AGL

4.1.7
4.1.7.1

Free fall jumping
Wind speed limits The following ground wind speed limits apply to all jumping using wing fall chute: The first eight student’s jumps: 8m/sec (16kts) Other jumping: 12m/sec (24 kts) Water jump: 12m/sec (24 kts) Night jump: 8m/sec (kts)

4.1.7.2 4.1.7.3

4.1.7.4

Local conditions and the jumpers’ training level and qualifications may make it necessary to impose lower wind speed limits than normally required. These are to be decided by the jumpmaster. Release altitude Release altitude for terminal speed in free fall jumping 3,000 feet (915 m) above the ground. During show jumping and demonstrations and special jumps this rule may be ignored on the Chief of FSK/HJK’s decision. Jumping altitude The lowest jumping altitude for free fall is: For students: 3,000 feet (915 m) above the ground For other jumpers: 1,500 feet (458 m) above the ground For tandem jumps: 5,000 feet (1,525 m) above the terrain

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Jumps can be made from all altitudes down to the lowest. Jumps from 3,000 feet to 2,000 feet maximum 4 seconds of free fall is accepted Jumps fom 1,999 feet to 1,500 feet maximum 2 seconds of free fall is accepted The highest altitude accepted without access to oxygen is 15,000 for msl. The parachutists are not to be exposed to more than 10 minutes from 13,000 to 15,000 feet msl. For jumps from above 15,000 feet the regulations about the use of oxygen are to be observed.

4.1.7.5

4.1.7.6

Oxygen jump The parachutists who are ordered to jump from altitudes where oxygen is required are to have passed a pressure chamber course in accordance with the regulations of the Aviation Medical Institute. When jumping from altitudes above FL 150 the paracutist will breathe 100% oxygen continuously as protection against Hypoxi and problembs related to change in pressure. The following timespans at given periods apply before the cabin pressure rises above FL 100: Jump altitude FL 150 – FL 179: Breathing oxygen starts when the cabin pressure passes FL 100 Chap-4 Jump altitude FL 180 – FL 249: 30 minutes oxygen breathing at cabin altitude under FL 100 Jump altitude FL 250 – FL 299: 45 minutes oxygen breathing at cabin altitude below FL 100 Jump altitude above FL 300: 75 minutes oxygen breathing at cabin altitude below FL 100

Jumping from altitudes requiring oxygen, the oxygen supply in the aircraft is to be sufficient for all flying time and free fall/parachute time over FL 130. If one or more of the parachutists during the ascent when oxygen is used, feels sick, nauseates, itches, is dizzy and may faint 100% oxygen under pressure is to be given. The ascent is aborted and the aircraft will descend to a safe altitude (under FL 100) as quickly as possible. The parachutist is to report any pressure symptoms (pains in joints, general weakness, sense distortions). With such symptoms the parachutist is not to jump but continue breathing 100% oxygen. Should decompression symptoms occur when on the ground after a jump, the jumper is to be given 100 % oxygen. Only qualified jumpmasters can prepare and run the preparations for carrying out oxygen-asingend jumps. The jump master has to be approved by the Chief of FSK/HJK. Personnel having completed a course in aviation medicine at the Instutute of Aviation Medicine are to be on board the aircraft at jumps from altitudes above FL 180.

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4.1.8
4.1.8.1

Special regulations for parachute jumping in water
The nature of the jump field is to be in accordance with the regulations for the type of chute that is being used. The safety zone may be on land. During water jumping, approved life jackets must be worn. The diver is to be equipped with a knife, which must be easily accessible. During water jumping a manned working boat for each 5 divers must be on disposal at the jump field. Crew per boat, at least 2 persons, where at least one must know how to perform first aid, have gone through relevant parachute duty and have a knife available. The boat must have a suitable engine. Additionally, one boat for the officer in charge at the jump field is to be present and check on the divers in the air and in the water. The boat must be able to quickly assist divers who experience problems. A medical doctor is to be on board, and this boat must have no other duties such as equipment recovery. Aside from that, the same requirements as for working boats apply. During parachute jumping in water a medical doctor with adequate resuscitation equipment must be present on the jump field.

4.1.8.2

4.1.9
4.1.9.1

Tandem jumps
Military tandem jumping can only be carried out by persons who are tandem jumpmasters. Criteria that tandem jumpmasters must meet: Tandem jumpmasters must have been approved by the Chief FSK/HJK They must be officers/NCOs assigned to the jumping unit hey must have passed Tandem Jumpmaster Course arranged by the Parachute Section of the Norwegian or a similar course arranged by FSK/HJK. Maintaining operational status by meeting the minimum requirement: 100 free fall jumps yearly of which 15 are to be tandem.

The tandem jump master has the final decision as to who is to be approved as passanger.

4.1.10
4.1.10.1

Test jumping
Personnel conducting test jumping using particular materiel that is beyond the maximum or minimum limitations described in this directive, are to be experienced parachute instructors working professionally within this particular field within the Armed Forces, and who have been approved by Chief FSK/HJK.

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5
5.1

DRIVING AND TRANSPORT DUTY
COORDINATING INSTRUCTIONS

Figure: 5.1 Driver in armoured vehicle

5.1.1
5.1.1.1 5.1.1.2

In general
This part presents general regulations and instructions for using military vehicles and vehicles that are in the military’s possession. Specific regulations for each type of vehicle will come in addition to the regulations presented here. Only drivers holding a valid military driving license are allowed to drive military motor vehicles. Officers, NCOs, enlisted personnel and civilians must in addition hold civilian driving licenses for the relevant vehicle category. Garage/repair personnel and technicians are to have completed courses that have been authorized by the works manager, the unit commander or the professional authority, before they are allowed to test drive vehicles. Those who are to man equipment such as hooklifts, winches, snowmobiles or ATVs are to have passed professional courses, in accordance with the regulations made by the professional authority. See the Working Environment Act, regulation 555. The vehicle commander is responsible for making sure that the personnel manning the vehicle have been trained professionally. The crew must observe the safety regulations for their materiel under all conditions. Only personnel who have passed the approved 1st line War Damage Repair course can carry out war damage repair work on vehicles that have received a valid military driving license. Personnel staying inside or near military motor vehicles must all wear hearing protection when required. See § 6.21

Chap-5

5.1.1.3

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5.1.1.4 5.1.1.5

The commander of the unit in charge of transportation, or the person he/she authorizes, is responsible for ascertaining that the safety regulations for this type of duty are observed. Requirements for vehicle check before, during and after driving: Before driving commences, the driver is to ascertain that the vehicle is in proper condition, and that it has been loaded according to the regulations. The driver is to make sure that the vehicle and load stay in proper condition also while driving. After driving, the driver is to check the condition of the vehicle and report irregularities.

5.1.1.6

The owner of the vehicle, or the person who on the owner’s behalf is in possession of the vehicle, is responsible for making sure that the vehicle is not used unless it is in proper condition. See the Norwegian Road Traffic Law § 23 When driving through adverse terrain and difficult terrain, and when transporting personnel, a ground guide is to be ordered to assist the driver. For vehicle types where the commander of the vehicle is in charge of movement, he or she is to take on the duties of the ground guide. The duties of the ground guide: The ground guide is in charge of all vehicle personnel. The ground guide is to alert the personnel being transported by calling to them if necessary, e.g. if a sharp curve is coming up, there are low-hanging branches, wires above the ground, etc. Firing guns and/or heavy machine guns (live or blank ammunition) is prohibited when personnel are on the outside of the vehicle. (Exceptions: the officer in charge of firing/safety controllers and while firing AAA also the gunner/loader.) The ground guide is to check that the turret is locked and that the anti-aircraft gun is locked before mounting or dismounting the vehicle. Check that all covers are in place and shut, and that the engine hood is in place and locked. Check that all hatches are closed and locked or open and secured. Ascertain that the back doors are closed and locked. Check that all equipment compartments are closed and locked. The ground guide is to ascertain that the safety regulations have been made known to the personnel who are to be transported, before they mount the vehicle.

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5.1.1.7 5.1.1.8

Crossing terrain where there is a risk of avalanches or landslide is not to take place unless there are pressing reasons for doing so. If crossing such terrain is to take place, it has to be done according to § 6.24.4. When using BT systems, special caution must be shown in relation to personnel and

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5.1.1.9

5.1.1.10

5.1.1.11

materiel transport, so that dummy charges do not cause damage when they are fired. While driving, it must be taken into account that communications might be lost during the impacts/hits of other BT systems. Safety belts Anyone driving or being a passenger in a military vehicle is to wear a seat belt where such are installed. Exceptions to this rule are made wherever UD 2-1 explicitly says that seat belts are not to be worn due to the specifics of the task. Rest for drivers Resting time for drivers is to be planned. Under no circumstance is the driver to drive the vehicle if he/she is too tired or weary, see the Norwegian Road Traffic Law § 21. Personnel moving on roads When moving alongside lanes on roads where there is traffic but no compulsory footpath or bicycle path, all personnel must walk on the left shoulder of the road, and in the direction facing oncoming traffic. If there is a compulsory footpath or a bicycle path next to the road, this path is to be used. When marching along trafficked roads at dusk, during darkness or in grey light, personnel in groups of a minimum size should ensure that the following minimum measures are implemented: All personnel should have reflective tape attached to their right ankles During administrative movements, the person positioned at the front of the group should additionally be in possession of a white light that points in the direction of travel. The person positioned at the rear of the group should be in Chap-5 possession of a rearward-facing red light. If visibility at the location is further reduced, the officer in charge should evaluate the need to use additional reflectors

Under the same conditions, individual personnel should use reflectors. Personnel connected to vehicles should, under the same conditions, use mandatory reflective vests in the vehicles when assembled along a road.

5.1.2
5.1.2.1

Transporting personnel
The number of personnel in the vehicle must not exceed the number allowed by the registration book. Nobody must be transported on the outside of vehicles, this does not apply to gunners in hatches, etc., who are given dispensation in other UD 2-1 paragraphs. The following numbers of passengers apply to transport of personnel: Vehicle Scania 8 tons Number of persons 26 persons on the platform body

5.1.2.2

Scania, 8 tons, with hook- 20 persons on the platform body lift Scania 5 tons BV 206 Tracked Utility 20 persons on the platform body 6 in the front cab, driver included, 11 in the rear cab

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Vehicle ATV (summer) ATV (winter) P6-300M 5.1.2.3 5.1.2.4 2 on the ATV, driver included, 2 on the trailer 2 on the ATV (snowmobile), driver included, 4 on the sled 4 persons in the front cab, driver included

5.1.2.5 5.1.2.6 5.1.2.7

5.1.2.8

5.1.2.9

Personnel are not to be transported on trailers/towed vehicles unless these have been construed for that particular purpose. Personnel are not to share transport with flammable liquids or explosives. Personnel may be transported in command post vehicles that have fuel for generator sets. Other exceptions are described in the regulations for each vehicle type. Personnel can be transported with unit equipment when training, all materiel must be secured so that it does not shift or move. Vehicles that are towing or being towed are not to be used for transporting personnel. Excepted is the 2-man crew on certain ATVs. When driving through adverse terrain, passengers are to dismount the vehicle until the difficult stretch has been crossed. The commanding officer of the unit being transported is to appoint a qualified ground guide for each vehicle, and if necessary inform the guide of his duties, see § 5.1.1.6 The ground guide is to ensure that the personnel being transported and the driver all observe the safety regulations. Lorries that are used for transporting personnel are to be equipped with roll-over protection, benches with safety belts and tarpaulin. Maximum speed is 60 kilometres per hour. When driving individually, one person is to be appointed as a ground guide. When transporting large numbers of personnel (four vehicles or more), the transport is to be organised into a column, with appointed ground guides in the front and in the rear vehicle of each group. Maximum allowed speed is 40 kilometres per hour. Transporting personnel on lorries with hooklifts is prohibited.

5.1.3

Transporting materiel on vehicles
The driver of a military motor vehicle transporting materiel is to be trained for transporting the relevant sort of materiel. The weight of the cargo must not exceed the weight that is stipulated in the vehicle registration, and if relevant, in the registration of the trailer. All cargo is to be secured according to the loading security programme LADOK, which is accessible on FISBasis. The programme is based on European, Norwegian and Norwegian Defence Forces standards, requirements and regulations for securing cargo. Health, environmental and security legislation demands that responsibility must be visible on all levels. In LADOK, the responsibility for updating, maintaining, training and practical securing of cargo is clearly defined. The following levels hold special responsibilities: The Norwegian Defence Logistic Organization/System Management/Land

5.1.3.1

5.1.3.2

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Capacities (FLO/S/L) 5.1.3.3 5.1.3.4 5.1.3.5 5.1.3.6 The Norwegian Defence Driver Education Centre (FKV) All commanders who have vehicles under their command. All vehicle drivers.

Transporting flammable liquids and dangerous substances. Appendix 11 A. Transporting radioactive sources. Appendix 11 B Transporting chemical agents and chemical agent simulators. Appendix 11c Transporting ammunition and explosives. See: Tff 782 Banking Scania P93 must not be used for transporting containers with a high centre of gravity, due to the danger of banking since the vehicle does not have a stabilizer or similar.

5.1.3.7

5.1.4
5.1.4.1 5.1.4.2

Towing personnel on skis
All vehicles may tow personnel on skis. All personnel being towed, as well as the driver of the vehicle, are to be trained before towing personnel on public roads. Chap-5 One person is to be in charge of each towing team. The person in charge is to move to the rear of the towing team. He/she is to appoint a scout on the vehicle doing the towing. He/she must also ascertain that all personnel observe the regulations in force, including making sure that the personnel let go of the rope when this is required due to terrain conditions. The scout on the vehicle doing the towing is to communicate with the driver. The scout is to alert the driver should the personnel being towed fall, or experience other problems. The scout must also alert the personnel should there be a change in speed, or if the vehicle is to start, stop, drive in reverse, etc. When driving in columns the distance between the person at the rear of one towing team and the next vehicle is to be at least 50 metres. The last vehicle driver is not to tow personnel. When driving in the dark, the last person in each towing team is to wear a flashlight with a red light on his back. When towing, the speed must not exceed 30 kilometres per hour. The best skiers are to be placed at the front of the rope. The number of skiers being towed is to be adjusted according to vehicle type and the conditions on site. For distances and placing, see illustration 67.

5.1.4.3

5.1.4.4 5.1.4.5 5.1.4.6 5.1.4.7

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Figure: 5.2 Towing after vehicle - example

5.1.5
5.1.5.1

Driving military vehicles in reverse - ground guide
A military vehicle must never be driven in reverse unless the driver has a full overview of the area that is about to be reversed into. If a ground guide has been appointed, he/she is to maintain eye contact with the driver and have an overview of all obstacles near the vehicle. When directing vehicles, signs used should in accordance with Tf 1-3 Manual for drivers of motor vehicles, part 1.

5.1.6
5.1.6.1

Military vehicle recovery
During recovery operations, including self recovery, the recovery regulations in technical manuals, TF 1-3 Manual for drivers of motor vehicles, HF 16-2 Useful tips for car rescue, MS 16-7 A guide for car recovery, and the drill book are to be observed. During recovery operations, the oldest specialist within recovery or the person appointed by him/her is to monitor the work. Personnel on the ground are to follow the directions of the recovery leader, and the safety regulations described in HF 16-2. Personnel in vehicles are to shut the hatches above their seats.

5.1.6.2

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5.1.6.3 5.1.6.4 5.1.6.5 5.1.6.6

5.1.6.7 5.1.6.8 5.1.6.9

When executing 1st line recovery, personnel must have been trained according to the military training programme for drivers. When executing 2nd line recovery, personnel must have been trained according to the military training programme for field/unit recovery. When executing 3rd line recovery, personnel must have been trained according to the military training programme for 3rd line personnel. When towing and bar towing Armed Forces’ materiel, the safety regulations and the regulations in the Technical Manual are to be observed for the relevant vehicle type. Towing on public roads using ropes, straps, wires, etc is to be limited to 1 kilometre at a maximum allowed speed of 10 kilometres per hour. When towing on public roads maximum allowed speed is 60 kilometres per hour, or the speed allowed by the Technical Manual for the vehicle type in question. For maximum weight of what is being towed, see the Norwegian Road Traffic Law. When towing in the terrain, or when towing a wrecked vehicle without brakes, the weight of the wrecked vehicle must not exceed the weight of the vehicle doing the towing. Vehicles that are towing or that are being towed must not be used for personnel transport.

5.1.7
5.1.7.1

Driving with personnel in the gunner’s place in vehicles
For wheel-driven vehicles, driving with personnel staying in the gunner’s place is allowed during exercises and training in Norway, and during international operations. This is on the condition that the vehicles are registered and in the Armed Forces’ use. Staying in the gunner’s place is prohibited during driving that is Chap-5 unrelated to exercises and training. This also applies to administrative transports. (The above regulations have received authorization from the Norwegian Public Roads Administration.)

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5.2

TRACKED VEHICLE P6 - 300M

Figure: 5.3 P6-300 in terrain

5.2.1
5.2.1.1 5.2.1.2

In general
The tracked vehicle is to be driven with the doors shut. All personnel must wear safety belts. The vehicle has a roof hatch. A 12.7 mm heavy machine gun can be mounted on the roof. Personnel are not to be transported on the outside of tracked vehicles.

5.2.2 5.2.3

Crossing frozen rivers and lakes
See § 8.2.10

5.2.2.1

Wading
The tracked vehicle is not fully amphibious. The tracked vehicle can wade as deep as 0.8 metres. As wading may take place under varying conditions, only general safety directions may be provided for this duty. The officer conducting the exercise must in each case consider how safety measures and precautions are to be organised. He/she must take into consideration the specific conditions on site, including water depth, currents, wind, waves, conditions on the bottom of the river or lake, traffic, season and the professional/educational level of the unit. Requirements for crossing site: the beach and the bottom of the lake must make it possible for vehicles to drive into and out of the water at a right angle at the crossing site where the vehicles enter and drive out of the water, the slope has to be level underneath and above water, and it must not be so steep that water may flow into the vehicle The bottom at the crossing site must be firm enough to support the vehicles and be free of obstacles.

5.2.3.1 5.2.3.2

5.2.3.3

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Water depth at the place of crossing must not exceed the recommended wading depth for the vehicle type in question, and the damming height caused by the vehicle’s speed and by the current must be taken into consideration.

5.2.3.4 5.2.3.5 5.2.3.6

The officer conducting the exercise must in each case consider where to enter the water, the route and where to drive ashore and determine if marking is necessary. When wading with a tracked vehicle when the current is so strong that personnel are unable to wade, see § 8, particularly the sections on wading and swimming. Preparation of the vehicle, vehicle check and the conduction of wading must all be in accordance with the technical manuals and drill books.

5.2.4
5.2.4.1

Towing tracked vehicles
See this chapter, § 5.1.6

5.3

COMMAND POST CONTAINER 2X1 AND 3X1

Chap-5

Figure: 5.4 Command room in full activity

5.3.1
5.3.1.1

In general
Command post containers are to be transported by hooklift or on a container vehicle, and safety regulations for loading and unloading the vehicle can be found in the Safety Regulations for Transport Duty. Command post containers must not to be transported on a Scania P 93 or similar, due to potential instability. Regulations for folding containers The officer in charge at the container must always ascertain that no personnel stay inside the container while this is being folded and made ready for transport, in order to avoid crush injuries.

5.3.1.2

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5.4
5.4.1
5.4.1.1

FUEL TANKFLAK 10,500 LITRES
In general
Personnel who are to use the Norwegian Armed Forces’ tankflak must have been professionally trained for this Check before transport The following points must be preparedby the user, but must be checked by the driver. The driver is to: Check that the main electric switch is turned off Check that the emergency trigger is in and shut Check that the cover in front of the fan has been pulled down Check that the lids are shut and that the steps are up and the railing is down Check that the ADR signs and the Tremcard (Transport Emergency Card) are in place and in accordance with the cargo Walk around the tank container and check that there is nothing loose in the compartments, check that all doors are shut and that there is no visible damage.

5.4.2
5.4.2.1

The driver’s duty to check before transport
The driver is to check that the following items are in place: Transport document/consignment note/freight bill Damage report (To be found in the door of the vehicle). Certificate of Acceptance of the tank container. (To be found in the left compartment on the tank container.) ADR Certificate of Acceptance of the vehicle The driver must have an ADR-tank Certificate of Competence and keep it with his driver’s license.

5.4.3
5.4.3.1

Driver’s duty to check before unloading
The driver is to: step out of the vehicle and check that the ground is level and flat in order to avoid inflicting damage on the tank container when it is placed on the ground check that there is no leakage from the bottom of the tank container

5.4.4
5.4.4.1

Check before use
Safety regulations before use: marking the area absorbents are to be prepared and laid out earthing of the tank container down in the ground fire extinguishers are to be fetched, and placed in the area where the work is to

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take place protective clothing is to be worn (suit, gloves, mask and protective goggles) sounding of the tank container in order to determine quantity

Before starting the aggregate, the user is to: Check that the fuel tank of the aggregate has been filled with F-34 Check that the cover in front of the fan has been rolled up Check that there is no dirt or irrigation on the batteries Check that the earthing is in order Check the oil Turn on the main electric power switch Turn on the main electric power switch Let the aggregate heat for 5-8 seconds if it is cold Start the aggregate

5.4.5
5.4.5.1

Safety distances for setting up a fuel tanking store
Public areas and roads Railroad/High voltage power line Open flame Quarters/kitchen Between stacks of cans 7,5 meter 25 meter 50 meter 50 meter 3 meter

Chap-5

5.5

TRACTOR

Figure: 5.5 Traktor digger

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5.5.1
5.5.1.1 5.5.1.2 5.5.1.3 5.5.1.4

In general
The engine is to be started from the driver’s seat. While driving the braking circuit must be in order. Driving a rearing tractor resting on the containment boom is prohibited. When driving onto a road after having driven in the terrain, it must be checked that: all wheels are firmly in place the belts are whole the suspension system for belts is in order that the suspension is okay the brake circuit is in order

5.5.1.5 5.5.1.6

Before driving through adverse terrain, the route must be reconnoitred in advance. Where there is a danger of skidding, rearing or banking (slope sideways) the tractor is to be secured with a rope.

5.5.2
5.5.2.1

Personnel transport
Transporting personnel on tractors is prohibited, except in the authorized seats in the driver’s cabin.

5.5.3
5.5.3.1

Crossing frozen rivers and lakes
In addition to the regulations in § 8.2.10 , the following measures are deemed necessary: Roof hatch, rear window and doors are to be opened About 30 metres of rope with an empty fuel can or similar is to be attached to the tractor for marking

5.5.4
5.5.4.1 5.5.4.2

Special regulations
Driving tractors without roll-over protection/reinforced driver’s cabin is prohibited. Hearing protection. Drivers of tractors are to wear ear protection while driving or during static labour with the vehicle, should the noise exceed 85 dba. See § 6.21

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5.6

TRACKED VEHICLE 206

Figure: 5.6 Tracked vehicle going off road

5.6.1
5.6.1.1

In general
The tracked vehicle is to be driven with the hatches closed. The exceptions are when wading, crossing rivers, embarking and disembarking landing craft and when towing personnel on skis. In easy terrain the hatches can be open to facilitate reconnaissance Chap-5 missions, and with BV 206 with ring gun carriage and 12.7mm/.50 calibre machine gun mounted, the gunner is permitted to stand in the hatch while operating the machine gun. Note! The foremost hatch is to be closed when the weapon is not secured in transport position. All personnel must use safety belts when these are installed, except during training of battle technique in terrain, wading, crossing rivers, and during on- and off loading of landing craft This chapter and chapter 8 paragraph 8.2.10 in this directive must be presented to all officers and tracked vehicle drivers. These regulations are guidelines on how the activity should be carried out! It is emphasized that establishing driving routes and reconnaissance of possible water holes is very important to avoid potentially dangerous situations All bottom/drain plugs must be closed while driving When transporting personnel and materiel in the rear car the emergency doors are to be accessible for possible evacuation When transporting personnel and materiel in the rear car, the materiel must be secured in accordance with LADOK It is not permitted to transport personnel in the rear car with loading frame/loading net until the frame/net has been adjusted so that the emergency exit is accessible and emergency procedures have been

5.6.1.2

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practiced. The roof must not be loaded in a manner that makes it impossible to escape through the roof hatch. It is not permitted to transport personnel in the rear of versions of BV 206 that do not have approved emergency exits (above the water line when floating in water) This means that the loading wall must be rebuilt, or alternatively the loading frame must be removed.

5.6.1.3

Emergency procedures/drill should a tracked vehicle catch fire (equivalent drill used during air strikes). Short blows with signal horn All personnel must exit through the nearest door and quickly move away, a minimum of 30 meters from the tracked vehicle Personnel in command must ensure that everyone is out of the vehicle and evacuated to a safe area.

5.6.2
5.6.2.1

Crossing frozen lakes or rivers
The regulations in chapter 8, paragraph 8.2.10 are to be followed. The following points must be checked before crossing with the BV 206. Drainage plugs are closed Doors closed and the seals are in good condition Top hatches open When transporting personnel in the rear car the side hatch is to be open A ski rope is fastened to the towing hook and is laid on the roof in an open coil with a life buoy/ empty jerry can attached

5.6.2.2

Emergency procedures/drill should the tracked vehicle break through the ice: Long blow with signal button All personnel lay down weapons, shoulder harness and other equipment on the floor of the vehicle Only emergency exits are to be used during evacuation Rear and side doors are not to be used (check the markings) Personnel climb onto the roof of the vehicle Ski rope no. 2 is to be laid in a coil in the rear car so that it can be used in case anyone has problems in connection with the evacuation of or from the vehicle From there, the situation is to be evaluated with regard to getting to safe ice in a secure manner Personnel in command must ensure that everyone is out of the vehicle and evacuated to safe ground

In the radio tracked vehicle a tent hammer or a similar tool must be easily accessible,

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to break a window in the rear door and use this as an emergency exit.

5.6.3
5.6.3.1 5.6.3.2

Crossing open rivers and lakes
For driving across open rivers and lakes, see chap 8 The tracked vehicle can be used in deep water (over 1 metre) as long as the wave height does not exceed 10 cm and the current speed is not above 1 m/s. The following BV 206 DN6 versions cannot swim: mortar version, cargo carrier version and “Hook lift” version. All personnel are to use approved floating devises category 2. The passenger in the front seat must stand in the roof hatch looking for any obstacles in the water. The passenger in the front seat controls that the seals are in good condition Passengers in the rear car are to be evenly distributed. Backpacks and equipment are to be carried loosely. No one is allowed on the outside of the vehicle Before driving into the water the following points must be checked /carried out: BV 206: That the draining plugs are tightly screwed. The vehicle’s top hatches are to be open. That the door moulding is clean/tight and that the doors are closed That communication between back and front vehicles is functional That the drainage pump is functional (function control; at least 20 litres of water poured into each vehicle) Cover the front air intake with a covering cloth and put up the grating at the front Fasten the towing wire to the towing hook on the rear car and fasten a towing shackle on the other end Fasten a 30 m long line with a floater on the end of the shackle. The line is to be laid on the roof of the front vehicle in an open coil When transporting personnel in the rear car, the side hatch is to be open

5.6.3.3 5.6.3.4 5.6.3.5 5.6.3.6

Chap-5

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5.6.4
5.6.4.1

Tracked vehicle, used as command post /communication base
During transport where function vehicles, command post and communication base (equivalent) are to be operative, a generator set with up to 4 fuel cans filled with generator fuel may be transported together with the required personnel. The generator set’s gas tanks or fuel cans must not be opened inside the vehicle. Fuel cans are to be tested for leaks by shaking them (no visible wetness) before they are loaded into the vehicle. Generator set and fuel cans are to be placed as far away as possible from any heat sources in the vehicle. Smoking is prohibited during these transports. When a heater is used during driving, the handle for air supply must be positioned so that the heater receives air from the outside (not recirculated air from the vehicle). If possible the generator set and fuel cans are to be transported separate from personnel. In the case of stationary operation the generator set and the fuel cans are to be taken

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out of the vehicle. Pre-emptive measures against exhaust fume poisoning when the vehicle is stationary, see this chapter, § 5.19.

5.7

LIGHT ALL-TERRAIN VEHICLES, SUMMER

Figure: 5.7 ATV in difficult terrain

5.7.1
5.7.1.1

In general
The driver and passenger should wear crash helmets approved by the Norwegian Public Roads Administration. Reflective vests should also be worn. When the vehicle is driven at speeds above a walking pace, the driver and passenger should wear goggles. The driver and passenger should wear sturdy boots that extend above ankle-height (e.g. marching boots). Clothing that provides adequate protection should be worn. Loosely-hanging garments should not be worn (e.g. scarves) as these can become entangled in rotating equipment or trees/bushes while the vehicle is in transit. During operations, exercises and training both at home and abroad, army helmets may be used. In such cases, the speed limit is 40 km/h. Use of army helmets is upon the orders of the division commander or his/her authorised representative. Before starting up an ATV with variator drive, the driver mustensure that the gas cable is free of obstruction. The maximum wade depth for an ATV is 60 cm. For further information refer to Chapter 8

5.7.1.2 5.7.1.3

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5.7.1.4

5.7.1.5 5.7.1.6

The maximum permitted speed of an ATV is 60 km/h, or 40 km/h with a trailer. In the case of transport of personnel in an approved trailer, the maximum speed should not exceed 30 In respect of towing an ATV, reference should be made to item 5.1.6 of this chapter. An ATV is equipped with all-terrain tyres with low tyre pressure. Thus, the tyres have inferior running characteristics to ordinary tyres and caution must therefore be taken when driving along roads. This is especially the case at crossroads and on sharp bends. Individual divisions may impose separate speed restrictions of less than 60 km/h. Towing of personnel on skis should be undertaken in accordance with item 5.1.4 of this chapter. The maximum permitted speed for an ATV using chains is 40 km/h. Two steering chains should be fitted together with spicers for all front wheel bolts. 2 driving wheel chains should always be fitted (rearmost axle on 6x6). It is not permitted to use a smaller number of chains because of the vehicle’s running characteristics, as well as wear and tear. Chains should onlybe used on roads. Any other use of chains in outlying terrain or along ATV trails should be authorised by an environmental officer. When the vehicle is in use, wheel nuts should be tightened on a daily basis.

5.7.2
5.7.2.1

Transit across frozen water
Transit across frozen water should comply with the provisions in section 8.2.10.

5.8

SNOWMOBILE
Chap-5

Figure: 5.8 Snowmobile on patrol

5.8.1
5.8.1.1

In general
The driver and passenger should wear crash helmets approved by the Norwegian Public Roads Administration. Reflective vests should also be worn.

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5.8.1.2

5.8.1.3 5.8.1.4

When driving faster than at walking speed, the driver and passengers should wear protective goggles. While driving, protective clothing should be worn. Avoid clothing that hangs loosely (e.g. scarves), as such clothing might get stuck in rotating equipment or in trees/bushes while driving. During operations, exercises and training both at home and abroad, army helmets may be used. In such cases, the speed limit is 40 km/h. (On public roads the speed limit is 30 km/h.) Use of army helmets is upon the orders of the division commander or his/her authorised representative. Before the engine is started the throttle wire must be checked to see if it runs freely. Where an emergency rip cord is installed it must be fastened to the driver. When driving in difficult terrain where there is a risk of capsizing or damage, something which may cause the emergency rip cord being released, the leader of the activity may instruct the driver to release the cord. Towing of personnel on skis is to be done according to this chapter, section 5.1.4. Maximum speed on public roads is 30 km/th with or without sled (with or with out personnel on the sled) For towing of snowmobiles, see this chapter, paragraph 5.1.6 In general, driving on roads is only to be done as an exception, if the shoulder of the road or another route is inaccessible. While driving on snowy and icy roads, terrain vehicles lose much of their navigation and gripping power. For that reason, a great deal of caution must be shown when driving on roads. All civilian lights are to be turned on when travelling on roads where there may be other traffic and personnel on foot. Maximum speed in terrain and on roads not open to public traffic is 60 km/h. With a sled, with or without personnel, the maximum speed is 40 km/h Each unit may decide on lower maximum allowed speed than the speed limits presented in the regulations above.

5.8.2
5.8.2.1

Crossing frozen rivers and lakes
When crossing frozen rivers and lakes, follow the regulations given in chapter 8 paragraph 8.2.10.

5.9
5.9.1
5.9.1.1

MOTORCYCLES
General
The driver and passenger of a motorcycle should always wear crash helmets approved by the Norwegian Public Roads Administration. In addition, motorcycle suits, boots, gloves and reflective vests should be worn. Weapons should be strapped to a rack or carried on the back with the barrel pointing towards the right shoulder.

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5.10
5.10.1
5.10.1.1

CROSS COUNTRY VEHICLE MB 240/290 (VARIOUS VERSIONS WITH MOUNTED GUN, ETC.)
General
Exceptional caution must be demonstrated when driving with personnel located at the gunner's position. When the gunner’s position is manned, a special evaluation of road conditions in relation to speed must be made. Protective goggles must always be worn. When the gunner’s position is not manned the weapon should be disassembled (for reasons of transport safety). The maximum permitted speed with personnel located at the gunner’s position is, in any case, 50 km/h. All materiel should be firmly strapped and secured before driving commences. When using the vehicle on public roads, the front windscreen grille should be in the raised position. Users of vehicles fitted with a winch should have undertaken a self-recovery course, as a minimum. Refer to item 5.1.6 of this chapter.

5.10.2

IVECO LMV

Chap-5

Figure: 5.9 RNoArmy LMV 5.10.2.1 General Additional regulations can be found in The technical manuals for IVECO. HUP IVECO TH 9-2320-25/238-10 TH 9-2320-25/238-10D

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TH 9-2320-25/238-24 TH 9-2320-25/238-24E

5.10.2.2

5.10.2.3 5.10.2.4

5.10.2.5

All personnel must use seatbelts whenever these are mounted except during wading, crossing rivers and streams and during embarcation to and dismounting from landing craft All doors must be locked, when parking, since there are no ignition key for the vehicle. All material must be properly strapped and secured prior driving. Notice that the vehicle must not be loaded in a manner that adversly affects the stability of the vehicle. This can increase the danger of overturning the vehicle. In addition the the driver must check that all fastenings on the side and at the back of the vehicle, can withstand the load of the moun ted equipment during driving. For vehicle with winch mounted, teh user must have at least the self-rescue coursebefroe the winch can be used. (see 5.1.6) Boarding and alighting Only step on areas intended for stepping. Opening and closing of doors must be done in a proper manner by using the latches as to avoid damaging the locking mechanism. Transported personnel duties. The doors must be closed and locked with the minelocks during driving. Transport on and off road During driving off road special care should be taken during sideways angulation. During driving with personnel in the shooters position, the speed must be kept according to the road conditions to avoid injuries. Action if overturning To limit the damages when overturning, all equipment must be mounted in approved fixtures(GPS-fixtures must be checked). During an overturn, the personnel must hold on and try to press their body against the seatback. When driving with topsafety, the personnel inside the vehicle must pull the topsafety down and pin him down till the vehicle comes to rest. When the vehicle has come to rest, teh driver must turn off the engine and report incident up the chain of command and the cut the main power supply.(NB! Jammer). Unlock doors and tophatch, so that rescue and medical personnel can enter. Execute first-aid on personnel and prepair for salvage. Secure the rescue site/own position.

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5.11

JOINT PROVISIONS FOR TRACKED ARMOURED VEHICLES, AS WELL AS SISU/PASI AND FUCHS

Figure: 5.10 Bergepanzer on mission

5.11.1
5.11.1.1

General
In addition to joint provisions for driving and transportation services, this section also includes general provisions, provisions for the boarding and alighting of vehicles, movement along roads and across terrain, driving while conducting periscopic observations, as well as with shielded lights/blackout lights, use of night vision periscopes and transfer via waterways of heavy armoured vehicles. Clothing:All personnel whose primary function is to man armoured fighting vehicles must wear approved fighting vehicle suit/driving suit when manoeuvring in the field. If body armour is being worn, it must be put on underneath the suit, in the purpose of making evacuation easier, should the vehicle suffer engine breakdown or other damage. By armoured fighting vehicles is meant vehicles where the tasks are being solved from or by use of the platform, including: Tanks, all kinds, and similar vehicles built on tank chassis Armoured fighting vehicles, all kinds, plus similar vehicles built on the same chassis M-113 with weapons (Javelin, ToW) SISU with 12.7 mm turret

Chap-5

Exceptions may be made for platoon leaders and company commanders/squadron commanders who often command units/divisions mounted or dismounted. Jacket(field/membrane) may be used as outer clothing by personnel in open hatches.

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5.11.1.2

Supplementary provisions may be found in section 5.1.1.1 of this chapter, in technical handbooks and in the drill book. When the vehicle’s engine is running, a crew member should always be seated in the driver’s position or the vehicle should be parked in accordance with the prevailing provisions: the vehicle should be parked on the best possible surface the handbrake should be engaged on public roads parking lights should be used automatically stabilised systems should be disengaged weapons systems should be secured the gear selector should be placed in neutral

5.11.1.3

During vehicle movement within camp zones, parking areas, into and out of buildings, within buildings, loading and unloading from a trailer, boat, railway and port areas, and in a bivouac, a guide should direct the movement at all times. For each vehicle a ground guide is to be appointed. He/she is responsible for ascertaining that the movement takes place in a safe manner. The guide should: always be used during vehicle movement within camp zones, parking areas, into and out of buildings, within buildings, loading and unloading from a trailer, and in a bivouac remain at least 5 metres away from tracked vehicles use standardised signs and signals before the vehicle is set in motion, ensure that nobody is under, in front of or behind the vehicle be able to quickly establish eye contact with the driver move at a walking pace never walk backwards, only forwards and to the side use an assistant during reversal of vehicles and in difficult terrain ascertain that no personnel stay on the vehicle body during movement ascertain that no personnel are situated between a vehicle with its engine running and a fixed object, if the distance is less than 10 metres

5.11.1.4 5.11.1.5 5.11.1.6

5.11.1.7

Smokingand use of an open fire on or in vehicles is not permitted. Smoking outside of vehicles is permitted, except in the case of vehicles carrying ammunition. Hatches and doors should be secured, regardless of whether they are open or closed. When personnel move from a turret to the driver’s position (emergency hatch) or v.v., the turret should be locked and the hydraulic/electric rotation system disengaged (does not apply to M109 A3GN). No personnel should move beneath the gun's breech when the hydraulic/electric rotation system is engaged. Vehicles may only be used when fire- fighting and first aid equipment is in place and

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5.11.1.8

5.11.1.9 5.11.1.10 5.11.1.11 5.11.1.12 5.11.1.13

in order. Drivers and tank commanders should be notified of any situations in which there are personnel on foot in the immediate vicinity. Tank commanders should make observations of the area from an open hatch and pay special attention to such personnel. During exercises involving tracked armoured vehicles, personnel on the ground should move away from shelters, hollows, dugouts, etc., and make their presence known when vehicles approach closer than 50 metres. Ear protection. The crew should normally use both ear muffs (headset) and ear plugs. Cf. sect. 6.21. The transportation of personnel on the outside of a vehicle is only permitted on the Leopard 1 tank. Boarding and alighting Cf. item 5.1.1.1 Boarding and alighting must only take place when the vehicle is stationary and the handbrake engaged. All boarding, alighting and movement should be supervised by the tank commander. When the engine is running, the driver should be notified of all boarding and alighting.

5.11.2
5.11.2.1

Movement on roads and across terrain
Any movement without a guide should be supervised by a person who has undertaken an approved tank commander training course in respect of the particular vehicle that is to be driven. The person should normally be positioned at the tank commander's hatch and should Chap-5 maintain internal communication with the driver. However, the tank commander should be positioned where he/she may best direct the vehicle. When the tank commander is unable to effectively carry out his/her task from the vehicle, he/she should alight and direct the vehicle from the ground. All instructions should be issued using standardised signals and commands. The tank commander’s duties: the tank commander has command over all personnel situated in the vehicle the tank commander must allways ensure that the area around the vehicle prior to setting the vehicle in motion the tank commander issues orders in respect of boarding and alighting the tank commander will, when necessary, issue shouted warnings to personnel being transported, e.g. at sudden bends, low-hanging branches, cables across the ground, etc. discharge of guns and/or machine guns (live or blank ammunition) should not take place when personnel are located on the outside of the vehicle (with the exception of the firing commander/firing officer/firing controller and during discharge of the anti-aircraft machine gun, as well as gunner/loader) the tank commander should ensure that the turret is secured with the lock and the anti-aircraft gun is locked on the side and vertically before any ascent is

5.11.2.2

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undertaken the tank commander should ascertain that all personnel being transported have familiarised themselves with the safety regulations before boarding and alighting commences the tank commander should ensure that all covers are in place and closed and the engine hatch is in place and closed the tank commander should ascertain that all hatches are closed and locked or open and secured the tank commander should ascertain that rear doors are closed and locked the tank commander should ascertain that all equipment rooms are closed and locked

5.11.2.3

5.11.2.4

5.11.2.5 5.11.2.6 5.11.2.7 5.11.2.8

When the engine is running and during all transit, as well as with use of the rotation and stabilisation systems, all tank crew located inside the vehicle should maintain internal communication. For vehicles containing crew compartments without internal communication at every seat, at least one person should maintain contact with the driver when such communication equipment is installed. Before driving commences, the turret should be secured with the turret lock. Exceptions to this are terrain driving with tanks, canons and tracked armoured vehicles. In such conditions, the crew should be particularly attentive so that materiel or personnel are not damaged/injured during turret rotation. During turret rotation, the driver’s hatch should remain closed. During road transit, forward and rearward observation should be maintained so that overtaking may be undertaken safely. During transit, aerials should not come into contact with electric power lines. During transit, crew members should remain in their respective seats in the vehicle, but are permitted to stand if training or other reasons deem this necessary. When personnel are seated, seat belts should be worn, if fitted. During educational training and live exercises, the instructor is permitted to be situated on the outside of a moving vehicle. In such cases, the instructor should maintain internal communication with other crew members. The instructor should also be adequately secured and extreme caution should be demonstrated in respect of speed and manoeuvring. During such training, turret rotation is permitted.

5.11.3
5.11.3.1

Reversing
When reversing heavy armoured vehicles within camp zones, parking areas, into and out of buildings, within buildings, loading and unloading from a trailer, and in a bivouac, TWO guides should direct the vehicle’s movements at all times. Refer to item 5.11.6.1 In training zones, the tank commander may direct the driver via internal communication. The tank commander should ascertain that reversing may be undertaken without causing damage. Reversing vehicles equipped with a reversing camera: The tank commander should ascertain beforehand that the area to the rear of the

5.11.3.2

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5.11.3.3

vehicle is free of obstruction. This provision applies in connection with training, practice and field exercises on secure army training grounds/firing ranges. When operational conditions allow, the reversing of Norwegian Armed Forces vehicles should take place by reversing off the road and then driving back onto the road with the front of the vehicle. The vehicle should be driven completely off the road in such a way as to avoid collision with other vehicles.

5.11.4
5.11.4.1

Co-training/ duty between armourde vehicle and footsoldiers
When co-training between armoured vehicle and soldiers on the ground, the following must taken into account: All personnel in the vehicle and on the ground must exercise extreme caution for this type of activity to avoid accidents The vehicles blind spots must be avoided and the distance to the vehicle must be at least 5 meters if eye contact is established between the ground crew and the creew on the aroured vehicle and at least 10 meters if eye contact is not established between the ground crew and teh vehicle crew. It is not permitted to sit directly behind armored vehicles if the backdoor or ramp is closed or being closed after alighting. Only exception to this rule is if the door/ramp stays open for further unloading of equipment for the groundcrew The vehicle must not be set in motion without the tank commander/driver first ascertaining that maneuvering can be achieved without danger of injuries to personnel on the ground The squad leader and the soldiers on the ground must make sure that no one is Chap-5 in the blind spots, but stays at a safe distance before the vehicle sets in motion Sign and /or signals must be agreed upon and established between vehicle crew and soldiers on the ground before the vehicle can be moved. See sect 6.1 for special regulations for other personnel on the ground See sect 6.8 for special regulations during SIBO/ MOUT training

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5.11.5
5.11.5.1 5.11.5.2

Driving with periscopes/closed hatches
Provisions for driving with shielded lights/blackout lights are included in the ‘Provisions for transport services in the Norwegian Armed Forces (BTF 1-010)”. Driving with an IR periscope/night vision periscope should only be undertaken when there is clear visibility and in open terrain where it is easy to manoeuvre. During road transit, the IR periscope/night vision periscope should only be used with blackout lights or shielded lights. During vehicle movement in which the driver is making observations through periscopes, in daylight or darkness, the tank commander should make observations from an open hatch. Any road movement should only take place on Norwegian Armed Forces firing ranges and training grounds, or within requisitioned training zones with regulatory markings. Such road movements should only be undertaken with the prior authorisation of the division commander, based on local traffic conditions and the crew’s level of training.

5.11.5.3

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5.11.5.4

5.11.5.5

5.11.5.6 5.11.5.7

If the tank commander is seated in order to operate the tank commander sight in respect of a tactical march, the loader/gunner should make observations from their own hatch and warn of any obstructions to the vehicle’s movement. During road transit with shielded lights/blackout lights or blacked out, night vision goggles should be ready and easily accessible to the tank commander or loader/gunner, so that these may be used for making observations in order to issue instructions and warnings of any obstructions. In the case of ABC exercises or tank commander training in clear terrain, the tank commander is also permitted to make observations from periscopes with a closed hatch. The vehicle’s loader/gunner should then make observations from their own hatch and warn of any obstructions to the vehicle’s movement. In the case of live exercises, it is permitted, during movement, to make observations from the vehicle's periscopes and sights in daylight and darkness, when such movements take place along prepared trails. Strong white light and infra-red light may damage the eyes. This particularly applies to light emitted from searchlights. It is forbidden to look directly at such searchlights from a distance of less than 50 metres when they are in operation. It is also harmful to look directly into driving headlights at a short distance. To ensure that an IR periscope/night vision periscope is functioning correctly, a hand should be placed over the lenses to establish whether the lights are warm.

5.11.6
5.11.6.1

Transit across waterways/wading
As wading may occur in exceptionally diverse conditions, only general safety guidelines can be provided for this type of operation. An exercise leader or qualified officer, selected by the division commander, should, in each individual case, assess how safety measures should be organised. For further information, refer to chapter 8 The exercise leader or qualified officer should take into account the particular conditions at the location, including depth of water, current, wind, waves, ground conditions, traffic, light conditions, time of year and the division’s level of training. They should also evaluate, in each individual case, whether the crossing point, route and landing point should be marked. Before any wading and transit across a waterway is undertaken, the vehicle should be made ready in accordance with the prevailing regulations. Emergency breathing equipment: Before wading/ crossing of waterways takes place, the personnel must have been trained in evacuating the vehicle. On vehicles that have emergency breathing equipment mounted, personnel must have gone through education and training in accordance with the requirements set by the professional authority. Cylinders should be present and working in accordance with requirements. Requirements for the crossing point: the beach and ground conditions should permit the vehicle to drive and wade at the straightest possible angle at the departure and landing points there should be smooth slopes at the departure and landing points, above and below the water, and these should be shallow

5.11.6.2 5.11.6.3

5.11.6.4

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5.11.6.5

the departure and landing points should be free of obstructions, both above and below water, and should not be marshy the departure and landing points should not be so steep as to allow water to accidentally pour in through the vehicle’s hatches the surface of the water should be free of large branches, logs, etc. the ground at the departure point should be firm enough to bear the vehicle’s weight and should also be free of obstructions the current velocity and water flow should not be such that it may cause the vehicle to be carried away by the current

Before wading, the ground conditions at the wading locations should be thoroughly inspected by a diver. When wading across streams and waterways with minimal water flow (current) and in which the ground conditions have been previously verified and do not represent a risk to personnel/materiel, the requirement for a diver may be waived. 5.11.6.6 Prior to wading, all armoured vehicles should be made ready with a rigidly mounted rear towing cable. The other end of the cable should be attached by rope to the turret roof/hull roof so that when the rope is pulled, the cable is released and may be hauled in. A buoy/empty water can, which will float to the surface if the vehicle should sink, should be attached to the other end of the rope. 5.11.6.7 A recovery vehicle should be made ready/inspected prior to wading. This vehicle should be manned by a tank commander and driver, as well as two assistants, but should not carry any additional load. A boat may be used instead of a vehicle for Chap-5 rescue/recovery. Rescue/recovery boats should be equipped in accordance with the requirements for rescue/tender vessels, section 8.1.7. 5.11.6.8 During wading/swimming and transit across frozen rivers and lakes, radio communication should be maintained between all participating vehicles, as well as the exercise leader. 5.11.6.9 One recovery vehicle should be available when wading across waterways that are less than 100 metres wide. The recovery vehicle should be located downstream at or near the departure bank. If the waterway is over 100 metres wide, two recovery vehicles should be available, preferably one on either side. 5.11.6.10 For wading along a waterway, one rescue/recovery vehicle should be available if the distance to the nearest bank is less than 100 metres. The vehicle should, at any given time, be downstream to wading vehicles and should maintain eye contact with them. If the distance to the nearest bank is more than 100 metres, two recovery vehicles should be available. The vehicles should, at any given time, be downstream to wading vehicles and should maintain eye contact with them. One of the vehicles should be in the water and should remain at the same distance from the bank as the outermost vehicle of the wading party. 5.11.6.11 In the case of swimming/deep wading when either the water is so deep or the current so swift that personnel are unable to wade, all personnel, with the exception of the driver, should remain outside of the vehicle and be in possession of a life jacket. The

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tank commander should be seated at the edge of the hatch with his/her feet inside the vehicle. The driver’s life jacket should be placed by the tank commander’s hatch. 5.11.6.12 During wading, the water may reach a higher level than its actual depth, depending on the wave that occurs as a result of the speed of the vehicle and/or the water. It is the wave’s height which determines the vehicle’s practical water depth. Prior to and during transit, the driver and tank commander should evaluate whether the actual water depth is, or could be, so deep that water could wash over the front bonnet. If this is the case, or if there is a risk of this occurring, preparations for deep wading/swimming should be made, as described in the prevailing regulations. 5.11.6.13 In the case of wading/swimming when the water is so deep and the current so swift that personnel are unable to wade, the following materiel/personnel should be made ready at the departure point: frogman/diver recovery vehicle (made ready/inspected for wading in the deepest prepared water depth for wading vehicles) rescue boat, cf. item 8.1.7.

5.11.6.14 When wading across streams and smaller waterways with minimal water flow that does not represent a risk to personnel and materiel, the requirement for a recovery boat/vehicle may be waived.

5.11.7
5.11.7.1

Driving across frozen rivers and lakes
During land movements with tracked and armoured vehicles in which it is difficult to determine whether a frozen lake or river is being crossed, the following measures should be carried out: Tanks and self-propelled artillery: if the division passes through such areas, measurements should be taken to determine the thickness of the ice and the water's depth. For details regarding implementation and requirements for ice thickness, refer to items 8.2.10 - 8.2.12 vehicles should be driven with open hatches. The driver will operate the vehicle with a closed hatch and make observations through the periscopes emergency breathing equipment should be made ready the turret should be locked in a position that ensures that the driver may exit the vehicle immediately through the emergency exit and driver’s hatch ensure that the vehicle is properly packed, that the driver’s emergency exit is free of equipment (loose equipment, team equipment, etc.) and that the driver, gunner, loader and tank commander may easily evacuate through the emergency hatch or turret hatches tank, tracked armoured vehicle and armoured recovery vehicle are made ready for wading (refer to drill book and technical handbook) the crew of self-propelled artillery alight and transfer, if applicable, on

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foot, and foot troops CV9030N/F1 / M113 and SISU/PASI also alight Other armoured vehicles: vehicles should be driven with hatches open vehicles of the M113 group should be made ready for swimming vehicle evacuation drill should be practiced prior to vehicle movement refer to details in the drill book and technical handbook

5.11.8
5.11.8.1

Swimming
When swimming is to be undertaken, a frogman/diver (cf. item 8.2.2.1) should be in place at the swimming location. The following materiel should be made ready at the swimming location: recovery vehicle rescue boat (cf. item 8.1.7 ) When swimming/deep wading is to be undertaken, all personnel, with the exception of the driver, should remain outside of the vehicle and be wearing a life jacket (i.e. with the tank hatch open, sitting on the edge of the vehicle’s roof with his/her legs inside the hatch. The tank commander should be seated at the edge of the hatch with his/her legs inside the vehicle. The driver’s life jacket should be placed by the tank commander’s hatch.

5.11.8.2

5.11.9
5.11.9.1

Recovery
Refer to item 5.1.6in this chapter.

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5.12

LEOPARD TANK 1A5NO, LEOPARD TANK 2A4NO, ARMOURED RECOVERY VEHICLE (BERGEPANZER) NM217, ARMOURED COMBAT ENGINEER VEHICLE NM189 AND ARMOURED BRIDGE-LAYING VEHICLE NM190

Figure: 5.11 Leopard 2A4

5.12.1
5.12.1.1

General
Supplementary provisions are described in: HUP Training programme, Leopard 1 HUP Training programme, Leopard 2 TH 9-1015-25/201-10 Leopard 1 A5 NO, tårn del 1 TH 9-1015-25/201-10 Leopard 1 A5 NO, tårn del 2 TH 9-1015-25/201-24 Leopard 1 A5 NO, del 2 TH 9-2350-25/203-13B Leopard 1, hull, inspection regulations TH 9-1015-25/201-13B Leopard 1 turret, inspection regulations TH 9-2350-25/203-10 Leopard 1 A5 NO, vehicle section TH 9-2350-25/204-10 Leopard 2, vehicle section TH 9-1015-25/200-10 Leopard 2, turret section TH 9-2350-25/228-10 Armoured bridge-laying vehicle, vehicle section TH 9-2350-25/228-10 Armoured bridge-laying vehicle, paving section

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TH 9-2350-25/228-13B Armoured bridge-laying vehicle, inspection regulations TH 9-2350-25/227-10 Armoured combat engineer vehicle TH 9-2350-25/227-13B Armoured combat engineer vehicle, inspection regulations TH 9-2350-25/204-13B Leopard 2 A4, inspection regulations UD 7-0 Main programme for Cavalry training UD 7-1 Shooting instruction for the Cavalry UD 7-2-2 The Cavalry's progression firing tests UD 7-4-4 The Cavalry’s drill book, Leopard 1 A5 NO/NO2 UD x-x-x The Cavalry’s drill book, Leopard 2 A4 NO FR 7-0-3 The tank platoon in the field FR 7-4-1 The tank squadron in the field KUP 7-1-5 Detailed programme, individual training, Leopard 1 A5 NO KUP 7-2-1 Detailed programme, division training, crew, Leopard KUP 7-7-5 Detailed programme, Officer training, tank course Armoured recovery vehicle (Bergepanzer) NM217: TH 9-2350-25/219-10 5.12.1.2 TH 9-2350-28/219-10D TH 9-2350-25/219-13B SO 9-2350-25/219-10 TH 9-2350-257219-24

Chap-5

Primus stoves should be lit on the ground. Refer to item 5.11.1.4 Smoking and use of an open fire on vehicles. When the primus stove has heated up it may be used on the rear of the vehicle. Particular caution should be demonstrated and a portable fire extinguisher should be available at the rear of the vehicle.

5.12.2
5.12.2.1

Boarding and alighting
Under på- og avstigning skal håndbrems være tiltrukket og rattlås være på (kun Leopard 1 har rattlås).

5.12.3
5.12.3.1

Movement on roads and across terrain
During field exercises and particularly when driving on roads with the Leopard 2, exceptional alertness should be demonstrated in the use and operation of the PERI tank commander sight. The division commander should have evaluated the local traffic conditions and the crew’s level of training. It is the tank commander's duty to give notification if he/she feels doubtful about conducting exercises along the road. If necessary, the sight should be disengaged to prevent the turret from accidentally rotating into the PERI's line of sight.

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5.12.3.2

When using the Leopard 1 and Leopard 2 tanks at the highest level of operation, all positions should be manned.

5.12.4
5.12.4.1

Wading and driving over soft ground
When driving the Leopard 1 or Leopard 2 in water to a depth of more than 50 cm, or that would appear to be more than 50 cm, the diving hydraulics should be pumped and additional procedures should be followed in accordance with items 5.11.6.2 and 8.2.1.1. If the BA3 test (Leopard 2) in accordance with the testing of diving hydraulics is not approved during preparation, wading is forbidden.

5.12.4.2

Figure: 5.12 Leo 2

5.12.5
5.12.5.1

The duties of personnel being transported
The transportation of personnel on the outside of a vehicle is only permitted on the Leopard 1 tank. The number of personnel carried should not exceed nine persons. Personnel being transported should sit in a squatting position and hold onto the rail with both hands. The turret should be locked at 12 o’clock, the rotation system engaged and TROOP READY established. Transit on the outside of the vehicle may only be undertaken by trained personnel.

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5.13

TRACKED ARMOURED VEHICLE CV9030N/F1

Figure: 5.13 CV9030N/F1 on the move

5.13.1
5.13.1.1

General
Supplementary provisions are described in: HUP CV9030N TH 9-2350-25/202-10 (Vehicle section) UD 7-4-5 (Drill book) ‘Mechanised infantry in the field’ TH 9-1005-25/203-10 (Turret) TH 9-2350-25/202-10D (Turret and hull) UD 7-1 Shooting instruction for the Cavalry UD 7-2-2 The Cavalry's progression firing tests

Chap-5

5.13.1.2

5.13.1.3

Exercises with open tank hatch and/or team leader’s hatch (‘hatch battles’) should be undertaken in dedicated zones. ‘Dedicated zone’ is defined as a zone in which a battalion commander or similar has determined that there is a minimum risk of accidents occurring. When assessing the suitability of given zones, the nature of the vegetation and topography, as well as the competence level of personnel, should be taken into account. During all exercises with open tank hatches and/or team leader hatches, the gun barrel MUST remain within the outer edges of the hull. Furthermore, the tank commander should have his/her head above the hatch's edge and one hand on the rotation handle in order to reduce the risk of the gun barrel rotating beyond the hull’s outer edges. The rear door should remain closed whilst driving. Before any vehicle movement is undertaken, a check should be made to ensure that no personnel are loading or unloading within the crew compartment.

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5.14

M113 SERIES VEHICLES

Figure: 5.14 From the top hatch on M-113

5.14.1
5.14.1.1

General
Supplementary provisions are described in: HUP M-113 TH 9-2350-25/230-10

5.14.2
5.14.2.1

Boarding and alighting
Boarding and alighting must only take place when the vehicle is stationary. Loading and unloading should be carried out on the ramp or through the door. The driver, tank commander and gunner may board and alight at the front. Boarding and alighting at the side is not permitted (does not apply to M 548).

5.14.3
5.14.3.1

Movement on roads and across terrain
Before any movement takes place, the following items should be checked by the tank commander: covers should be in place and closed and the engine compartment’s front hatch secured and screwed down all hatches should be closed and locked or open and secured – the tank commander’s hatch ring should be locked the tank commander’s hatch ring should be locked the ramp should be raised and locked the machine gun should be locked at the side and vertically when not in use

5.14.3.2

When driving the NM 142 armoured rocket launcher the following also applies: During movement, the loading hatch should be closed. The turret hatch should either be closed, be in the observation position, or remain open. The shield hatch should be closed. The turret may be rotated during tactical movement but should be locked during administrative movement. During transit, the tank commander's hatch ring

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5.14.3.3 5.14.3.4

should be locked and the mounted MG-3 should be locked in the transit position. A tent should be erected on the ramp of the NM 142 for bivouacking of the vehicle’s crew. If the vehicle’s heating apparatus is used, one person should be placed on sentry duty in the vehicle with the hatch open, cf. item 5.19 in this chapter. The heating apparatus should not be used during the transportation of fuel. Fuel canisters should not be opened inside the vehicle.

5.14.4
5.14.4.1 5.14.4.2 5.14.4.3

Swimming
In the following special versions, swimming is not permitted: NM 195, NM 196, NM 197, NM 198, NM 200, NM 201, NM 202, NM 204, NM 205, NM 209 and NM 216. Vehicles with additional armour plating are not permitted to swim. When swimming with the MN 142, 5-10 sandbags should be placed at the very rear of the vehicle in order to ensure greater stability.

5.15

SISU/PASI AND FUCHS

Chap-5

Figure: 5.15 SISU in medical vehicle version

5.15.1
5.15.1.1

General
Supplementary provisions are described in: HUP SISU TH 9-2350-25/207-10 Armoured vehicle, wheels, XA-186 TH 9-2350-25/216-10 Armoured vehicle, wheels, XA-203

5.15.1.2 5.15.1.3

It is forbidden to stand or walk on the front windscreens’ collapsible protective panels. Movement of Sisu/Pasi and Fuchs vehicles within a camp zone may be directed from the vehicle under the following conditions: a tank commander should be positioned at the foremost right-hand hatch, as well as a rear observer at the rear hatch

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5.15.1.4 5.15.1.5

the vehicle should be locked in first gear and the vehicle should move at a walking pace

During reversal of Sisu/Pasi and Fuchs vehicles within a camp zone, TWO guides should direct vehicle movement from the ground at all times. All personnel should wear seat belts if they are installed, except during terrain training in combat technique, wading, transit across waterways, as well as during embarkation and disembarkation of a amphibious landing craft.

5.15.2
5.15.2.1 5.15.2.2

Boarding and alighting
Personnel should only walk on designated areas. Boarding and alighting of foot troops should only be carried out through the rear door.

5.15.3
5.15.3.1 5.15.3.2

The duties of personnel being transported
The rear door should remain closed during transit. Before any vehicle movement is undertaken, a check should be made to ensure that no personnel are loading or unloading within the crew compartment. When the crew has finished loading a SISU/PASI vehicle, the crew may comprise, in certain cases, only a driver and gunner. In such cases, the gunner will adopt the role of tank commander and direct the vehicle from the tank commander’s position. At the same time, the gunner’s role as a gunner will cease. Exceptional caution should be demonstrated when driving in such situations.

5.15.4
5.15.4.1

Reversing
For reversing that is directed from a vehicle, three persons should be used: One driver, one tank commander and one rear observer.

5.15.5
5.15.5.1

Transit across waterways, wading
Refer to item 8.2.1.1 The tank commander should maintain his/her position (foremost right-hand side) during the period that the vehicle is swimming/wading. Each vehicle should carry a rear observer who maintains internal communication with the tank commander. The rear observer should monitor the crew compartment and immediately notify of any leakage or other condition that would necessitate the vehicle's transit to be discontinued.

5.15.6
5.15.6.1

Swimming
Swimming is not permitted with SISU XA-185, XA-186 and PASI XA-203N vehicles. All crew compartment hatches should be closed during swimming with a Fuchs vehicle fitted with a mass spectrometer (MM1).

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5.16

LOADING AND TRANSPORTATION OF WHEELED AND TRACKED VEHICLES ONTO RAILWAY TRUCKS/DRIVING WITHIN RAILWAY ZONES
General
Vehicles should not be driven into or across a railway zone before permission has been obtained from an authorised railway employee, or any transport control personnel who are in contact with the railway’s duty officer. When there are overhead power lines for electric locomotives in the railway zone, aerials should be lowered before vehicles are driven into the area. They should not be raised again before the area has been vacated. Aerials should also be lowered when crossing railway tracks where overhead power lines are present. When a vehicle is to cross a railway track within or outside of a station area, over a level crossing that is not secured by a barrier and/or colour light signals, one sentry should be positioned at the crossing point and one sentry on the track in both directions. Appropriate signals should be agreed upon and the sentries should maintain proper eye contact with each other. The sentries should stop vehicles in good time and at a safe distance from the railway track when a train is approaching. If there are several parallel tracks at the crossing point, several sentries should be positioned to ensure that the railway tracks may be safely crossed. The sentries should ensure that contact has been made with the railway’s duty officer and that his/her instructions are followed.

5.16.1
5.16.1.1 5.16.1.2

5.16.1.3

5.16.2
5.16.2.1

Loading and unloading from railway trucks
NSB (Norwegian State Railways) is responsible for the railway’s safety service. Loading/unloading should not commence before permission has been obtained from an authorised railway employee. Cf. appendix B to TF 2-1, ‘Regulations for the transportation of military vehicles by railway’. All orders to military personnel MUST be issued by ONE officer. Before loading/unloading commences, an authorised officer should obtain confirmation from an authorised railway employee that: the train is standing on the correct track the railway truck’s brakes are engaged and connected to the hook on the end ramp the electric current to any overhead power lines has been switched off and there are no other live cables in the vicinity

Chap-5

5.16.2.2

5.16.2.3

5.16.2.4

It is not permitted to climb onto a vehicle’s roof or load before a go-ahead signal has been given by an authorised railway employee. The go-ahead signal will be given when the authorised railway employee is satisfied that the current to the overhead power lines has been switched off and earthed. During loading and unloading of goods wagons, freight must be handled with care so that the freight, or the person handling the freight, is not in hazardous proximity to

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5.16.2.5 5.16.2.6

5.16.2.7 5.16.2.8 5.16.2.9

the overhead power lines, or other live components. (Hazardous proximity is regarded as a distance of less than one metre from live components.) In the case of a track change that requires the overhead power lines to be switched on, ALL work above the relevant track must be suspended. Work may not re-commence before permission has been given by an authorised railway employee. One guide should be available for each vehicle that is driven onto or off of a railway truck. The guide should act in accordance with the guide’s duties, cf. item 5.11.1.3in this chapter. If it becomes necessary for the guide to move during loading/unloading, the vehicle should be stopped, the guide should move to the new position and continue directing from there. The guide should walk forwards or sideways but NEVER backwards while directing vehicles. In the case of any loading/unloading from an open line (outside a station area) special safety measures must be adopted in consultation with a representative of NSB (Norwegian State Railways). Loading/unloading and securing of vehicles should take place in accordance with TF 2-1 ‘Regulations for the transportation of military vehicles by railway’ and TF 2-2, ‘Freight manual for the transportation of military vehicles by railway’. In respect of military personnel who will be present at a railway zone or participate in railway transportation, it is the duty of the authorised officer to familiarise all such personnel with the regulations stipulated in this section before arrival at the station area.

5.17
5.17.1
5.17.1.1 5.17.1.2

LOADING AND UNLOADING OF WHEELED AND TRACKED VEHICLES ONTO SHIPS/DRIVING WITHIN PORT AREAS
General
Vehicles should not been driven into a port area before permission has been obtained from an authorised port employee, or any transport control personnel. Driving into a port area should only take place on the orders of transport control personnel, or any authorised port employee. Personnel moving around a port area should wear helmets and reflective vests. Vehicles that drive into a port area should use hazard warning lights or ordinary rotary flashing lights in order to be more visible. Exceptions to this regulation may only be given by transport control personnel. Individual persons should not move around a port area without the permission of transport control personnel. The transportation of personnel should be organised in such a way that it does not obstruct other activities in the port area. Military vehicles have a duty to yield right-of-way to the normal traffic (lorries, container lifts, etc.) in a port area.

5.17.1.3

5.17.2
5.17.2.1

Loading and unloading from ships
The port authority is responsible for the port’s safety. Transport control personnel should only commence loading and unloading after receiving permission from an authorised port employee. Each deck of the vessel should have an authorised deck

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5.17.2.2

commander (from one division) who should ensure safe and controlled loading/unloading in accordance with the instructions of transport control personnel. In the case of embarkation/disembarkation from landing crafts and ferries, only the driver and any tank commander may remain in the vehicle.

5.18

LOADING/UNLOADING OF TRACKED AND WHEELED VEHICLES FROM AN ARTICULATED TRAILER (HEAVY GOODS VEHICLE)
General
The driver of an articulated trailer (heavy goods vehicle) is responsible for loading/unloading. During vehicle direction, correct signals should be used (TF 1-3-1, item 28). In poor visibility, when it is not possible to give hand signals, signals should be given with a flashlight. All personnel, with the exception of the driver of the vehicle being directed – as well as any assistant to the person directing the vehicle – should maintain a distance that is equal to at least four times the length of the vehicle that is being loaded or unloaded. If there is a requirement for an assistant to be present during loading/unloading, the assistant should stand at a safe distance and maintain Chap-5 eye contact with the person directing the vehicle, until the vehicle is stationary with its engine switched off and its brakes engaged. The driver of the vehicle being directed should only move the vehicle when he has established eye contact with/received a signal from the individual who is directing the loading/unloading. It is forbidden for personnel to be situated on the articulated trailer’s body when the vehicle is loaded and its engine is running.

5.18.1
5.18.1.1

-

-

5.18.1.2

Loading When the vehicle being directed is driven/directed onto ramps, the person directing the loading must immediately move away from the articulated trailer’s body and take up a safe position on the swan neck before giving any further directions. If the ramps need to be adjusted after the vehicle has driven onto them, the vehicle should be directed to return and its engine switched off. The vehicle should remain stationary at the ramp until the person directing the vehicle has moved him/herself from the articulated trailer’s body and onto the swan neck.

5.18.1.3

Unloading Unloading should take place in reverse order.

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-

All personnel, with the exception of the driver, should be at a safe distance from the vehicle, as stipulated in bullet point 4 of this section. The person directing the vehicle should be in position on the articulated trailer. The vehicle’s driver should NOT start the engine before he/she has established eye contact with and received a signal from the person directing the vehicle. The person directing the vehicle should remain in position until the vehicle has been unloaded from the articulated trailer.

5.18.1.4

Securing/releasing of fasteners Before fasteners are secured/released, a loaded vehicle should remain stationary with the engine switched off and the brakes engaged.

5.19
5.19.1
5.19.1.1 5.19.1.2

STATIONARY USE OF VEHICLES/PRECAUTIONS AGAINST CARBON MONOXIDE POISONING
General
After driving in terrain, the exhaust system should be examined for breakages, etc., before the vehicle’s engine is used in stationary mode. When personnel must remain in the driving compartment of a command vehicle or a communications vehicle, and the vehicle’s engine is running in stationary mode, and a petrol/diesel heating apparatus is being operated, or a heating unit is being used, one person must, at any given time, remain awake and the vehicle must also be ventilated at regular intervals. It is the responsibility of the commanding officer to ensure that the above-mentioned prohibitions/orders are complied with. For first aid in respect of carbon monoxide poisoning, see section on 6.20.4.

5.19.1.3

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5.20

INSPECTION AND WORK UNDER, IN FRONT OF OR TO THE REAR OF MOTOR VEHICLES

Figure: 5.16 Repairs to a Mercedes vehicle

5.20.1
5.20.1.1 5.20.1.2

General
Never crawl under a jacked-up vehicle unless the vehicle has been secured against jack failure. The vehicle should be secured with a trestle, or similar. Before commencing any inspection of or work on a vehicle, the party responsible for the repair/inspection should check that: any ignition key has been removed from the vehicle. In the case of diesel vehicles (e.g. M 620 series), pull out the stop handle vehicles in which the engine is not running have the handbrake engaged and are placed in low gear no other person remains in the driving compartment unless this is agreed and also necessary to resolve the task the handbrake is engaged on vehicles, which, due to inspection work, must have their engines running vehicle’s standing on a hill or a slippery surface are safeguarded against rolling or sliding with the help of wedge-shaped wooden blocks (minimum gradient 35 degrees), or stones, etc.

Chap-5

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5.21
5.21.1
5.21.1.1

ROADBLOCKS – SENTRY DUTY AND MARKINGS
General
Roadblocks on public roads should only be set up during exercises in which the area has been requisitioned. The roadblock should be set up as a marked barrier. Concertina wire fences are used for marking (alternatively Spanish riders). It is forbidden to use vehicles, stones, etc., that may result in accidents or damage to materiel. Roadblocks should not be set up in hazardous locations (road bends, hill crests, etc.), which may represent a danger to traffic. The responsible exercise leaders would normally contact the local police or road authority prior to the exercise (for agreement and consultation regarding traffic density, the road’s condition, assistance/loan of materiel, etc.). Roadblocks with sentries and warning signs should be positioned as indicated in fig 68In addition to sentries and obstacles, a roadblock comprises a roadblock set. A roadblock set comprises: 10 traffic cones, height 75 cm, with horizontal reflective strips two 20 m rolls of stop cord with reflective tape 2 warning signs no. 105 (narrow road) 2 secondary signs (Army roadblock) 2 stop sticks, 20 cm diameter, reflective 2 safety vests (to be worn by the sentries) 2 OPTIMA flashers (to be attached to the two traffic cones closest to the centre of the roadway)

5.21.1.2 5.21.1.3

During hours of darkness, the sentry should be additionally equipped with a red flashlight.

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Militær vegsperring

25

0 -5

15 m

0m

25

m

5m
m 10
25 -5 0 m

15

0

m

Figure: 5.17 Figur 68 - Roadblock 5.21.1.4 The commanding officer of the division that has received an order to carry out a Chap-5 designated roadblock (troops, or similar) is responsible for appointing sentries and ensuring that these sentries have received sufficient instruction to enable them to perform their duties safely and effectively. There should be a clear view from the warning sign to the roadblock. The traffic cones closest to the edge of the road should be placed 50 cm into the roadway. A concertina wire fence or a Spanish rider should be used as a barrier. Each barrier should not cover more than 1/3 of the roadway. The outermost cone at each concertina wire fence should be placed centrally to the obstacle and at least 0.5 metres outside of the obstacle itself, allowing at least half of the roadway on the opposite side to remain clear. On heavily trafficked roads, sentries should comprise MP-trained personnel. Sentries should be functionally connected directly to the tactical watch at the location, but, in terms of traffic safety, should be completely independent of this. Tactical watch and checking of vehicles at the roadblock should, where practicable, take place outside the roadway. Civilian traffic should not normally be stopped except when traffic safety reasons deem this necessary. Such traffic should be directed and given a signal to reduce speed. Civilian vehicles/road users should not be checked. The sentries should ensure that no loitering takes place at or near the roadblock.

5.21.1.5

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5.22

AIR TRANSPORT

Figure: 5.18 Bording a C-130 Hercules

5.22.1
5.22.1.1

General
The safety regulations for air transport below are in accordance with: BSL E 4-1 "Regulations regarding access and transit at land-based airports" BTF 4-002 "Provisions for the transport service of the Norwegian Armed Force" BTF 4-005 "Provisions for the transport service of the Norwegian Armed Force", planning and implementation of air transport during peacetime IATA "International Air Transport Assosiation" AFMAN US Airforce Manual

5.22.1.2

The provisions in this section deal principally with the transportation of personnel by aircraft. In respect of transportation of materiel – and especially dangerous goods – refer to the provisions of IATA and AFMAN. In addition to the general provisions in respect of air transport, the Royal Norwegian Air Force and airline companies may occasionally have separate specific provisions. Information about these provisions must be sought by applying to FLO/Logops/Transport.

5.22.2
5.22.2.1

Responsibility
The division being transported is responsible for instructing personnel in respect of the prevailing safety regulations for transportation by aeroplane. In the case of transportation of materiel, (goods), the dispatcher should make contact with the transport control organisation's representatives or FLO/Logops/Transport. The Royal Norwegian Air Force/airline company are responsible for ensuring that: aircraft are equipped in accordance with the assigned mission

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-

personnel are familiarised with the use of relevant rescue equipment onboard aircraft all cargo is safely stored and secured in accordance with provisions (cf. transport control officer’s responsibility for the preparation of cargo)

5.22.3
5.22.3.1 5.22.3.2

Movement at airports
All airport movement is monitored and directed by the control tower. Moreover, at military airports, the military police has responsibility for the regulation of traffic and traffic control within the airport’s perimeters. The following safety regulations should be observed during movement at an airport: a. Vanguards: upon arrival at an airport, the divisional liaison officer/transport leader report to the transport control officer while the division is assembled in a holding area outside the airport personnel should be assembled in pre-arranged ‘air cargos’ under the control of divisional officers (transport leaders) movement should be restricted to the necessary minimum. Movement outside areas/roads that have been placed at the disposal of personnel (holding areas, loading areas) must only take place with the express consent of the operations room and control tower movement in hangars and workshops, on runways and aircraft parking bays is forbidden runways should be crossed at a quick march or at double time upon the Chap-5 express consent of the control tower only personnel responsible for the implementation and inspection of loading and unloading, or in the process of boarding/deplaning, have access to aircraft or loading areas. All other personnel should remain at least 50 metres from aircraft personnel should always remain at a safe distance from propellers or engine inlets/exhausts of jet aircraft it is forbidden to smoke or use other forms of open fire on the ground, or within a 50 metre radius of aircraft earplugs should be used when personnel are assembled within 50 metres of propeller aircraft and within 150 metres of jet aircraft with engines running

-

-

b.

For motor vehicles: it is forbidden to drive on runways or aircraft parking bays. Roadways (taxiways) may only be used with the express consent of the control tower and when personnel have become familiarised with the prevailing safety regulations runways may only been crossed with the express consent of the control tower, and only at precisely agreed locations. Crossings are normally

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controlled by traffic lights (see item 5.22.3.3) drivers of vehicles that have received permission to drive on a runway or roadway should keep a lookout for signals from the control tower (see item 5.22.3.3) it is forbidden to park on runways, roadways or aircraft parking bays vehicles must always stop and yield right-of-way to oncoming aircraft or aircraft they are approaching that are being driven or towed vehicles should not overtake a moving aircraft but should maintain a safe distance to the rear of the aircraft vehicles must not use headlights in such a way that they could distract aircraft that are about to land or take off, or that are being manoeuvred to a landing ground vehicles should not drive any closer than 20 metres to aircraft that are parked or have their engines running the minimum distance for jet aircraft is 50 metres from the nearest exhaust pipe. In the case of jet aircraft with engines running, the minimum distance is 150 metres driving to a parked aircraft is only permitted in connection with loading and unloading and the dispatch of the aircraft, and by personnel who have previously received instruction and are authorised to carry out this service it is forbidden to drive under the wings or engines of a parked aircraft. When reversing to or onboard an aircraft, vehicles should be directed by personnel selected for this task speed limits and other regulatory provisions specified by signs or instructions must be strictly observed all smoking in connection with driving on runways or roadways is forbidden earplugs should be used when personnel are assembled within 50 metres of propeller aircraft and within 150 metres of jet aircraft with engines running

-

-

-

-

-

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5.22.3.3

Signals in connection with movement at airports Signals made by: Signification Stop Signal lamp Fixed RED LIGHT Airport traffic light system Sound

Move away imme- Flashing RED diately LIGHT Move away from the approach zone immediately All clear. You may Fixed GREEN continue LIGHT Return and contact Flashing WHITE the control tower LIGHT Look at the control tower for further light signals Two short and ONE long blast from the sirens Approach lights on or flashing

5.22.4
5.22.4.1 5.22.4.2

Loading and unloading
Loading and unloading should be directed by qualified transport control personnel in Chap-5 collaboration with a representative of the Royal Norwegian Air Force or relevant airline company/flight crew. The following regulations apply to the loading and unloading of aircraft: a. Personnel: boarding and deplaning of personnel should be carried out under the direction of an officer in accordance with the provisions of BTF 4-002 smoking is forbidden firearms are not permitted in the cabin but must be forwarded as luggage (except in the case of divisional transports) deplaning should be carried out on the orders of, and under the direction of, dispatchers in accordance with the directives of a transport control officer earplugs should be used when personnel are assembled within 50 metres of propeller aircraft and within 150 metres of jet aircraft with engines running

-

b.

Cargo: loading and unloading of cargo should be carried out in accordance with the provisions of the relevant aircraft type cargo should be positioned in such a way that is does not obstruct

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access to the aircraft’s emergency exits. The flight crew should also have free access from the cockpit through the whole of the cargo compartment only an approved lashing medium may be used for lashing cargo personnel must not be placed in front of cargo or vehicles the assigned loading team does not have access to the aircraft’s cockpit any damage that occurs must be reported immediately, regardless of the extent of the damage in respect of the transportation of ‘dangerous goods’, etc., refer to the provisions of HFL 10502

5.22.5
5.22.5.1 5.22.5.2

During flights
From the moment that an aircraft has been loaded and prepared for departure, the aircraft’s captain has command over all personnel onboard, regardless of rank. The following safety regulations apply onboard aircraft: seat belts should be used at take-off and landing, as well as on the command of the captain personnel should remain seated in their designated places. Movements should only occur when absolutely essential, and then on an individual basis. This is due to the displacement of the aircraft’s centre of gravity smoking is only permitted with the captain’s consent. Smoking is forbidden on the ground and during take-off and landing personnel do not have access to the cockpit without the consent of/an invitation from the captain any electronic devices that contain transmitters/receivers should be switched off during the flight. Any other electronic devices should be switched off during take-off/landing or when the ‘Fasten seat belt’ sign is lit personnel should remain seated with their seat belts fastened until the order to deplane has been given upon receiving notification of an emergency landing, the following measures should be taken: 1. tightly secure seat belts 2. 3. 4. remove any prostheses, high-heeled shoes, glasses and other sharp objects such as pens, needles, etc. Loosen ties and straps put on a life jacket (if landing on water) but do not inflate it raise the seat to an upright position, tighten the seat belt securely. Lean forward so that the forehead is held tightly towards the arms, which should be folded over the knees follow all orders issued by the crew

-

-

5.

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Ear protection should be used by all personnel being transported by C130 Hercules, Twin Otter and similar propeller aircraft. For further details, refer to item 6.21

5.23

HELICOPTER TRANSPORT

Figure: 5.19 Transport of wounded

5.23.1
5.23.1.1

General

5.23.1.2

Chap-5 The helicopter is nowadays regarded as the safest type of aircraft. It is, however, assumed that users will have familiarised themselves with some of the general safety regulations, as well as the particular provisions of the various types of helicopter. Refer also to TF 4-2 Parts 1 and 2), ‘Helicopter transport in the field’. Personnel assembling in or by a helicopter should ensure that their mobile phones are switched off when the helicopter is in operation. Personnel being transported must pay particular attention to the following risk elements when the helicopter is on the ground with its engine running (see fig.70): the main rotor blade’s height above the ground
the tail rotor blade’s height above the ground exhaust gas from helicopters with gas-turbine engines noise level that makes it impossible to hear a warning shout, for example the downdraft from the main rotor blades (loose objects, sand, snow, etc.) several helicopters simultaneously or directly after one another at the same landing zone possible engine failure during landing, take-off or hovering. If this occurs, the helicopter should move to the LEFT, while personnel on the ground should move to the RIGHT, as viewed from the direction of flight protruding aerials, etc., in the noses of certain types of helicopter may easily

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be damaged/deformed if, for example, personnel hold onto or collide with them. Therefore, personnel moving in proximity to the helicopter’s nose must be attentive

5.23.2
5.23.2.1

Danger zone
In respect of helicopter transport, an area that extends from the helicopter and 15 metres outside the path of the rotor blades (outer tip of main and tail rotor blades) is defined as a danger zone (ref. ATP 49). The movement of personnel and vehicles in the danger zone should be directed/controlled and should only occur when a go-ahead signal has been given by the helicopter’s crew, and in designated directions/sectors. In sloping terrain, the movement of personnel should take place on the downward side of the helicopter.

5.23.3
5.23.3.1

Responsibility

The division being transported is responsible for studying/providing instruction in the prevailing safety regulations for the transportation of personnel and materiel by helicopter. The required assistance can be obtained from the supporting helicopter division. The helicopter division is responsible for ensuring that: helicopters are equipped in accordance with the assigned mission personnel are equipped with life jackets, as well as being instructed in the use of life jackets if the helicopter is to fly over water the user/transported division is provided with instructions regarding safety regulations and actions to be taken in the event of an emergency landing, as well as any particular conditions for the relevant helicopter type all cargo is properly secured in accordance with provisions underslung loads are checked/approved

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IMPORTANT: NEVER WALK BACKWARDS ALONG THE HELICOPTER'S TAIL BOOM (BEHIND THE HELICOPTER’S FUSELAGE) WHEN THE HELICOPTER’S ENGINE IS RUNNING

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Hovedrotor

Utblåsningsåpning for gass

Halerotor

Figure: 5.20 Figur 70 - Helicopter risk areas

5.23.4
5.23.4.1

Smoking/open fire
Smoking and other use of open fire inside a helicopter, and on the ground, within a 50 metre radius, is forbidden.

5.23.5
5.23.5.1

Ear protection
Ear plugs or any other type of approved ear protection should be used by all personnel assembled on the ground within a 50 metre radius of a helicopter. For the assembly of personnel in a helicopter, refer to ‘Introduction, personnel and leadership, rescue services and definitions’, section 6.21

5.23.6
5.23.6.1

Landing zone
At the landing zone: • good order should always prevail, as well as careful leadership and management of the operation • only personnel who have been ordered to serve in direct relation to helicopters, or personnel who are boarding/deplaning, should be present • ground marking tarpaulins or other loose materiel used for marking the zone should be removed before any helicopters land, in order to avoid any such materiel being sucked up into the rotor blades • the movement of personnel and vehicles must be directed/controlled. When a helicopter is on the ground, a go-ahead signal should be given by the helicopter’s crew before any movement is undertaken (cf. item regarding 5.23.2.1 above) • adequate first aid and organisation of fire-fighting should be established. The minimum requirement per landing point is: 1. medical bag no.1 and stretcher 2. 6 kg fire extinguisher

Chap-5

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Forbudt sektor

Figure: 5.21 Figur 71 - Movement to and from a helicopter

5.23.7
5.23.7.1

Transportation of personnel
a. a. The following should be observed during boarding: boarding of personnel should be directed by a previously instructed transport leader personnel ready for boarding should remain in their respective holding areas until receiving the order to board boarding commences after the go-ahead signal has been received from the helicopter’s crew. Movement from the holding area to the helicopter should proceed from an angle at the front, preferably from the helicopter’s right-hand side, as viewed from the direction of flight, or, if in sloping terrain, on the downward side of the helicopter (cf. fig 71). kitbags should be carried loosely over the shoulder/by hand and placed in the helicopter. Kitbags and equipment must never be thrown into or out of the helicopter weapons must be unloaded and secured long items (skis, poles, weapons, aerials, etc.) should be carried horizontally when moving under the helicopter’s main rotor blades, personnel should bend forward and hold onto caps and any other loose, light

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items seat belts should be securely fastened and kept fastened from the time that personnel are seated in the helicopter until the order to deplane has been given the helicopter’s doors should be securely closed so that they are not distorted by the downdraft from the rotor blades

b.

During flights: all personnel should remain seated with their seat belts fastened until the order to deplane has been given weapons should be held between the knees with the butt facing up ( in order to avoid possible damage to the cargo compartment’s ceiling) instructions/orders from the helicopter’s crew, as well as any instructions/orders from the transport leader in respect of aircraft safety, must be fully and immediately complied with upon receiving notification of an emergency/emergency landing (refer to table in item 5.23.9 below), follow the set procedures and orders issued by the helicopter’s crew Generally, the following applies: 1. Lay any weapon on the floor, place both feet on the weapon. Tighten the safety belt, bend forward as far as possible and grasp arms tightly under the knees. Remain in this position until the Chap-5 helicopter is stationary. 2. 3. After landing: Remain in the helicopter until the crew or the transport leader gives the order to deplane. Landing on water: Do not inflate life jackets before exiting the helicopter.

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c.

Deplaning: if personnel are required to exit the helicopter quickly on one side or the other, depending on helicopter type and instructions, unload any divisional equipment and lie on the ground within the path of the rotor blades be particularly aware of other helicopters in the vicinity when the helicopter has taken off again, personnel may be led away from the landing zone

5.23.8
5.23.8.1

Transportation of materiel
a. Preparation: the transportation of hazardous cargo (ammunition, explosives, combustible or corrosive fluids/matter, gas cylinders, etc.), for interior loading, must receive prior authorisation from the helicopter division/crew

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check packaging and particularly ensure that containers/cylinders for combustible fluids and gases are sealed check that the lifting device for underslung loads is undamaged and has adequate lifting capacity (SWL/WLL) check that each helicopter cargo has been properly prepared and packed in nets/secured with straps and that the cargo’s load does not exceed the maximum stipulated load

b.

Loading and unloading: 1. in the case of transportation of materiel as an interior or exterior load, loading and unloading should take place in accordance with instructions from the helicopter’s crew 2. In the case of transportation of materiel as an underslung load, the following points should be observed: for each landing point there should be a signalman. The signalman should be equipped/marked in a way that enables the pilot to easily identify who is responsible for directing air traffic the number of people working beneath the helicopter on hooking up a load should be kept to a minimum both the signalman and the person responsible for hooking up the load (and any assistant) should be equipped with goggles to protect the eyes from sand or snow that swirls around as a result of the downdraft from the rotor blades. The person responsible for hooking up the load should use an earthing set, due to the static electricity generated by the helicopter while hovering in the event of engine failure during the hooking up of a load, the helicopter should move to the left (as viewed from the helicopter’s longitudinal direction)

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In such cases, personnel beneath the helicopter should move as quickly as possible to the right (see fig 72).

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Vind
Signalmann

30x Opphuker Last 10x

Ved opphuking

Ved innflyging og avgang

Chap-5

Figure: 5.22 Figur 72 - Placement of personnel when flying with an underslung load (cf. ATP490g TF4-2-1) EMERGENCY PROCEDURE: Helicopter moves to the LEFT, personnel move to the RIGHT

5.23.9
5.23.9.1

Overview of signs and signals
Cf ATP 49. Signification Start loading! Standby! In daylight ‘Thumbs up’ from the pilot or flight engineer In darkness One long flash with a flashlight or ‘loading light’

Internal communication As in daylight or two short audible signals or continuous red light

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Emergency landing!

Internal communication As in daylight and continuous audible signal or flashing red light One short audible signal As in daylight or continuous green light ‘Thumbs up’ from the transport pilot Two flashlight flashes from the transport pilot

Start unloading! Personnel deplaned! 5.23.9.2

General Night vision goggles (NVG) have become a normal tool for helicopter operations at night. The advantage of night vision goggles is that the crew may fly in approximately the same manner as during daylight flights, while also being provided with the cover of darkness.

5.23.10

Procedures within loading and unloading zones

5.23.10.1 It is important that lights are used as little as possible in a loading and unloading zone during an NVG operation as they will disturb the helicopter’s crew. If necessary, a lighting plan should be prepared in which conventional lights or IR lights are used. Red lights should be avoided as this is the colour reserved for marking obstacles to air traffic. In addition, night vision goggles are sensitive to this colour. The individual landing point may be marked with a light stick or flashlight. If there is a risk of swirling snow, grass, sand or similar, the marking of the landing points must be undertaken with a view to ensuring good reference points for the crew during landing and take-off. In such cases, personnel at the landing point can be good points of reference.

5.23.11

Planning of NVG operations

5.23.11.1 Generally, the planning of an NVG operation requires more detailed planning than a similar operation undertaken during the day.

5.24

SAFETY REGULATIONS FOR OPERATIONAL DRIVING IN CONNECTION WITH ESCORT SERVICES AND MILITARY BODYGUARD SERVICES
General
These safety regulations apply to the following training/exercises and driving course: VIP driver and tactical/technical driving course, as well as escort/user and instructor course. Safety regulations should be reviewed with students before driving lessons are undertaken. Technical and tactical driving exercises should be practiced separately. Responsibility The responsible instructor should be approved by a competent authority (FMPA –

5.24.1
5.24.1.1

5.24.1.2

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5.24.1.3

The Norwegian Armed Forces Military Police Division). In addition, instructors should be approved by the division commander. The number of students per instructor should not usually exceed six. Students should be in possession of a Class B driving licence (submitted before the driving course commences) and should have been driving a vehicle for at least one year. The driver is responsible in accordance with the provisions of the Road Traffic Act. All vehicles used for training should be registered, inspected and approved in accordance with the Road Traffic Act, and associated vehicle regulations. Exceptions are made for vehicles that are to be used for barricade breeching exercises, as well as vehicles to be used for specific exercises on a closed course. Such use should be approved by the instructor in each individual case. Refer to item 2.2. Prior to the commencement of exercises, vehicles should be inspected and emptied of all loose equipment. Vehicle inspection The following points should be considered during vehicle inspection prior to individual and high speed exercises: tyre condition, (air, wear and tear, rips, bulges, foreign objects in the rubber, etc.) wheels (whole wheel, examine the underside of the wheel, wheel nuts firmly tightened) spring units and shock absorbers (broken spring, possible leakage or wear to shock absorbers) brakes (booster brake, constant braking effect, breakage/system leakage) engine (be particularly aware of: oil level, oil leakage, any oil cooler, coolant, leakage in the fuel system)

Chap-5

Before the exercise commences, students should undergo training in the correct handling of damaged vehicles, accidents, actions in the event of a fire, environmental damage, etc. The following should be in place at all stands: basic medical bag, medical orderly, woollen blanket, stretcher and evacuation vehicle 5.24.1.4 crowbar, sledgehammer, window breaker, seat belt cutter four 12 kg fire extinguishers (inspected) mobile phone and other means of communication

Exercises All technical driving exercises should be undertaken on a closed course, cordoned off from other traffic with traffic cones/mine tape. Separate zones may be designated to provide students with the opportunity to practice on their own. These zones should be similarly marked. Parking, rescue and rest zones on the course should be defined and announced to all participating personnel. ONLY exercises that have been taught by the instructor may be practiced. In the case of exercises that are complex in relation to drill, as well as exercises that require a

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particularly high degree of focus on safety, the exercise should be performed by the instructor before students attempt to carry it out. The exercise should only be practiced when the instructor has given the order to do so. Students are required to demonstrate a sensible and mature attitude towards adjustment of speed both within and outside of the training zone, among other things. Students and/or the instructor are responsible for aborting an exercise when a hazardous situation arises.

5.24.2
5.24.2.1

Technical driving exercises
Technical driving Technical driving, in this instance, refers to isolated exercises or training in which focus is placed on the technical performance of the individual, e.g. driver training on a closed course, cone driving, emergency braking, evasive manoeuvres, barricade breeching, tilting, vehicle contact at speed, etc. Joint provisions The instructor should ensure that students take regular breaks. All students should wear safety belts. Windows should be closed.

5.24.2.2

5.24.2.3

Driving exercises on an individual skills course Only one vehicle at a time on the training course. When braking exercises are being undertaken, the course should be free of obstruction. Instructors should be positioned in such a way as to avoid exposing themselves to any danger. Instructors should not normally stand on the roadway. Students should observe any signs/signals given by the instructor. The return route and holding point should be defined in all exercises.

5.24.2.4

Exercises in barricade breeching, vehicle contact at speed and fishtailing Helmets and gloves should be worn. Any sharp objects should be removed from the vehicle. Speeds should normally not exceed 30 kph.

5.24.2.5 5.24.2.6

Driving on a high-speed course Local safety instructions for the relevant course should be reviewed by the students and the instructor. Shooting exercises from a car and through the front windscreen The instructor should study the instructions for the relevant firing range. Students should use shooting goggles, gloves and a mask/hood to protect themselves against glass splinters.

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Vehicles should usually remain stationary with the handbrake engaged and the engine switched off. Ensure that the weapon’s trajectory is higher than the vehicle’s armour plating because of the risk of a ricochet occurring (particularly important when using an optical sight in which the line of sight is somewhat higher).

5.24.3
5.24.3.1

Tactical driving exercises
Tactical driving Tactical driving, in this instance, refers to exercises or training in which focus is placed on combined tactical actions, e.g. front/rear blocking, two-car driving, positioning in connection with driving onto/off the road, for example, crossroads and roundabouts, loading drill, impact drill, etc. Military training zone The Road Traffic Act and local SO should be complied with. Exercises should be reviewed before being carried out. The instructor should set the rate of progress and pace. The instructor must notify of/mark roads upon which exercises are taking place that may obstruct other traffic. Drivers should pay particular attention to loading drills and impact drills. Drivers should ensure that the handbrake is engaged before evacuating the vehicle.

5.24.3.2

5.24.3.3

Outside military training zones The instructor should ensure that traffic regulations are observed. The civilian police should be notified of any ongoing activity. In the case of exercises that require the particular attention of the general public, vehicles should be marked as follows: ‘Forsvaret – øvelse pågår’ (Armed Forces – exercise in progress).

Chap-5

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6
6.1

EXERCISES AND OTHER DUTY
CONDUCT OF PERSONNEL ON THE GROUND WHEN TRACKED ARMOURED VEHICLES PARTICIPATE IN EXERCISES

Figure: 6.1 Winter duty

6.1.1
6.1.1.1 6.1.1.2

In general
The following regulations apply when tracked armoured vehicles participate in exercises in peacetime. The personnel on the ground must leave cover, pits, dugouts, etc. and identify themselves when such vehicles get closer than 50 metres. When personnel on the ground get closer than 50 metres from the vehicle, the vehicle commander is to observe from an open hatch. When training urban warfare (MOUT – Military Operations in Urban Terrain) where vehicles and personnel on foot interact special alertness must be shown. Sleeping underneath or closer than 20 metres behind or in front of tracked armoured vehicles is prohibited (sleeping on the rear of the vehicle is allowed).

6.1.1.3

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6.2

PERSONAL SAFETY IN THE USE OF MATERIEL THAT CONTAINS OR MAY CONTAIN RADIOACTIVE MATTER, OR WHICH EMITS RADIATION DURING USE

Figure: 6.2 Observation post during active service

6.2.1

General
Radiation is divided into ionising and non-ionising radiation. Ionising radiation covers radiation from radioactive matter, x-rays and corpuscular radiation. Non-ionising radiation covers optical radiation, radio frequency radiation, electric and magnetic fields and ultrasonic radiation. Radiation protection unit Individual DIFs (Norwegian Armed Forces management unit) should have a radiation protection unit. Radiation Protection Officers should be assigned clear responsibility and authority to safeguard the DIF’s statutory obligations in respect of radiation protection. The following personnel are responsible for safeguarding radiation protection in the Norwegian Armed Forces: Radiation Protection Supervisor This term should only be used in respect of the Norwegian Armed Forces' highest designated responsible officer for radiation protection within the NDLO (Norwegian Defence Logistics Organisation. Radiation Protection Officer This refers to a person responsible for the follow-up of radiation protection locally in

Chap-6

6.2.1.1

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the DIFs. There may be a requirement for several Radiation Protection Officers at each DIF. The responsibility and authority connected with the role should be clarified in writing for each individual party. If the designation is used without any addition, this will cover a higher level of responsibility for all radiation protection within the relevant unit/division. Radiation Protection Officer – Laser In English this is referred to as the Laser Safety Officer (LSO). The term is used in both STANAG 3606 and the European Laser Standard IEC 60825 -1, with which the Norwegian Armed Forces has a statutory obligation to comply. The Radiation Protection Officer – Laser is an officer whose responsibility is restricted to lasers. Radiation Protection Officer – Ionising radiation This Radiation Protection Officer has a responsibility that is restricted to ionising radiation (x-rays, radiological radiation, etc). Radiation Protection Officer – Radio frequency radiation This Radiation Protection Officer has a responsibility that is restricted to radiation from radar and communication equipment. This involves, among other things, checking to ensure that approved materiel configurations, in accordance with the provisions specified by the administration, are used in radio frequency radiation. Radiation Protection Officers at DIF or in DIF divisions should have an overview of all radiation sources within their respective areas of responsibility. Users should not utilise any other radiation source other than those that have been approved by the NDLO. Operators of materiel that emits radiation should utilise such materiel in accordance with the provisions specified by the NDLO. Operators of radiation sources should have received the required training in the application and use of the radiation source and should possess the necessary authorisation. The local Radiation Protection Supervisor should be immediately notified of any incidents and accidents that occur during use of a radiation source. Reporting should take place in accordance with item 1.1.6

6.2.2
6.2.2.1

Radiological sources
See item 6.5 Radiological sources and Appendix 11B Transport, handling and storage of radioactive sources.

6.2.3
6.2.3.1 6.2.3.2

X-radiation from non-medical radiation sources
Operators of x-ray sources should have received basic training in the safe handling of such sources and should be certified as operators. Operators of x-ray sources should be authorised in the use of these.

6.2.4

Radio frequency radiation from radar and aerials in the frequency range 10 KHz – 300 GHz
Radar materiel and certain types of communication materiel emit radio waves containing a high energy content. If these waves strike personnel they will cause the irradiated body tissue to warm up. Injuries may occur to parts of the body that have a

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6.2.4.1 6.2.4.2 6.2.4.3 6.2.4.4

poor capacity to conduct heat, especially the eyes and testicles. The extent of the injury is dependent upon the intensity and duration of the radiation. The likelihood of injury occurring diminishes as the distance from the radiation source increases but will increase with a prolonged period of radiation. The marginal values for the stipulation of danger zones are determined by the marginal values of the ICNIRP (International Commission on Non-Ionising Radiation Protection). A competent authority should convert these marginal values into a safety template for radio frequency radiation sources for the benefit of the user. Only electromagnetic radiation systems that comply with approved configurations stipulated by a competent authority may be used. The applicable safety template for the individual radio frequency radiation source should be followed. Hazardous zones should be marked in accordance with the requirements of the competent authority. All personnel have a duty to demonstrate extreme caution when dealing with materiel capable of emitting radio waves within this frequency range. Even if the specified safety zones are observed, injuries may occur. Injury to hereditary material may especially occur, even with an extremely low intensity, if irradiation is repeated regularly over a period of time.

6.2.5
6.2.5.1

Laser radiation
Risks Use of laser range finders and other laser-based equipment may result in eye injuries to personnel who are struck by a laser beam, either directly or via a reflection. Injuries may occur if the distance between the laser and the person is less than the laser’s safe working distance. With a sufficiently high level of intensity, a laser beam can also cause serious burns to personnel (skin, clothing), as well as fire damage to Chap-6 materiel. Exposure to ultraviolet laser radiation can result in sunburn or snow-blindness, while exposure to excessive doses of such radiation may increase the risk of cancer. Lasers in the visible range may also result in a risk of dazzling personnel performing critical functions, e.g. aircraft pilots, vehicle and crane drivers. Laser hazard classes In accordance with the international standard IEC 60825-1, lasers are classified in the following hazard classes, relative to the risks they represent: Class 1: Class 1M: Class 2: Lasers that do not represent any real risk of causing eye injuries. Lasers that are only hazardous if an individual looks directly at the beam through a magnifying lens. Lasers with a wavelength in the visible part of the spectrum, which will not cause injury providing the illuminated party shuts his/her eyes when he/she becomes aware of being illuminated (natural blink reflex). Lasers with a wavelength in the visible part of the

6.2.5.2

Class 2M:

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spectrum, which do not usually represent a hazard because of the eyes' natural blink reflex (cf. Class 2), but which can cause injury if an individual looks directly at the beam through a magnifying lens. Class 3R: Lasers that represent a potential, but low risk of causing eye injuries. This means that personnel would have to be extremely careless or unfortunate to receive a permanent eye injury. This class also includes some of the laser pointers that are used in connection with lectures, etc. Previous standards used hazard class 3A, which in most areas now corresponds to the new class 3R. Lasers that represent a gradually increasing risk, from low – for effects down towards the limit of Class 3R – to extremely high, for effects up towards the limit of Class 4. Lasers in this class will usually cause eye injuries if the individual receives the whole effect in his/her eyes and the extent of the injury will grow as the effect increases. Minor skin injuries may also occur. Lasers that represent an ongoing and extremely high risk of causing eye injuries. Such lasers may also cause eye injury if an individual is looking at a diffuse reflection from the point where the beam strikes. This may result in serious burns to the skin, clothing, etc.

Class 3B:

Class 4:

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Lasers that have not been classified in accordance with IEC 60825-1 are illegal, according to Norwegian law.

6.2.5.3

It is evident that only lasers in Class 1 may be used freely without any concern for a risk of injury. Use of all other types of laser presupposes knowledge of the hazards they represent and further assumes that personnel will implement the necessary measures to prevent any party from being illuminated in a manner that could result in injuries. This requires personnel to have a complete overview of areas in which hazards may exist (risk zone) and that personnel situated in the risk zone use approved protective equipment (e.g. protective goggles or protective filters on observation equipment). Safety distances and risk zones All lasers, with the exception of lasers in hazard class 1, can cause eye injuries to personnel located within a given safety distance. Equipment manuals often refer to the safe distance from the naked eye as the NOHD (nominal ocular hazard distance). If a laser beam is looked at through binoculars, the energy that strikes the eyes increases and the safe distance will, roughly speaking, increase proportionally to the size of the binoculars. Thus, the term EOHD (extended ocular hazard distance) is often used. The safe distance is determined by the laser’s characteristics, such as power output, pulse energy, pulse rate, wavelength and beam divergence (discharge

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angle). If several lasers are used simultaneously from the same platform, the safety distance could increase even more. A list of lasers used by the Norwegian Armed Forces, with specifications of hazard class and NOHD and EOHD values may be found in Appendix 13. NOHD and EOHD for individual lasers, specified in Appendix 13, should be complied with Objects in the target area that have reflective surfaces can result in the hazardous area expanding out of control insofar as the laser beams continue in directions other than intended. Examples of such surfaces could be window glass, vehicle driving mirrors and shiny metal components. Therefore, persons located in the hazardous area will generally not be sufficiently protected by merely turning their faces away or not looking at the laser. Such objects in the operating range should be removed, painted with matt paint or covered, before any laser is used. If this is not possible or desirable, each individual target should be closely observed so that reflective objects are not targeted. If reflective objects are targeted, the hazardous area must be expanded. To the extent that is practicable or necessary, reflective surfaces in training zones should be covered or removed prior to a laser being used The risk zone in an exercise is determined by the stipulated safety distances (NOHD, EOHD) and the directions (sectors) that the laser beams are permitted to point towards during the exercise. Consideration must also be given to the possibility that the laser beam may strike reflective surfaces in the target area (see above). It is imperative to safety that both laser operators and other involved personnel are familiar with the size of the risk zone. The risk zone’s boundary should be clearly marked 6.2.5.4 Eye protection Chap-6 If it is necessary for personnel to be located in a risk zone during an exercise, such personnel must be equipped with adequate eye protection. This could be special goggles with high optical attenuation of the relevant wavelengths or it may be attenuation filters that are fitted to observation equipment (binoculars, etc). A table showing the connection between optical attenuation and correction factors used to calculate adjusted safety distances may be found in Appendix 13. The Radiation Protection Officer – Laser is responsible for approving the use of goggles and optics in relation to the lasers and wavelengths being used. Under no circumstances do operators have the authority to determine which goggles should be used during a laser exercise in which personnel are located in an irradiated area. Protection to skin and clothing When Class 4 lasers are being used, attention should be paid to the risk of burns to the skin and the combustion of clothing or other articles. In the case of lasers with a wavelength in the ultraviolet range (less than 400 nm), it may be necessary to protect the skin in order to avoid ‘sunburn’, as well as an increased risk of skin cancer.

6.2.5.5

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6.2.5.6

6.2.5.7

Training grounds and approval Laser should be primarily used at an approved location. Approval for the use of a laser in exercises outside of approved firing ranges will be given by a Radiation Protection Officer who possesses DIF approval. Indoor use of a laser The responsible instructor or user should ensure that laser use takes place in a safe manner that does not result in third-party risk. Safety measures should be in accordance with the laser class and should be approved by a person with competence within laser safety. Presentations Authorised laser pointers used in connection with indoor presentations (e.g. PowerPoint) should be of laser hazard classes 1, 2 or 3R. Marking Permanent training grounds should be marked with warning signs. In the case of arbitrary use of training grounds, the exercise leader should assess, in consultation with the local Radiation Protection Officer or Laser Safety Officer, the requirement for and extent of markings, as well as the requirement to establish sentry posts. The risk zone’s boundary should be clearly marked and all personnel involved should be provided with information about this. The Norwegian Defence Estates Agency is responsible for the appropriate marking of established firing ranges. Additional measures When using lasers with a wavelength within the visible spectrum, an assessment of risk should be carried out in respect of dazzling drivers, aircraft and marine pilots and other personnel who are critically dependant upon their eyesight in order to perform their duties, and the identified safety measures should be implemented. Direct illumination by laser of sensitive optical and infrared detection equipment such as a TV camera or light amplifier, should be avoided. During use, it should be noted that a laser may also cause eye injuries to animals. Accident procedures If there are grounds to suspect that an individual has received an excessive dose of laser light to the eyes, the person concerned should be taken immediately to a doctor. In addition, the local Radiation Protection Officer or Laser Safety Officer should be notified at once of what has occurred. Supervision and inspection personnel Line duties The responsibility for safety in respect of the use of lasers is assigned to the following personnel: Exercise leader Safety Officer Safety commander (when measuring from several stands simultaneously) Laser system operator

6.2.5.8

6.2.5.9

6.2.5.10

6.2.5.11

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Exercise leader A responsible exercise leader should be present at all times. In addition to the duties specified in 1.1.5.2 when laser equipment is being used, the exercise leader should ensure that: safety instructions for the use of laser light during training have been prepared safety instructions are complied with If the exercise leader does not possess the required authorisation to prepare safety instructions, he/she should delegate this task to an authorised adviser. The Radiation Protection Officer may carry out this task if he/she has received the required training or the task may be also be carried out by the Radiation Protection Officer – Laser. Safety officer (refer to item 1.1.5.4) A safety officer should be assigned if the exercise leader is unable to participate in the exercise. The safety officer may simultaneously take charge of another exercise in which radiation sources are being used as a tool. The safety officer will take over the duties of the exercise leader, in respect of the use of radiation sources at stands, in accordance with the provisions of the exercise leader. The safety officer should ascertain that safety measures specified in the training order have been implemented. Safety commander (refer to item 1.1.5.4) If radiation sources are being used simultaneously at several stands in such a way that the exercise leader/safety officer is unable to maintain a safe level of control, a safety commander should be assigned. The safety commander should coordinate safety and notify personnel located within hazardous areas in which radiation sources are being used. Laser system operator A laser system operator should: have undertaken training within laser safety in accordance with item 6.2.5.13 be an authorised user of the relevant laser system be familiar with safety instructions in respect of laser use during an exercise prior to use, ensure that optical equipment is not visibly damaged ensure that the laser is always directed towards the operating range when the power source is connected, or directed towards the ground when it is not appropriate for it to be directed towards the target area observe the target through the laser’s sighting tools before activating the laser never activate the laser before the required warning has been issued to all personnel involved in the exercise never point the beam towards any personnel located in the risk zone if there is uncertainty as to whether such personnel are using mandatory eye protection during mandatory use of a laser in exercise mode, ensure that the laser has been activated

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6.2.5.12

Safety instructions During training-based use of a laser, the exercise leader should ensure that safety instructions have been prepared that have been incorporated in training orders or standing orders, cf. item 6.2.5.11. All involved personnel should be familiarised with the instructions and the instructions should contain the following information: Requirements for training of laser operators and other involved parties Types of laser systems being used and their hazard classes NOHD and any EOHD for the individual systems Authorised observation systems (binoculars, etc) Specification of risk zones Requirements for marking of risk zones Requirements for protective equipment (goggles, filters, etc) if personnel are to be located within the risk zone, and verification of same How laser systems should be used (e.g. where it is permitted to direct the beam, whether the exercise mode should be used, etc) How reflective objects should be handled (covering, etc) Warning procedures (how all involved personnel should be warned prior to laser activation and how such personnel should be notified that lasers are no longer in use, or permitted to be used) Access control (how unauthorised personnel and personnel not in possession of approved protection are prevented entering the risk zone)

6.2.5.13

Training The Norwegian Armed Forces Logistics Competence Centre at the Norwegian Armed Forces Logistics College (FKL FLS) is responsible for all laser safety training of operative users in the Norwegian Armed Forces. Course for Radiation Protection Officers – Laser. The Radiation Protection Supervisor at the NDLO System Control division is responsible for the training of Radiation Protection Officers – Laser. Course in laser safety for chief instructors. FKL FLS trains and approves chief instructors – Laser for the relevant divisions, according to requirements. Basic course in laser safety for laser operators. Approved chief instructors – Laser are responsible for the training of laser operators in their own division in accordance with the recommendations made by FKL FLS. Authorisation course for laser systems. Individual divisions are responsible for ensuring that the required materiel-specific training of laser operators, with focus on the appropriate use and handling of the relevant laser materiel, is undertaken before authorisation of the laser operator is issued. Laser materiel should not be used by personnel who have not received the required training within laser safety and who are not authorised to use laser materiel

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6.2.6
6.2.6.1

FIBRE
General Certain precautions should be taken when working with optical fibre cable. Work can be divided into two phases: 1. Connection phase: in which the fibre is laid and then made ready for use by connecting each end. This should be undertaken by trained personnel who are knowledgeable about how fibres should be handled, as well as how tools should be operated. There are several reasons for this. Equipment is expensive and may be destroyed through improper use. An example of this is the Kevlar fibre cap. The actual fibre is made of glass. If a tip of this glass is broken off and cannot be located, caution should be exercised. A small piece of glass of this nature may, in certain cases, penetrate the skin and end up in the bloodstream. This also sets requirements for how floor and table surfaces should be cleared after fibre work has been carried out. 2. Utilisation phase: after the cable has been made operable and the equipment connected, personnel should avoid looking directly into the fibre. In most cases the light emitted by the fibre is infrared and therefore not visible to the naked eye. Even though no light is visible, the radiant effect can be so severe that serious eye injury may occur if personnel look directly into the fibre. Fault localisation in fibres must ONLY be undertaken with a flashlight or with suitable optic fibre illumination equipment.

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6.3

RB 70 GUIDED MISSILE SYSTEM

Figure: 6.3 Sight for RB 70

6.3.1
6.3.1.1

General
These provisions apply to the launching unit. The missile is guided by a laser beam that is transmitted from the sight towards the target. Laser light is harmful to the eyes in the respect of both direct illumination and reflection. In order to transmit laser light, the laser diodes must be cooled. This is achieved with an R 22 cooling agent (Difluorochloromethane CHF 2 C1).

6.3.2
6.3.2.1

Laser filters
In all exercises, with the exception of live exercises, a laser filter should be affixed to the sight. The filter reduces the laser light by almost 100%.

6.3.3
6.3.3.1

Hazardous areas without laser filters
Hazardous areas for laser light cover (fig. 85): a. a. Distance of 0-10 m: a cylinder with its axis in the line of sight and a radius of 10 m. b. b. Distance of 10-140 m: a shortened cone with its axis in the line of sight and a semi-vertical angle of 40 degrees.

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10 m 40 o 40 o

10 m 140 m

Figure: 6.4 Figure 85 – Hazardous zone for laser light

6.4
6.4.1
6.4.1.1

USE OF SIMULATORS FROM SAAB TRAINING SYSTEMS
General
Simulator materiel belonging to the Combat Training Centre/HTTS has been procured in order to provide training for individuals and divisions in battle tactics. The simulator materiel simulates firing by utilising laser light and radio signals. The consequences for persons or objects that have been struck by laser light, or have received a radio message giving notice of detonations from heavy weapons in the Chap-6 vicinity, will be communicated to individual parties via loudspeakers and/or in the display panels of associated equipment. All lasers being utilised are safe to the eyes (Class 1). Safety provisions for the use of standard blank ammunition apply. Ear protection should be worn when using pyrotechnics in anti-tank weapon simulators, main artillery tanks and signal pens, and explosion marks. Ear protection should also be worn when the sector charges simulator is fired (high sound level in the loudspeakers marks the discharge). In respect of the hazardous distance to be maintained from pyrotechnic ammunition that simulates the report/flash/smoke from the individual simulator, the safety provisions are the same as wartime provisions for the individual weapons that the simulators replace. Exceptions to this are listed below together with safety provisions for other types of marking ammunition. A pyrotechnic holder, indicating that a vehicle has been hit (Target Effect Signature Simulator – TESS) is mounted on all armoured vehicles. The pyrotechnic (red smoke) is automatically released when a vehicle has been hit. After delivery, all pyrotechnic ammunition should be stored in separate cases when it is not loaded in the simulators.

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Detailed descriptions of individual simulators, and what must be taken into account by users, are contained in the instructor manuals and user manuals (folders) that are available via the Norwegian Armed Forces intranet.

6.4.2
6.4.2.1

User requirements
The supply and use of simulator material requires training by an approved (certified) instructor. Instructor courses/certification are carried out under the direction of the Combat Training Centre.

6.4.3
6.4.3.1

Specific provisions
Simulator for protective mask filter The simulator does NOT provide protection from smoke/gas

ERYX weapon simulator Hazardous area to the rear of the simulator (when pyrotechnics are being used): distance 5 m, angle 60 degrees TOW weapon simulator Hazardous area to the rear of the simulator (when pyrotechnics are being used): distance 5 m, angle 60 degrees

TESS on armoured vehic- Hazardous area surrounding the holder: distance 0.5 les m (vertically and horizontally) Launching unit for explo- Hazardous area surrounding the holder: distance 0.5 sion marks m (vertically and horizontally) Hand-held explosion marks Signal pen, explosion marks Turn away from the body during use. The aluminium tubing can be extremely hot (burn injuries/fire hazard) Turn away from the body during use. Ensure that no obstacles are in the trajectory of the charge being fired.

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6.5

CBRN TRAINING, EXERCISES AND OPERATIONS

Figure: 6.5 Chemical search with CAM (Chemical Agent Monitor)

6.5.1
6.5.1.1

Chemicals
Exercises with simulants, chemical combat agents The simulants SIFON, SIFOS and SIFOX are being phased out of the Norwegian Armed Forces but will continue to be used until stocks have run out. More environmentally-friendly simulants have been introduced to replace SIFO Chap-6 simulants. These are C-yellow (non-persistent nerve agent) and C-green (persistent nerve agent). C-red (mustard agent) is classified as hazardous to health and environmentally dangerous, Class 9 hazardous goods with hazard number 90 and UN number 3082. Exercises with these simulants should take place under the direction of an officer who has met the competence requirements specified in the Norwegian Armed Forces provisions for CBRN defence training. Safety inspection of protective masks Prior to exercises with CS, personnel should have carried out an inspection of protective masks to ensure that they are sealed properly In respect of officers in charge of safety controls of protective masks, as well as training in eating and drinking in contaminated zones, it is sufficient that such training is provided during basic officer training When checking that protective mask are sealed, the following concentration calculations should be used: o Coarse control (low concentration): room volume (m3) / 30. Whole tablets are always used and rounded down to the nearest whole tablet

6.5.1.2

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(minimum 1 tablet) Fine control (high concentration): room volume (m3) / 4. In this case, the tablet should be rounded up to the nearest whole tablet

Protective mask inspection may be combined with a customisation exercise (‘sniff test’) in which soldiers may experience the effects of CS without a protective mask for a maximum of 10 seconds, as well as eating and drinking in a contaminated area. The concentration should be the same as for coarse control (low concentration) and should not exceed 5 mg/m3 All personnel should wear personal safety clothing when carrying out a mask safety inspection. Ref. UD 4-3-11, appendix 1 for implementation The authorised exercise leader should ensure that civilian traffic is prevented from entering an area in which a safety inspection is being carried out CS grenades should NOT be used in a closed room when carrying out a safety inspection of protective masks Personnel who feel unwell or who possess a protective mask that is not adequately sealed must immediately leave the room/tent in which the adjustments are being carried out. Further adaptation and adjustment should take place in fresh air before any new safety inspection is undertaken When a safety inspection is being carried out with CS gas, at least 2 instructors should be present, one located inside the room/tent and one located outside If the safety inspection is being carried out at a permanent installation such as a gas shed or similar, a poster, or similar type of information indicating the concentration calculations, as well as the concentrations applicable to the specific room, should be present At locations where safety inspection of protective masks is being carried out, visible information should be posted that contains the following text:

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In the case of low concentrations, the following activities may be carried out: sniff test eating and drinking filter cartridge exchange personal washing other tasks that personnel wish to practice in a contaminated zone, e.g.: communication, weapon cleaning, repairs, maintenance ensure that the mask is sealed before using a high concentration

In the case of high concentrations, activity is restricted to: ensuring that masks are sealed This should be undertaken while wearing a safety mask and any protective clothing by performing the following exercises:

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6.5.1.3

10 knee bends, press-ups, counter-movement jumps and back stretches

Use of CS during training and exercises Use of CS must not take place: closer than 800 m in a downwind direction to civilian buildings or locations at which civilians usually assemble closer than 500 m in a downwind direction to aircraft or helicopter landing grounds when flight operations are in progress closer than 500 m from operational facilities at air control radar and radio stations in closed rooms, tents or vehicles (with the exception of safety control) when CS grenades are being used, the reciprocal distance should be at least 20 m, positioned crosswise to the wind direction. Wind direction may be verified with an ordinary smoke canister

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During exercises in which CS is being used, the responsible exercise leader should ensure that participating personnel are: fully briefed that CS may be used aware of the effects of CS and the measures to be implemented if extreme discomfort should occur trained in the use of a protective mask that has been adjusted and inspected equipped with a protective mask that is being carried in the standby position

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Before the exercise, each individual should check that the mask is undamaged Chap-6 and working properly by holding the mask filter’s inhalation opening and breathing in (the mask should adhere itself to the face without air filtering in). Filter cartridges should be checked and any cartridges displaying significant breathing resistance should be replaced The responsible exercise leader should ensure that civilian traffic is prevented from entering a contaminated zone, as well as checking that drivers of military vehicles are wearing protective masks before passing through the zone, and that the vehicle's speed is reduced sufficiently to ensure safe transit Personnel displaying strong signs of discomfort must be helped out of the contaminated zone as soon as possible and prevented from removing the protective mask before an uncontaminated zone has been reached. Personnel who have heavy colds, asthma, bronchial disorders, are pregnant, or who display diminished well-being, should not be exposed to CS during field exercises During exercises in darkness in which CS is being used, or when using CS grenades as booby traps, or in connection with demolition exercises, the responsible exercise leader/instructor should particularly ensure that the above-mentioned safety regulations are complied with. CS should not be used

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if exercise conditions are unsuitable 6.5.1.4 Use of Simultitox training kit Simultitox is being phased out of the Norwegian Armed Forces. The system will be used until there is no further ammunition The safety distance for operators is, respectively, 8 metres to the rear of the system and 15 metres to the side The safety distance for other personnel is the same as for the operator and personnel are not permitted to locate themselves in front of the system during loading and firing The system should be securely fastened to the ground with the 6 accompanying steel pins The system may be used while rigidly mounted to a ¼ ton army trailer with fasteners. Due to the trajectory of the plastic bullet and the height of the detonation, the system should be placed horizontally Personnel in the line of fire should be protected by splinter-proof cover or be adequately protected in some other way against plastic splinters that can range in size from 1-50 square centimetres Plastic bullets for loading into a Simultitox training kit should be classified as ammunition

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6.5.2
6.5.2.1

Radiological
During peacetime, the Norwegian Armed Forces is subject to national laws and provisions relating to exposure to ionising radiation. Moreover, Norwegian Armed Forces personnel are subject to the same provisions as the rest of the population and should not be exposed to more than 1mSv per year beyond normal background radiation. When handling radioactive sources, materiel containing radioactive sources or materiel that can produce radioactive emissions, the Norwegian Armed Forces should abide by national provisions and regulations, together with the materiel’s separate user guide and safety provisions. Further reference may be made to: ‘Regulations on radiation protection and use of radiation (radiation regulations)’ ‘Provisions for the protection of personnel against ionising radiation’ ‘Provisions for use of the Norwegian Armed Forces dose metering system for ionising radiation’ ‘UD 2-1, Appendix 11B: Transport, handling and storage of radioactive sources’

6.5.3
6.5.3.1

Toxic industrial materials
Statutory civilian law and civilian provisions apply in respect of approval for Norwegian Armed Forces personnel assigned to operate in an environment that has

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been contaminated by toxic industrial materials. Civilian requirements should be complied with in relation to measures and routines for the maintenance and inspection of every type of materiel.

6.5.4
6.5.4.1

Live Agent Training
Practice and training with genuine chemical combat agents and radiological sources is restricted to Norwegian Armed Forces CBRN specialists. The Norwegian Armed Forces does not have stocks of such agents and must therefore enter into the necessary agreement, in each individual case, with training zones located abroad. For exercises involving the use of genuine chemical combat agents, personnel should carry out a safety control of their personal protective masks (independently of the annual inspection). Safety clothing designated for exercises should NOT be used during Live Agent Training. Blood tests and corresponding analyses should be carried out on personnel before and after such exercises and training, in order to verify whether any personnel have been exposed to a combat agent. Materiel to be used for search and detection, for example, should be in a reasonable condition. The Norwegian Armed Forces ABC School (FABCS) should be consulted prior to the implementation of Live Agent Training.

6.5.5
6.5.5.1

Routines and procedures for the transportation of sample materials for analysis and verification
Reference should be made to: ‘Directive for the protection of personnel against ABC threats and threats classified as Release(s) other than Attack (ROTA) during international operations'.

6.6
6.6.1
6.6.1.1

DISINFECTION OF DRINKING WATER IN THE FIELD
General
Military personnel in the field should be supplied with drinking water of good hygienic quality. Drinking water in the field should be approved by a veterinary, where practicable. When approved bottled water is not being used, drinking water should be disinfected with a chlorine preparation approved by the Norwegian Defence Medical Service. The chlorine additive destroys pathogenic microbes that are found in water sources and ensures that the quality of the water will not deteriorate during storage in a sealed container. Bottled water will last for one day after it has been opened. This may be extended by adding chlorine. During peacetime, drinking water should be disinfected with chlorine so that after 30 minutes the water has a free chlorine content that is at least 0.5 mg per litre. During international operations/crises/war, drinking water should contain 1 mg of free chlorine per litre after 30 minutes of disinfection.

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When conditions require personnel to be supplied with water from a natural source, which has not been approved by a veterinary, the drinking water should be boiled for at least 10 minutes and/or filtered through an MSR water purifier and then disinfected in a canteen/camelback. To disinfect water in a canteen/camelback, 1 chlorine tablet should be added to 1 litre of water. After 30 minutes the water is ready for use. If the water is muddy or yellowish brown in colour, 2 disinfection tablets per litre should be used. After use, canteens/camelbacks should be rinsed with chlorinated water and placed so that the interior will dry completely. ‘Water disinfection tablets, single-use, chlorine tablets’ foil packs of 10 (6850-25-148-8052) may be requisitioned from the NDLO. Chlorine measuring may be carried out by a veterinary or a water purifying team.

6.7

CLOSE COMBAT

Figure: 6.6 Soldier prepared for training in close combat

6.7.1
6.7.1.1

General
Instruction and training in close combat should be carried out by a qualified instructor who has undertaken and passed Level 1, Level 2 or Level 3 of the Instructor’s Close Combat Course after 2006, under the direction of a competent authority, or a separate instructor’s course from the Army War College after 2001. In accordance with new provisions, previous courses undertaken at BS, KS, or

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separate instructor’s courses undertaken before 2001 do not give authorisation to provide instruction in military close combat. Regular serving military personnel who have undertaken a close combat course prior to 2001 may be used as assistant instructors, under the direction of a qualified instructor. Civilian instructors who have undertaken civilian courses and who possess civilian grades or certifications do not have the authority to provide instruction in military close combat. Close combat instructor – Level 1: The instructor may independently provide education, training and practice in his/her own division within the limits of the company. Level 1 approval will be given after the Close Combat Instructor’s Course – Level 1 has been completed and passed under the direction of a competent authority. The instructor should have attained a satisfactory level of knowledge, proficiency and conduct in order to independently provide education, training and practice in his/her own division within the limits of the company. Close combat instructor – Level 2: The instructor may independently provide education, training and practice in his/her own division within the limits of the company, as well as approving new instructors for Level 1 under the direction of a competent authority. Level 2 approval will be given after the Close Combat Instructor’s Course – Level 1 and Level 2 has been completed and passed under the direction of a competent authority, as well as a minimum of two years’ working as a Level 1 instructor within the instructor’s own division. The instructor should have attained a satisfactory level of knowledge, proficiency Chap-6 and conduct in order to independently provide education, training and practice in his/her own division within the limits of the company, as well as the authority to certify new instructors to Level 1. Close combat instructor – Level 3: Level 3 approval will be given after the Close Combat Instructor’s Course – Level 1 and Level 2 has been completed and passed, as well as a total minimum of 5 years working as an instructor at Level 1 and 2. Level 3 approval will be given upon separate application and according to requirements. The instructor should undertake training, certification and approval of new instructors to Level 1 and 2, together with development of the principles and tactics of combat technique, development of the rules of combat, professional feedback and advice.

6.7.2
6.7.2.1

Weapon combat
It is not permitted to practice close combat blocking and impact techniques with weapons as this may result in injury to personnel or damage to weapons. Dummy weapons should be used for training in blocking and impact techniques with weapons.

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Sharp weapons may be used for sparring when an opponent possesses an impact weapon that does not damage the sharp weapon, for example, light training batons or light wooden canes. During combined SIBO and close combat training and exercises, sharp weapons may be used. In this respect, combatants should switch to dummy weapons if weapons are to be used for blocking and impact techniques at some point. Safety provisions for SIBO and Simunition must be viewed from the perspective of the safety provisions for close combat during training and practice in which these combat techniques and ammunition are being used. When there is a requirement to practice techniques in which the head and throat are the targets, a weapon may be used against an opponent who is not using protective gear, providing the weapon does not come into direct contact with the opponent. The techniques aim to achieve correct implementation but the distance is regulated in order to avoid bodily contact. Close combat with dummy weapons should be adapted to the appropriate level of proficiency, as well as available protective gear. It is not permitted to use dummy bayonets in close combat. ‘Dummy bayonets’ refer to bayonets without sheaths. During training in attack and defence against pointed weapons such as bayonets, knives, sharp objects, etc, dummy rubber knives or thick felt pens with blunt tips (Penol 100 or similar) should be used as offensive weapons. Protective goggles (combat goggles or similar) and mouth guards should be worn. The upper body, arms and legs should be the primary targets of offensive bayonet and knife techniques. Offensive bayonet and knife techniques should not be used towards the head, throat and neck. If it is necessary to practice offensive bayonet and knife techniques with the head, throat and neck as targets, such training should be carried out with the close combat dummy ‘Poor Bob’, or similar.

6.7.3
6.7.3.1

Unarmed combat
Falling, throwing and tripping techniques should be practiced without a helmet, with a thorough warm-up, and at an appropriate level of progression, because of the risk of neck injury. Helmets may be used in accordance with the instructor’s assessment of the level of proficiency, but not before more advanced techniques have been mastered. Sparring with blows, kicks and impact techniques may be practiced without protective gear if the intensity level is low and is focused on technical performance. Mouth guards should be used. High intensity sparring and vigorous techniques should only be practiced with personnel who have reached an advanced and experienced level. It is the responsibility of the instructor to assess whether an individual is qualified for this. With high intensity sparring and vigorous techniques, the whole body may be used as a target. All strikes, kicks and blows to the head and neck should be controlled and primarily used to indicate that an opponent’s guard is deficient. In this respect, protective gear should be used comprising, as a minimum, boxing helmet, gloves,

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jockstrap and pads. The degree of intensity should be adapted to the level of proficiency.

6.7.4
6.7.4.1

Close combat shooting
When carrying out a combination of close combat and shooting exercises with live ammunition, it is the duty of the exercise leader to have familiarised him/herself with the safety regulations for the relevant firearms and ammunition types. The exercise leader is responsible for instructing the firing commander in respect of the number of safety controllers required to ensure that exercises may be carried out with a reasonable degree of safety. The training ground with stands should be divided into clearly marked zones, e.g. Zone 1 – shooting, Zone 2 – close combat, Zone 3 – running. Semi-loaded weapons are permitted. It is also permitted to carry live ammunition magazines in a GRU/combat vest. Safety controllers should particularly ensure that weapons are not loaded until gunners are in position and have received the command to ‘FIRE’ from the firing range commander.

6.7.5
6.7.5.1 6.7.5.2

Exercise leader’s (instructor’s) duties
The exercise leader has a duty to familiarise him/herself with safety regulations for individual exercises. He/she is also responsible for ensuring that participating personnel are briefed about safety provisions. Before exercises are performed vigorously and at a high pace, the exercise leader should ensure that all participants have received detailed instruction and practice in individual strikes, kicks, holds and weapon techniques. The exercise leader should point out which actions should be performed with caution. In the case of exercises in which interaction with opponents is required, similar provisions apply to the opponent’s conduct. During such exercises, collaboration should be emphasised. A separate plan for mock victim interplay should be prepared for all bilateral close Chap-6 combat courses and exercises. The exercise leader should select stands for these exercises with a view to achieving a good overview so that injuries from falling, etc, may be avoided. Close combat training aims to develop the individual’s capacity for controlled aggression. Participants unable to control their aggression will be ordered to withdraw The exercise leader should ensure that suitable protective gear is available and in an approved condition before all training and practice commences. Suitable protective gear should be used when high intensity training and practice is being undertaken. Mouth guards should always be used during close combat activity, regardless of the degree of intensity and proficiency level. Close combat is permitted during bilateral field duty exercises if this is a part of the exercise programme and is under the direction of a qualified close combat instructor. During bilateral close combat training, mock victims should have attained, as far as is practicable, a satisfactory and similar degree of physical fitness to the combatants. In the case of physically demanding positions, mock victims should be able to double up and rotate at frequent intervals.

6.7.5.3 6.7.5.4 6.7.5.5

6.7.5.6

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6.7.5.7

During bilateral close combat training, the first pupil chosen to carry out a close combat element should be the pupil who is assumed to be the most proficient of all the participating combatants. This will provide the instructor with a starting point upon which to modify the close combat training’s technical content, progression and level of intensity. Stretchers, blankets, medical bag no. 1 or larger, ice bags, tape, as well as a medical vehicle, should be in place during close combat training.

6.8

URBAN WARFARE TRAINING (SIBO)

Figure: 6.7 Combat training in a urban area

6.8.1
6.8.1.1

General
During bilateral exercises in buildings in which blank ammunition is being used, protective goggles or protective masks should be worn. Helmets should be worn in exercises that involve entering and clearing buildings. When using the DM 78 practice hand grenade, FlashBang and drill hand grenade, extreme care should be exercised to prevent personnel from becoming injured as a result of being struck by grenades. When using FlashBang, under no circumstances should mock victims be lying down. Refer to item 3.8.9 During exercises in ascending/descending from the 3rd floor or higher, or at heights above five metres, personnel should be secured from above. Fastenings for rope anchors during ascent/descent should be approved by the exercise leader or qualified

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personell approved by the exercise leader. When using a building for ascending/descending exercises, the ground surrounding the house should be made of a shock-absorbing material such as sand, rubber, bark or grass. Improvised ladders, or similar aids, should be approved by the exercise leader or qualified personell approved by the exercise leader. Stretchers, blankets, medical bag no. 1 and a medical vehicle should be in place during exercises. SIBO installations should have their own safety instructions. The following regulations apply during co-training of foot and armoured vehicle personnel: All personnel in vehicles and on the ground must take exceptional care to avoid accidents Dead zones to the side and rear of vehicles should be particularly avoided. The distance from a vehicle to a fixed object may be a minimum of 5 metres providing eye contact is established between personnel on the ground and the vehicle’s crew (ref. Leopard 2 drill book, p.11). If eye contact is not established, the minimum distance should be 10 metres The vehicle must not turn or drive forwards or backwards without the driver, tank commander or any rear observer (applies to tracked armoured vehicles) having ascertained that this is possible (e.g. avoid the risk of personnel located between the vehicle and buildings becoming trapped) During SIBO training, an exception is made to item 5.13.1.3, insofar as the rear door should remain closed during vehicle movement. However, personnel should not enter or leave the vehicle while it is in motion.

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3 "Firing of all weapons" Item 3.4.4 Regulations for use of blank ammunition in weapons up to and including 12.7 mm. Item 3.8.6.1Hazardous area during use of hand grenades. Item 3.5.4 Warning flare 5 "Driving and transpor- Item 5.11.1.3 Movement with armoured vehicles. tation services" Item 5.11.2 Movement with CV9030N/F1

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6.9

MOUNTAIN CLIMBING AND PASSAGE ACROSS DIFFICULT TERRAIN

Figure: 6.8 Rappelling down a precipice

6.9.1
6.9.1.1

General
The following provisions apply to exercises in mountainous and difficult terrain in which there is a risk of rockfalls and landslides, or in which special materiel is required in order to gain passage. The provisions also apply to climbing in snow and ice-covered mountainous terrain, as well as passage across glaciers. Respective division commanders will determine, in accordance with the foregoing definition, when the following provisions should be applied. Exercises of this nature should be led by a qualified officer. In this respect, it is understood that ‘qualified’ means the relevant officer has undergone a mountaineering course or has received similar specialised training, and, moreover, the relevant division commander regards the officer as being qualified to take command of such exercises.

6.9.1.2

6.9.2
6.9.2.1

The exercise leader’s duties
The exercise leader should have familiarised him/herself with the applicable safety regulations for mountain climbing exercises and is responsible for ensuring that participating personnel are also familiar with safety regulations. Personnel should be briefed about rockfalls and landslides so that unnecessary triggering can be avoided and, moreover, be briefed about the appropriate actions to be taken if a difficult situation should arise. The exercise leader is also responsible for ensuring that climbing exercises do not commence before all participants have been provided with instruction in mountain climbing techniques. The exercise leader is responsible for the following safety measures: inspection of ropes and other climbing equipment prior to use

6.9.2.2

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6.9.2.3

ensuring that the required first aid equipment is available ensuring that measures are in place for any necessary evacuation of injured personnel ensuring that the following provisions for undertaking mountain climbing are observed

Mountain climbing exercises and passage across difficult terrain should be thoroughly prepared and reconnoitred.

6.9.3
6.9.3.1 6.9.3.2

Implementation
During mountain climbing exercises, the minimum number of persons working together should be two. The following separate provisions should be observed during climbing exercises: during traversing or zigzagging with fixed ropes, personnel should be secured by a carabiner attached to the rope if the terrain is steep and there is a significant drop beneath the rope during zip lining or climbing with one or more ropes across a ravine or waterway, an extra safety rope should be used when zip lining across a ravine or waterway, as well as rope descent, refer to items 6.9.4 to item 6.9.6 .

6.9.3.3

6.9.3.4 6.9.3.5

During passage across a glacier, ropes and ice-axes should be used to secure personnel. All personnel should use crampons. If possible, a mountain guide or local expert should be used as a guide. Information from a local expert should always be obtained before undertaking any passage across a glacier. Suitable footwear and approved helmets should be used for mountain climbing exercises, as well as ropes of the appropriate type and dimension. Chap-6 During exercises of this nature, which are not undertaken in connection with a garrison, at least one emergency ration per participant should always be carried, as well as any other equipment that will prepare personnel for a stay in the mountains.

6.9.4
6.9.4.1 6.9.4.2

Zip lining across ravines
The height from the zip line to the base of the ravine should not be higher than is necessary to carry out the exercise efficiently. Prior to commencing the exercise, the exercise leader should: check that ropes and all other materiel being used in the exercise are in a reasonable condition check that the zip line is tightly stretched and securely fastened – ensure that the stretcher is securely fastened to the zip line check that hauling ropes are securely fastened check that suspension ropes (stretcher straps) are securely fastened to the stretcher’s legs, as well as ascertaining that the knots in the stretcher’s legs are tight if pitons are being used, check that the pitons are securely lashed through the

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stretcher’s legs 6.9.4.3 For each zip lining exercise, the exercise leader should: check zip line fastenings and fasten again, if necessary check that suspension ropes (stretcher straps) are securely fastened to the stretchers

If pitons are being used, the fastenings for these through the stretcher’s legs should be checked. If wooden pitons are being used, check and change, if necessary (use hard, dry wood).

6.9.5
6.9.5.1 6.9.5.2

Zip lining across waterways
Inspection of materiel before and during exercises should take place in accordance with items 6.9.4.2 and 6.9.4.3. Before the exercise commences, the exercise leader should additionally ensure that: a rescue boat or raft is in place at the zip lining location, manned for rowing or poling. The boat (raft) should be tied to land about 10 m below the zip lining location. During zip lining above stagnant water (small ponds or similar) the boat (raft) should be tied to land at the zip lining location. The crew of the boat (raft) should comprise at least one competent swimmer, while the rest of the crew should be capable of swimming. The crew of the boat (raft) should be clad according to the time of year but should, however, be ready to jump into the water at short notice. In addition, the boat (raft) should contain two life jackets (life belts), two 15 m lines and one boat hook A swimming station comprising a minimum of two competent swimmers should be situated on the opposite bank to where the boat (raft) is located A lifeline should be suspended downstream across the river. During zip lining above stagnant water (small ponds or similar), the lifeline should be placed directly beneath the zip line One lifeline should be secured to the waist of the soldier undertaking the zip lining exercise. One station on land should let out the line as the soldier is zip lining and should be ready to haul the soldier if he/she falls into the water

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6.9.6
6.9.6.1 6.9.6.2

Rope descent
Rope descent should not take place on cliffs that are more than 10 m high. All personnel participating in the exercise should wear helmets. Before the exercise commences, the exercise leader should: check that all ropes and other materiel being used in the exercise are in a reasonable condition ensure that knots and hitches fastening the safety rope to the stretcher are properly secured ensure that knots and hitches fastening the descent rope to the stretcher, as well as the Constalita (jury) knot, are properly secured ensure that spectators (military and civilian) remain at a safe distance (rope cordon or sentry to be established)

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ensure that soldiers guide the descent rope and safety rope in the manner specified in the instructions. An experienced officer should particularly ensure that this takes place during the whole exercise and offer assistance, if necessary ascertain that the soldier directing the rope descent understands the orders being issued ensure that a stretcher team with first aid equipment is positioned beneath the location where the stretcher descent is being carried out ensure that all personnel are wearing helmets ensure that the rope anchors are satisfactorily secured

6.9.6.3

Rope descent should be carried out in the following way: a strong rope is tied to an army stretcher a safety rope is tied to the stretcher in the same way as the descent rope (without a Constalita (jury) knot) the soldier being transported with the stretcher, sits in the Constalita (jury) knot the descent rope (which is tied to the stretcher) and the safety rope are wrapped around each of the solid rope anchors (wood, piton, etc) at a certain distance from the cliff the first member of the stretcher team (or the team leader) should remain at the edge in order to direct the activity. The first member is secured with his/her own rope. This is belayed to a different rope anchor than that to which the descent rope and safety rope for the stretcher/third member have been belayed. The first member of the stretcher team is secured in a fireman’s chair Chap-6 and belayed with a fixed knot/hitch. The third member of the stretcher party accompanies the stretcher. The other members of the stretcher team take hold of the descent rope and safety rope and release them on the command of the first member (cf. UD 4-5).

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Figure: 6.9 Figure 93 – Special knot used in rope descent

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6.10

SAFETY REGULATIONS WHEN SETTING DOWN FROM A HELICOPTER VIA RAPPEL, FAST ROPE, SPIE PICKUP AND HELOCAST

Figure: 6.10 Training with a fast rope

6.10.1
6.10.1.1

General responsibility
Responsibility for implementation lies with the helicopter coordinator (HLCO) who is responsible for ensuring that personnel possess the required knowledge for the exercise and use safety equipment of a satisfactory standard. Personnel should have undertaken static execution of techniques and procedures before any practical setting down manoeuvre is undertaken. All personnel should wear helmets and gloves. In addition to this provision, the guidelines described in HFL 191 ‘Special Helicopter Operations in the Royal Norwegian Air Force’ and ‘Provisions for Military Aviation’ BML-100 apply.

6.10.2
6.10.2.1

Rappelling
Before practical implementation is undertaken, the manoeuvre should be carried out vertically. As a minimum, a climbing harness with a belaying device or a Rapell 8 should be used. When utilising the apparatus, or similar equipment, for the first time, personnel should be secured from below.

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For personnel undergoing training, the first two set downs should be carried out with personnel secured from below while the helicopter is hovering. Subsequent set downs may be undertaken without personnel being secured from below. During practical setting down, a belaying device should be used. When using a Rapell 8, a friction knot should be used for securing personnel.

6.10.3
6.10.3.1

Fast rope
Before practical implementation, the manoeuvre should be practiced with a fast rope apparatus, or similar. Personnel should not use footwear containing loops. If footwear contains loops these should be covered in duck tape, leggings, or similar. For personnel undergoing training, the first two set downs should be undertaken while the helicopter is hovering. Set downs via fast rope are an extremely high risk activity. Therefore, personnel undergoing basic training are NOT permitted to participate in this method of setting down.

6.10.4
6.10.4.1

Spie pickup Helocast

Personnel should use a climbing harness and backup protection. Personnel should be coordinated and familiar with procedures, signs and signals. Personnel should be secured by a sling mounted to the helicopter's deck. As a minimum, personnel should hold the sling until the helicopter has reduced its speed to the speed of the helocast. When a helocast is situated in water, life jackets should be worn.

6.10.5
6.10.5.1

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6.11

CLIMATE-RELATED INJURIES

Figure: 6.11 Service in cold regions

6.11.1
6.11.1.1

General
Service that is undertaken in areas with high and low temperatures represents a health hazard to Norwegian Armed Forces personnel. The prevention of climate-related injuries is the responsibility of the officer in charge. General prevention techniques and first aid for climate-related injuries are described in UD4-1-5. Factors such as exposure time, degree of physical activity, fluid consumption/access, humidity and acclimatisation must be included in the assessment, together with additional safety risks. The division’s doctor has overall medical responsibility and should be included in any such assessment. The officer is responsible for follow-up and inspection of the team and for ensuring that necessary measures have been implemented to prevent injuries from occurring.

6.11.2
6.11.2.1

Special conditions in high temperatures
In order to prevent heat exhaustion and heatstroke, attention should be paid to the temperature in respect of the amount of clothing being worn, as well as the type of physical activity being undertaken. When the daytime temperature is expected to exceed 25 degrees, vigorous physical activity should be adapted to the temperature. Such physical activity should be restricted to the time of day when the temperature is at its lowest (e.g. before 10.00 or after 16.00). Personnel should have access to sufficient quantities of electrolyte drinks. Special consideration should be given in respect of deployment to international operations or training/exercises in different climatic zones. In order to reduce the health hazard, physical activity should be restricted in the period immediately

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following deployment so that the body may become acclimatised. This should take place in consultation with a responsible doctor. Restrictions to physical activities such as exercises and competitive events are described in item 6.12.6.

6.11.3

Special conditions in low temperatures

Figure: 6.12 Total control through the use of the telemark technique 6.11.3.1 Officer should ensure that the team is adequately dressed for the conditions. In temperatures below minus 10 degrees Celsius, when there is low temperature combined with wind (a wind chill factor of minus 10 degrees, or colder) and/or when there is a low temperature in combination with a high degree of humidity, inter-soldier inspection should be implemented and followed up. Particular attention should be paid to the prevention of injuries to the extremities. In the case of a stay of more than one day in a cold and damp environment, a daily foot inspection should be carried out to check for signs of trench foot. In the case of frostbite, the measures described in UD 4-1-5 should be implemented. This contains an outline of frostbite symptoms and the immediate measures to be taken in order to treat such symptoms. Concise information may also be found in the safety handbook. Competitive events in cold weather are described in item 6.12.6.

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Calm

Light breeze 5 m/sek

Fresh breeze 10 m/sek

High wind 15 m/sek

0 -10 -20 -30 -40 -50 -60

o o o o o o o

The Normogrammet shows how wind chill effect on open skin increases when the wind speed is increasing

Figure: 6.13 Figure 91 – Wind chill factor table

6.11.4
6.11.4.1

Special conditions in UV radiation (sunlight)
Exposure to sunlight results in a risk of damage to the skin (skin burns/skin cancer) and eyes (‘snow-blindness’). Such injuries should be prevented. When a soldier is exposed to strong sunlight, all exposed skin should be protected. This means that the skin should be either covered or a sun cream with a high protection factor should be used. When sunlight, light clouds or mist is present and soldiers are assembled over a long period (more than 2 hours) on reflective surfaces such as snow, sand or water, sunglasses should be worn.

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6.12
6.12.1

SPORTS FACILITIES AND SPORTS EVENTS
Assault courses and steeplechases

Figure: 6.14 Crossing by rope during an assault course 6.12.1.1 Assault courses that have been provided for competitive events in accordance with the applicable regulations for a military pentathlon should be constructed in accordance with the regulations of the International Military Sports Council, and in accordance with approved designs. Adaptation of such assault courses is not permitted. Special course instructions are not required. Competitive assault courses should be approved and registered at the Norwegian School of Sports Sciences/Norwegian Armed Forces Institute (NIH/F). Permanent assault course facilities of a different type that have been made available for education/training and internal competitive events outside of the previously mentioned CISM facility should be submitted for approval to the relevant branch of the military services. Instructions should be prepared for the use of such courses. Obstacles in other field exercises and competitive events should be approved by the relevant division commander/exercise leader. General safety regulations for assault courses/steeplechases should be complied with. The construction leader (Norwegian Defence Estates Agency/other) is responsible for ensuring that the course is constructed to a satisfactory standard. Course instructions for non-CISM assault courses should contain provisions regarding: exposed locations on the assault course requiring the implementation of special measures. This may include signs or posters warning of the exposed locations placement of medical personnel and medical materiel and any other personnel and materiel regarded as necessary to ensure that the assault course may be

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6.12.1.2

6.12.1.3 6.12.1.4

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used with a reasonable degree of safety instructions for using the course. The course instructions should contain detailed instructions in respect of the appropriate way of crossing the relevant obstacles

6.12.1.5

6.12.1.6

6.12.1.7

The exercise leader’s duties. The exercise leader should have previously familiarised him/herself with safety regulations regarding assault courses, as well as the relevant course instructions. Before the exercise commences, the exercise leader should check that all materiel used on the assault course (ropes, trestles, etc) is in a sound condition and in accordance with regulations, and that landing pits, etc, have been made ready. The exercise leader should assess whether any special conditions (icing, slippery woodwork, poor visibility, etc) could make it necessary to omit (cordon off) certain obstacles, as well as the possible postponement of course activity. The exercise leader should also ensure that the necessary medical materiel is in place. The exercise leader should ensure that all participants have received detailed instruction and practice in crossing each individual obstacle before ordering them to undertake the assault course. Moreover, the exercises should follow a natural and suitable progression, as well as considering physical and mental factors. A competitive element should not be introduced before participants have achieved a satisfactory level of proficiency in crossing individual obstacles. Special provisions. When shooting, swimming, wading or other risky exercises are included in the assault course, the applicable safety regulations for these disciplines must be observed. In the case of multi-divisional assault courses, each registered division is responsible for ensuring that participants have received detailed instruction and practice in the crossing of each individual obstacle and have also achieved a satisfactory level of proficiency. However, this only applies to standard type obstacles. The organiser is responsible for ensuring that participants are briefed and are provided with the opportunity to familiarise themselves with non-standard obstacles (obstacles not included in assault courses in accordance with the designs of the International Military Sports Council). In the case of assault courses open to the general public, the LFM must ensure that obstacles do not represent any hazard to children who are playing, for example. In particular, rope ladders should be secured so that they cannot be used as swings. Defective obstacles that cannot be repaired should be demolished immediately if they represent a hazard.

6.12.2
6.12.2.1 6.12.2.2

Transit across waterways
Wading during sports competitions may be undertaken in various conditions. Thus, only general safety regulations can be provided. The division commander or exercise leader should reconnoitre the ford before the exercise commences. The width, depth, current and ground conditions at the ford should be examined. The ground should be firm enough to ensure that participants do not sink. The depth of the water should not exceed 1 metre and the current velocity should not be so great as to cause personnel to lose their footing. (This should be tested.) The width of the ford should be no greater than is required for rescue personnel to reach participants who are in difficulty. The ford should be delimited and clearly marked. A guide rope/rescue rope should be suspended across the ford. If there is a current in the water, the rope should be

6.12.2.3

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6.12.2.4 6.12.2.5

suspended downstream. The rope should be clearly visible and easy to grip. Buoyant nylon rope should be used. Rescue personnel should normally be assigned (refer to exceptions in item 6.12.2.5), and should have prepared and be capable of using rescue materiel suited to the specific needs. Refer to item 8.2.1. When wading across streams and smaller waterways with minimal water flow in which there is a negligible risk of accidents occurring, the provisions of items 6.12.2.3 and 6.12.2.4 may be waived.

6.12.3

Transit by rope or temporary bridge arrangements

Chap-6

Figure: 6.15 Using two ropes provides greater stability and control 6.12.3.1 Transit by rope or temporary bridge arrangements. In addition to the provisions of items 6.12.2.2, 6.12.2.4 and 8.2.1, ropes should not be suspended so high that there is a risk of participants sustaining injury if they were to fall. A rope/bridge arrangement should also be dimensioned to bear the load for which it is intended.

6.12.4
6.12.4.1

Use of weapons
During any military sports event in which live firing is part of the event, the following provisions must be complied with: a. Weapon inspection should be carried out immediately prior to firing by running through the weapon with a cleaning rod. (This does not apply to .22 calibre weapons which have their own muzzle protectors.)

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b.

Affix magazine – load weapon should not be undertaken before the participant is in position at the stand. It is not permitted for weapons to be loaded (chamber/magazine/band) during the event. Unload weapons – inspect should be undertaken by the individual before firing positions at stands are vacated. Verification that the weapon is unloaded should be carried out as follows: when the competitive event or arrangement is undertaken as a team or patrol event, the team leader or patrol leader should inspect all weapons that have been fired before firing positions at stands are vacated automatic weapons such as machine-guns, pistols and sub-machine guns should always be inspected before firing positions at stands are vacated during events in which the number of hits of each participant is recorded, or participants are checked, weapons should always be inspected before stands are vacated. If several shooting events take place during the same event (biathlon) and if the number of shots each participant is recorded, or participants are checked, weapons should be inspected after the last shot has been fired during larger championships and biathlon events, the regulations of the Norwegian Biathlon Association may apply in all other cases, weapons should be inspected directly after passing the finishing line, at the latest

c. d.

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e.

Ammunition that has not been used should be collected during the inspection.

Refer also to chapter 3, item 3.2.1.1Weapon regulations. Ear protection. Refer to item 6.21. In competitions with .22 calibre weapons, or even weapons that are less loud, ear plugs or ear muffs should be used, as a minimum. Conscripts with hearing level 2 are not permitted to participate in sports events involving the use of live ammunition.

6.12.5
6.12.5.1

Physical activity in hot weather
The background literature for safety regulations for physical activity in hot weather is the Norwegian Confederation of Sport’s topical booklet no. 5 ‘Sport in hot climates’ by Professor Sigmund B Strømme and the text book on ‘Human Physiology’, chapter 12, on temperature regulation, by Sand, Sjaastad and Haug. Further reference may be made to UD 12-7-9 ‘Technical communication from the medical commander, heat and cold’, UD 4-1-5, ‘Text book on medical services’, chapter 22, as well as the Army’s Safety Manual. All officers in charge of physical activity, including close and dispersed order and competitive events, must familiarise themselves with the above-mentioned literature. This applies regardless of the prevailing climatic conditions. When the temperature (measured in the shade) is 25 degrees Celsius or higher, physical activity should be undertaken before 10.00 or after 16.00. When the temperature in the shade is from 25-27 degrees, lighter clothing, such as shorts and

6.12.5.2

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singlet, should be worn. If it is necessary to undertake special exercises in battledress or fatigue dress, the following points should be observed: tunics should be unbuttoned and possibly held together by a waist cord 6.12.5.3 trousers should be rolled up to knee height caps should be removed

6.12.5.4

When the temperature is from 27-28 degrees Celsius in the shade, caution should be exercised in respect of strenuous physical activity. Long distance runs over 1500 m, etc, should not be organised or pack marches/marching competitions of more than 30 minutes’ duration. Exercises in close and dispersed order should not be of more than 30 minutes’ duration. The break between lessons should be of at least 30 minutes’ duration and should offer the possibility for the consumption of cold drinks, as well as a period of time in the shade. When the temperature is from 28-30 degrees Celsius in the shade or higher, long pack marches, marching competitions, etc, should be avoided. Medical personnel should also be present. When the temperature exceeds 30 degrees Celsius, all physical activity should be suspended. This also applies to close and dispersed order. When the temperature is 25 degrees Celsius or more, an opportunity should be provided to consume drink before, during and immediately after physical activity. Runs and pack marches of more than 5000 m should be organised to allow for the consumption of fluids every 4-5 km. At the end of dispersed order, it should be possible to consume fluids several times per hour. Fluid consumed should preferably contain between 30 and 70 g of sugar per litre, 1-2 g of common salt per litre, as well as added flavouring, e.g. orange extract, lemon extract, apple juice, etc. The fluid should be chilled to around 10-15 degrees Celsius. There should also be an option of consuming ice-cold drinks. Chap-6 General recommendations for the consumption of fluids (the individual party must ascertain his/her own needs during training and customise these recommendations according to his/her own requirements): Aim to achieve the correct fluid balance before training Train to tolerate a frequent level of fluid consumption Drink at least 5-7 dl per hour during heavy, physical activity Drink before you feel thirsty Drink frequently (every 10-15 mins) but ideally in small amounts (100-150 ml) In activities that last for more than 1 hour, use sports drinks containing both carbohydrates (4-7%) and salt Increase fluid and salt consumption when undertaking strenuous physical activity at more than 1000 metres above sea level Increase the water and salt content of the drink

6.12.5.5

When the temperature is 25 degrees Celsius or more, it is incumbent upon the officer

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6.12.6
6.12.6.1

in charge to inform other officers and participants about the symptoms of heat exhaustion and heat stroke. (Refer to the Norwegian Confederation of Sport’s topical booklet no. 5, pp 40 and 41.) Personnel should be informed of the importance of consuming ample quantities of drink before, during and after physical activity. This should also include information about first aid measures..

Competitive events in cold weather

6.12.6.2

6.12.6.3

Cold weather restrictions in respect of the organisation of military competitive events should be in accordance with the regulations of the Norwegian Skiing Association. This involves a temperature limit of -15 degrees Celsius for events longer than 15 km and -18 degrees for events of less than 15 km. In the case of temperatures below these limits, the division commander, in consultation with the division’s doctor and sports officer, should determine whether a competitive event is to be carried out, and, if so, how. In addition to the temperature and the duration of exposure to cold weather, air humidity and wind speed are vital factors that must be taken into consideration in any assessment of whether the competitive event should be carried out. Thus, there may be situations in which the weather conditions call for a safety assessment before the temperature has reached as low as -15 degrees Celsius. The effective temperature (with consideration being made for the wind chill factor) may be read in fig 91.

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6.13

SAFETY REGULATIONS FOR INFUSION COURSES IN THE NORWEGIAN ARMED FORCES

Figure: 6.16 Infusion of injured personnel

6.13.1
6.13.1.1

General
Any service that involves contact with blood carries a risk of bacterial/viral transmission (infection). Necessary measures should be implemented to restrict direct contact with blood, in order to reduce the risk of infection if such contact Chap-6 should occur, and to clarify any risk of infection if direct contact should have occurred. In this respect, all personnel participating in an infusion course should be briefed and have a duty to notify the doctor if they have had, or suspect they have had, any of the illnesses referred to in item 6.13.1.1.

6.13.1.2

6.13.2
6.13.2.1

Precautionary measures
Before practical exercises commence, the instructor MUST run through hygienic precautionary measures that apply to exercises in which blood spillage may occur: Blood spillage should be kept to a minimum All disposable materiel contaminated by blood should be disposed of in separate containers and bags. Such waste matter should be destroyed at an incineration plant that processes hazardous waste lood-soiled equipment and fixtures that are not destroyed should be cleaned at the end of the training session. With significant contamination, most of the spillage should be removed with absorptive materials, packaged in yellow anti-contamination bags and treated as hazardous waste. A suitable disinfectant such as KLORAMIN 5% should be applied to contaminated

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surfaces/equipment with a cloth or sponge. This will take effect after 60 minutes on soiled surfaces and after 30 minutes on surfaces that have been wiped. After disinfection, infectious material will be rendered harmless and ordinary cleaning may be undertaken Personnel who have sores/scratches on their hands should apply a plaster before the training session commences. Such plasters should not be removed before cleaning/disinfection has been undertaken with CHLORHEXIDINE 0.5 mg/ml or 70% alcohol ALL PERSONNEL SHOULD USE DISPOSABLE GLOVES

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6.13.3
6.13.3.1

Infusion course procedures for testing of HIV and Hepatitis
Procedures for the follow-up of needle stick injuries/blood spillage: First aid in the event of a needle stick injury: Promote bleeding from the wounded area, e.g. by gently pressing the surrounding area, but avoid excessive squeezing or massage Wash and rinse the injured area with soap and water Disinfect with chlorhexidine 5 mg/ml or 70% alcohol

First aid in the event of blood spurts in the mouth: Rinse several times with water and hydrogen peroxide 3% for 3-4 mins. (ordinary mouth rinse with hydrogen peroxide) First aid in the event of blood spillage in the eyes: Rinse with ample amounts of physiological saline/water for 3-4 mins Additional measures: The doctor in charge of the course must assess individual incidents and implement measures based on his/her observations. In the event of a needle stick accident that could result in infection, the following measures should be taken: A blood sample should be taken, on the same day, of the person using the cannula. This should be tested for HIV antibodies, Hepatitis C antibodies, Hepatitis B antibodies (anti-HBc) and Hepatitis B antigens (HbsAg). A ‘0 test’ should be taken from the person who pierced him/herself with the cannula This should be tested for HIV antibodies, Hepatitis C antibodies, Hepatitis B antibodies (anti-HBc) and Hepatitis B antigens (HbsAg) After the needle stick accident, the exposed party should be offered a Hepatitis B vaccine and specific immunoglobulin (HBIG). After 48 hours HBIG is no longer effective and only the vaccine should be administered. The vaccination should be administered as a rapid vaccination, i.e. 1 dose at 0, 1 and 2 months, as well as a booster after one year. The vaccine should be administered before the results of the blood test are ready In cases of suspected HIV, post exposure prophylaxis should be implemented within 2 hours. If such a case arises, an infective medicine specialist should be contacted. The subsequent follow-up of persons who have been exposed to possible

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blood infection is dependant upon the results of the serological tests. If the source person proves negative then no other measures are necessary, apart from a control test 6 months after the incident. It is up to the individual doctor, in consultation with the patient, to determine whether the vaccination programme should continue. Persons who test positive must be followed up by the division’s sick bay/medical office The person in charge of the course must always notify of any needle stick accidents. An accident report should be submitted to the Norwegian National Insurance Administration, RTV form 4022. The completed form should be sent to the address that appears on the form. Expenditure on the Hepatitis B vaccine and specific immunoglobulin used as a post exposure prophylaxis will be covered by National Insurance (‘blue receipt’ – regulation § 4, item 3). The vaccine and specific immunoglobulin may be ordered from the vaccination department of the National Institute of Public Health, Pb 4404 Nydalen, 0403 Oslo, Norway, tel: +47 22 04 22 00, or from the nearest hospital

6.13.4
6.13.4.1

Practical exercises
A responsible medical doctor should always be assigned to the course. It should be possible to contact the doctor during the practical part of the course. The doctor will assess course instructors for approval. All instructors and assistant instructors must have undergone the relevant practice necessary to provide direction and instruction in this type of training. Practical exercises in venipuncture should be set up in such a way that an instructor takes charge of the practical implementation of each individual venipuncture exercise. The minimum requirement for instructors is authorisation as ambulance personnel or nurses. Conscripts who have authorisation as ambulance personnel or nurses may be used as assistant instructors/controllers. Prior to commencing an exercise in venipuncture, the instructor should verify that all Chap-6 equipment being used has been sterilised. Further verification should be made that blood spillage has been adequately cleaned from previously used equipment. During ordinary training, fluid should not be infused into an artery or cannula that is located in, or is to be inserted into, the skin. In connection with training for international service, these provisions may be waived, in accordance with the following criteria: Completed education and training in the use of equipment and fluids on an infusion dummy Training with an infusion dummy should be kept separate from live training. Equipment and fluids used in dummy training and live training should not be combined Equipment and fluids to be used in live training should be within their use-by date and principles of cleanliness and sterility should be strictly observed Only physiological electrolyte solutions should be used, NaCl 0.9%, Ringer’s Lactate or Ringer's Acetate A fluid infusion should never exceed 500 ml

6.13.4.2

6.13.4.3 6.13.4.4

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6.14

WINTER SERVICE

Figure: 6.17 Vassdalen

6.14.1

Divisional competence requirements within winter service for land-based operations in the Norwegian Armed Forces
The Chief of Defence has issued a directive for divisional competence requirements within winter service for land-based operations to be used by the Norwegian Armed Forces. Cf. the directive, waivers from this directive follow the same provisions for UD 2-1 and are described in UD 2-1, item 0.1.3. The responsible party in this respect is the head of the Norwegian School of Winter Warfare (NSWW) and requests for a waiver should be submitted to the NSWW.

6.14.2
6.14.2.1

Preparation and implementation of exercises in terrain in which there is a risk of avalanches occurring
Exercise leader’s responsibility The exercise leader is responsible for assessing and implementing measures to determine the avalanche risk. Conditions that may influence the risk of an avalanche are: precipitation, wind and temperature the snow pack’s stratification and stability

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shape of terrain and steepness

This applies to the planning as well as the implementation of the exercise. During the implementation of the exercise, it is the exercise leader’s responsibility, at any given time, to remain aware of the particular avalanche risk. This is so that he/she may make any necessary adjustments to the exercise programme such as, for example, the march route and bivouac placement, and implement measures necessary to ensuring the safety of personnel. The overall responsibility should be assigned to a specially trained individual or group. Cf. UD 6-81 Instruction in winter service, Part 9. 6.14.2.2 Assessment of avalanche risk prior to the commencement of exercises An assessment of avalanche risk should commence when the planning of the exercise has progressed to a point where the training ground has been determined. The exercise leader, or an individual that he/she has appointed, should undertake a thorough study of training ground maps, taking into account areas that represent an avalanche risk. In addition, information should be obtained regarding the prevailing weather conditions at the training ground. 6.14.2.3 Avalanche risk maps should be used. If an avalanche risk map is not available, both the release areas (ZONE 1) and the discharge areas (ZONE 2) should be marked on the map. The areas should be confirmed through a field reconnaissance. 6.14.2.4 A reconnaissance should be undertaken as close as possible to the start of the exercise in order to obtain the most updated picture of the snow and terrain conditions. In addition, a reconnaissance should be undertaken of the training ground on bare ground. 6.14.2.5 An avalanche warning should be issued prior to the commencement of an exercise. 6.14.2.6 Assessment of avalanche risk during exercises A daily routine inspection of the snow pack should be carried out to verify whether Chap-6 the stability of the snow has altered. The exercise leader should have access to weather reports at least two times per day. 6.14.2.7 An avalanche warning should be issued at least once per day. 6.14.2.8 The exercise leader should be accompanied by a qualified person or group that have completed an Avalanche Rescue Course provided by a competent authority for winter service, or similar training programme approved by the commander of the Norwegian School of Winter Warfare. This person/group has overall responsibility for the preparation of daily avalanche warnings. 6.14.2.9 Avalanche group With larger field service exercises (brigade or higher) a separate avalanche group should be established. The manning requirements of the avalanche group are dependant on the training ground’s geographic area and the number of participating divisions, and are stipulated for the individual exercise. 6.14.2.10 The leader of the avalanche group should be placed under the authority of the exercise leader.

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6.14.2.11 Mock victim pit, use of a completely buried mock victim during avalanche rescue exercises. General During avalanche rescue exercises and training in avalanche rescue, it is natural to use mock victims. If the mock victim is to be completely buried, a pit should be used. The exercise leader is responsible for ensuring that the exercise is undertaken in terrain in which an avalanche risk is not present and that the pit satisfies the specified requirements. 6.14.2.12 The following requirements should be observed: The snow above the pit should be firm The mock victim should be a volunteer The mock victim should not be buried for more than 3 hours and, in any case, must not be buried for more than 4 hours The mock victim should possess a search pole that is partly assembled and inserted through the roof The mock victim should possess radio communication with an extra battery and a communication check should be made BEFORE the mock victim is buried The mock victim should have a groundsheet and should wear warm and tight clothing The mock victim should have facial protection from search poles, e.g. a spade The comfort of the mock victim should be prioritised

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6.14.2.13 Requirements for the pit:

Figure: 6.18 Digging a pit for the mock victim

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Dig around 2 m directly down into the snow. Thereafter, dig around 75 cm beneath the firm snow, with a width (body length) of around 220 cm The pit should be high enough to permit the mock victim to lie freely, minimum 60-75 cm The search pole should be assembled and inserted to the point where the mock victim has his/her right hand. This should be inserted in such a way that it is not visible from the surface It should be possible to locate the pit’s position in at least two independent ways

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6.14.3
6.14.3.1

Safety regulations for snow holes/pits
General The snow bank in which a snow hole/pit is dug should not be higher than 5 m. This is measured from the base of the cleft beneath the snow bank to the highest point on the snow bank – measured vertically. The snow hole/pit should be dug as high as possible in the snow bank. Implementation The walls and roof should have a minimum thickness of 30 cm of hard-packed snow, in respect of both stability and insulation. The snow hole should be ventilated via a hole in the roof with a minimum diameter of 10 cm. A ski pole should be inserted here so that the hole may be kept open by moving the ski pole from inside the hole if it is covered by a snowdrift. When remaining overnight in a snow hole/pit, a patrol guard should be assigned who should check the following: The snow’s structure Whether the snow hole’s roof is shifting That the air vent with the ski pole is open

6.14.3.2 6.14.3.3 6.14.3.4 6.14.3.5

Chap-6

6.14.3.6 6.14.3.7

The condition of the snow hole/pit and the prevailing weather will determine how often the patrol guard carries out an inspection. The entrance should be clearly marked with a search pole/stick/spade, or similar. The markings should also be clear during poor visibility and in darkness. A spade should be accessible on both the inside and the outside of the entrance to the snow hole and pit. The patrol guard may carry a spade. Use of heat sources/cooking apparatus is not permitted in the snow hole/pit. Cf. UD 6-81 Instruction in winter service, part 6, Bivouac.

6.14.4

Actions in special circumstances in avalanche risk terrain
In particular A division may be forced to travel across and/or assemble in an avalanche risk area due to special circumstances such as: Search and rescue operations Unintentional and unexpected entry into an avalanche risk area

6.14.4.1

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6.14.4.2

6.14.4.3 6.14.4.4

It must be emphasised that exercises in themselves are not cogent grounds to travel across and/or assemble in an avalanche risk area. Precautionary measures In the case of search and rescue operations, the officer in charge at the location must assess the terrain and choose a marching route which, based on his/her knowledge and experience, as well as the prevailing conditions, represents the least possible risk to his/her own division. In the case of search and rescue work in an avalanche, the officer in charge of the rescue work should select escape route(s). If a division unintentionally and unexpectedly enters an avalanche risk area, the first person to discover this should shout: “Avalanche risk area – Stand still!” The officer in charge must then assess the various courses of action; either remain in the area or exit the area by the safest route possible.

6.15
6.15.1
6.15.1.1

PROVISIONS FOR HANDLING FIRE, HEATING IN A TENT, LIGHTING COOKING APPARATUS AND LIGHTING EQUIPMENT
Heating in a tent
When a heat source is used in a tent, (cooking apparatus, wood-burning stove, multifuel M94) or stearine candles are used as a light source, a fire watch should always be assigned. When using the hot air unit VA/M-15/40 as a heat source, the unit should be inspected once every hour to ensure that it is functioning satisfactorily. Before a camp stove is used inside a tent, the division should ensure that it has not been painted with aluminium paint, or similar. The purpose of the fire watch is to maintain a continual inspection of sources of light and heat in order to prevent tent fires as well as ensuring that the heat source does not go out. When a heat source containing an open flame is used (Optimus, Primus, etc), the flame should burn with a clean blue flame. The combustion will then be at its most effective. The fire watch should pay particular attention when a kettle/frying pan has been placed on the burner. In such cases, the tent should be ventilated. The fire watch may not be combined with other guard duties outside of the tent. The guard should sit on his/her groundsheet or monitor the light and heat in some other way. He/she should not be occupied with duties that distract him/her from monitoring the heat. During change of fire watch it is the retiring guard’s responsibility to waken the next guard. The retiring fire watch should not conclude his/her duty as fire watch before the next guard has completely awoken, left his/her sleeping bag and is in a sitting position. In a tent in which a heat source is being used, knives or bayonets should be present and placed appropriately in order to be used to cut the tent canvas in the event of a fire.

6.15.1.2

6.15.1.3

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6.15.1.4

6.15.1.5 6.15.1.6

In the case of camp stoves that are only suitable for wood-burning, it is strictly forbidden to use petrol, paraffin, spirit or other highly combustible fluids. However, in the case of lighting a cold oven, if extreme caution is exercised, it is permitted to soak wood in paraffin which, under no circumstances, should ever be poured directly from a jerry can/bottle, etc, straight into the oven. The multifuel camp stove has been developed for fluid and solid fuels. The most important fuel is F 34 fuel, although the camp stove also works well with paraffin, diesel and wood. Before using the stove, jerry cans should be checked to ensure that they contain F 34 fuel, paraffin or diesel. The jerry can should not contain petrol and should be placed outside the tent. In order to prevent the fuel hose from melting, breaking or becoming blocked, it is important that it is completely unwound and under no circumstances should it be coiled within the stove's protective cage. The hose must be placed at a distance from the most trafficked areas of the tent so that it will not become damaged by being stepped on. Fuel cans and hoses should be placed on the side of the tent that is defined as the 'dirty' side.

6.15.2
6.15.2.1

Lighting cooking apparatus and lights
Cooking apparatus and lights (Primus Optimus 111, Feuerhand and Petromax tent lights) used by the Norwegian Armed Forces are designed for the use of paraffin and F-34 unit fuel. These units are not suited to other types of fuels. The use of PETROL and CATALYTIC FUEL in these types of COOKING APPARATUS, as well as LIGHTS, is therefore forbidden Cooking apparatus that is designed to use other types of fuel should use fuel recommended by the manufacturer. When petrol, ethanol or methylated spirits are used to heat cooking apparatus and Chap-6 lighting equipment, or as fuel for cooking apparatus, users should demonstrate extreme caution with regard to the danger of fire and explosion. In order to avoid accidents from occurring, the following points should be observed: The heating of cooking apparatus and filling of fuel bottles should be undertaken in controlled conditions away from the tent’s sleeping quarters (preferably outside the tent). During filling, all use of open fire is forbidden. Particular attention should be paid to the ban on smoking When fuel cans are being changed, petrol-burning cooking apparatus should be switched off and the apparatus should cool down before being lit again All heat sources should be extinguished and the air vent screw opened before the spirit cup is filled with fluid The spirit cup should be filled from a small can In daylight, the fluid burns with almost no visible flame – the fluid should be treated as an A fluid The fluid contains additives that make it dangerous to drink

6.15.2.2

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6.15.3
6.15.3.1

Carbon monoxide poisoning
Refer to item 6.20.4

6.15.4

Shrubland burning and grass and heathland burning in Norwegian Armed Forces areas
On 5th September 1958, the Ministry of Defence determined that it was forbidden to burn shrubland and carry out the burning of grass and heathland, etc, in and around military establishments, without the express consent of the establishment’s chief fire officer. The ban applies regardless of the time of year and is a supplement to the regulations on shrubland burning and heathland burning, etc, in the regulations of the Fire Brigade Act of 19th November 1954. (Fire prevention acts and regulations, Part HI, p. 16). Refer also to the Forest Fire Act of 14th July 1893 with regulations. (Part VI of the above-mentioned publication.)

6.15.4.1

6.15.5
6.15.5.1

Use of fire during exercises in forests and fields
On 25th November 1958, the Ministry of Defence issued the following directives, etc: ‘Attention is drawn to the Act of 14th July 1893 in respect of restrictions to the use of fire in forests and fields. Paragraph 1 of the Act determines that: During dry weather or strong winds, the use of all fire shall be forbidden in forests or fields in such places and under such circumstances that a risk of forest fire may be present.’ ‘As a consequence of the occurrence of forest fires of which the cause, in all likelihood, has been careless use of fire, all officers are ordered to strictly ensure that their men demonstrate due care and attention during exercises in forests and fields. In this respect, officers shall draw the attention of their men to paragraph 352 of the General Civil Penal Code regarding the careless use of fire or combustible matter.’

6.16
6.16.1
6.16.1.1

USE OF MACHINERY AND TOOLS
In general
General See ’Regulations for use of work equipment’ (FOR 1998-06-26-608). The regulations apply to various work equipment, defined in § 2. Examples of work equipment: tools, lifting devices, apparatuses, recovery vehicle, different types of mechanical diggers, mobile cranes, etc. Drivers must have a valid license for operating machines, and is to be trained internally before the materiel is put to use. The person responsible for education and training is to update the database SOPP. Each piece of machinery is to have a technical manual where the safety regulations are presented. Below follows a list of the technical manuals for the pieces of machinery most commonly used in the Armed Forces: Chainsaw, Sachs - Dolmar 115 Chainsaw, Partner Rock drilling machine, TH 5-3695-25/200-12 (temporary) TH 5-3695-25/207-12 TH 5-3820-25/200-10

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fuel Pionjär 120 Tractor, tracked, slowmoving, Liebherr 731 C TH 5-2410-25/207-10

Rotary snow plough, self- TH 5-3825-25/200-12 driven, Øveraasen TwinSpin UPV Tracked compressor AM- TH 5-4310-25/211-10 (siste) V-170 BK Towed compressor, Sullair F94D TH 5-4310-25/210-10

Kompressor, tauet, Atlas TH 5-4310-25/209-10 Copco XAS80DD NEMEK 503TXI ATLAS COPCO ROC D7 Drilling rig, hydraulic 2 1/2” tow boat, diesel, GM/DAF Ferry winch TH 5-3805-25/203-10 TH 5-3805-25/206-10 TH 5-1925-25/202-12

TH 5-2030-25/200-10

Outboard motor, OMC 55 TH 5-2805-25/215-12 HK Outboard motor, OMC 70 TH 5-2805-25/216-12 HK Dump-truck, Volvo A25C Dump-truck, Moxy MT31 Bulldozer, KOMATSU D65EX Bulldozer, KOMATSU D85EX Teleskoptruck JCB 540-140 TH 5-3805-25/229-10 TH-5-3805-25/230-10 TH 5-2410-25/200-10 TH 5-2410-25/201-10 TH 5-3930-25/100-10

Chap-6

Mobile crane, PPM ATT TH 5-3810-25/200-10 590 Mechanical digger, KOMATSU PC210-6 KOMATSU PC210-7 TH 5-3805-25/204-10

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CATERPILLAR 307B KOMATSU PC78US KUBOTA KX-3V LÄNNEN 940 Grader, Caterpillar 140 G TH 5-3805-25/224-10 (temporary) AWD VHP Grader, Champion 736 A TH 5-3805-25/202-10 Grader, Volvo G976 TH 5-3805-25/209-10 Mechanical bridge layer, TH 5-5420-25/200-10 Leguan Armoured Engineer Vehicle Tank launched bridge Hjullaster: Volvo 4500 Volvo L-50C Volvo L-50D Volvo L-70C Volvo L-90D Volvo L-120C Volvo L-120D Volvo L-120E Volvo L-150C Hearing protection. Minimum earplugs must be worn by all personnel operating og staying near noisy machinery/tools (noise level 85-110 dBA, difficult to assess), also inside headset/ear muffs for radio/communications. When noise levels reach or exceed 110 dbA a combination of earplugs and ear muffs/headset must be worn. Tools/pieces of machinery that generally make so much noise that hearing protection will be required are to be marked according to the Regulations for use of heavy construction machines. 26 June pt 1998 § 29. See also chapter 6.21 Regulations for use of machinery on repair trucks a. In general The workshop foreman is to ascertain that machinery and tools on the repair truck is provided maintenance continuously, and that the repair truck is checked and taken care of in a manner that makes personnel and the TH-5-3805-25-227-10 TH-5-3805-25-227-10 TH-5-3805-25/218-10 TH-5-3805-25/201-10 TH-5-3805-25/226-10 Completed Completed TH 5-3805-25/205-10 TH 5-3805-25/207-10

Loader, Volvo BM 6300 TH 5-3805-25/225-10

6.16.1.2

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maintenance crew safe from injury. b. Preventing fires Fire extinguisher is to be easily accessible in the vehicle, and must be maintained and checked according to the regulations in force, including the Regulation for use of heavy construction machines, 26 June 1998. It must continuously be checked that the fire extinguisher has been filled. Using the aggregate The aggregate must not run inside a confined room unless it has a tight exhaust gas pipe leading outside. When operating the aggregate, it must be ascertained that the earth lead is good. Hearing protection. Minimum earplugs are to be worn, see § 6.16.1.1. Using grinders The largest allowed rotational speed for the grinding wheel must have been checked and found correct (for the speed of the spindle) before it is mounted in the machine. See Regulation for use of heavy construction machines. 26 June 1998. Ascertain that mounting is being done in accordance with the user manual. Hearing protection. Minimum earplugs are to be worn, see § 6.16.1.1. Gas welding apparatus See ”Regulations for working hot construction equipment” 26 February 1998. Gas and oxygen cylinders must be solidly mounted on the trolley. The cylinders must not impinge on each other, or fall down. When moving the trolley, manometers must be dismounted and the safety caps screwed on. Cylinders, manometers, hoses and welding bar must be checked for leakages. The gas cylinders must be exposed to heat. Only personnel who have been Chap-6 trained in welding must have access to the apparatus. Goggles or face shield must be used when welding. The turning lathe See ’Regulations for use of heavy construction machines’. 26 June 1998. The lathe must only by used by competent personnel. The person operating the lathe must have adequate space and peace to work, so that he/she does not accidentally come in contact with moving machinery parts and his/her clothes cannot get caught in the machine.

c.

d.

e.

f.

6.16.1.3

The person operating the lathe is to wear tight-fitting leather cuffs or similar on his/her arms, and not wear loose-fitting clothes that might get caught in the machine. Long hair should be put in a ponytail, or concealed underneath a cap. The choke actuating lever should be removed. Hearing protection. Minimum earplugs are to be worn, see § 6.16.1.1. Use of motor chainsaws with auxiliary components and equipment a. In general The following regulations apply to any use of motor chainsaws, and for auxiliary components (ice drill). The regulations apply for all Armed Forces

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personnel, and are based on corresponding civilian regulations presented by the Norwegian Labour Inspection Authority. Within certain areas, however, the regulations have been adapted to military conditions. Personnel are not to have access to motor chainsaws without having gone through adequate training in advance. This training is to include the following components: Elements of danger b. Protection materiel Maintenance Correct work technique

Requirements of the motor chainsaw The motor chainsaw is to be equipped according to the Norwegian Labour Inspection Authority’s regulations and have: roll-over protection with chain brakes devibrated handles shaped in a manner that facilitates wearing protective gloves. block carburettor handle chain breakage protection underneath the rear handle and chain guard in front of the saw – saw chain with protective links. automatic disconnection of the chain when the saw is running at idling speed Transport cover for the saw blade.

The batch should be equipped with felling wedges, jemmy, axe with shaft, hooks/shears for handling the timber, and files with file templates. c. Personal protective equipment (PPE) Personal protective equipment is to meet the specifications made by the Norwegian Labour Inspection Authority. Personnel manning a motor chainsaw must have had distributed and wear: protective trousers, forest worker, with sewn-in protective lining, protection of thighs with belt and sewn-in protective lining. protective helmet, plastic, mountable, with short brim and visor of mesh. safety boots, forest worker, or Wellingtons with protective lining. protective mittens, forrest worker, fibre fur, w/ protective inlay on left mitten

Should the personal protective equipment or parts of it seem inadequate in the field where the work presents little risk, the unit commander may exempt people from wearing such equipment. Hearing protection. Minimum earplugs must be worn, see § 6.16.1.1.

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d.

Medical service Each operator is to have a field dressing in a watertight package in his/her breast pocket. Where several operators are working simultaneously, there must be organized medical service. This requires the following equipment at hand: Stretcher, medical, with two blankets and strapping ropes. Medical bag no. 1 Means of transport.

e.

Regulations for use At least two people should be working together when operating a motor chainsaw. Whenever several saws are being used simultaneously, there is to be skilled labour supervision. In addition, the several regulations for use apply: The centrifugal coupling is to be adjusted so that there is a safe interval between idling speed and running speed. Filling fuel or adjusting the saw’s fuel system must never take place in the vicinity of open fire or while smoking. Fuel must not be filled while the engine is running. In order to avoid spilled fuel being ignited by sparks from the exhaust pipe, the saw should be moved a few metres after fuel has been filled, and then started. The blade or chain must never be adjusted while the engine is running. During transport the chain is to be dismounted or under protective cover. When starting the engine is must be ascertained that the saw stands steady. Never operate the chainsaw indoors. The exhaust gas is poisonous. During movement while working with the engine running, the saw should be carried by hand with the blade pointing forwards. Never place your finger on the gas handle on saws that have centrifugal coupling if the engine is running during movement. When felling trees, ascertain that no one is within reach of the tree. Call out, but keep in mind that the warning might be difficult to hear due to the engine sound. When felling trees, ascertain that no one is within reach of the tree. Call out, but keep in mind that the warning might be difficult to hear due to the engine sound. The back cut must be made in the same height and no lower than the face cut. If the back cut is placed too low, one will lose control over the tree’s felling direction and fall path. If the face cut is made by use of a motor chainsaw, it has to be checked

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Chap-6

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carefully that both cuts have been made equally deep. This is easier if the notch cut is placed first, and then the undercut. Use a felling wedge. This should be inserted as soon as the blade has reached adequate depth. When sawing upwards using the upper edge of the saw it may be thrown backwards when put to the wood. It should therefore be run at full speed before it is applied carefully to the wood.

A similar risk may occur during normal sawing if the upper edge of the blade gets stuck. Operate the saw in a manner that prevents this from happening. Additionally, it is important that the chain at all times has been filed correctly. f. Regulations for ice and ground frost drill When using this materiel, the following personal protective equipment must be worn: safety boots with insole protective goggles or helmet with face shield protective gloves/mittens

Caution must be shown when setting up the drill (particularly ice drills). The work is to be commenced at low rotational speed, which is to be increased evenly in order to prevent the drill from rambling. When changing steel the engine is to be stopped. Hearing protection. Minimum earplugs must be worn, see § 6.16.1.1. 6.16.1.4 Use of rock drilling machine with additional equipment a. In general The following regulations apply to use of all types of rock drilling machines in the Armed Forces. The regulations are in accordance with corresponding civilian regulations published by the Directorate of the Norwegian Labour Inspection Authority. b. Personal protective equipment (PPE) Personal protective equipment is to satisfy the regulations published by the Directorate of the Norwegian Labour Inspection Authority. Personnel operating rock drilling machines must have had distributed and wear: leather gloves (protective gloves) without lining with a long plastic cuff or leather gloves (protective gloves) with lining (winter) protective helmet, plastic, mountable, with short brim, face shield and earmuffs. mask with exhaust gas filter safety boots, leather with inlaid steel sole or

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field boots M/66, normal height protective goggles Hearing protection, minimum earplugs.

Should wearing the helmet seem inadequate and safety allows it, the helmet might be omitted. Hearing protection must be worn. c. Drilling machine, mountain, petrol/fuel driven When using the machine the following regulations apply: petrol/fuel must never be filled near an open flame. petrol/fuel must never be filled if the machine is warm or when the engine is running. petrol/fuel must always be tapped off the machine before it is put into the transport cage. the exhaust from the engine emits carbon monoxide. When drilling trenches, ditches, tunnels, etc. the personnel operating the machine must switch frequently, and if necessary artificial ventilation must be provided. never turn the machine directly towards anybody, since there is a danger of equipment loosening and causing injury. Cleaning must never be carried out using volatile fluids (petrol/fuel, lynol, etc.).

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Hearing protection. Minimum earplugs must be worn, see § 6.16.1.1. d. Grinder for drilling equipment Check the grinding surface before use. This is supposed to be level, and the Chap-6 grinding wheel is to run without jerking. If it does not do so, the grinding wheel must be trimmed. The grinding wheel is to be dry. Protective goggles must always be worn when the machine is being used. Keep in mind the risk of fire breaking out, caused by sparks from the grinding wheel. Hearing protection. Minimum earplugs must be worn, see § 6.16.1.1.

6.16.1.5

Drill jumbo (drilling rig) The following points must be carefully observed when using or during movement of drill jumbos/drilling rigs: the feeder is to be laid down during transport or movement on order to keep the centre of gravity as low as possible (risk of tipping over). in rough terrain, the winch is to be used to secure the rig. Fasten securely and keep the wire taut. keep in mind the risk of skidding (particularly sideways) in steep terrain. close off air supply to controls that are not in use.

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6.16.1.6

Hearing protection. Minimum earplugs must be worn, see § 6.16.1.1. Compressed air installations/compressors a. All personnel who are responsible for using/supervising compressors and compressed air installations are bound by duty to observe the following regulations: never play with compressed air. Never direct air hoses towards anybody. In short range the air pressure is to strong that it can lead to severe injury. check safety valves before use. A pressure air cylinder has the same blasting effect as a bomb. never remove safety caps, shields, etc. and never make adjustments on the compressor while the engine is running, unless the procedure is described in the technical manual. check that the air has been turned off before hoses are disconnected. never tamper with the mounting or the settings of the safety valves. petrol/fuel must never be filled while the engine is running or near an open flame. Never use flammable liquids when cleaning parts or equipment (petrol, lynol) Check that the compressor’s control system functions normally after starting up.

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b.

When using pneumatically operated hammer drills, the following regulations apply: Never point pneumatically operated drilling jars towards anybody. Drill, spades, chisels, etc. may loosen and get hurled with great speed. Before blowing the hoses clean they need to be secured.

6.16.1.7

Hearing protection. Minimum earplugs must be worn, see § 6.16.1.1. Moving and operating armoured engineer vehicles and armoured bridging vehicles a. Plain movement, see § 5.11.1.3. b. When operating vehicles with complimentary special equipment, the vehicle commander is to have completed and passed the user course for the relevant vehicle type, in addition to point a above.

6.16.1.8

Driving engineer vehicles and armoured engineer vehicles a. Never start the engine from any other place than the driver’s seat. b. Never let the vehicle start moving without having ascertained: That no one stays underneath, behind or in front of the vehicle That the brake pressure is sufficient That lights, horn, manoeuvre- and control panels function properly.

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c. d. e.

Safety belt is mandatory while driving/working, except when crossing frozen lakes/rivers and onboard ferries. Smoking/eating is prohibited whilst driving along the road. Never take passengers on the vehicle or in the bulldozer blade. Exempt from this rule is when the vehicle has 2 seats and has been authorized for 2 persons, or has been authorized for riding, also during basic training. Nobody must mount or dismount a moving vehicle. Ascertain that no one walks underneath the bulldozer blade. If work is to be done underneath the blade (e.g. repair work, etc.) the blade is to be securely supported. Keep the engine and the driver’s seat clean and tidy. Never leave items such as bottles, tools, etc. lying around. These might prevent necessary braking for instance if an items gets underneath the brake pedal. Loose items could also pose risk to the driver, should the vehicle tip over. The grease gun might, however, be left behind the seat in winter. Keep windows, mirrors, steps and control panels free of dirt, oil, ice and snow. Never leave the vehicle without lowering the tool down on the ground. When parking: If possible, the engineer vehicle is to be parked on dry, level ground, and the parking brakes are to be on (in winter, this should be considered in each case, due to the risk of freezing), the bulldozer blade is to be lowered and tipped all the way forwards, so that the share is in the ground. The circuit breaker key is to be removed and the vehicle locked. For long-time parking/storage, the main power switch is to be Chap-6 turned off.

f.

g.

h. i.

6.16.1.9

Transport/working with engineer vehicles and armoured engineer vehicles a. Before driving commences it is to be checked that the vehicle’s weight class does not exceed the weight the road is meant to support. b. Pay attention when driving. Make sure no one is in the ’danger zone’ and look out for loose shoulders, bumpy road, rocks, etc. that might cause tipping/crashing. When driving on public roads, a warning light must always be used when the breadth of the vehicle exceeds 2.5 metres. A warning light must always be used when the vehicle is working on or near a road, and when it is used in violation of traffic regulations or in other ways might pose danger to other traffic. The warning light is to be placed on the vehicle in a manner that makes it possible to see from all sides. Lights must always be on when driving on public roads. The vehicle must always be driven with the dozer’s blade to the front, tilted all the way back and about 30 centimetres above the road. On armoured

c.

d.

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vehicles the blade is to be in the highest position. When driving in reverse the operator must look in the same direction. On armoured vehicles, the vehicle commander’s instructions are to be followed. e. Keep speed low whilst driving downhill. Use the same gear when driving downhill as you would have used when driving uphill. Never let the vehicle roll in neutral gear. When transporting masses, the bulldozer blade must always be in a position as short from the ground as possible while driving. This provides better sight forwards and the vehicle becomes steadier and is less strained. If materiel is to be transported in the dozer’s blade on public roads, the materiel is to be secured according to Norwegian Road Traffic Law regulations, § 141: The load is to be placed in a manner that provides the driver with adequate sight, and does not prevent him/her from manoeuvring the machine in a responsible manner, and does not cover up obligatory marking, lights or registration plates. The load is to be placed in a manner that distributes its weight evenly on wheels that are on the same axle, and which distributes the weight evenly between the axles. For machines that have steer wheels at least 20% of the vehicle’s possible total weight must rest on these wheels. No part of the load must protrude from the sides of the vehicle without having obtained special permission from the police (when driving in a city area), from the road manager (when driving within a county) and from the Directorate of Public Roads (when driving through several counties). The load must not protrude in front of the vehicle’s original forward limitation. Nevertheless, during single transports the load may protrude 1 metre in front of the vehicle’s forward limitation. The load must be fastened if required due to its weight or other conditions. The load must be fastened in a manner that prevents it from causing danger to persons, causing damage to property, getting dragged along the road, falling off the vehicle or producing unnecessary noise. Chains, ropes, tarpaulin, or other items that may be used for fastening or protecting the load must be of sufficient strength, and be fastened securely, so that they do not hang loose on the outside of the vehicle or get dragged along the road.

f.

g.

-

-

h. i. j.

Chains are to be used on all wheels when conditions on the road advice it. On icy or slippery ground the 4-wheel drive must always be connected. When driving on roads the vehicle’s braking system is to be operated so that the transmission will not be disconnected if braking. When driving on frozen lakes/rivers and when driving on or off military ferries: o The driver must always loosen his safety belt

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k. l. m.

The driver is to wear a life jacket The roof hatch is to be open (when applicable) The doors are to be in open position The 4 wheel drive is to be connected The brake pedal is to be used where the gearbox cannot be disconnected (disconnection valve handle is to be drawn out).

During road transport, the air pressure in the tires must be adjusted for each vehicle type, as described in the vehicle’s technical manual. When using the vehicle as a lifting device, it has to be checked that the chains and hooks are without fault. Required certificates on the lifting equipment are to be found in the vehicles or at the work site.

6.16.1.10 Special regulations a. Should the brakes fail when driving downhill, change to a lower gear, or set the direction indicator in reverse and step gently on the accelerator. Should this prove insufficient, use the hand brake and if required the dozer’s blade in order to stop the vehicle. b. A wheeled loader with hydraulic transmission must not be towed without taking special precautions. See the instruction manual for the machine/vehicle in question. Be aware of the danger using articulated vehicles/machinery. When repairing the articulated joint, when using the jack and during transportation on a trailer or railroad the lock must always be in place. When using a winch for recovery, etc. see TF 1-3, booklet 3.

c.

d.

Chap-6

6.16.1.11 Safety regulations and use of PPE during bolt gun exercises a. The bolt gun is a firing tool, which must be handled with the same care and consideration as all other firing arms. b. c. d. The bolt gun is to be stored in a solid box where cartridges, bolts and other equipment can be placed in separate compartments. Check that the gun functions normally before firing. When loading, the same safety regulations as for small arms apply. While firing, helmet, hearing protection (combination of earplugs and earmuffs) and protective goggles must be worn. The correct type of splinter protection is to be used while firing. Warning signs (A5 format) reading ‘ Warning. Bolt gun firing ongoing’ are to be put up before firing commences, wherever necessary in the vicinity of the firing range. Keep in mind the risk of deflection and piercing. Ammunition must not be carried loosely in pockets, but kept in designated

e.

f.

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boxes. These are to be marked so that the ammunition is identifiable. g. Should the bolt gun malfunction it is not to be opened until at least 30 seconds after firing.

6.16.2
6.16.2.1

Mechanical Bridge Layer, Leguan
In general a. The bridge layer must only be driven and operated by trained personnel. b. c. Due to the bridge layer’s weight, good ground conditions are imperative. Pay special attention to potentially weak road shoulders. The bridge layer has a high centre of gravity, and is therefore particularly in danger of tipping over, especially in the terrain. Drive straight/ uphill, and avoid slopes.

Driving without bridge a. When driving without bridge, the sole plates must always be taken off, in order to increase general traffic safety. The width will hence be reduced to 2.9 metres and neither dispensation nor escort vehicle will be required. b. If two or several Leguans are driving together, communication must be set up between the two vehicles. Communication is to be operated by an assistant.

Driving with bridge a. When driving with bridge, the bridge is to be secured and marked in accordance with the technical manual, and all driving is to be conducted according to the instructions provided in the dispensation document (apply early, allow 2 days for the application to be considered). b. c. A special assistant to the driver, who is to operate communications etc., must always be appointed. The transport must always be accompanied by an escort vehicle manned by personnel who have been trained professionally for this, and in accordance with INGR regulations. When driving on a motorway with two or more lanes running in the same direction, the escort vehicle is to drive in the back in order to alert passing vehicles. The escort vehicle is to be marked according to the regulations in force. The transport is to drive in the right lane. If for some reason the transport has to drive in the left lane, the escort vehicle has to drive in front in order to alert oncoming traffic. If two or more Leguans drive together, two escort vehicles must accompany them, and each must have communication. When driving through narrow passages and when driving in reverse, the assistant must always step out and direct the vehicle. Adjust the speed according to driving conditions.

d. e. f.

Laying bridges (points a-d do not apply to tank launched bridge). a. The area where the bridge is to be laid must be reconnoitered in advance, in

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accordance with the requisition form. b. c. d. e. Staying on the bridge layer/bridge while bridging is going on is prohibited. Pay special attention to the cases of the stabilizer jacks. These can often get caught and then fall down. Potential risk of crush injuries. Also pay attention when the sliding arm is moving. Risk of crush injuries. During serial laying of bridges, conditions on the bottom must be reconnoitered. Current and where to place the bridgeheads must be considered carefully.

Other equipment on the bridge layer, such as the chainsaw, is to be used according to UD 2-1 regulations.

6.17

SAFETY REGULATIONS WHEN BUILDING A FIELD COMMUNICATION LINE

Chap-6

Figure: 6.19 Building field communication lines

6.17.1
6.17.1.1

In general
General When building a field communication line, the regulations in ‘Field Manual Signals’, Part 4, Field communication lines, are to be observed. Special attention must be given to the regulations concerning how to cross roads, railways and power current

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6.17.1.2

6.17.1.3

6.17.1.4

6.17.1.5 6.17.1.6

circuits. Climbing power line poles and masts, low-voltage as well as high-voltage, is prohibited. When using line sticks, sticks, etc. near power lines caution must be shown, so that these do not accidentally touch the live power lines. Building field communication lines along roads When building a field communication line along roads, traffic rules are to be observed. The vehicle must always drive on the right side of the road. When coming to a halt, the vehicle is to be driven as far towards the shoulder of the road as possible, so that it does not obstruct other traffic. On difficult road sections and during poor weather and light conditions, the personnel must be particularly attentive in order to avoid dangerous situations. Reflective vests are to be used by personnel building field communication lines along trafficked roads, regardless of light conditions. The vehicle must also be equipped with and use rotating yellow warning lights. Mounting equipment on vehicles The laying apparatus is to be securely mounted on the vehicle, so that it will not be pulled off should the cable get stuck during laying/assembling, in other words, the cable must be able to be torn off, and not pull off the apparatus. Other equipment such as cable drums, equipment cases etc. must also be secured so that they cannot shift or move while driving. Crossing power circuits Crossing power circuits is to be conducted as described in ’Signals Field Manual’, part 4. Climbing power line poles and masts, low-voltage as well as high-voltage, is prohibited. . When using line sticks and field line poles near power lines, caution must be shown, so that these do not accidentally touch the live power lines. Use of climbing equipment and pole climbing Before climbing commences it must always be checked whether the poles can withstand the strain. Safety harness When working on poles, masts, or in other places high up, a safety harness must always be worn. Safety harness with straps, belts and carabiners must always be checked before the equipment is put on. The safety harness is to be put on before mounting the pole or mast. When working on poles, the safety strap is to be used also when climbing up and down. The safety strap is to be adjusted to the correct length in the following manner: Stand with climbing irons attached to the pole Pull the safety strap around the pole and fasten the carabiners Lean backwards with your body straight until the safety strap is taut When the safety strap is of the correct length, you should be able to join hands at the backside of the pole, without them overlapping (arms straight).

6.17.1.7

Climbing irons (pole climbers) Before climbing irons are put on it has to be checked that: All spikes are stuck and are of adequate length and sharpness

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The irons have no dangerous corrosion The grips and base plate are not deformed The leather straps are in good condition

6.17.1.8

The climbing irons are to fit tightly around the pole. The straps are to be securely fastened. Well-trained climbers may refrain from using the breeching. When ascending the heel is to be lifted so that the spikes are released. The irons are to be moved up the pole 15-25 centimetres, then put your heel down and press the spikes into the pole. The grips of the irons must not be lifted sideways. When reaching the appropriate working height, the irons are to be fastened directly opposite each other. Body weight is to rest on your heels. Safety harness and climbing irons must be checked annually at superior level’s repair shop. Check mark is to be attached on the equipment. Marking of guards at military roadblocks. See chapter 5 § 5.21.1.3.

6.18
6.18.1
6.18.1.1

RADIO AND RADIO LINE DUTY
In general
Staying inside stationary vehicles when the engine is running and/or the generating set is being used. See chapter 5 § 5.19.1.1 and onwards.

6.18.2
6.18.2.1

Handling of accumulators
Accumulators must be handled carefully to prevent the electrolyte from leaking. This applies in particular when setting it in/taking it out of a vehicle and during transport. Special caution must be shown during helicopter transport, etc. The acid is highly corrosive, and may cause great injury to personnel and damage to materiel. Should electrolyte leak out, it has be washed off with water as soon as possible. Accumulators must be handled carefully to prevent the electrolyte from leaking. This Chap-6 applies in particular when setting it in/taking it out of a vehicle and during transport. Special caution must be shown during helicopter transport, etc. The acid is highly corrosive, and may cause great injury to personnel and damage to materiel. Should electrolyte leak out, it has be washed off with water as soon as possible.

6.18.3
6.18.3.1

Fastening equipment inside vehicles
While driving, all radios/radio line equipment and accumulators are to be securely fastened to the vehicle. Other equipment must also be secured so that it will not shift or move while driving. The vehicle’s loading plan is to be observed.

6.18.4
6.18.4.1

Earthing of radio/radio line equipment
Radio/ radio line equipment mounted in vehicles is to be earthed to goods in the vehicle, so that no potential difference will occur between apparatus goods and vehicle. This earthing is also a condition for making the radio antennae get the best radiation pattern possible. In this connection and especially when using space wave antennae, the vehicle should also be earthed. Stationary equipment mounted in buildings. Should radio/ radio line equipment require earthing for reasons of functionality or safety, this equipment must not be mounted or used in buildings or parts of buildings (rooms) where the wiring is not

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earthed, at least not without assessing the danger of contact voltage between the permanent wiring and the radio equipment. If the wiring in the room is rigidly mounted and in good condition, and there is little danger of simultaneous contact between radio equipment and wiring, the risk is considered to be low. Radio/ radio line equipment of this kind should only be used in buildings or parts of buildings (rooms) where the wiring already is earthed. Earthing of equipment is to take place by connecting to earth on an electric panel. If the equipment is earthed by use of earth rod, an equalizing bar must still be laid to the earthing system in the building, with connection to the electric panel. Earthing by connecting to water pipes in the building is prohibited.

6.18.5
6.18.5.1

Antennae
Antennae are to be erected as described in ’Field Manual Signals’, parts 2 and 3. Short masts may be fastened in other ways than described (to trees, poles, etc.) if this seems more practical and will pose no risk for personnel and/ or materiel. For very short masts, the regulations concerning wiring may be deviated from as long as this poses no risk that the antenna mast and/or antenna element may get damaged or cause harm to personnel. On radio sets with high maximum output power (100 w and upwards) there will be very voltage levels on the antenna connection. Touching can be lethal. When connecting and disconnecting the antenna, the radio set must therefore be switched off. Fastening antennae during movement.. During driving all antennae mounted on vehicles are to be tied down so that they do not interfere with power lines, telephone lines and other items that can harm personnel and materiel. The free passage underneath power lines must be at least 5 metres. On private roads, driveways and in open terrain the free passage goes down to 4 metres. The driver of a communication vehicle is to concentrate on all other crossing lines, culverts, and trees, etc. where the free passage may be reduced even further. Antenna AS-1729 must not be tied down further than 45 degrees. Should this prove insufficient, the antenna is to be dismounted. This might be of particular relevance when driving through sub passages, underneath trees, etc. and particularly when driving into garages and workshops. When reversing with the antenna tied down, it has to be checked that the antenna does not fasten in lines, branches of trees, etc.

6.18.5.2

6.18.5.3

6.18.6
6.18.6.1

Microwave equipment
In general Strict precautions must be taken when handling the field cables between the base band unit and the control unit, as these may distribute a voltage of 148 volt. When using radioline equipment in the Ghz area, no personnel must stay near the reflector when the equipment is operating. Even when the effect is small, these radio beams may cause injury to the eyes if one looks directly at the reflector. Safe distance from the antenna Is 1 metre. For more on radiation danger, see § 6.2.4 onwards.

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6.18.7 6.18.8
6.18.7.1

Safety regulations when building field communication lines
See § 6.17.1.1.

Where to place communications installations, radio/ radio lines when in the proximity of high-voltage power lines
A communications installation, radio/ radio line, or a vehicle containing communications equipment must not be placed closer than 20 metres away from a high-voltage power line. This distance also applies to the installation’s additional equipment, such as antennae, wires and generator sets.

6.18.8.1

6.18.9
6.18.9.1

Hearing protection
In the signals unit and particularly whenever headsets are being used (including ’walkman’) the volume of the signal/speech will often be so strong that there is a risk of noise injury. The volume must therefore be turned on as low as possible without reducing the reception of the signal. If there is strong background noise (exceeding 85 dBA, that is, in or near a vehicle, vessel, aircraft, aggregate, or similar) earplugs are to be worn, also within headsets. This will usually result in unchanged or improved speech perception, because the earplug muffles the signal as well as the sound, so that the distinctness (that is, the relative strength of the signal and the background noise) will remain unchanged, with the volume at a slightly more comfortable level. Using an open microphone where there is noise should be reduced to a minimum, since the microphone picks up the noise and will send it amplified into the headset (ears) of both sender and receiver, and will provide increased risk of sound injury, and poor hearing conditions for them both. See also chapter 1 § 6.21

6.18.10

Transport and handling of flammable liquids

6.18.10.1 See Appendix 11 A

6.19
6.19.1
6.19.1.1

SAFETY REGULATIONS FOR TRAINING CONDUCT AFTER CAPTURE (CAC)
In general
Conduct after capture (CAC) training is regulated by the Chief of Defence’s directive for conduct after capture during military operations,’Conduct After Capture’ (CAC). The commandant of the Norwegian Defence Intelligence and Security School is professionally responsible for CAC training. As the professional authority, the commandant is responsible for drawing up safety regulations for CAC training. Only personnel who have been trained and qualified by the commandant of the Norwegian Defence Intelligence and Security School can carry out CAC training. Unauthorized CAC training is prohibited and may result in investigation and disciplinary repercussions. The unit requisitioning CAC training and the course instructor are responsible when carrying through CAC training.

Chap-6

6.19.1.2

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6.20

MEDICAL SERVICE

Figure: 6.20 Field hospital

6.20.1
6.20.1.1

In general
Although safety is highly prioritized in the Norwegian Armed Forces, the activity is of a character that occasionally will see injuries occur. This is true when it comes to exercises/training as well as in live missions. To limit the extent of injuries all personnel must know how to perform first aid adequately. There is to be enough sufficient, qualitatively satisfactory medical equipment to maintain safety for personnel. Each unit is to have a medical plan. This is the responsibility of the Commanding Officer.

6.20.2
6.20.2.1

Required competence
Officers/NCOs must have medical competence corresponding to First Aid Level 2, before they can be appointed to lead units or parts of units in the field or during exercises All conscripts are to learn first aid level 2 during basic training. All personnel participating in exercises are to bring their personal first aid kit depending on level of training, minimum individual first aid kit. All personnel must be able to use the distributed medical equipment correctly. Medical equipment belonging to the unit is to be taken care of in a manner that will ensure its operability at all times, particularly in terms of temperatures, humidity and use-by date on the materiel. During exercises for units of company size (or equivalent), each unit is to have personnel with level 3 competence in first aid, and minimum 1 person whose primary function is medical service.

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6.20.3
6.20.3.1

Plan for first aid, treatment and evacuation
Before any exercise or training is started, each unit is to have a plan for first aid, treatment and evacuation of injured/sick personnel. At a minimum, the plan is to state routines for contact with emergency phone numbers 110 (fire), 112 (police) and 113 (medical assistance), which persons in the unit are able to treat injured personnel, how evacuation of personnel is to be carried out, and where the nearest medical installation/medical doctor/hospital is located. Units serving abroad are to have a plan answering the same demands for treatment and evacuation as in Norway.

6.20.4
6.20.4.1

Carbonmonoxide poisoning
Carbonmonoxide (CO) is a highly poisonous and dangerous gas. It is without colour or odour, and one will never notice the gas until the poisonous effects set in. Whenever carbon compounds (kerosene, petrol, propane, etc.) burn without sufficient air supply, there is a danger of carbonmonoxide poisoning. The poisoning occurs because CO more easily gets into the bloodstream than oxygen, even when there is enough oxygen in the air. The oxygen gets ‘blocked’ from the erythrocytes, and a form of internal suffocation occurs. The first signs of carbonmonoxide poisoning include light headache, then nausea. When the poisoning gets stronger, the headache will increase, one goes limp and will eventually collapse and lose consciousness. A patient suffering from carbonmonoxide poisoning will have a striking red complexion. Carbonmonoxide poisoning can be effectively prevented by use of good ventilation. First aid: Bring the injured person out in clean air. Make sure that the respiratory passage is open, and remove pieces of food and vomit. Chap-6 Provide artificial respiration, using the mouth-to-mouth technique. If the patient is breathing on his/her own, let him/her rest in a lateral position. Make sure that he/she does not feel cold. Make sure the patient receives medical attention as soon as possible.

6.21
6.21.1
6.21.1.1

HEARING, NOISE INJURIES AND PERSONAL PROTECTIVE EQUIPMENT
Noise injuries
If exposed to noise levels above 85 dbA, permanent injury may be caused to a person’s hearing. The extent of the hearing damage depends on for how long one was exposed to the noise, yet only one single impact may cause permanent hearing damage if it is strong or lasts for some time. The hearing damage depends on the sound pressure, which is measured in db. The measuring of db is logarithmic, which means that an increase of 3 db on the sound

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pressure, from 85 db to 88 db, will make the sound twice as strong. Normally the ears will endure being exposed to continuous noise, except blasts/shots, of 85 db for 8 hours a day. If the sound intensity is doubled, the time one may be exposed to the noise without receiving injury will be cut in half. Noise above this level will produce high-leveled sound pressure in the inner ear, which will destroy the sensory hearing cells. The hair cells that perceive consonants will be destroyed first. The brain will no longer be able to perceive these letters, and even with a hearing aid one might experience difficulty communicating with others. This is why it is important to protect your hearing and shield it from excessive noise.

6.21.2
6.21.2.1

Hearing protection in the Armed Forces
Earplugs E.A.R. - plug Earplugs made of expanding foam plastic Will muffle the sound about 30-35 dB in the low frequency area (for instance engine sound) and 35-40 dB in the high frequency are (for instance blasts/shots). Can be cleaned and used multiple times. Must be shaped into a thin cylinder and placed firmly in the auditory canal. If hearing is normal, the earplugs will not get in the way of communication when exposed to noise or underneath the headset/earmuffs. Bilsom – glass cotton Will muffle the sound about 15-20 dB in the low frequency area and about 20-25 dB in the high frequency area. Provides inferior protection compared to the E.A.R. plug. Can be used at sound levels up to 95 dB. One-time use. Custom - fit Form-cast earplugs type ER-15, which are specially adapted with an acoustic filter that muffles the sound 9, 15 or 25 dB. Washable with long duration. Provides more even muffling of sound and better speech interpretation. Causes less irritation in the auditory canal. Earmuffs Regular earmuffs muffle sound well in the high frequency area, same capacity as the E.A.R. plug, but far poorer in the low frequency are, inferior to the E.A.R. plug. In order to muffle the sound sufficiently, the earmuffs must fit tight around the ears. The circle around the earmuff, which is pressed towards the head can be made of foam rubber or be fluid-filled. If damaged, it has to be exchanged. Light earmuffs Armed Forces standard earmuffs. Muffles the sound about 0-5 dB in the low frequency area and about 30-35 dB in the high frequency area. Heavy earmuffs Muffles sound about 10-15 dB in the low frequency area and about 35-40 dB in the high frequency area.

6.21.2.2

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Earmuffs with electronic communication equipment. Has microphone, amplifier and headset mounted in the earmuff. Amplifies low external sound levels such as speech and muffles high sound levels. Enhances communication over short distances of less than 50 metres if the voice power exceeds the background noise. Earmuffs with passive communication equipment Has a vent, which muffles sound levels above 80 dB. Its ability will increase up to 120 dB. Allows free communication in the area. Headset Earmuffs with possibility for communication thorough radio/intercom. Muffles sound equally to the passive muffling for the relevant headset. Muffling is reduced by 5-10 dB when receiving communication sound, because the sound of speech must be stronger than the background sound in order to perceive normal speech. Active Noise Reduction systems (ANR) Open systems. A small microphone on the outside will intercept the sound which will be de-phased by 180 degrees, which will be sent back in the anti-phase, like waves colliding on the water, and reduce the noise. Muffles the sound about 20 dB and is most effective for even and low-frequent sound where earmuffs provide poor muffling. ANR may replace the mandatory earplug inside headsets for noise levels below 95 dB. Communication becomes more distinct. Must have an external energy source, a battery or electrical point of connection. Earmuffs with internal radio communication Heavy earmuffs with bone conduction microphone in one earmuff, contact to the Chap-6 jawbone. The sound travels through a radio unit, which is carried on the bodies of other persons with the same earmuff system. Well suited for strong background noise and at distances. Noise muffling equal to heavy earmuffs. Runs on batteries. Sources of noise and choice of hearing protection Personnel participating in service involving firing or blasting, or who stays within 100 metres from such noise sources, are to be informed about the danger of hearing reduction/ear injury and ordered to wear hearing protection. Personnel inside buildings or personnel who are adequately shielded from noise may disregard the above rule. The rule may also be disregarded in situations where the hearing protection makes it difficult to maintain safety in an adequate manner. Officer/NCO may order or allow change in this regulation. Should this happen, the personnel involved must be presented to the medical officer and take an auditory test as soon as possible after the incident. E.A.R. earplugs must normally be worn: When noise levels exceed 85 dB or when peak values of sound level exceed 130 dB

6.21.2.3

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During continuous noise of up to 110 dB When firing blank ammunition Inside headsets when such are being used In the marker’s pit/target pit

E.A.R. plugs and earmuffs are to be worn: at noise levels above 110 dB (continuous noise) at peak values of the noise level exceeding 130 dB (impulsive noise) In the list of noise sources and recommended hearing protection, minimum time for exposure to sound that will lead to hearing injury is presented for some of the sources. Source of noise Weapon Pistol/revolver HK 416 120 - 140 Ikke målt earplugs + earmuffs earplugs + earmuffs earplugs + earmuffs Sound level dB Hearing protection

earplugs + armoured figh- 161 ting vehicle helmet/earmuffs AG 3 Machine gun MG3 30mm 155 155

earplugs + earmuffs earplugs + headset/earmuffs earplugs + earmuffs earplugs + earmuffs earplugs + earmuffs earplugs + earmuffs earplugs + earmuffs earplugs + headset/earmuffs earplugs + earmuffs earplugs + earmuffs earplugs (15 min) earplugs

Carl Gustav 84mm recoil- 185 less gun Javelin from room in buil- 167,9 ding Javelin from covered slit trench 81mm mortar 120mm outside of 50m 172,3

Javelin from bare ground 162,7 182 119

155mm gun, normal char- 195 ge 155mm gun, charge 9 Vehicle Tracked vehicle AFV Leopard in the ter91 108 204

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rain 40 km/hour Leopard 2 at a halt 80 earplugs + armoured fighting vehicle helmet/earmuffs earplugs + earmuffs

AFV Leopard on gravel road (dirt road), 40 km/ hour

108

Leopard 2 on the road, 50 108,5 km/hour AFV Leopard on a gravel 115 road 66 km/hour CV9030N/F1 on the road, 102 50 km/hour CV9030N/F1 terrain, 30 km/hour Caterpillar Tournadozer 99

earplugs + armoured fighting vehicle helmet/earmuffs earplugs + earmuffs earplugs + armoured fighting vehicle helmet/earmuffs earplugs + armoured fighting vehicle helmet/earmuffs earplugs earplugs earplugs + earmuffs earplugs earplugs earplugs + earmuffs earplugs + armoured fighting vehicle helmet/earmuffs earplugs + armoured fighting vehicle helmet/earmuffs earplugs + earmuffs earplugs + earmuffs (2 timer) earplugs + earmuffs (2 timer) earplugs + earmuffs (30 min)

106 108

Grader VHK 116 BM with 89 direct injection engine M 109 G 110 M 113 A 1 30 miles/hour 109 M 113 A 1 30 miles/hour 112 Diehl M113 on the road, 30 km/ 104 hour M113 in the terrain, 30 km/hour M 548 UNIMOG 416 UNIMOG 421 Volvo 4141 95

Chap-6

115 90 88 97

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Airplanes Helicopter C-130 taxing, 20 metre distance 106-112 105 earplugs + earmuffs (1-4 min) earplugs (4 min) earplugs + earmuffs (1 timer) earplugs earplugs earplugs + earmuffs (2 min)

C-130, flying, cargo com- 93 partment Engine rooms Aggregate room Compressors 105 104-109

Compressor with jack109 hammer (pneumatic drill) 6.21.2.4

Guidelines if noise injury is suspected or when staying in noise without hearing protection When personnel who have been exposed to high sound without hearing protection display the following symptoms: Reduced hearing Ringing in the ears Buzzing in the ears Pain in the ears

The person is to be examined by a medical doctor who will perform an audiometer test as soon as possible.

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6.22

SEARCH AND RESCUE OPERATIONS IN CONNECTION WITH ACCIDENTS AND INCIDENTS IN THE DEFENCE FORCES

Figure: 6.21 Seaking on rescue mission

Chap-6

6.22.1
6.22.1.1

Minor accidents
In general Accident memo. a. The officer in charge at the site: make sure that the injury/damage is not worsened and that no more people are injured. make sure that all injured are given first aid immediately. provide transport to doctor, possibly hospital. Consider calling ambulance and doctor. cordon off the accident area if possible. Secure materiel and equipment involved in the accident. write down the name and possibly also addresses and phone numbers to witnesses. inform the unit commander or next highest commander about:

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1. 2. 3. 4. b.

when and where the accident took place names of personnel injured the extent of the accident measures taken

If an accident has caused the loss of life, injury to personnel and considerable loss of military or private property the unit commander is to report: o Loss of human life/lives Injury to personnel Significant damage to or loss of military or other property, immediately report: the course of events measures taken names of missing personnel the situation/condition of personnel where possible injured have been transported unit POC names, addresses and possible phone numbers to next of kin to: 1. For national operations, military phone no. 0565 6330/ civilian no. 75 53 63 30. For operations abroad, military phone no. 0535 3624/ civilian no. 51 34 36 24. Duty officer national operations is manned at Reitan during normal working hours, and at Jåtta during the rest of the day and night. Phones will be redirected. The unit involved will as soon as possible issue a written ’INCSPOTREP’ over their own means of communication (MMHS, N-II, FIS-B or fax) in cooperation with the duty officer J-3 Land. If necessary the duty officer J-3 will get in touch with the unit. J-3 Land, the Norwegian National Joint Headquarters, will proceed with the following measures: Duty officer J-3 Land will brief the NJHQ internally, and pass the gathered information on to MoD III/Situation Centre. MoD III/Situation Centre will brief the Chief of Defence and the Ministry of Defence. The commander of the National Joint Headquarters will, depending on the nature of the incident, assess the situation and decide whether an investigating committee should be appointed.

2.

The chief constable in the district where the accident occurred.

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3.

Other civilian authorities that presumably will need to take immediate action in connection with the accident at hand.

If ammunition/explosives are involved in an accident, this must immediately be reported to the NDLO (FLO FELLESKAP AMM), phone number 61 19 12 30/ 62 51 57 20, mobile phone 992 15 740/41, fax 61 19 03 83.

6.23

RESCUE SERVICE

Figure: 6.22 On his way up

6.23.1
6.23.1.1

In general
The Ministry of Justice is responsible for the administrative coordination of the rescue service and the police for the operative activity. 1. Cooperation Rescue service is carried out in cooperation between a number of government departments, voluntary organizations and private companies with suitable resources for rescue purposes. 2. Coordination The police are the designated coordinator for leading the work in concrete accident situations. Integration The service is integrated and includes all types of rescue missions. (Sea rescue, land rescue and air rescue).

Chap-6

3.

6.23.2
6.23.2.1

Responsibility/leadership
The police hold the responsibility for the staff work involved in connection with rescue service, and are in charge on the accident site. This applies without exception, also within military boundaries, but the arrangement is to take certain practical

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considerations If a military unit has met with an accident, the Armed Forces will execute the coordinating leadership until the police arrive and take over. Being in charge on site, the police will work through the Armed Forces’ organization, that is, local commanders on all levels will never be superfluous. Commanders are to lead their units, but be subject to the leader at the site of the accident. If an accident has occurred within military boundaries, the police may take over the leadership on site as normal. It goes without saying that they will cooperate with Armed Forces’ special units such as shipwreck, mine and bomb clearing units, etc. Access control to the military area is to be maintained, but it must never get in the way of speedy life rescue.

-

6.23.3
6.23.3.1

Leadership
The rescue service is divided in two in terms of leadership. There are two Main Rescue Centres, one in the city of Stavanger and one in the city of Bodø (MRC South Norway, Stavanger and MRC North Norway, Bodø). Each holds the overall responsibility for their part of the country, south and north of the 65th latitude, and for 27 Local Rescue Centres (identical to police districts and the sysselmann office at Svalbard). (LRC) Each Main Rescue Centre is under leadership of the chief constable in the cities of Stavanger and Bodø respectively, representatives from the Armed Forces, the Norwegian Post and Telecommunications Authority and AVINOR. In addition a number of advisers have been appointed, who may be called in when needed. The Local Rescue Centres are attached to the 27 police districts in Norway, and to the sysselmann office at Svalbard. The local centres are under leadership of their chief constable when rescue work is about to commence. In addition, a number of advisers have been appointed. The rescue centres are manned by police officers and police officials, and by other persons who will be needed during rescue operations. Personnel from the local police authority will often function as operatives in charge on the accident site, in areas where rescue operations are ongoing. Normally, the rescue operation is led by the Local Rescue Centre, which will be placed in the relevant police district.

6.23.4
6.23.4.1

Armed Forces’ support
The Armed Forces will support with personnel and materiel whenever this seems adequate. If there has been an accident on land and Armed Forces units are participating in the rescue work, the unit will automatically detach a liaison officer to the operative leader on site. This also applies for allied units. Liaison officer(s) for the Local Rescue Centre is dependent on the situation, and is to be detached if the LRC wants one. If they do, he/she is to be appointed by the Home Guard district commander, being the territorial head. The liaison element is to have competence within communications and medical service (specifically local conditions) as well as in military resources in the broadest sense of the term.

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6.23.5 6.23.6
6.23.5.1

Organization
See appendix 12A

Reporting and investigation of accidents and incidents in the Armed Forces
See appendix12B

6.23.6.1

Chap-6

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7
7.1

MILITARY WORKING DOGS/ RIOT CONTROL
USE OF MILITARY WORKING DOGS

Figure: 7.1 Canine on duty

7.1.1
7.1.1.1

In general
The safety regulations for the use of military working dogs apply to all training and use of dogs in the military. The commanding officer of the Norwegian Military Dog Training Establishment is also the professional authority for all use of dogs in the military. Questions related to health checks, first aid and hospitalisation of dogs are covered in the directive from the chief veterinary. The term ’military working dog’ applies to all dogs owned by the military, including those owned by the Norwegian Home Guard (also dogs owned by Home Guard-soldiers individually). The following safety regulations apply to all training, exercises and live missions where military working dogs are being used. The safety regulations must be seen in connection with the directions that have been drawn up locally, at the different unit locations where military dogs are assigned. The ‘Authorization programme for military working dogs’ in force, also includes regulations that must be known by military dog handlers and those who are professionally responsible for the canine units.

7.1.1.2

7.1.1.3

7.1.2
7.1.2.1 7.1.2.2

Personnel
The recruiting of personnel for canine units is based on voluntary participation. Military and civilian personnel who are to handle/ work with military working dogs must have participated in and passed six weeks of basic training (KHG) for dog handlers, as appointed by the FHSK (The Norwegian Military Dog Training Establishment). For dog handlers in the Home Guard, a two-week basic training

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7.1.2.3

programme for dog handlers will suffice. Personnel who are to work as dog tenders for military working dogs must have attended and passed a two-week course in dog tending, arranged by the Armed Forces. Personnel who take part in the training of military working dogs are obliged to study the safety regulations for use of military working dogs, and the directions that have been drawn up locally, at the different canine unit locations. It is to be ascertained that the dog handler possesses the required level of control over the military working dog before he or she starts working with the dog in situations where violence and use of force may come into play.

7.1.3
7.1.3.1 7.1.3.2

Materiel and equipment
All materiel that is to be used in a mission, or in training, during transport and while kennelling dogs, is to be approved by the appropriate authorities. The FHSK will recommend suppliers of approved equipment. The materiel has to be in a condition that rules out the possibility of it causing any harm to personnel or dogs. Collar, leash and track line must be checked for ruptures, or other types of damage, daily. This is vital to prevent the said equipment from rupturing, should the dog suddenly make a vigorous pull. Arm protectors and muzzles are to be intact and without any sharp edges. Transport cages for dogs are to be checked before use. The dog handler is to ascertain that the cages are intact (without cracks), that they have no sharp edges, that the locking device on the door is in working order, and that the cage has been put together according to the regulations. When stacking cages, it has to be ascertained that no ventilation hatches are covered, and that the required amount of lighting is not being obstructed.

7.1.3.3 7.1.3.4

7.1.3.5

7.1.4
7.1.4.1

Personal protective equipment (PPE)
In situations where personal protective equipment (splinter-proof vest, bullet-proof vest, helmet, etc.) is being worn by the dog handler the dog should wear a protective vest, if this seems appropriate. The officer in charge of the canine unit must assess Chap-7 the situation and make the decision.

7.1.5
7.1.5.1 7.1.5.2 7.1.5.3

Transport
All transport of canines must be carried out in a way that causes little discomfort for the dogs. During transport, the dogs are to be properly supervised and cared for. When moving around, the dog should, as a rule, be led in a leash. The exception to this rule is when the officer in charge gives the order that the dog is to move around unrestrained, due to reasons of training and/or the nature of the mission. As a general rule, canines are to be transported in vehicles with cages mounted. The Armed Forces must during all transportation of canines in cages on vehicles take into consideration § 2 in the Animal Protection Act and the ‘Ratification draft – Armed P-19 ‘Animal care and welfare and veterinary support during all phases of military deployments’ which Norway has endorsed. During operations or missions abroad similar transport conditions must be sought, depending on which vehicle is being used for dog transport.

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7.1.5.4

7.1.5.5 7.1.5.6

7.1.5.7 7.1.5.8

7.1.5.9

7.1.5.10

In addition, all vehicles used for transporting canines should have air conditioning systems and possibility for heating in cold weather. In vehicles where cages have not been mounted, transport cages or muzzles should be used. When transporting more than two dogs in a vehicle without mounted cages or transport cages, the dog handlers are to stay with the dogs throughout the transport and keep them apart. Muzzles are to be put on. Should a lorry be used for transporting two or more dogs and their handlers the lorry is to have a tarpaulin and seats are to be mounted. The dog handlers are to be seated back to back and keep their dog between their legs with the collar on throttle control. The dogs are to wear muzzles. The vehicle commander is to ascertain that the safety regulations are observed by the personnel being transported as well as by the driver. If necessary, communications are to be set up between the vehicle commander and the dog handlers. When transporting dogs on vehicles where it is impossible for the dog handlers to be seated back to back, everyone should be on special alert. In certain exercises, personnel and dog handlers may be transported in vehicles without roll-over protection or tarpaulins. The frames must then not be lower than 40 centimetres. Dogs should never be transported in the manner described above over distances longer than 50 kilometres. If dogs are transported in trailers, these trailers are to be approved according to civilian laws and regulations for animal transport. Should helicopters be used for transporting dogs and dog handlers, the dog handlers are to be seated next to each other and keep their dog between their legs with a firm grip on the collar and the muzzle, and with the collar on throttle control. The dogs are to wear muzzles. An officer/NCO without dog is to supervise and be in charge of the transport. He or she is to ascertain that no dog handler falls asleep, and offer his/her assistance, should this be required. The officer/NCO in charge of the transport must be able to communicate with the pilot. Because the dogs and dog handlers have little space, special caution must be shown, and the leash is to be fastened to the deck/floor of the helicopter. If only one to two dogs are to be transported, transport cages should be used. Whenever being transported on naval vessels such as a rubber dinghy or inflatable boats, military working dogs are to wear approved life jackets marked "Forsvaret". Should an all terrain vehicle (summer/winter) be used for transporting dog and dog handler, the dog is to be placed in a securely mounted cage/transport cage. Should no such case be mounted in the vehicle, the dog handler is to keep the dog between his legs with the collar on throttle control. The dog is to wear a muzzle. In severe cold, the dog must wear a rug. Should a tracked vehicle be used for transporting dog and dog handler, the dog handler is to keep the dog between his legs with the collar on throttle control. The dog is to wear a muzzle. If there is enough space in the tracked vehicle, the dog should be placed in a transport cage. In addition, the military must always observe the current civilian laws and regulations for dog transport in transport cages and in trailers.

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Figure: 7.2 Canine transport, helicopter

7.1.6
7.1.6.1 7.1.6.2 7.1.6.3 7.1.6.4 7.1.6.5

Kennelling
When kennelling dogs in cages or in running lines on guard duty, the kennel in its entirety is to be examined by the dog handler in each separate case. To prevent the dog from escaping the kennel, it must be equipped with a locking device approved by the appropriate authorities – one that is secured in such a manner that the dog will not be able to open the lock on its own. When using stall chains/ wires, these are to be equipped with two snap hooks/ carabiners. The snap hooks must be of a kind that is impossible for the dog to open. The kennel must be checked for conditions that might cause injury to the dog (see § 7.1.6.5). Should there be defects or deficiencies, these are to be corrected before the dog is placed in kennel. When kennelling dogs in the field, only approved chains are to be used. It is the responsibility of the individual dog handler to check the chain for possible weak points.

Chap-7

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7.1.6.6

7.1.6.7

The kennelling is to be conducted in a manner so that no individual may get in contact with the dogs unawares. If necessary, guards are to be posted. The kennelling is to be conducted in such a manner that the dog is left unable to get closer to paths (should there be such) than 4 metres. The stall chain is to be fastened with the snap hook/ carabiner around the trunk of a tree, rather loosely, so that the dog can move freely around within a diameter of about 1.5 metres from the tree (the length of the chain). The dog’s collar is to be on throttle control. It is the responsibility of the individual to keep the kennel, fences, yards, etc. in proper condition, so that the dogs cannot escape. The military must also observe civilian laws and regulations concerning the kennelling of dogs in cages/kennels. All kennels are to be approved by the local veterinary authority before they receive dogs.

7.1.7
7.1.7.1

Training and exercises
When using military working dogs as well as token forces, all personnel who may get in contact with a dog, or be apprehended by a dog equipage, must know how to behave in front of the dog as well as the dog handler’s orders. The token force must under no circumstance try to attack the dog or dog handler, and/or other personnel who accompany the equipage. If the dog is to be used in an active assault, approved protective equipment must be worn, in other words, arm protector/ protective suits or muzzles. The dog handler must at all times control his dog when working with token forces, so that the dog does not bite and injure other personnel (or other individuals). Working dogs unused to detain fleeing individuals must be trained not to attack individuals who remain passive. The dog is to break off/end the attack on the dog handler’s command.

7.1.8
7.1.8.1

Injuries
Personnel who have been injured or bitten by military working dogs are to be treated by a medical doctor. The incident (injury to personnel/dogs) is to be reported to the Chief Veterinary (FHINSP). Minor incidents or routine inspections are to be included in the monthly reports from the units. Should a dog get sick, it is to be treated by a military vet if the unit can produce one. If the unit has no vet, it must have a written contract with a licensed civilian veterinary concerning the treatment of military working dogs. Also observe the regulations in Tff grp 66, and the paragraph 6.22.1.1, concerning procedures for minor accidents and other incidents. som omhandler prosedyre ved mindre ulykker og nestenulykker. The owner or handler of a military working dog is liable for damages, on a subjective or objective basis in accordance with the regulations laid down in the ‘claim for damages’ law of 13 June, 1969, no. 26, § 1-5; the law of 9 July, 1926, no. 4, § 1 for keeping farm animals, and the law of 9 June, 1987, no. 49, § 29, for keeping reindeer.

7.1.8.2 7.1.8.3 7.1.8.4

7.1.9
7.1.9.1

In general: Using military working dogs in situations characterized by constraint or where force is being used
When and how a soldier may use a working dog as an instrument of force, is not specifically laid down in Norwegian law, or governed in any other way. Only authorized KGH dog handlers may use military working dogs in such situations. The

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use of dogs in a violent and threatening situation depends on so many factors that a detailed set of regulations would only lead to confusion. The dog handler must be able to assess the situation and determine how the dog may be used most effectively. The principal rule for soldiers’ use of instruments of force is that only the necessary amount of force should be applied. The degree of force used must be estimated in relation with the damage that may or will be inflicted. Before a military working dog is used as an instrument of force, other less drastic means must have been tried in vain, unless these appear to be obviously insufficient or unsuitable.

7.1.10
7.1.10.1

Situations of acting in self-defence: the Criminal Code’s § 48
If military personnel (dog handlers or others) or military installations are exposed to acts of violence, vandalism, break-in, theft, or other illegal activity, use of force may lawfully be employed to prevent the attack. The degree of force used must be in proportion to what appears as necessary in order to prevent the unlawful act. If the unlawful act has been completed, the situation changes. Since we no longer are talking of an ongoing illegal attack, the situation will no longer call for acts of self-defence. A few examples of situations where one might consider using military working dogs include: In order to stop an initiated or apparently imminent act of violence/injury to personnel (dog handlers or others) or materiel In order to prevent intruders from entering military camps or military areas In order to remove intruders who unlawfully have entered a military camp/ area In order to stop persons who are fleeing to avoid being lawfully prosecuted To abide by the law of keeping military secrets

Det understrekes at mildere midler normalt skal anvendes før tjenestehunder tas i bruk. Det må til enhver tid vurderes om bruk av tjenestehund er strengt nødvendig.

7.1.11
7.1.11.1

The principle of necessity: the Criminal Code’s § 47
Here, we refer to situations in which personnel or military interests are endangered, even though there is no ongoing unlawful attack. The law says the risk of damage or injury must be considerably higher than the risks involved when ordering the dog to attack, if the attack is to be carried out lawfully under the principle of necessity. Examples of situations in which it might be appropriate to use a dog under the principle of necessity include: Cases in which demonstrators (or riots) prevent e.g. a messenger from bringing an important message through Whenever the dog can be used to split up a crowd of bystanders or onlookers who make it difficult for fire-fighters to do their job.

Chap-7

In acts of self-defence and acts carried out under the principle of necessity, force may lawfully be used towards civilian as well as military personnel. Force may be used to protect military as well as civilian interests.

7.1.12
7.1.12.1

Military police
Military officers and NCOs, military police and military guards may use force,

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including military working dogs on alert, should this be necessary while doing police work. This is in accordance with the law of police authority in the military, § 1, see § 3 police by-law § 8. This authority may be used in areas controlled by the military and in their immediate surroundings. When using or threatening to use a military working dog as a particular means of force, the dog handler is to report this - as soon as possible - to his closest superior officer, who in turn is to report to the appropriate officer in the unit. If a person has been injured by dog bite, see this chapter’s § 7.1.8.1 and onwards.

7.1.13
7.1.13.1

Responsibility when using military working dogs
Should military dog handlers be working missions independently, not on the orders of their superiors, they must themselves estimate whether the dog should be used to stop fleeing persons. If an officer in charge accompanies the dog handler, or the dog handler is under his command, and/or if superior officers are present, the person(s) in command are to make the decision. The responsibility is then on the hands of the person who gave the order to use the dog.

7.1.14
7.1.14.1

Using military working dogs when means of force are applied
Means of force include: Apprehending the person(s) Searching them (including bodily search) and, if necessary, confiscating objects found

Means of force can only be used to the extent that one has the authority in law to apply them. Authorization to use means of force is given in accordance with the law of military police authority. The military’s use of working dogs must also be in accordance with police regulations concerning the use of dogs for protection and attack. Without receiving orders from a higher authority, or under the rules of acts of self-defence or the principle of necessity, working dogs are only to be used for apprehending people when this takes place in accordance with the Criminal Procedure Act’s § 176. The authority to give the order to use the dog for apprehending an individual is in part originating from statuatory rules about military command, and in part from the regulations in the Criminal Procedures Act.

7.1.15
7.1.15.1

Using working dogs for apprehending individuals
The working dog may be used for apprehending suspects when the individual is caught in the act of Carrying out a legal offence Fleeing, or while getting ready to try and escape prosecution for having committed a legal offence

When the working dog may be used to stop fleeing individuals, in accordance with the regulations above, the dog handler is to call out to and warn the fleeing person(s) before the dog is let loose. The dog handler is to call out twice in a loud voice “Stop, or I will set the dog(s) on you”. If there is a chance that the fleeing person might have time to escape, the dog handler is to call out only once.

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7.1.16
7.1.16.1

Marking military working dogs while training and during exercises
S-dogs/ Military working dogs in the Home Guard While training working dogs, and the dog is running around unrestrained outdoors, e.g. carrying out mountain rescue, avalanche rescue, making searches in the field, etc., the dog must always be marked with the authorized triangle sign that signifies that the dog belongs to the Armed Forces. While training other disciplines and during exercises or in live missions, the decision to put the triangle sign on the dog must be made by the officer in charge in each separate case. The triangle sign may be requisitioned from the Norwegian Military Dog Training Establishment.

7.1.17
7.1.17.1

Using dogs to search for explosives
There are two main categories of threats: Specific bomb threat Unspecific bomb threat Specific bomb threat There is detailed information about the bomb; its location, time of detonation, trigger mechanism, what it looks like, etc. On the order of the person in charge on the scene, the dog handler is to command the dog to start searching and clearing the area around the object. Unspecific bomb threat There is no detailed information concerning the bomb, but one suspects that a bomb may be located in a specific place. On the order of the person in charge on the scene, the dog handler is to command the dog to search for the bomb. When using working dogs to search for explosives, there are two search categories: Searching to locate the potential threat Searching to clear the area Searching to locate the potential threat The dog handler (no. 1) is to locate bombs using the working dog 1 assistant (no. 2) is to walk behind the dog handler, and his task is to mark the cleared path systematically, plus mark the extraction route from the explosives’ location to the EOD-personnel’s checkpoint. The assistant (no. 2) must be EOD trained. Helmet and other personal protective equipment must be worn by both dog handler and assistant EOD-personnel are to be present.

Chap-7

-

Searching to clear the area There is no specific indication that a bomb exists, but certain objects or areas need to be cleared, e.g. when a VIP is coming to visit The dog handler may work alone Helmet and splinter-proof vest must be worn Should the dog find any explosives, EOD-personnel will take over and disarm

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these.

7.1.18
7.1.18.1

Searching for live land mines
The dog equipage is to be authorized by the Norwegian Military Dog Training Establishment, and the assistant (no. 2) by the unit’s own professional authority. The searches are only to be carried out with no. 2 present. During controlled training searches using the dog to find live land mines, the SOPs in force must always be observed. Condition: For a dog equipage to search fields with live land mines, training must have been carried out regularly in live, controlled minefields. The operational dog equipage must train using original mines, with original explosives, from the area in question.

7.1.19
7.1.19.1

Searching for bomblets and bomblet packaging, plus EOD (duds)
Searching for bomblets and bomblet packaging, as well as EOD (duds) using a dog equipage, is only to be carried out if the dog equipage has been trained for this and the dog knows the explosive(s) and packaging used for the specific bomblet. When searching for bomblets, the same safety regulations apply as when searching for live land mines.

7.1.20
7.1.20.1

Personal protective equipment (PPE)
The dog handler and his assistant (no. 2) who participate in searching for land mines and clearing explosives, are to have the following personal protective equipment available: Field dressing Helmet with visor/face shield Protective suit

7.2
7.2.1
7.2.1.1

SAFETY REGULATIONS FOR RIOT CONTROL
In general
Instruction in and training of riot control is to be led by an instructor who has been certified or who has gone through and passed the riot control instructor course level 1, level 2 or level3, under the direction of the professional authority, and after the year 2006. Earlier courses taken, as well as relevant riot control duty, may be also be approved, by the Chief of the professional authority (Manoeuvre).

7.2.2
7.2.2.1

Officer conducting the exercise and safety controllers
Bilateral exercises in riot control might easily escalate out of control. The OCE must plan the exercise carefully, in order to minimize the risk of personnel getting injured. There are to be three safety controllers for the foremost platoon (OCE, safety controllers 1 and 2). All safety controllers MUST wear reflector vests and whistles. NO other person must use a whistle apart from the safety controllers. If a safety controller blows his

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whistle, the situation is to freeze immediately. In minor exercises, the same person might function both as OCE and safety controller 1. The OCE must have passed the riot control instructor course, levels 1, 2 or 3, authorized by the professional authority. The OCE: may be the platoon commander in platoon training, hence have the main responsibility while the training is going on. The OCE cannot be a part of the training force when the exercise is bilateral. Safety controller 1: safety controller for the token force. Safety controller 2: safety controller for the unit that is training. During large-scale exercises, the OCE must consider carefully how many safety controllers will be needed in order to go through with the training in a safe and responsible manner. The OCE must study the regulations for leading such activities.

7.2.3
7.2.3.1

The token force
The token force must have an understanding of and insight into the purpose of the training, in order to avoid unnecessary injuries, and for the training to proceed and escalate in the intended manner. The token force must have trained for the mission before the bilateral exercise begins. The token force is to follow the guidelines for token forces. See ‘Lesehefte Massetjeneste’, v. 1.0, page 42.

7.2.4
7.2.4.1

Medical readiness
Medical kit no. 1 (or bigger) Stretcher with blanket and a means of transportation. When training on platoon level or higher levels, medical personnel with vehicles for evacuation are to be present. The medical personnel must in advance be informed that dogs are to be used, there will be live fire, vehicles will be used, etc. in order for them to be prepared to treat various types of injuries.

7.2.5
7.2.5.1

Required equipment
According to the OCE’s orders. In bilateral exercises, the training force is to wear full personal protective equipment while the exercise is going on.

Chap-7

7.2.6
7.2.6.1

Using batons/sticks
In bilateral exercises, training batons are to be used. The baton must not be aimed at an individual’s head - it is to be used striking the main muscle groups in the individual’s arms and legs.

7.2.7
7.2.7.1

Vehicle use
The training force must know the safety regulations for the relevant vehicle type. The vehicle is to signal with the horn before it starts moving. The vehicle commander is to make eye contact with the safety controller before the vehicle starts moving.

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When vehicles are moving, the distance between the vehicle and the personnel to its sides must be of a length that ascertains that no person will run the risk of getting caught under the vehicle, should he or she for some reason fall. No large objects must be thrown at the shield wall when the vehicle and the shield wall are moving, this is to prevent that anyone should fall towards and possibly get caught underneath the vehicle. Water bottles (canteens) and wooden blocks are authorized, but large objects such as pallets etc. should be avoided. No large objects must be thrown at the shield wall when the vehicle and the shield wall are moving, this is to prevent that anyone should fall towards and possibly get caught underneath the vehicle. Water bottles (canteens) and wooden blocks are authorized, but large objects such as pallets etc. should be avoided..

7.2.8
7.2.8.1

Using dogs
See § 7.1, Use of military working dog. All participating personnel are to be briefed by the dog handler before an exercise or training begins, so that they all understand how the dog will behave. When using military working dogs, this is to be planned in advance. All drills where dogs are being used must be trained without the dog before participating in a live situation. Medical personnel are to be alerted and be prepared to treat bite injuries, fractures and crush injuries. Individuals in the token force that do not wear protective suits during training where a dog without a muzzle is being used, are to be instructed by the dog handler before the training begins. These persons are to be instructed to stay at least 2 metres in front of the dog at all times. When the dog is to pass through the shield wall, the gap is to be at least 2 metres when personnel do not wear personal protective equipment, one metre when they do. When the dog is to pass through the shield wall, the personnel that make up the shield wall where the dog is to pass through are to take one step back and to the side, so that they stand face-to-face, ready to close the gap as soon as the dog has passed through. The dog handler is to keep the dog by his foot, on a tight leash, in all situations where friendly forces come closer than 5 metres, all the way until the equipage has passed through the gap in the shield wall. If the token force is allowed to throw objects, the shield wall, the cleaning group and reserves are to be well aware of their duty to protect the dog and the dog handler. Do not physically approach the dog except on orders. Do not strike or kick the dog. Do not throw objects at the dog. Do not get between the dog and the dog handler, or behind the dog.

7.2.9
7.2.9.1

Using open flames
Great caution must be taken when using open flames, this be whether car tyres are being burned, while training heat tolerance, or while burning liquid is being used in other ways.

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Molotov cocktails must not be thrown directly towards personnel in bilateral exercises. Molotovcocktail skal kastes mot et spesielt oppmerket mål, eller område hvor omgivelsene ikke er brennbare. Molotov cocktails must primarily be used to illustrate its effect and dangers, and when training chosen fire fighters. At least two persons (minimum) are each to bring a 6-kilo fire extinguisher ready for use. During bilateral exercises at least 2 fire extinguishers must be kept in reserve.

7.2.10
7.2.10.1

Use of pepper spray
Pepper spray is only to be used by personnel who have gone through authorized training. Pepper spray must NOT be used in bilateral exercises. There are specific exercise sprays that may be used in bilateral exercises, if practicing the use of such sprays is a goal in itself.

7.2.11
7.2.11.1

Using deluge guns
Only personnel with authorized training can man the deluge gun or water hoses with high pressure during bilateral exercises. If deluge guns have been mounted on e.g. vehicles, the water must not be aimed at personnel who are at a distance closer than 50 metres. In bilateral exercises, the deluge gun must not be operated with a pressure that might cause injury to personnel. Should the deluge gun be aimed towards the ground in the purpose of causing rock fall and dust rising in the air, token personnel are to be equipped with protective goggles. The training force must know the current safety regulations for the relevant vehicle type(s). See § 7.2.7

7.2.12
7.2.12.1

Using CS
Regulations for use of CS gas, see § 6.5

7.3
7.3.1
7.3.1.1

SAFETY REGULATIONS FOR USE OF LESS LETHAL WEAPONS
General
The Commander for Manoeuvres is the professional authority for Less Lethal Weapons (LLW) in the Norwegian Armed Forces. (Ref.: Directive of the Chief of Defence on the procurement and use of Less Lethal Weapons in Norwegian Armed Forces divisions, 2007.) The commander of the Norwegian Armed Forces Military Police division is responsible for the development, approval and introduction of methods in the use of gas and impact weapons involving Military Police and military sentries carrying out sentry and patrol duties. Instruction and exercises in the use of Less Lethal Weapons should be under the direction of a qualified instructor. ‘Qualified’ means that the person in question has

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undertaken and passed Level 1, Level 2 or Level 3 of the Instructor’s Crowd Management and Less Lethal Weapons course under the direction of a professional authority, or the Instructor’s Pepper Spray and Telescopic Baton course under the direction of the FMPA (The Norwegian Armed Forces Military Police Division), or the Norwegian Police University College.

7.3.2
7.3.2.1

Definitions
The term ‘Less Lethal Weapons’ is not restricted to the weapon itself but also applies to ammunition and tools. Examples of Less Lethal Weapons include, but are not limited to, impact weapons, gas weapons, water cannons, laser dazzlers, sonic weapons, as well as kinetic and area-impacting weapons systems. The term ‘impact weapons’ refers to short batons (rubber batons), telescopic batons and long batons. The term ‘gas weapons’ refers to CS gas, Pepper Spray and similar, less lethal gases, including hand-held, weapon mounted and vehicle mounted gas weapons. The term ‘water cannons’ refers to weapon systems that fire directly impacting quantities of water with less lethal kinetic impact, including portable and vehicle mounted water cannons. The term ‘laser dazzlers’ refers to weapons systems that fire directly impacting laser beams containing a bright, white light towards personnel or vehicles, which may be used to warn or halt personnel from a distance, or isolate personnel or vehicles within an area. The term ‘sonic weapons’ refers to weapons systems that impact personnel with high and/or unpleasant sounds, which may be used to warn or halt personnel from a distance, as well as forcing personnel to remain at a desired distance, cf. communication tools and sound waves. The term ‘kinetic and area-impacting weapons systems’ refers to weapon systems that fire directly impacting bullets with less lethal kinetic impact, including ammunition for 12 bore shotguns, 40 mm grenade launcher tubes and 76 mm vehicle mounted smoke launcher tubes.

7.3.3
7.3.3.1

Pepper spray
Pepper Spray should only be used by personnel who have received approved training under the direction of a professional authority, refer to item 7.3.1.1 During training, hand-held pepper spray should be used. This should be primarily water-based. Training should be undertaken in accordance with the prevailing curriculum and training programme stipulated by the professional authority. Self-testing in the use of live pepper spray is not, at present, undertaken. Until further notice, this has been replaced by practical training highlighting first aid, in which those participating in the exercise are exposed to the secondary effects of Live Pepper Spray, level 2, Contamination. • During practical training, pupils should immediately wash their eyes and face in running water, where necessary. Pupils should note that they must not rub their eyes or scratch irritated skin. Pupils should note that blinking in rapid succession will reduce the effect of the spray. In addition, pupils should note that the pepper spray should not be swallowed. The mouth, throat and nose

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should be rinsed with water which should then be spat out • In respect of practical training, a stretcher, medical bag and evacuation vehicle should be present

The effects of pepper spray: Pepper spray causes an intense, burning sensation to the skin and eyes. The effect is not immediate but occurs after around 10 seconds. The effect lasts for around 30 minutes but gradually decreases after as little as approx. 5 minutes.

7.3.4
7.3.4.1

Batons
Batons should only be used by personnel who have received approved training under the direction of a professional authority, refer to item 7.3.1.1 Baton blows should not be directed towards the head, neck, solar plexus or spine but towards the large muscle groups in the arms, legs and buttocks.

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8
8.1

ACTIVITIES IN COASTAL ENVIRONMENTS, RIVERS AND LAKES
IN GENERAL

Figure: 8.1 Coastal-rangers in action

8.1.1
8.1.1.1

Introduction
This chapter presents regulations for all activities in a coastal environment, or on lakes and rivers. in general in relation to activities in and on water, safety regulations and leadership are described in part one of the chapter. In part two of the chapter special precautions during the various activities are described. all personnel who are planning and/or doing duty in, on and near water must study this chapter carefully. The professional authority ’Engineer’ is responsible for duty in and on water When it comes to swimming the Norwegian School of Sport Sciences is the professional authority The professional authority ’Engineer’ is responsible for emergency breathing equipment for armoured materiel

8.1.2
8.1.2.1

Professional authority
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8.1.3
8.1.3.1

Leadership and responsibilities
Regulations in chapter 1 apply to these types of activities. Special regulations applying to boats and ferries:

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In all units where boats or ferries are being used, a naval safety officer is to be appointed. The naval safety officer is to be picked from amongst experienced officers. By ‘experienced’ is meant a highly educated officer with experience within the professional field, minimum military boatman certificate level 2. He or she is to authorize all unit missions involving boats and/or ferries. His/her decision is to be based on the following criteria: the condition and type of materiel the personnel’s level of competence, clothing, certification and level of education or training weather conditions, wave conditions and wind conditions the complexity and distance of the mission

The naval safety officer will in each case set the directions for how naval safety is to be organised. Depending on the extent of the mission, the officer may choose whether he/she wishes to follow the mission from a rescue boat or appoint or be assigned a safety chief and safety controller (see chapter 1 § 1.1.5) fulfilling this function. The safety chief/safety officer(s) is to be picked from amongst experienced officers. By ‘experienced’ is meant an officer with a military boatman certificate, minimum level 2. Experienced sergeants and privates may also be used as safety controllers, as long as they have a military boatman certificate level 1 at a minimum. Safety personnel report to the naval safety officer and are responsible for ascertaining that the safety regulations are observed and that the conditions for an authorized boating mission are/have not changed. The safety officer and safety controller(s) have the authority to call off the exercise should this be deemed necessary for safety reasons. The naval safety officer must be informed as soon as possible. Their place of location is to be wherever they can monitor the exercise best. Normally this will be on board a rescue boat. Conditions that are to be taken into consideration include: water depth, current, wind, waves, bottom, light conditions, water temperature, other traffic, level of education/training and certification.

8.1.4
8.1.4.1

Certification
Definition: All personnel are to have received their certification before using motorboats and/or ferries. All certificates can be obtained through authorized courses/application to the professional authority. Category 1: Simple use of motorboats in connection with transport or other work in known or safe rivers/waters in daylight. Advanced Navigation skills not required. Category 2: Supplement to category 1. The boatman can steer the vessel on the sea independently, in waves and in the dark/poor visibility. Category 2 Ferry: Can work as boatman/engine man on a ferry under the ferry captain’s leadership, and operate the propelling system on the

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ferry captain’s orders. Category 3: Lead major boat operations, education/training and command ships. Category 3 Ferry: Lead major ferry operations and education/training.

8.1.5
8.1.5.1

Duty on and near lakes and rivers
Definition: Duties that present an immediate danger of falling into the water. Required protective equipment: Approved flotation devices, or a rope may be attached to the body in a way that keeps it from falling off. The assistant at the opposite end of the rope is to stay on safe ground.

8.1.6
8.1.6.1

Climate
All water in Norway is by definition cold. In other words, precautions must be taken and adjusted to the temperature in the water rather than the temperature in the air. See chapter 6 § 6.11 in UD 2-1. This rule of thumb can be used as a starting point for calculating how long a person can stay in the water at different temperatures. The rule presupposes that the person is in adequate physical shape and presents how long it takes before a person will be unable to take care of himself/herself. The rule does not take into consideration the possibility of local frost injuries. Light clothing: Field uniform:: Rough sea/current:: Ice water (0-5 degrees C) 15 min Cold water (5-10 degrees C) 30 min Twice the amount of time Half the time

8.1.7
8.1.7.1

Note that the ability to survive in cold water is highly individual. During physical exhaustion the ability will decrease significantly. The rule must therefore be used only as a starting point.

Definitions

Rescue vessel: Should be motor driven unless the conditions indicate that it will suffice without. If a motorboat is used, the driver of the boat is to hold a user’s certificate. The vessel must be of a capacity and stability that enables it to help personnel out of the water. The vessel is to be manned by at least 1 boatman and 1-2 assistants who are good swimmers. The rescue vessel is to be equipped with: heaving line, alternatively lifebuoy searchlights (or strong torch) scoop 2 paddle oars, unmotorized: 4 pieces.

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8.1.7.2

boathook rope medical kit adapted to the mission communication with the one/those who are in the water and those who are ashore

Safety vessel Safety vessel is to be motor driven and manned by 1 experienced boatman and 1-2 assistants, who are capable swimmers, at a minimum. The safety vessel must have at least the same capabilities as the vessel(s) it is meant to secure, and its load must not diminish its function as a safety vessel. The vessel must have the capacity to haul people out of the water. The safety vessel is to be equipped with: heaving line with life buoy search lights scoop paddle oars in reserve boathook rope, at least 20 m long medical kit adjusted to the mission grapnel/anchor with chain and rope during operations on the coast/near big water surfaces there is to be a maritime VHF (access to channel16+ work channels) fire extinguisher (applies to vessels where this is part of the standard equipment) 5 emergency flares, red light or signal gun with 5 red lights lanterns during operations at sea in the dark when visibility is poor, the safety vessel should be equipped with radar and navigation system

8.1.8
8.1.8.1 8.1.8.2

Personal flotation devices/ Rescue Equipment
In general Approved floatation equipment is imperative when working in, on and near water. Definitions Approved personal floatation devices: Category 1 Off duty: Normal clothes, calm and stable weather conditions, smooth waters. Minimum life jacket according to individual weight. Category 2 Duty near/on water. Regular uniform, minimum buoyancy on floatation device 150N. Category 3 Offshore operations.

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Category 4 Heavy clothing. (Body armour). NS-EN 399 Lifejackets 275N

8.1.8.3

The Aquasafe is approved up to and including category 2. The Aquasafe has a durability of about 10 years Rescue equipment Inflatable personal floatation devices Must be checked by authorized personnel according to the requirements for the relevant type. The Aquasafe is to be checked annually. Must be checked by the user prior to use, that is, a visual check depending on the type of vest. Inflate the device using the mouthpiece and look for leakages. Correct packing and storage is imperative! Is to be the outermost piece of garment, in other words, no straps, pieces of clothing, etc. must cover it.

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Survival suit Check that all zippers and buttoning devices are intact Check that no damage has been inflicted on the Neoprene material, which makes the suit float. Must be checked regularly by the user.

Life jacket Check that the vest is without visible damage or tear and that the sources of buoyancy are present and intact. 8.1.8.4 Testing personal floatation devices/rescue equipment Should be carried out by everyone who administers such equipment in order to get familiarized with the equipment. By ’testing’ is meant using the equipment in the water/ under similar conditions to those during which it will be used. Implementation: pre-defined area no possibility for drifting caused by current/wind when testing inflatable floatation devices, lines are to be attached to the body in a manner that makes it impossible for them to fall off rescue vessel is to be on site hot-room/tent is to be available medical kit The Norwegian Maritime Directorate’s booklets, 1 – 4. The booklet ’Man and water’.

8.1.9
8.1.9.1

Suggested reading
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8.2
8.2.1
8.2.1.1

SPECIAL RULES AND REGULATIONS FOR ACTIVITIES
Wading across rivers
Wading vehicles Vehicles are only to wade at established wading sites or in places that have been reconnoitred by engineer divers. Floatation devices category 2 are to be accessible. Special regulations for the individual type of vehicle can be found under the UD 2-1 paragraphs on the relevant vehicle type or in technical manuals. Regulations for wading with vehicles equipped with emergency breathing equipment are an integrated part of the driver training for the relevant vehicle type. Regulations and requirements are to be established by the professional authority (Manoeuvre). Wading personnel The points below only apply to personnel on foot. Definition It must be possible to maintain foothold and balance when crossing water with maximum depth 1 metre on foot. Should there be no possibility for foothold or balance, the regulations for swimming will apply. The speed of the current must be taken into consideration when evaluating foothold. In advance The crossing site is to be reconnoitred with special attention to width, depth, water level, current, bottom and water temperature. The reconnaissance is to be carried out by the officer conducting the exercise/ the person who is to be in charge of the training. The crossing site is to be tested before training commences. See also § 8.1.5. Service on and near lakes and rivers. Command and control The officer conducting the exercise is to have control/ an overview over the crossing site. The officer conducting the exercise must have direct communication with the rescue vessel.

8.2.1.2

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Execution/safety measures Rescue vessel is to be on site. Safety rope must be tightened so that it cannot be pulled down into the water when the weight of the people being secured is added. The safety rope is to be tested and checked after use. Guiding line is not to function as safety rope.

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Safety line is to be put up downstream and is to be secured with float balls. The number of people in the water must not exceed the number of people the rescue personnel and boat have the capacity to rescue. When wading in darkness and when visibility is poor, those who wade are to be marked with a watertight light source and equipped with floatation devices category 1. Safety line is to be marked with a watertight light source. A lightstick is considered to be a watertight light source. Protective mask must under no condition be worn during wading

8.2.2
8.2.2.1

Swimming across rivers
Amphibious vehicles Amphibious vehicle swimming is only to take place in swimming areas that have been reconnoitred in advance. Military diver is to be present and ready to provide assistance before, during and after using amphibious vehicles for swimming. Military diver is to be guided by a military diving guide. Category 2 floatation devices are to be accessible. Special regulations for the individual type of vehicle can be found under the UD 2-1 paragraphs on the relevant vehicle type or in technical manuals. Regulations for swimming with amphibious vehicles equipped with emergency breathing equipment are an integrated part of the driver training for the relevant vehicle type. Regulations and requirements are to be established by the professional authority (Manoeuvre). Swimming personnel Definition Crossing rivers where the water depth exceeds 1 metre or where personnel do not have adequate foothold and balance. In advance The crossing site is to be reconnoitred with special intention to width, depth, water level, current, bottom and water temperature. Currents increase the difficulty of taking safety precautions If the current has a speed that exceeds 0.5 metres per second, this has to be considered in relation to available safety resources

8.2.2.2

The reconnaissance is to be carried out by the officer conducting the exercise/ the person who is to be in charge of the training. The crossing site is to be tested before training commences. Command and control The officer conducting the exercise is to have control/ an overview over the crossing site. The officer conducting the exercise must have direct communication with the rescue vessel.

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Execution/safety measures Rescue vessel, see § 8.1.7.1, is to be on site. Safety line must be tightened so that it cannot be pulled down into the water when the weight of the people being secured is added. The safety line is to be tested and checked after use. Floatation devices category 1 are to be used. Guiding line is not to function as a safety rope. Safety line is to be put up downstream and is to be secured with float balls or piling. The number of people in the water must not exceed the number that the officer conducting the exercise can keep control of, and not exceed the number that the rescue personnel/vessel has the capacity to rescue. When swimming in darkness and when visibility is poor, the personnel swimming are to be marked with a watertight lighting device. A military diver is to be present and ready to assist personnel before, during and after swimming. A military diving leader is to be in charge of diving. Safety lines are to be marked with watertight lighting devices. A lightstick is considered to be a watertight lighting device. When swimming, no items or equipment aside from personal floatation devices must be attached to the body. Protective mask must under no condition be worn while swimming.

8.2.3
8.2.3.1

Swimming
In general Outdoor swimming at military units or institutions may take place as free swimming or unit swimming. Free swimming means individual swimming on one’s spare time and at one’s own initiative and responsibility. Unit swimming means swimming monitored by an NCO/officer in charge. All swimming during service is to be conducted as unit swimming according to the regulations in § 8.2.4 Free swimming must observe normal safety rules and the regulations for each site. On all bathing sites within the camp area, the following rescue equipment is to be present: Lifebuoy with 15 m rope Boathook. In camp areas with large bathing sites (ponds, lakes, etc.) where the water is deep, a boat or a solid raft must be on site. The boat/raft must be of a size that enables it to carry two persons, and stable enough to withstand the struggle associated with pulling a person in need of help or a person who has is deceased onboard, without capsizing. The boat or raft must be big enough to provide space for resuscitation attempts on board. At bathing sites outside the camp area (swimming arranged during marches or field exercises) life belts and ropes must be accessible. The garrison’s commanding officer may prohibit bathing in special places within the camp area and within close proximity of the camp.

8.2.3.2

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8.2.4
8.2.4.1

Command and control
Unit swimming for military personnel must always be carefully monitored with an officer/NCO leading the activity. The unit’s oldest officer/NCO present is to be in command and he/she is responsible for ascertaining that the safety measures listed below are observed: Swimming is only allowed in a limited surveyable area (e.g. a small cove). Ordinarily the bathing site should be approved prior to swimming by the garrison’s commanding officer or by the unit commander. When the temperature in the water drops below 15 degrees Celsius unit swimming is prohibited. Swimming where the water is deep should be avoided for 1 hour after regular meals or after having been subjected to hard strains (marching, endurance tests, etc.) or if the unit has been marching for a long time without food. If swimming is to take place at a new bathing site, the person in command must check the bottom conditions and current before swimming commences. Where there is a mud bottom or where the current is stronger than 1.5 m per second, unit swimming is prohibited. Non-swimmers are to be guided to a defined area in shallow water and a good swimmer must be set to watch them. Officers/NCOs are to be present. Before swimming commences, the participants are to be teamed up in pairs that are to guard each other. The pairs are to be instructed to stay close to one another. Should something happen to one of them, the other is to try and save his mate, while calling for help. At least 2 good swimmers are to be picked out to watch the bathing place from separate sides of the cove. They are to keep an eye on the swimmers and assist them should problems arise. The swimmers are to be dressed in swimwear. The number of swimmers per officer/NCO must not exceed 40. When a boat/raft is on site (see § 8.2.3.1, In general) it is to be manned by at least 1 good swimmer and 1 rower, and placed further out than the swimmers. The boat is to be equipped with a lifebuoy with a 15 m rope. Swimming further out than the boat is prohibited. When no boat is on site, the outer perimeter is to be measured from the beach. The duration of unit swimming depends on weather conditions and temperatures. As a general rule no one is to stay in the water for more than half an hour.

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Figure: 8.2 Figure 92 - Where to place lifeguards during unit swimming outdoors 8.2.4.2 Diving into swimming pools must not be done unless it has been ascertained in advance that the depth of the pool poses no risk. Diving from heights exceeding one – 1 – metre is prohibited. Dispensation from these regulations might be given when special conditions demand it, for instance when training for competitions, giving instructions, etc.

For diving into swimming pools, see § 8.2.5.4 Pool requirements

8.2.5
8.2.5.1

Special regulations for swimming in pools
Leadership The requirements for leadership during unit swimming also apply when swimming in pools, except from the requirement that the activity is to be monitored by an officer/NCO. His/her duties may be performed by a certified bath attendant. By ‘certified’ is meant an attendant who has passed the Norwegian Life Saving Association’s test for life savers/lifeguards, and is capable of running this sort of activity. Special regulations for swimming in pools are listed below. The duties of the garrison's commanders Appoint the person responsible for the pool – a PT officer, military groundkeeper or similar.

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8.2.5.3

Provide regulations concerning who will have access to the pool. Decide opening hours for the pool. Provide regulations for which departments are to order bath attendants. Provide regulations for dressing, order and conduct in and around the pool. Provide regulations for how the safety regulations are to be made known.

Duties of the bath attendant In addition to the regulations above, the following rules apply: If there is a diving board/tower in the pool, one of the bath attendants is to be placed on one of the diving boards. He/she is to ascertain that none of the swimmers lie at the bottom of the pool, and at the same time check that no one is diving when there is danger of a collision between diver and swimmer(s). Check that nobody wears a diving mask. Pool requirements The swimming pool should meet the following requirements: The capacity of the pool is to be determined based on about 40 cubic metres of water per swimmer (while in the water). The pool is to be fenced in. The bottom of the pool should be as flat as possible, sloping towards the deep end of the pool. The bottom of the pool should be of a light colour. At the pool, the following life saving equipment must be present: Lifebuoys Reaching pole with a loop First Aid kit

8.2.5.4

If the pool is to be used for swimming lessons or bathing for non-swimmers, the depth of the side of the pool that is being used for these purposes should not exceed 1.5 metres. If diving into the pool is allowed, the following measurements are required: Height of diving board Minimum depth 3,5 m 3,8 m 4,1 m 4,5 m Length of minimum depth 6m 6m 8m 12 m Width of minimum depth 3,5 m 3,8 m 4m 4,5 m

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3m 5m 7,5 m 10 m 8.2.5.5

Hygiene and cleanliness The medical officer should test water samples weekly when the pool is being used

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extensively, and every fortnight when the pool is being less used. If necessary chlorine is to be put in the pool. Chlorine concentration level 0.1 mg chlorine per litre of water. For pools that have their own water purification facility, the regulations for the facility are to be observed. In addition the following rules are to be observed: All swimmers must observe the unwritten rules of normal cleanliness. If possible, swimmers are to take a shower before entering the pool. Changing into swimwear is to take place in the locker room or outside the fence. Footwear is prohibited inside the fence. Breakable objects are prohibited within the fence. Dogs and other animals are not allowed in the pool.

8.2.6
8.2.6.1

Ferry, including possible use of pontoons
Definitions Floating construction which may be used to transport materiel and vehicles across rivers, lakes and oceans. UNIFLOTE Ferry 2000 Tow boat is defined as a boat as long as it is not attached to the ferry and under the ferry captain’s command. Elements of danger When constructing and driftingoperating ferries, various elements of danger must be taken into account. Crush injuries Climate injuries (cold). Spilling of lubricants/fuel. Danger in connection with the use of cranes. Drowning

8.2.6.2

8.2.6.3

Command and control The ferry captain/commander is in charge of the construction and is responsible for safety. The ferry captain/commander is the officer in command on board and is responsible for navigation, manoeuvre and safety. Before embarking on the ferry, the unit being supported is to be informed about: The ferry’s qualities and capacities. Responsibilities and the chain of command on board. Safety equipment and its use (including personal flotation devices). Placing and conduct. Drill in case of a fire or if somebody falls over board (off the vessel).

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8.2.6.4

8.2.6.5

Certification and requirements of personnel In order to work as part of a ferry crew, everyone must have a Category 1 Certificate. The person driving the ferry/the engine man is to have a Category 2 F Certificate. The ferry commander must have Category 2F, should have Category 3F. Execution/safety measures Cranes are often used in ferry construction. The crane driver is to be professionally authorized for the crane he is operating. The crane driver’s ground guides must have good knowledge about the materiel that is to be used when lifting. The crane driver is responsible for security on and around the crane and he/she is to instruct personnel on conduct on the construction site. When constructing ferries the following safety materiel is to be used: Helmet Protective gloves Approved flotation devices

During driving on to and off the ferry, only the driver is to man the vehicle, which will be directed by personnel under the command of the ferry commander. 4-6 wheel drive is to be used. The doors are to be unlocked and the windows down. For tracked vehicles with hatches, the driver’s hatch is to be locked in open position. Vehicles are to be parked in a manner that enables the ferry to stay as horizontally as possible in the water, with good stability. Vehicles are to be strapped according to the ferry’s own regulations, the hand brake is to be on/brakes are to be locked and the vehicle is to be put in first gear (low). All materiel is to be fastened to the ferry, unit weapons and combat materiel must in addition be secured with sufficient emergency buoyancy. When on the ferry all personnel on board must wear approved flotation devices. Personnel on board must primarily stay on top of or outside vehicles, if personnel for practical reasons need to stay inside the vehicle, safety pins are to be loosened, tarpaulin rolled up and windows rolled down. Safety vessel is to be present as long as the ferry is on the water. The safety vessel may also perform practical tasks, as long as this does not interfere with its primary function. The ferry lanterns are to be lit in the dark and when visibility is poor, exceptions can be made during tactical movement and if the naval safety officer considers it feasible, in terms of safety. The ferry is to be stocked with the following safety equipment: Heaving line with lifebuoy Heaving line with lifebuoy Extra rope 4 anchors with chains and rope Boathook 12 kg fire extinguisher

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Medical kit adapted to the mission 5 emergency flares, red light, or signal gun with 5 red lights During coastline operations/large water surfaces, the ferry is to be equipped with maritime VHF, with access to channel 16 and work channels. Lanterns. Spare parts and tools according to type.

Crews are to wear the following items: 2 Lightsticks 8.2.6.6 1 whistle Approved floatation devices

8.2.6.7

Uniflote The Uniflote ferry is a building kit of pontoons and uses towboats for propulsion. The ferry can take fairly strong sea, but its load and the towboats may reduce its capability in strong wind and high waves. Wind/current may cause the ferry to drift. This is particularly noticeable when the ferry lies alongside land. For that reason, the ferry berth is to be placed in a quiet location when this is at all possible. Uniflote materiel may also be used for other constructions. The safety regulations for ferry are then to be observed to the extent this is possible. Ferry 2000 Ferry 2000 is a building kit of pontoons and the leguan brigde. Its propulsion system is motor pontoons. The ferry is transported on shore by the use us special vehicles, and is built on the water by use of special vehicles and soldiers. Primarily, the ferry is to be used under stable and calm weather conditions. Maximum height of waves is 1 metre, but the proportionality between the height and length of the wave is more important than the height of the wave seen in isolation. The ferry’s capacity must therefore be estimated depending on the conditions. Keep in mind the possibility of back wash from other vessels. Special vehicles for Ferry 2000 include crane, vehicle with hooklift. See HUP 11-1. Driving licence category C and civilian G-8 certificate for crane required. See ”Use of construction equipment”, § 5.5.5 for vehicle with hooklift. Chap-8 When launching pontoons, no personnel must stay in the falling direction of the pontoon.

Particular danger of crush injuries during construction/deconstruction
By 1 August 2005 the Ferry 2000 has been put to use for troop and conceptual testing, changes and amendments to this point will be made.

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8.2.7
8.2.7.1

Vessels
Definitions Safe waters: Coastal waters/large water surfaces: Boating operations: Civilian vessels: Lakes and small rivers Great lakes, fiords, coastal environments, big rivers. All forms of military use of vessels in the Army. All forms of non-military vessels, canoes and kayaks.

8.2.7.2

Elements of danger When using a vessel various elements of danger must be taken into account: Crush injuries. Climate injuries (cold). Spilling of lubricants/fuel. High voltage injuries. Drowning.

8.2.7.3

Note that effective cold combined with a damp environment significantly increases the risk of cold-related injuries. Command and control The boatman is in command and holds the professional responsibility onboard. Before embarking on the vessel, the personnel being supported are to be informed about: responsibility and chain of command on board the qualities of the vessel protective equipment and its use placing of packs and personnel conduct on board in the case of fire man over board capsizing taking in water enginge breakdown

8.2.7.4

Certification and requirements of personnel The boatman must be certified for the conditions he is to master the boat under. He must also be cleared for the type of vessel he is to sail. In units that have boat crews, the boatman must have category 2 at a minimum. Only motor boats require certification.

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8.2.7.5 8.2.7.6

Requirements of vessels Vessels that are used must be CE approved at a minimum, and suited for the type of use they are to be exposed to. Execution/safety measures All personnel on board are to wear personal flotation devices. Personnel who stay on boats should wear clothes that will protect them from cooling should an accident occur. All equipment is to be fastened to the boat, unit weapons and combat materiel must be additionally secured with sufficient flotation devices. Safety vessel must always be on site, however, it may operate independently in well known waters, when it is light and the height of waves is below 1 metre. If the distance to the shore may exceed 100 metres an additional vessel is to be accessible on the same water surface. Lanterns are to be lit in darkness and when visibility is poor, exceptions can be made during tactical movement and whenever the naval safety officer deems it professionally safe. If several vessels are operating together, they must all have communication with each other. Vessels are to be equipped with the following safety equipment: heaving line with lifebuoy searchlights (may be hand held) extra rope grapnel/anchor with chain and rope boathook paddles fire extinguisher (applicable to vessels where this is part of the composition) medical kit adapted to mission 5 emergency flares, red light, or signal gun with 5 red lights lanterner spare parts and tools according to type

The boatman is to wear: 2 Lightsticks 8.2.7.7 8.2.7.8 1 whistle approved personal flotation devices

Chap-8

Dog (animals) in vessel See chapter 7 § 7.1 USE OF MILITARY DOG Use of civilian vessels Welfare/ off duty use:: Civilian regulations are to be observed Whoever is lending materiel must ascertain that the required safety equipment is present, and that the borrower is familiar with its use.

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Organised military use: Units or teams using civilian vessels in connection with courses, trips, etc. Civilian regulations are to be observed, with the following exceptions: An officer conducting the exercise is to be appointed. The officer conducting the exercise is to assess weather conditions, wave conditions and wind conditions, and is to call off the trip should he/she find it irresponsible to continue. The officer conducting the exercise is to inform the others of general conduct in vessels and conduct in case of an accident. He/she is to have a plan for how to alert others of potential accidents.

8.2.8
8.2.8.1

The Navy’s directive for diving, surface swimming and use of pressure chamber
See SUP 12 (B), the Navy’s directive for diving, surface swimming and use of pressure chamber.

8.2.9
8.2.9.1

Bridging
Definitions Bridging: Simple missions: Building and using bridges as part of a crossing operation or as independent construction or passing. Standard bridge over a known gap, where the bridge will not be used for long. For standard bridges, standard gaps and adequate ground conditions, the bridge may be used in the field, after an officer with professional knowledge has authorized it. The bridge is to be used extensively for a long period of time. Many vehicles will pass and different loads will have to be supported. Constructions based on improvisation.

Complex missions: Improvised bridges: 8.2.9.2 In general Bridging differs between: education 8.2.9.3 projecting

By ’projecting’ is meant bridging for commercial or military traffic over time. Elements of danger crush injuries falling from great heights danger in connection with using cranes and construction machines

8.2.9.4

In advance Thorough reconnaissance which is to provide answers about: ground conditions

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8.2.9.5

width of gap height above gap materiel requirements machine support required personnel

8.2.9.6

Command and control During simple missions the construction manager is responsible for reconnaissance. During complex missions a project manager is to be appointed, and he/she is responsible for reconnaissance. The project manager is to have extensive knowledge of statistics and projecting. When carrying through complex bridging, the bridge is to be categorized and marked in accordance with STANAG before it is put to use. The construction manager/project manager or whomever he/she appoints is responsible for safety at the construction site. The person in charge of safety is to ascertain that everyone who stays near the construction site is wearing the required personal protective equipment. Execution/safety measures Personnel on construction sites are to wear the following protective equipment: Helmet Safety boots (boots with a steel tip) Gloves Equipment protecting them from falling when working high up (safety harness)

8.2.9.7

References FOR 1998-06-26 no. 608: Regulations for use of construction machines. The Ministry of Labour and Social Inclusion.

8.2.10
8.2.10.1

Crossing frozen rivers and lakes
In general Chap-8 (Valid for freshwater only, not sea ice or mixed fresh-/salt water (brackish water)) Crossing ice-covered lakes is to be ordered by the C.O. or the person he authorizes. The route across ice covered rivers and lakes is to be set with high accuracy. Prior to setting the exact route, a thorough reconnaissance must be performed. The purpose of this reconnaissance is to determine how much weight the ice can hold. The reconnaissance is to be executed by personnel who are qualified to determine the character of the ice and its load carrying capacity. When performing ice measurements at least 2 men must be present, one on the ice taking measures and on land or safe ice. Personnel doing ice measurements, must have the following equipment: ice drill, ice pegs, snow shovel, metric measure and a 25m rope.

8.2.10.2

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One end of the rope is to be attached under the arms of the person who is drilling and the other to a tracked vehicle or secured by personnel on firm ground. The person doing the measurement must not carry backpack, equipment, helmet or weapon, only the necessary winter clothing and materiel needed for the recon. If skis are being used the bindings and ski poles must be released.

8.2.11
8.2.11.1

The quality of the ice
In general Definitions Ice roads, places of crossing built across frozen waterways where only the natural layer of frozen water provides the driving surface. Ice bridges, places of crossing built across frozen waterways where improvements have been made over time in order to better the natural frozen water driving surface.

Driving on ice is to be limited to job assignments only, until a thorough revision has been completed. Which job assignments, are to be determined by the CO. The quality and thickness of the ice must be reconnoitered for the entire route, including the places for driving off/on land. Should there be elements of risk along the route, the route is to be altered or the ice must be strengthened. The thickness of the ice is measured by taking random samples the entire length of the route. Random samples are taken by drilling holes in the ice and measuring thickness. Only blue ice, not frozen snow or slush on top of it, must be measured. The thickness of the ice must be checked on both sides for the entire length of the route. The distance to the side between the places of drilling is to be 13 metres and with a distance of 10 metres between the drilling holes in the moving direction. Driving near river mouths and where there is a narrowing must be avoided, even when the ice has been measured to well above minimum thickness. Driving across water that is regulated should be avoided. Should crossing such waters be required, consult someone who has local knowledge, if possible, and check the ice immediately before crossing. Information about military vehicles can be found in the vehicle’s technical manual and in TH 100-3, Technical Manual, Data for Military Vehicles and Ordnance. Special conditions When classifying points of crossing where the total weight of the vehicle exceeds 20 tons, engineer reconnaissance and engineer assessments are to form the basis for the CO’s evaluations. For units who have a permanent area of operations, with continuous solving of missions that include passing of frozen lakes or rivers, the following adaptation applies. Under the criterion that experienced personnel who have local knowledge as well as information about the lake/river’s shallows, dangerous areas and local ice conditions, the distance between the drilling holes may be increased. Another condition is that the thickness of the ice is at least twice the minimum thickness. For personnel on foot, on snowshoes, on skis or on snowmobile the following

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8.2.11.2

adaptations apply: One hole for measuring is drilled every 25 metres along the entire route, the holes are to be drilled 1-2 metres to the side of the route, always downstream from the route. Minimum distance from firm ground to the first and the last hole is 10 metres. Requirements for ice thickness In the table below, the values presented are for blue ice in fresh water, passing speed is set at 15-20 km/ht, one way traffic: In the table below, the Required thickness of values presented are for ice measured in centiblue ice in fresh water, metres (cm) passing speed is set at 15-20 km/ht, one way traffic: Soldier on foot, snowshoes or skis. Maximum 140 kilos. Soldier on foot, snowshoes or skis with pulk. Maximum 240 kilos. 10 Distance between personnel and vehicle, measured in metres (m)

10

15

10

Snowmobile with 2 soldi- 25 ers without sled. Maximum 650 kilos. Snowmobile with 2 soldi- 30 ers, with sled. Maximum 1,200 kilos 1 Ton 2 Tons 3 Tons 4 Tons 5 Tons 10 Tons 15 Tons 20 Tons 25 Tons 30 Tons 35 Tons 40 Tons 50 Tons 14 20 24 28 31 44 54 63 70 77 83 89 99

30

30

14 20 24 28 31 44 54 63 70 77 83 89 99

Chap-8

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60 Tons 70 Tons 80 Tons

108 117 125

108 117 125

Using the table: 1. If the air temperature has been above 0o Celsius for more than 6 hours during the last 24, the total weight must be multiplied by 1.3 in order to determine the required load carrying capacity. As early as after 2 hours of temperatures above zero the ice begins to lose its strength. On the other hand, a significant fall in temperature over a short period of time will make the ice crisp and decrease its load carrying capacity during the first 24 hours of steady, cold temperatures. 2. To decide the distance between vehicles of different total weight, use the distance that is set for the vehicle with the heaviest weight. Should a frozen lake or river be crossed in both directions simultaneously, two different routes are to be established, at least 50 metres from each other. If you have to park the vehicle on the ice, the vehicle’s total weight must be doubled, and the distance must be at least what it is for passing. Check by drilling a hole near the vehicle. If water starts flowing up, the vehicle must be moved. The ice must float on the water, and there should be water close to the top of the hole. Be especially aware close to shore that the water level may have subsided and left areas with air underneath, where the load capacity is very limited AVOID all driving on wet cracks. Dry cracks are of little significance. If there are several layers of ice consisting of water or loose slush, only the top layer of blue ice is to be used to find the load capacity. If there are several layers and the middle layer consistis of frozen slush ice, the two top layers of blue ice and half (50 %) of the frozen slush are to be used for load capacity

3.

4.

5. 6.

8.2.11.3

The ice is to be checked as often as possible and especially: Before and after the ice has been exposed to heavy loads After mild weather or variations in temperature between +/When there are variations in the water level

8.2.12
8.2.12.1

Marching order and documentation of military traffic on ice-covered waters
Marking of the crossing routes The purpose of marking the crossing routes is to ensure that everyone who moves across the ice will choose the same path. Use a marking stick to mark the route, the definition of a marking stick is a stick where at least 1 metre rises vertically and visibly from the base. The marking is to be visible in darkness. On routes for foot soldiers, soldiers wearing snowshoes, or soldiers on snowmobiles, 1 marking stick per measuring hole every 25 metres is

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sufficient. Both sides of the route must be marked clearly where vehicles are to drive on or off firm ground; there must never be any doubt concerning which side of the marking sticks the route goes. On ice roads and ice bridges built for traffic, marking sticks are to be placed on each side of the carriage way. When moving across ice-covered waters, a checkpoint is to be established, manned by experienced personnel who will provide guidance and check the crossing. Each soldier and each vehicle is to be guided when moving across the ice. Sufficient rescue capacity must always be at hand when moving across ice-covered waters. The checkpoint is to register every soldier and vehicle moving across the ice. The registration form is to provide information about who is doing the registration and where the point of crossing is. 1. Date 2. 3. 4. Nationality/Unit Rank/Name Location in MGRS

8.2.12.2

The registration form is to provide information about weather-conditions: Average temperature the last 24 hours Minimum thickness of the ice Maximum depth underneath the ice

All military personnel passing the point of crossing must be registered by: Nationality/Unit Rank/Name ime of crossing

All military vehicles passing must be registered by: Nationality/Unit Vehicle category/type Wheels/Tracked Registration number Total weight in tons Time of crossing

Chap-8

8.2.12.3

Should an accident or near-accident occur, the report is to be enclosed with the damage report. See paragraph 1. If military vehicles with a total weight that exceeds 1,500 kilos use the crossing route, the registration is to be reported through the chain of command. Before crossing, all vehicles are to be prepared for evacuation, safety belts and equipment are to be loosened, and possible emergency exits made ready. The speed is to be even and according to paragraph 8.2.11.2, stopping the vehicle is to be

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8.2.12.4

avoided. Making the wheels spin, hitting the brakes hard, making turns and passing other vehicles must be avoided. During transportation in the terrain with tracked and armoured vehicles, where it is difficult to determine if you are crossing ice covered lakes and rivers, the following must be carried out: Battle tanks and self-propelled artillery: Vehicles are to be driven with open hatches. Driver’s hatch is to be closed and the driver observes through the periscopes. Turret is to be locked in a position that ensures that the driver can escape immediately through the escape hatch and the commander’s hatch. Furthermore the driver’s escape hatch is to be free of all equipment (loose equipment, section equipment, etc.) to ease the escape for the driver. Tanks, armoured combat vehicles and armoured rescue vehicles are prepared for wading (se user/technical manual). The crew on self-propelled artillery are to abandon the vehicle and cross on foot.

-

Other armoured vehicles: Vehicles are to have open hatches while crossing Type M113 vehicles are to be prepared for swimming Vehicle evacuation must be practiced prior to crossing For details see user/technical manual.

Tracked vehicles All bottom/drain plugs are to be inserted and tightened If there are personnel in the rear cabin, the side hatches must be opened and fastened at the top edge. The personnel are to be drilled in the emergency procedures An app. 30 metre rope is to be attached to the towing hook, and an empty fuel can is to be fastened to the end of the rope. Safety belt must, if in use, be loosened

8.2.13
8.2.13.1

Tolerance exercise for breaking through ice
Definition An exercise where the purpose is to feel how the body reacts to cold water, and to train techniques to be able to get on top of the ice and to safety. The exercise can be carried out with or without skis/equipment. Elements of risk Inhaling cold water, which may lead to serious coughing and uncontrollable spasms/reflexes. Frostbite and other injuries caused by low temperatures.

8.2.13.2

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8.2.13.3 8.2.13.4

8.2.13.5

Preparations The ice and the road to where the exercise is planned must be reconnoitered according to paragraph 8.2.10. Command and control The officer conducting the exercise is responsible for the safe execution of the exercise. Personnel with a first aid education of minimum level 3 must be present Execution/safety measures The person training is to be secured with a rope under his arms, around his chest. The rope must be tied in a manner so that it cannot come undone. If backpack is used the rope is to be fastened underneath the backpack so that the backpack can be removed without loosening the rope. The person responsible for these safety measures must at all times place himself in such a manner that he quickly can help the person in the water out of the water A heated room/tent/vehicle is to be available. A vehicle for medical service with a stretcher, patient blanket, patient heater and medical bag is to be available. Equipment must not be attached to the body. Backpacks are to be carried on one shoulder only. If skis are being used, the ski bindings must be loosened. The hands must not be strapped to the ski poles. All materiel (skis, backpack, etc.) is to be secured by separate ropes. This requires a separate person responsible for these particular safety measures (not the same person who is responsible for the soldier who is training).

8.3
8.3.1
8.3.1.1

SPECIAL REGULATIONS FOR USE OF CIVILIAN VESSELS
Definition
During operations in coastal landscapes ‘civilian vessels’ in this context means use of smacks, cutters, civilian ferries and vessels.

8.3.2
8.3.2.1 8.3.2.2

Transport on cutters/smacks
The size of the vessel has to be ONE foot per man over short distances and TWO foot over longer distances. The following safety equipment is to be on board: 1 life boat 1 raft 2 rafts for unit being transported (extra) 1-2 lifebuoys 1-2 boathooks Life jacket for each individual.

Chap-8

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8.3.3

Supplementary regulations for LCP, cutters and smacks

Figure: 8.3 landing with a LCP 8.3.3.1 During transport personnel are to stay in the holds, cabins and compartments. While crossing a transportation officer, damage control team and lifebuoy watches are to be appointed. The lifebuoy watches must be directed to where they are to be placed, and told what their duties are. Using open flames is strictly prohibited. During all forms of unit transport the following personnel must be appointed prior to crossing, to check on safety while loading, during the crossing and while unloading: embarkation officer: embarkation officer(s) transportation officer(s) On land in the embarkation area ONE for each vessel ONE for each vessel

8.3.3.2

8.3.3.3

When a relatively small number of personnel are to be transported, the responsibility of the transportation officer can include the two other functions. The following safety precautions are to be taken whenever a unit is to be transported. Before transport. there must be life jackets for all personnel all personnel must know how to put on the life jacket (life jacket drill) all personnel must have been instructed in the routines for outbreak or fire, shipwrecking, and ‘man over board’. fire guard and lifebuoy watch are to be appointed and shown to their places. a six-man damage control team is to be appointed. all personnel must know which raft they are to go to, and where the raft

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is located. Movement control team is to be appointed and informed of their duties.

While loading, crossing and unloading: Loading: The officer in charge on land (embarkation officer) directs personnel and vehicles from the beach on to the vessel. All personnel on land are to follow his orders. Movement control team (stowers) are to help direct vehicles on board Personnel without special duties are NOT to stay on deck during embarkation. The distance between the vehicles while driving onboard must be at least 10 metres. A driver is to sit in the vehicle while it is driven on board. He/she is to stay in the vehicle until the loading has been completed and will then be allowed to leave the vehicle. All personnel are to receive a life jacket before or immediately when embarking on the vessel. Fuel/ammo vehicles are to be placed fore or aft. The same goes for excavator/wheel loader when applicable. No vehicle must be parked closer than 60 centimetres from a bulkhead. The distance between vehicles lengthways is to be at least 20 metres. Personnel must NOT embark on the vessel before all vehicles are in place. This is due to personal safety. The embarkation officer is to report to the commander of the vessel when stowage has been completed. Ear protection must be worn by personnel who stay close to running vehicles that make a lot of noise (see § 5.1.2.7).

-

Chap-8

To prevent injury caused to personnel or materiel, which may occur due to unskilled directing, it is emphasized that the embarkation officer is responsible for having personnel present who can help direct the vehicles when they drive on board the vessel according to the loading plan approved by the commander of the vessel. Drivers are to help strapping the cargo in order to ascertain that the correct strapping bolts on their vehicles are being used. During crossing: While crossing, the following safety measures are to be noted and observed:

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UD 2-1 Armed Forces Safety Rules and Regulations.

-

The transportation officer is responsible to the captain of the vessel Lifebuoy watches are to be appointed, placed and instructed in what their tasks are Fireguard and damage control team are to be appointed. The fireguard will be positioned on deck. In case of an emergency the damage control team are to report in front of the bridge (starboard side). All personnel must know which raft they are to go to. Life jacket is to be worn by all personnel during crossing if they stay off the orlop deck/ outside their cabin. Use of open flame, including heating the primus (stove) is prohibited on board. Smoking is generally prohibited, but the commander of the vessel may decide to depart from this rule and assign an area for smokers. Staying in or underneath vehicles is strictly prohibited.

8.3.3.4 8.3.3.5

On board the commander of the vessel is in total command. In the event of shipwrecking/ fire, personnel without particular duties are to stay calm where they have been placed to give the crew and rescuers sufficient space to work. Relevant tasks, depending on the situation, will include: Putting on and checking your life jacket Getting the fire extinguishers out Moving safety equipment to a safe location, ready to be used on orders Setting each dinghy afloat Making all flammable substances and explosives ready for dumping Distributing signal lights, emergency flares, torches, etc. Gathering at the assigned spot to be able to leave the

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Appendix 1. CONSTRUCTION OF SAFETY TEMPLATES FOR DIRECT FIRING WEAPONS
Definitions
V01. V02. Flareback area A triangular area behind the weapon, with depth u and largest width y. Maximum ricochet range (MRR) The maximum range, measured from the firing stand that a ricochet can reach after one or several impacts on the ground. Maximum range The longest allowed or longest possible distance to the target when firing. Farthest hit expected when taken into consideration that the weapon is aimed with optimum or highest possible elevation (nominal elevation plus maximum deviation in height). Minimum range The shortest allowed or shortest possible distance to the target when firing. Nearest hit expected when taken into consideration that the weapon is aimed with the lowest allowed or expected elevation (nominal elevation minus maximum deviation in height). The range can also be determined by the arming distance or possible splinter distance. Impact area The area where the ammunition may hit the ground first. Ricochet area The area where a ricochet may land after making one or several impacts to the ground. Ricochet dispersion(WR) The maximum deviation (in metres) to the each side of the original trajectory that a ricochet may reach after one or several impacts to the ground. Ricochet angle (ß) The maximum angle that a ricochet may reach when deviating from its original trajectory after one or several impacts to the ground, measured from the first impact it makes. Dispersion to the side (a ) Maximum possible expected mistake in hitting the target, due to aiming failure, weapon failure or meteorological causes. Safety distance(lsa) Danger area for sabots, particles, noise, etc. in front of the muzzle.

V03.

V04.

V05. V06.

V07.

V08.

Appendix

V09.

V10.

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UD 2-1 Armed Forces Safety Rules and Regulations.

V11.

Safety angle (ßsa) Angle to the side of the line of fire, in front of the muzzle, where sabots, particles, noise, etc. (released when firing) may end up. Firing line The straight line between the firing stand and where the shot makes its first impact. Line of fire The straight line between firing stand and target. Splinter distance (s) Dangerous distance for splinter impacts metered from the detonation point to the ammunition. Critical initial angle Largest angle for a ricochet. This angle is estimated to 30 degrees.

V12. V13. V14.

V15.

Constructing safety templates for direct-firing weapons
For non-fragmentation forming ammunition, observe points 1 through 11. For fragmentation forming ammunition, observe points 1 through 14. 1. Draw up the firing line. 2. 3. 4. 5. 6. Mark maximum side dispersion in angle a to each side of the firing direction. Decide and mark shortest allowed or shortest possible firing distance. Left and right limitation of this distance are points A and B Decide and mark maximum firing distance. Left and right limitation of this distance are points L and M The area formed by points ABML is the impact area Draw the MMR as a line across the firing line or as a curve with the centre in the firing stand. Left and right limitations of this distance are the points C and D. If the MRR is shorter than the minimum acceptable, or minimum possible range, the points 7-11 can be ignored. Draw up the ricochet angles, starting at points A and B. These lines form an angle equal to the ricochet angle ß, left and right side dispersion respectively. These lines are to be marked a and b. Draw lines backward from C and D forming 45o with left and right side dispersion respectively. These lines are to be marked c and d. The intersection between points a and c is to be marked E. The intersection between points b and d is to be marked F. Draw lines marking maximum ricochet dispersion parallel to left and right side dispersion in a distance of WR on the outside of these. These lines are to be marked e and f. If the lines e and f lie within points E and F respectively, the following intersections are to be marked:

7.

8.

9.

10.

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UD 2-1 Armed Forces Safety Rules and Regulations.

11.

G – the intersection between a and e H – the intersection between b and f J – the intersection between c and e K – the intersection between d and f

The ricochet area can now be defined as the area limited by points ABHKDCJGA, or, should the criterion in point 10 not have been met, by points ABFDCEA. If fragmentation-forming ammunition is being used, a belt has to be drawn around the entire impact area, its width equal to danger area for fragmentation s. If fragmentation-forming ammunition is being used and there is a danger of explosion of the warhead after a ricochet, the danger area for fragmentation must also be drawn as a belt, its width equal to s, around the entire ricochet area. If fragmentation-forming ammunition is being used and there is a danger of premature explosion of the fuze, the fragmentation area must be extended to a width of s to the left and right hand side of the area between the firing stand and the impact area. Possible danger area in front of the muzzle is to be presented as a sector with an angle equal to the safety angle M to each side of the side dispersion angle and with a radius of R. Possible danger area behind the weapon is to be presented as an isocleles triangle with height u and baseline y, and with its tip being the weapon.

12.

13.

14.

15.

16.

Examples
The following examples have been made to assist the construction of safety templates: Template for non-fragmentation-forming ammunition Template for ammunition that does not cause fragmentation. No danger area(s) around the ammunition.

Appendix

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UD 2-1 Armed Forces Safety Rules and Regulations.

C

D

c

d

J
WR

K
WR

F L M

G b b a a

H

MRR

a

b

A e

B f

Figure: V1.1

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UD 2-1 Armed Forces Safety Rules and Regulations.

Template for fragmentation-forming ammunition with wide ricochet dispersion Template for fragmentation-forming ammunition with wide ricochet dispersion. Danger area in front of the muzzle and behind the weapon.

C

D

c

d

E
WR WR

F

L

M
MRR

a

bb a a

b

A e

B f bsa

lsa

Appendix
u y

Figure: V1.2

Rev-04 417

UD 2-1 Armed Forces Safety Rules and Regulations.

Template for fragmentation-forming ammunition where allowed firing distance (range) exceeds MRR. Template for fragmentation-forming ammunition where allowed firing distance (range) exceeds MRR. Danger area in front of the muzzle.

L

M

C

D

c

d

J
WR WR

K

E

F

G a b b a a

H

MRR

b

A e

B f b sa

lsa

Figure: V1.3

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UD 2-1 Armed Forces Safety Rules and Regulations.

Appendix 2. CONSTRUCTION OF TEMPLATES FOR SECTOR CHARGES
IN GENERAL
Such charges will produce splinters in the form of steel bullets in a given sector. Additionally, splinters from canister, pod, and igniter may get thrown in random directions. The width of the danger sector is the nominal spray angle plus the setting accuracy of 200 mils to each side. A schematic template is shown below.

b +2a b a

MRR

s

Appendix

Figure: V2.1

Rev-04 419

Report on use of ammunition/explosives

Instruction for filling in this form:

- This report must be filled in after use of any ammunition (regardless of calibre), explosives, hand grenades, bombs and rockets/missiles.

- When firing fixed ammunition only one catalogue number and one lot number is to be reported. When firing separate-loading ammunition, the fuze- grenade- propellant and ignition cartridge are to be reported on the same form.

420 Rev-04
Date Range officer

- Some weaponsystems has special forms that shall be filled in addition to this report.

- This report is to be delivered to the range officer.

Always fill in this section:

Unit

Area

US MARINES
Target area (Map reference)

10.06.07 Capt Nilsen 1234

Firing line

A1

Ammunition data

NATO Catalogue number Condition Rounds fired 01-RA03

Designation

Lot number

Number of UXOs

Number of misfires

Other irregularities (Y/N)

UD 2-1 Armed Forces Safety Rules and Regulations.

1340-25-149-9873

ROCKET NM72

10

1

NO

Fill in this section when UXO, misfires or other irregularities: Probable cause of UXO, misfire or other irregularities:

Weapon system and weapon number

Delivered from depot

Løten Impact area condition

Seals broken?

Visual condition

Yes

No

Good

Appendix 6B. ENGLISH EDITION OF FORM 750

Impact area condition

Rock/gravel
Temprature

Weather condition

Wind

Rain 8

Weak wind

Appendix

Range officer

If uxos, are they demolished?

If No, give map referanses

Yes

No Bl 0750 B (Utg 3-04)

Forsvaret

UD 2-1 Armed Forces Safety Rules and Regulations.

Appendix 7. REGULATIONS FOR SECURING AIR TRAFFIC DURING FIRING AND MORTAR EXERCISES, TEST FIRING, ETC.
1 Area of application. These regulations apply within Norwegian territory and those parts of international waters that come under the Norwegian Flight Information Regions (FIR). The regulations in the following listed points concerning firing are to apply for all firing when the trajectories of projectiles, mortar shells or missiles/rockets at any point will exceed 100 metres (300 feet) above the ground/water. Firing with direct laying when the trajectory will reach no higher than 100 metres (300 feet) above ground/water, and the OCE/officer conducting firing has visual control of the firing stand and the impact area, as well as hand grenade throwing and demolition exercises will not come under the following regulations on firing, except those conditions presented in 5. Danger area and controlled airspace a. A danger area is an airspace of certain dimensions where, during certain times, activity (firing/training) may occur which may present danger to aircraft/helicopters/etc. in the air: A constantly active danger area is a certain area connected to a firing area where fire may occur without previous notice at all times (except EN D 109 Rakke, EN D205 Marstein Nord, EN D208 Slåtterøy). Constantly active danger areas should possibly be limited to a minimum. The MOD will make sure that such danger areas are approved and made known. Costantly active danger areas are listed on the AIP maps ENR 6.2-1, 6.2-3, 6.2-5, 6.2-7, 6.2-11, 6.2-13, 6.2-15, and 6.2-19. a danger area only active after publicised in NOTAM is a certain designated area linked to a firing area where firing may take place after having been notified as described in section 4. If such notice has not been announced by the responsible authorities and made known to the air traffic through NOTAM, the area is to be regarded as not dangerous for aircraft. To simplify the announcement on activity in the most used preliminary danger areas these will be published in AIP Norway, page Appendix ENR 5-1, paragraph 3.6.

2

b.

Controlled airspace is an airspace of certain dimensions where air traffic control service is provided for controlled flights. There are two main categories of controlled airspace: control areas (including terminal areas and airways) control zones, which normally only encompass the closest airspace around the individual airport (see definition).

For all firing in controlled airspace, special regulations apply, see § 5.

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3

Firing in danger area active only after having been announced through NOTAM. a. Firing in the said danger areas must in advance have been coordinated with flight activity in the relevant area, preferably by a timetable for a short or long period. b. The coordination is to take place at the Defence Staff in cooperation with the relevant control central. Questions of doubt concerning whether a firing programme may be carried out, are to be decided by the commanding officer, possibly in cooperation with the Chief of Air Traffic Control at the relevant area control centre. The air traffic control centre may, when conditions make it necessary, order a temporary fire break while firing is going on in these danger areas.

c. 4

Report on firing in danger areas active only after having been announced through NOTAM. When firing is to take place within the temporary danger areas, a report is to be sent to AVINOR, Atn. The NOTAM office, with a copy to the area control centre responsible for the sector the danger area lies within, and to the relevant defence command. (FIR and sector boundaries can be found in AIP-Norge, ENR 6.2-23 and ENR 6.2-25.) The NOTAM office at AVINOR must have received the report at least 2 weeks before firing is to be conducted. AVINOR will distribute the required information concerning the firing to air traffic through NOTAM. AVINOR’s address is: The NOTAM office PO Box 100 2061 Gardermoen Fax: 64 81 90 61 The addresses of the area control centres are: Oslo area control centre Luftveien 16 3440 Røyken Telf: 66 79 25 31 Bodø area control centre Bodø Lufthavn 8041 BODØ Telf: 75 58 29 57 The report on firing is to include: a. Date and time of firing, preferably in UTC or specify if local time is being used. b. Type of activity (firing). Stavanger area control centre Pb 506 4055 Stavanger Lufthavn Telf: 51 65 81 48 Phone: 64 81 90 60

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c.

The horizontal limits of the danger area are to be presented either in the form of straight lines between points presented in geographical longitude and latitude (Greenwich), or in the form of a geographical position (Greenwich) plus danger sectors presented in degrees (true bearing) and sector length. If the danger area is an area which is not defined in AIP Norway, the centre point and radius of the area should be included in the manuscript sent to the Notam office. The danger area’s upper limit is presented in feet above ocean level. For danger areas that only are active after the announcement in NOTAM which is listed in AIP Norway, ENR 5-1, para 3.6, the announcement about firing is to contain information on dates and time for the firing and also possible deviations from previous registered information. If the safe height exceeds the height given in ENR 5-1 this is to be stated clearly and to be cleared with the control centre in question which will then be confirmed in the same paper.

d.

5

Firing in danger areas within controlled airspace a. Training which will lead to restrictions within controlled airspace should be avoided. b. If firing has to take place within controlled airspace, direct communication is to have been set up through telephone, radiotelephone or radio between the OCE/officer conducting firing and the relevant area control centre tower, normally at the responsibility of the unit in training. In questions of doubt, e.g. when establishing new controlled air space above already existing firing stands, the question of responsibility for setting up communications is, if necessary, to be presented to the Ministry of Defence through the chain of command. The air traffic control centre decides, based on the reported upper limit of the danger area and the controlled airspace’s lower limit whether direct communication might not be required. In control zones all firing, hand grenade throwing and demolition is to be reported to the closest control tower and direct communication is to be set up as described in § 5b when the control tower requests it. Air traffic control service may, when air traffic control conditions make it necessary, order a temporary fire break when firing is going on in controlled airspace.

c.

d.

6

Responsibilities of the OCE/the officer conducting firing a. Before firing in danger areas that only are active after NOTAM has distributed Appendix this information, the OCE/officer conducting firing is to ascertain that report of firing has been received by the air traffic control centre. b. During all exercises/training, the OCE/officer conducting firing is responsible for calling off the exercise immediately should aircraft get dangerously close to the training area. The OCE/officer conducting firing must immediately report to the air traffic control centre over the phone if an aircraft has entered the announced danger area. His/her report is to be confirmed by a written report to the Chief of Air

c.

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Traffic Control at the relevant area control centre, with a copy to the relevant FST and LST. d. If announced firing is called off, or finishes early, before the announced time, the message is to be given over the phone or telegraph immediately, even if the cancellation happens at the time firing was supposed to have commenced.

7

8

Staff responsibility HST/SST/LST are responsible for distributing up-to-date versions of AIP, Norway, ENR 5-1 to defence branches’ units and stations. HST is to distribute ENR 5-1 to those Armed Forces’ institutions outside the branches that may find it necessary to keep at hand. Definitions used in air traffic AIP Norge (Aeronautical Information Publication, Norway).A handbook published by the former institution Luftfartsverket, now Avinor AS, with information of a lasting kind which is important for flying. Flygeinformasjonsregion (flight information region) FIR. An airspace of set dimensions where flight information service and alarm service are being offered. Note: information concerning flight information regions’ location and extent is provided in AIP Norway, part ENR. Innflygingskontroll (approach control office) APP. A unit offering flight control service to controlled flights arriving or departing from one or several airports. Terminalområde (terminal control area) TMA. A control area, usually established where several ATS-routes join near one or several major airports. Note: Information about the location of terminal areas and their extent is provided by AIP Norway, part ENR. ATS-route is a common term for airway, controlled and uncontrolled route, approach route and departure route, etc. Kontrollert luftrom (controlled airspace). An airspace of certain dimensions where air traffic control service is being offered for controlled flights. Kontrollområde (control area) CTA. A controlled airspace which stretches vertically upwards from a given height above ground level. Kontrollsentral (area control centre) ACC. A unit carrying out air traffic control service for controlled flights in controlled areas under their authority. Kontrollsone (control zone) CTR. A controlled airspace which stretches vertically upwards from a given height above ground level. Kontrolltårn (aerodrome control tower) TWR. A unit which provides air traffic control service for local traffic. Lavflygingsområde (low flying area). An area where low flying may be conducted after having received special authorization, using a military aircraft flying in a height of 200-500 feet above ground/water. Note: The extent of the low flying areas can be found in AIP ENR 4-9-1, and in the Low Flying Charts (LFC) Norway (2 maps, 1: 500,000). Over authorized firing ranges or fields, low flying might be authorized as low as 50 feet above ground or water. Luftled (airway). A control area or part of a control area in the shape of a corridor

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and equipped with radio navigation devices. Note: Information on airways can be found in AIP Norway, part ENR. NOTAM (notice to airmen). A notice which contains information about the establishment, condition or changing of navigation devices, duties, rules or elements of danger which are important to receive in time for personnel whose work it is to plan flights or fly aircraft. AIP SUP: Contains information about temporary changes that will last for some time, or changes that will last for a brief period of time with a lot of text and graphics in the descriptions.

Appendix

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8A
1

Appendix 8A. RADARSET GIRAFFE MK IV
Prohibited area
Since it is impossible to determine simply by looking at it whether a radar is emitting radio waves or not, personnel must always act as if being exposed to radiation when the antenna is up.

Static antenna
2 Prohibited area where personnel under no circumstances must stay is restricted to an area 125 metres in front of the reflector, width 4 metres. The height of the area is 14 metres next to the radar (measured from ground level) and 26 metres at 125 metres (if the ground level at 125 metres is 6 metres below the ground level next to the radar). The prohibited area is shown in the illustration:
125 m

4m

Prohibited area

4m

26 m

Prohibited area
6m 125 m

14 m

Non rotating antenna

Figure: 8A.1 Prohibited area and danger area, radar set Giraffe MK IV – static antenna

Rotating antenna
3 Prohibited area where personnel under no circumstances must stay is restricted to a circle with a radius of 16 metres, measured from the reflector. The height of the area is between 4 and 13 metres at the radar (measured from ground level) and at 16 metres between 3 and 14 metres (calculated from the radar’s ground level). The prohibited area is shown in the illustration:

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16 m

Forbudt område

13 m

Forbudt område
4m 16 m 3m

14 m

Normal drift (antenne rotasjon)

Figure: 8A.2 Prohibited area and danger area, radar set Giraffe MK IV – rotating antenna 4 Safety regulations in the technical manuals for the materiel come in addition to the restrictions that have been presented here.

Appendix

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8B

Appendix 8B. ARTILLERY HUNTING RADAR (ARTHUR)
PROHIBITED AREA AND DANGER AREA

1

Figure: 8B.1 Radars emit strong high-frequent energy which may cause injuries to humans. The following regulations and limitations concerning use and maintenance of ALR must therefore be observed. Individuals who have had metal parts operated into their bodies (e.g. pacemakers) should avoid electromagnetic fields. The following figures apply to the average value of the electromagnetic field at frequencies between 300 MHz and 300 GHz: During 1 second: 300V/m (250W/m2) During any given time of 6 minutes: 60 V/m (10 W/m2). Radiation of this density may take place during 8 hours per day, maximum.

Based on these figures, two areas which must be taken into consideration during radar emission may be defined: Prohibited area and Allowed area The radiation is in the C-band area, and is described as a static antenna lobe as described below:

WARNING It is mortally dangerous and hence prohibited to stay in the prohibited area while the radar is emitting radio waves.
In ALR one can never be certain whether or not the antenna lobe is standing still.

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Safe distance is then calculated for a still-standing lobe. Horizontal distances refer to the antenna’s rotation axis or centre line C L. Vertical distances refer to the antenna’s basis line (fixed point) B L. The arrow indicates the lobe’s direction. R is the radius for the prohibited area. The total lobe height H is the sum of H 1, H 2 and H 3 indicating height above, respectively under, B L. Direction and range of the prohibited area is referred to to C L, B L and ground level G L. H 1 indicates the height above B L if the antenna elevation is 84 degrees. H 2 indicates the height for B L over G L. H 3 indicates the height below G L if the elevation of the antenna is 97 degrees and the radar is placed on a hill. It is important to note that sideways the radiation diagram is centred in the antenna’s central line C L and then follows the antenna’s turning angle in relation to the rear wagon. ‘Hot Spots’, spots where radiation intensity is stronger, may occur if the radiation is reflected from flat surfaces and then interferes with the direct radiation. In nature, for instance, still or ice-covered lakes and vehicles or other flat metal parts in the prohibited area may cause reflection. When there is a danger of so-called ‘Hot Spots’, the prohibited area may be extended to R=320 m for parts of the angle of the semi-circle. Prohibited area (shaded) directly behind the tracked vehicle, as in the picture below, is to be considered as the normal scenario. Rotating the antenna within - 45° to + 90° is allowed, so that the shaded prohibited half-cylindric area fills the marked area, without the radiation level outside the door of the rear compartment getting above the allowed level, When rotating the antenna to ³ + 90° it is prohibited to stay in the front compartment for the following reasons: In a worst case scenario the lobe will end up 3,8° below the base line BL at antenna elevation = 97°. The lobe will then be 0.5 m above the front left corner of the front compartment where the radiation level will be about 10 times higher than what is normally allowed. The front compartment’s plastic chassis is not shielded. Conditions inside the rear compartment will not be affected, since the rear compartment is shielded. The possibility of rotating the antenna 150° must be considered abnormal in peacetime since the prohibited half-cylindrical area then may rule out the possibility of staying in the front compartment and/ or moving to or from the operators’ seats in the rear compartment.

Appendix

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CL +45o Allowed
o

R=160m Prohibited o +90 R=160m -45
o

0

-45

o

H1 =52 m

Prohibited

H=66 m

BL H2 =3,5 m

R=160m

BL GL

H3 =10,5 m

Figure: 8B.2 Prohibited area and danger area ARTHUR

CL

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8C
1

Appendix 8C. RADAR SET AN/PPS-15
PROHIBITED AREA AND DANGER AREA
Personnel are to act as if the radar is emitting radio waves as long as it has been mounted completely on the tripod.

Figure: 8C.1 Danger area and prohibited area RADAR SET AN/PPS-15 2 3 Danger area and prohibited area are one and the same, with limitations to the side and in height equal to the width and height of the antenna. Forward limitation is 1 metre from the front of the antenna. In addition to the restrictions mentioned here, the safety regulations presented in the technical manuals for the materiel apply.

Appendix

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8D
1

Appendix 8D. METEOROLOGICAL SET NO/MMQ-10
PROHIBITED AREA AND DANGER AREA
If balloon ascent or preparation for balloon ascent is going on, personnel must act as if the radio was emitting radio waves.

Figure: 8D.1 Prohibited area and danger area METEOROLOGICAL SET NO/MMQ-10 2 3 In addition to the restrictions mentioned here, the safety regulations presented in the technical manuals for the materiel apply. Danger area and prohibited area have a limitation of 1 metre to the side and 1 metre in height. Prohibited area (A) on illustration 86 has a forward limitation 1 metre in front of the antenna. Danger area (B) on illustration 86 has a forward limitation of 5 metres in front of the antenna.

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8E
1

Appendix 8E. LOW ALTITUDE SURVEILLANCE RADAR (LASR) AN/TPQ 36A
IN GENERAL
Since it is impossible to determine whether the radar is emitting radio waves simply by looking at it, personnel must always act as if radiation is going on while the antenna is up.

Appendix

Figure: 8E.1 Low Altitude Surveillance Radar AN/TPQ 36A

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Static antenna
2 Personnel must not stay within a distance of 10 metres in front of an antenna emitting radio waves when the antenna is not rotating. Staying on ground level, underneath the level of the antenna pedestal, poses no danger for personnel.

Rotating antenna
3 Staying near the antenna while it is rotating, poses no danger for personnel.

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8F

Appendix 8F. TOR ELECTRONIC COUNTER-MEASURE SYSTEM, PROHIBITED AREA AND DANGER AREA
IN GENERAL
1. Since it is impossible to determine whether the system is emitting radio waves or not simply by looking at the vehicle, personnel must always act as if radiation is being emitted when the antenna is in an upright position. The exception is personnel who man the vehicle, and hence know whether or not radiation is being emitted. Danger area is 10 metres around the outer edges of the vehicle in all directions. Personnel can only stay for a limited period of time within this area. Prohibited area is on the vehicle roof, no personnel must stay here when radio waves are being emitted. The only way one is allowed to enter the vehicle roof is by use of the ladder on the rear wagon, this ladder has a safety switch which will be released as soon as anyone sets foot on the bottom step of the ladder.

1

2.

3. 4.

Dangerous Area

Tor Jammer on P6-300

10m 10m

10m

Figure: 8F.1 Danger area TOR electronic counter-measure system

Appendix

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8G
1

Appendix 8G. SATELLITE EQUIPMENT
IN GENERAL
General for satellite communication equipment is that there is a disc which is directed towards a satellite. This disc (the parabole) may have a sub-reflector mounted in front with sender and receiver head, also called the horn. Personnel MUST NOT stay in front of the disk for any long period of time

Horn The parabol Sub-reflektor

Figure: 8G.1 Usual components DVB-RCS and VSAT Normal effect gives a safety radius of 2 metres, minimum, from the horn on the VSAT (regardless of band). On DVB-RCS and INMARSAT, the safety radius is of 1 metre, minimum. These radii apply regardless of how the parabole is angled. The angle is geographically conditioned, and when being far north the angle will be sharper and the radiation will move more along the ground.

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a

b

Figure: 8G.1 a. Wide angle (e.g. in southern Norway) b. Sharp angle (e.g. North Norway)

Appendix

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8H

Appendix 8H. RC-IED JAMMER
PROHIBITED AND HAZARDOUS ZONES
General

1

The RC-IED jammer is installed on various types of vehicle. The system is identifiable from its comparatively high number of transmission aerials (4 or more), typically mounted on the roof, bonnet, bumper, or similar. The following warning sign is located by the driver’s seat:

2

Figure: 8H.1 As it is not possible to determine whether a vehicle is transmitting radio waves or not by simply looking at it, personnel should always behave as if radiation is present. The exception to this are authorised personnel operating the vehicle, who will be aware of whether radiation is present or not. Each aerial is marked as follows:

Figure: 8H.2

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3

4

5

6

A hazardous zone is deemed as being a distance of up to 1.5 metres from all of the system’s aerials, in every direction. Personnel may only remain within this zone for a limited period of time. The exception to this are personnel being trained in individual configurations, who will possess the required knowledge of the location of individual aerials, as well as the safety distance. Prohibited zones are the roof, bonnet, etc, on individual vehicles, upon which it is forbidden to be situated when radio waves are being transmitted. The exception to this are personnel being trained in individual vehicle configurations, who will possess the required knowledge of the location of individual aerials, as well as the safety distance in respect of weapon racks, driver’s hatches, etc. Installation of, or modification to, an RC-IED jammer should be undertaken solely by authorised personnel in accordance with approved assembly instructions. Only a technically competent authority (FLO) is permitted to certify new platforms. Unauthorised modification of the system is NOT permitted and may result in danger to life and limb. In addition to these restrictions, safety regulations specified in technical handbooks for the materiel also apply.

Appendix

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Appendix 9. THICKNESS OF COVER
1 Single shots – direct hits by cold projectiles Thickness of cover measured in cm: Type of cover Steel plate (230 HB) Solid walls: – brick – concrete – reinforced concrete – timber – mud – dirt – sand – shingel – mud – dirt – and and gravel – mud – dirt – sand 2 60 45 30 150 120 100 60 60 150 130 75 30 20 – – – – 30 30 – – – 90 60 45 – – 130 75 75 – 150 100 150 110 90 – – – 150 150 – – 150 – – – – – – – + 100% if mud is wet +50% if dirt is wet + 100% if mud is wet +50% if dirt is wet + 100% if sand is wet – 150 120 7,62 m 4 9 mm 1 12,7 mm 6 40 mm1 75 mm 10 27 Note

Walls made of loose materials supported by floorboards or timber:

Sandbags filled with:

Loose bank made of: 150 120 90 – – 30 – – – – – – – – – + 100% if mud is wet +50% if dirt is wet +100% if sand is wet

Splinter detonation distance 20 metres from cover. 1 Same thickness of cover apply for 20 mm MP (NM75) as for 40mm.

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Thickness of cover in centimetres: Splinters from shells and missiles Type of cover Steel plate Solid walls: – brick – concrete – reinforced concrete – timber – mud – dirt – dirt – sand and gravel Loose bank made of: – dirt – sand 60 30 90 45 120 60 10 10 7,5 20 20 40 50 25 15 13 10 25 25 45 60 30 20 15 13 35 30 60 75 50 Kal 75 mm og mindre 1,5 Kal 105 mm 2 Kal 155 mm 2,5 Merknad

Walls made of loose materials supported by floorboards:

Sandbags filled with:

Appendix

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7,62 mm Type of cover pbr

12,7 mm pbr 100

40 mm2

F75 mm

Note

sand and gra- 75 vel Loose bank made of: – mud – dirt – sand 3 150 120 90

150

– – –

– – –

– – –

+ 100% if mud is wet +50% if dirt is wet +100% if sand is wet

Impact plus detonation of one hit. Thickness of cover in centimetres: HE shell Type of cover Kal 75 mm Kal 105 mm 75 110 160 Kal 155 mm 110 160 220

reinforced concrete 30 (280 kg/cm 2 ) brick or concrete 50 Timber logs: (20 60 cm in diametre anchored) Shingel or crushed 110 rocks Hard trodden dirt 4 Shaped charges 220

270 550

350 750

Thickness of cover in centimetres: Recoilless gun Kal Type of cover Steel plate reinforced concrete 66 mm 25 100 Kal 84 mm 55 200

2 Same thickness of cover apply for 20 mm MP (NM75) as for 40mm.

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Appendix 11A. TRANSPORTATION AND HANDLING OF FLAMMABLE LIQUIDS AND DANGEROUS SUBSTANCES
In general
1 2 The ’Law on flammable substances/goods including liquids and gasser under trykk’ of 21 May, 1971, with later amendments, provide strict regulations for, among other things, transportation, handling and storage of flammable liquids. Exceptions during field exercises In the cabinet meeting of 17 February 1977, the King decided that the following paragraphs in the ’Law on flammable substances/goods’ do not apply during field exercises. Law paragraphs 10, 11, 21, 22 and 28. Chapter 4 in the regulations. Chapter 8, § 9, in the regulations. For more information, see BIH 2-028 ‘Exceptions made for the Armed Forces from the Law and regulations on flammable substances/goods.’

Storing and using oil products within garrisons
3 See: TF 1-3-5 Manual for Armed Forces’ motorized vehicle drivers. Storage and transport of petrol and other flammable liquids. LAW of 2005-06-17 no: 62: Law about workplace environment, working hours and employment protection etc. chapter 4. FS 7610-0500, Chemical substances and products.

Transportation, storage, handling and draining of liquids during field exercises
4 See: TF 1-3-5 Storage and transport of petrol and other flammable liquids. FS 7610-0500, Chemical substances and products. Law about protection against pollution and about waste disposal BIH 2-028 Peacetime conditions for draining of petrol during field exercises.

Appendix

Rescuing vehicles transporting flammable liquids
5 6 See: TF 1-3-5 Manual for Armed Forces’ motorized vehicle drivers. See ADR – land transport of dangerous goods, published by the Directorate for Civil Protection and Emergency Planning (DSB).

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Personal protective equipment - petrol fumes
7 Protection mask against petrol fumes is to be used by all personnel transferring petrol from petrol lorries to cans etc. thus being exposed to petrol fumes. A protection mask is also to be used by drivers and their assistants on petrol lorries and lorries transporting cans when they are exposed to petrol fumes during refuelling, loading and unloading of jerry cans. The masks are also to be issued and used in cases in which the commanding officer in cooperation with the safety deputy/environmental committee decides that a protection mask is necessary.

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Appendix 11B. TRANSPORTATION, HANDLING AND STORAGE OF RADIOACTIVE SOURCES
1 In general The purpose of this appendix is to ensure safe use of radiation, to prevent dangerous effects of radiation on humans’ health, and to contribute to the protection of the environment. The appendix applies to any making, import, export, handing over, possession, installation, use, handling and disposal of radioactive sources. It also applies to all human activity which leads to increased natural ionizing radiation from the surroundings. Notification Enterprises who plan to acquire, use or handle ionizing sources of radiation for other purposes and in other connections than those listed in ’Regulations for radiation protection and use of radiation’, § 5, must notify the Norwegian Radiation Protection Authority. Sources of radiation must not be acquired, used or handled until the enterprise has received confirmation that their notification has been received. Transportation For regulations concerning transportation of radioactive materiel, see the latest version of ADR/RID. Handling Enterprises planning to use or handle sources of radiation must make an assessment of the risk elements connected with the use of radiation. Should the assessment indicate that there is risk involved for employees, other persons or the environment, or that the sources of radiation may go astray, the enterprise is to: a. Implement all reasonable practical measures to avoid or reduce the probability of such incidents. b. c. Secure radioactive sources from theft, sabotage, fire, and water damage. Provide employees with the necessary information and training as well as the required personal protective equipment in order to limit the exposure to radiation should such incidents occur. Develop an emergency plan describing measures to stop, reduce and remove emissions, measures to reduce doses of radiation, and other measures designed to reduce the consequences of such incidents. Conduct emergency training and drills.

2

3 4

d.

Appendix

e. 5

Requirement to keep control of sources of radiation The enterprise is responsible for keeping control of ionizing sources of radiation. This responsibility includes registration of localization, type of source, and temporary movements. For radioactive sources, specification of the radioactive

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6

substances and activity must also be registered, as well as the serial number or other information which makes it possible beyond doubt to identify the source. Storage Radioactive sources which temporarily are out of use, sources that are stored temporarily, and radioactive waste in the form of sources which have been in use, must be stored safely: The storage room/closet is to be locked and access is to be limited. A standard warning sign on ionizing radiation, as well as further information, must be placed on the door. The level of radiation outside the storage room must not exceed 7.5 µSv/t. Radioactive sources must not be stored with explosives or highly flammable substances. Inside the storage room, a list of the stored goods/sources must be accessible.

See also ’Directive on radiation protection and use of radiation’ (”Forskrift om strålevern og bruk av stråling (Strålevernforskriften)”).

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11c
1

Appendix 11C. TRANSPORTATION, HANDLING AND STORAGE OF CS AND SIMULANTS, CHEMICAL AGENTS
In general These regulations apply to storage and transportation of simulants, chemical agents, more specifically to: The simulants SIFON, SIFOS and SIFOX. Only some of the following regulations apply, which ones will become evident when reading the text. The simulants C-Yellow, C-Green and C-Red. Only some of the following regulations apply, which ones will become evident when reading the text.

2

3

Transportation of simulants. UN danger category 6/8/9 Simulants must be transported in their original packaging, to the extent that this is possible. Other packaging may be used, if special permission has been granted by the manager in charge. Transporting simulants in Armed Forces’ vehicles When transporting simulants in military vehicles: These must not be transported along with explosives, flammable goods or foodstuffs. Tightness checked and approved personal protective mask must be brought along and kept immediately accessible. The vehicle must be guarded during stops and when parked. The simulant C-Red is classified as dangerous goods RID/RID-S, ADR/ADR-S, category 9, danger number 90 and UN no. 3082. Transport papers signed by the unit commander must be kept in the vehicle. These papers must provide information on: 1. Type of simulant and number of boxes 2. Address and phone number of the unit which is to be notified, should an accident occur.

5

Transporting simulants using Armed Forces’ vessels and aircraft The unit conducting the transport is responsible for ascertaining that: The transport is conducted as quickly as possible. Simulants are not being transported along with explosives, flammable substances or articles of food. The simulant C-Red is classified as dangerous goods IMDG category 9, danger number 90 and UN no. 3082. No unauthorized person gets close to the simulants.

Appendix

The dispatching unit must contact the relevant air terminal/vessel in reasonable time

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6

before the transportation is to be conducted. Transporting simulants using civilian means of transportation Simulants can be transported on railways, by civilian aircraft and vessels only to the extent that Norwegian or international regulations allow it, and only in accordance with the regulations for transporting dangerous goods. When using private or public means of transportation, the regulations presented for the corresponding military means of transportation apply, in addition to directives provided by the company conducting the transport. Before handing the simulants over, it must well in advance have been checked with the relevant expedition office whether the simulants can be received for transport, and if necessary, the time for handing the simulants over should be set. When handing over simulants, certain transport companies require that the dispatching unit notifies the receiver that the goods must be picked up as soon as possible, preferably within 2 hours, and never later than 12 hours after the goods arrived at its set destination. Should the goods remain in the terminal, the transport company is entitled to implement the safety measures deemed necessary, at the expense of the dispatching unit. See also the following documents concerning simulant transportation: Rail transport: The updated ADR/RID (road or railway transport of dangerous goods) Air transport: IATA convention AFR 71-4 and KLFK no. 10/82 Sea transport: IMDG. INCO rules.

7

Sending simulants by post is PROHIBITED. Handling of simulants The simulants SIFOS, SIFON and SIFOX have, in varying degrees, itching and corrosive qualities. The simulants C-Yellow and C-Green have in varying degrees itching and corrosive qualities. The simulant C-Red may in addition cause poisoning. Contact may cause itching. Relatively small amounts can be very dangerous. Potentially lethal amount for adults is 30 ml and for children 10 ml. Symptoms: nausea, vomiting, breathing difficulty, pulmonary edema, convulsions, and death. Oral poisoning LD50 oral rat: 887 mg/kg body weight Poisoning by skin contact LD50 dermal rat: > 2,500 mg/kg body weight LD50 dermal rabbit: > 5,000 mg/kg body weight

The numbers above apply to methyl salicylate. For that reason: They must not be used towards personnel.

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Breathing in damp or aerosol must be avoided. Contact with eyes and bare skin must be avoided. Protective mask and rubber gloves must be worn during dispersion.

8

9

See also MTO/HFK 473 ‘Simulant set, gas, NATO no. 1365-25-128-8854’ with corrections and amendments no. 1 and 2. Handling of CS CS tablets must be handled wearing the proper personal protective equipment. CS tablets must not be carried in bare hands, protective gloves must be worn. See also § 6.5.1.3 ’Use of CS during training and exercises’ Storage of simulants Simulants must not be stored with explosived, flammable substances, electronic equipment, optical instruments or articles of food. Requirements of storage rooms for simulants are that: They can be properly locked. They are not placed in buildings where personnel work or stay on a permanent basis. The rooms can be properly ventilated. The rooms keep a minimum temperature of +5 °C, and are always free of frost.

CS is to be stored in its original packaging. All simulants must be stored in approved packaging and be stored on paper that makes leakages apparent so that leakages can be discovered rapidly.

Appendix

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Appendix 12A. RESCUE SERVICE DURING ACCIDENTS AND INCIDENTS IN THE NORWEGIAN ARMED FORCES
Regulations for measures and investigations etc. when accidents and incidents occur in the Norwegian Armed Forces.
1 2 See Royal Resolution of 6 January 1995 cf. appendix 12B

Responsibilities JOHQ
JOHQ will develop CLEAR regulations, which will imply: That Armed Forces’ capacity might be implemented fully in an efficient rescue operation while maintaining military leadership and the military organisation. That cooperation between the Armed Forces and the Local Rescue Centre (LRS) will be facilitated so that misunderstandings and loss of momentum can be avoided during an ongoing operation. That the police know what kind of support the Armed Forces can provide, especially during exercises in the field, how cooperation is to be carried out and how leadership is to be carried out for the military part.

-

Organisation/ responsibilities
3 The Army’s state of readiness for rescue operations is to be based on: The extent of the exercise (number of participants) 4 Exercise terrain and realistic risk factors LRS/HRS possibilities and limitations in the exercise situation in question Prepared and planned support from other branches, possibly also civilian institutions and/or civilian organisations.

Unit commanders, at all levels, are responsible for their own units’ state of readiness when it comes to rescue operations. During exercises down to division/brigade level, the officer conducting the exercise is to provide directives for rescue service in the purpose of coordinating use of resources and possibly leading a large-scale rescue operation. Should an accident occur, the unit commander is to: immediately implement rescue service with own unit report the accident to closest superior officer or directly to the civilian police authority Lead the rescue operation until superior officer or civilian police authority will take on leadership and responsibility.

5

The professional responsibility for rescue and medical service follows unit level. The responsible professional staff officer holds the professional responsibility for

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6 7

8

9 10

planning, education/training and other preparations within his/her part of the rescue service. Organisation of rescue service for exercises that are carried through by sub-units from the garrison or military refresher centres is to be included in the unit’s standing orders, and based on the principles that have been laid down in this section. During unit exercises outside the garrison, adequate materiel for rescue service in peace is to be brought along, in addition to table of organisation and equipment materiel. Should the unit commander consider his/her own resources to be insufficient, support is to be requested from superior officer. The LRS is to be briefed on all exercises of significant size, or exercises that are of a character that might call for assistance from the LRS. During large exercise on the ground, the LRS is to be provided with a map of the training area and the participating units. Should the exercise span several police districts (LRSs) a meeting should be arranged with the LRSs, briefing them on the exercise. All exercise orders are to include a point on rescue service. This point may be made brief by referring to standing orders. Norwegian and allied units participating in exercises in Norway must know how the rescue service is organised and how help can be called in should the need arise. The relevant unit/command medical officer is to brief civilian health authorities, make the necessary arrangements with civilian hospitals, and provide required directives to the unit’s/command’s medical staffs and units. During exercises in division/brigade formation level, rescue service is in principle to be organised in the following manner: a. Battalion, coy/sq/btt is to have developed standing orders for rescue service based on: Own unit’s medical organisation b. Directives from higher unit Preplanned/prepared support from higher unit

Division/brigade rescue service is to be based on ONE rescue team prepared to be inserted during most types of accidents. The organisation must be flexible enough to insert only the required elements depending on scope and type of the accident.

The following elements may be part of a rescue team: Command team/leadership element is to be prepared for insertion during large Appendix accidents or catastrophes. The team’s main task is to lead all forms of military rescue service until the LRS/HRS takes over the responsibility and leadership of the rescue operation. The team will then continue as a cooperating element, helping the civilian leader on site, and as leadership for the military forces that participate in the rescue operation. Administrative team is to support an operation with e.g. food, petrol, various items, transport, etc.

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Medical team is to treat and evacuate the injured. The force will normally be selected from Medical coy or brigade or the Medical Battalion/6th Division. The force is to be used according to the tactical situation, and then detached, should the rescue force need to be inserted. The force must when necessary be able to present a professional medical leader, until higher unit can provide one. The force is to hold the responsibility as leader on site until the unit itself/higher unit/the LRS can take over. Planning The unit presenting the medical team must have a plan for: o Which personnel and materiel make up the force. Where patients will be evacuated. Communication for the force, including the possibility of contacting civilian installations. Possibly also other sub-units who are to prepare measures for rescue state of readiness. Contact with the division’s/brigade’s readiness force. The team should consist of minimum a leader of the force (leader on site/operative medical leader), a medical officer and three vehicles for evacuation.

-

ONE helicopter which can be deployed on short notice in order to provide the medical team with the required ability to be inserted rapidly. Even if this helicopter’s primary task is insertion during accidents/catastrophes, it may be used for evacuation of badly injured patients and for training that does not significantly weaken the state of readiness, rescue. Communications team to set up communication with the police, possibly also others. It is difficult to draw up a set organisation of this team, the team has to be organised depending on what each operation requires. Planning is to concern itself with where resources can be spared. Military police to direct traffic and possibly keep guard Rescue/recovery team for insertion during accidents involving vehicles, aircraft and vessels Search team for searching for missing personnel and for searching avalanches. The unit is to be picked in advance. Avalanche team with dogs Possibly also others.

-

-

The following personnel should be part of the team: Commander: G-3 or G-4

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Medical officer: Med Ops Off or the staff’s medical officer MP officer: the most experienced MP officer Com off: com off with detailed information about the communication system used during the exercise. Will bring operator and communication installation. Avalanche officer: during operations in winter. The command team must be transported to the area of the accident with the quickest available means of transport. In the case of minor accidents, it might be unnecessary to separate the team and rather lead the operation directly from the relevant command post. Liaison officer(s) for the HRS/LRS are to be picked in advance. These function as advisors to the police and are to work at the rescue centre(s), which may be located far away from the accident site. LOs must have good knowledge about the unit(s), about their mission, resources and capacities, as well as the resources of other military branches in the area.

-

20 21

SOI must have been determined for use during rescue operations, where particularly communication to helicopters, civilian hospital(s), command teams and the LRS is listed. If any of these teams must be ordered a state of readiness which is making it difficult for them to benefit properly from the exercise, this simply has to be accepted. The majority should be able to participate in their normal duties. For an example of medical team which is part of the division/brigade’s force for rescue service, see pt 10 b.

Appendix

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Appendix 12 B. REPORTING AND INVESTIGATING OF ACCIDENTS AND INCIDENTS IN THE NORWEGIAN ARMED FORCES
This appendix may only be subject to change in the event of an amendment to a Royal decree. FOH (The Norwegian Armed Forces Operational Headquarters) and Land Waarfare Center (LWC) have submitted amendment proposals to the Ministry of Defence. These proposals relate to organisational changes, as well as proposals for amendments to the contents of the decree. When the new decree is passed into law it will, in the first instance, be incorporated into a digital edition of UD 2-1. Thereafter, the decree will be incorporated into a subsequent printed edition.

CHAPTER ON APPLICATION AND DEFINITIONS
§1
1

Application
Laid down in Royal Resolution of 6 January 1995 (amended by the Ministry of Defence on 18 November 2002, and on 1 August 2006). The regulations apply during any accident in the Norwegian Armed Forces, and when the Armed Forces have been involved in an accident and this has resulted in: a. Loss of human life/lives or serious injury to persons b. Extensive damage to or loss of military or civilian property. When a close investigation of what has caused something is required, an investigating committee may be put together also in other cases than those mentioned in § 1. The regulations apply as long as this does not interfere with relations with another state or with international organisations. §§ § 8, § 12, § 13, § 14 and § 15also apply during other accidents or incidents which are desired investigated. The commander ordering the investigation is to decide how it is to be conducted.

2 3 4

§2

Investigating authority
For land, sea and air forces the investigating authority is the commander of the relevant forces of war which have met with an accident or incident. Changes of 1 August 2006 transferred the investigating authority to Chief JOHQ.

CHAPTER II IMMEDIATE MEASURES
§3
1

Responsibilities of the unit commander
Commander of the unit (institution, station, vessel, school, etc.) which is involved must immediately make sure that necessary rescue measures are implemented and that preliminary notification is given to: a. The investigating authority, b. The chief of police in the area where the accident happened,

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c. d.

Other civilian or military authorities whom it might be presumed are interested in taking immediate measures in relation to the accident, and Next of kin to those who have been killed, are missing or have been seriously injured. Giving this notification might be left to the higher authority, when this seems appropriate.

2 3

4

The unit commander must taket the necessary steps which cannot be delayed in order to secure evidence (sealing off the area, secure witnesses and leads, etc.). The unit commander is to make sure the people who are next of kin to those killed or injured receive the support and help they need. This also applies to others who have been affected by the accident or incident, unless this might more appropriately be left to higher authority. If for practical reasons and the required immediate measures suggest it, the commander of the military unit closest to the accident site has the same responsibilities as the commander of the unit which has been affected, according to this paragraph.

§4

Responsibilities of the investigating authority
The investigating authority is to, as soon as it has been notified of an accident: 1. GIve further notification to: a. The Defence Staff (of 1 August 03) b. c. d. 2. The Ministry of Defence Other affected civilian and military authorities who have not already received notification, and The media, to the extent that this is advisable.

Keep informed of the measures the local commander has implemented, and if necessary effect further measures.

CHAPTER III, APPOINTING AN INVESTIGATING COMMITTEE
§5
1

When and by whom will an investigating committee be appointed?
a. When an accident as described in § § 1 has occurred involving a unit in the Norwegian Armed Forces, the investigating authority (Chief JOHQ)is to appoint an investigating committee. The Chief of Staff or higher authority can also appoint an investigating committee. When an accident as described in § 1 no 1 has occurred at the Defence Staff/the MoD, the Chief of Defence decides whether an investigating committee is to be appointed.

b. c.

Appendix

2

An investigating committee might not be required in the following cases: a. Traffic accident involving civilian vehicle, b. Fire being investigated by the police,

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c. d.

Accident at sea where a maritime declaration is planned, and When higher authority already has appointed an investigating committee.

§6
1

How to put together an investigating committee
The investigating committee is to be appointed without delay. The committee must consist of at least three members, including: a. A leader who is to be an officer of minimum the same rank and experience as the one who due to his direct involvement with the accident or incident is under investigation. The committee is not to be changed, however, should they at a later stage find it necessary to investigate other higher-ranking officers. If an accident has resulted in loss of life/lives, the leader of the committee must hold the rank of major (or equivalent), minimum. b. c. An officer with experience from the same type of service, If the accident has resulted in injury to person(s), the local working environment committee (AMU) must be given the opportunity to name a member of the investigating committee. If the local working environment committee refrains from doing so, a representative for the category of personnel the injured person(s) belongs to is to be appointed, and If privates/corporals/etc. have had direct involvement with the accident or incident, a representative for this category of personnel must in all cases be given the opportunity to participate in the investigating committee.

d.

2 3

The Chief of Police in the area where the accident or incident occurred is to be invited and encouraged to appoint a representative from the police as member of the investigating committee. In those cases where the Chief of Defence or the MoD appoints the investigating committee, the composure of this committee may be decided by the MoD.

§7
1

Legally incompetent
The person who is being investigated cannot be a member of the investigating committee. Similarly, a person cannot be a member of the investigating committee when: a. this person, or someone he/she is closely related to, may take advantage, loss, or inconvenience as a result of the investigation, or b. when there are other circumstances that might jeopardise the impartiality of the person in question.

If a superior is considered incapable of participating in the investigating committee, this will also apply to those who are under his/her direct command.

§8
1 2

Responsibilities of the investigating committee
The Defence Staff and the MoD must immediately be notified that an investigating committee has been appointed. The investigating authority is responsible for making sure that the investigation is carried out without unnecessary delay.

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The investigating authority will continuously assess whether the discoveries reported by the investigating committee should lead to the implementation of immediate measures.

CHAPTER IV THE WORK OF THE INVESTIGATING COMMITTEE
§9
1

The purpose of the investigation
The purpose of the investigation is to: a. Establish the nature and extent of the damage/injury, the course of events, and what caused the accident/indicent, b. c. Establish which laws, regulations, instructions or orders applied to the service or mission during which the accident/incident occurred, and Make a statement on what may be done in order to prevent similar accidents in the future.

2

The investigating committee must not give an opinion on whether there is cause for disciplinary action, whether a crime has been committed, or whether liability should be placed with anyone.

§ 10

Reporting
The investigating committee must continuously assess whether information that is uncovered during their work should be reported to the investigating authority before the final report has been completed.

§ 11

Notification
Should the investigating committee during the course of their work suspect that a crime, reprimandable or blameworthy actions from certain persons have been committed, these are to be considered as under investigation by the committee. In such a case, the investigating committee must immediately notify the person being investigated about their investigation and suspicion, unless these are not already known by the person being investigated.

§ 12
1 2 3 4

Statements
With the exceptions that are listed in § 12, 5, all personnel serving in the Armed Forces are bound by duty to give a statement to the investigating committee when asked to do so. Statements are to be made orally or in writing. If a statement is taken orally, it is to be written down and presented to the individual making the statement for his/her Appendix signature. The person who is being investigated has the right to give his/her statement to the investigating committee. Should the investigating committee decide that it will not harm the investigation or a third party, the person being investigated is entitled to information about statements and evidence which are directly related to him/her, and give his/her own comments on these to the investigating committee.

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No one is bound by duty to give statements concerning aspects that may give cause for disciplinary or legal action towards the individual. Personnel are to be informed about their right to refuse giving a statement.

§ 13

The right to legal assistance
The person who is being investigated has the right to an attorney, or other legal assistance, throughout the investigation, but at his/her own expense. Choosing form of assistance must not significantly delay the investigation.

§ 14
1 2

Professional secrecy
The committee and its individual members must not talk about their work to others. The investigating authority decides whether information that is uncovered during the work of the investigating committee should be reported to the public.

CHAPTER V THE INVESTIGATING COMMITTEE’S REPORT
§ 15
1 2

Sending the report and notes
The committee presents its report to the investigating authority. The person who has been under investigation must be given the opportunity to learn the contents of the report, to the extent that security clearance or information protected by professional secrecy does not prevent this. The person is entitled to, within a reasonable date set by the investigating authority, to present his/her comments on the report, before the investigating authority makes his/her assessment of the report. All notes are to be included when the report is handed in. The investigating authority will send the report, along with his/her own notes, to the Defence Staff, the Chief of Police in the area where the accident/incident occurred, and other civilian and military authorities that presumably would like to consider taking measures based on the findings in the report. The notes should include: a. A presentation of measures that have been taken or that have been planned in order to prevent similar accidents from happening in the future, measures that have been taken to put the damage/injury right, and suggestions for measures that the investigating authority cannot personally implement. b. c. A list of the legal, disciplinary, or liability actions that have been implemented Possibly also a statement explaining why the report in its entirety or partially is classified in accordance with the security regulations.

3

4

The Defence Staff will forward the report to the Ministry of Defence, with its own notes included, with a copy to the Chief of Police, see no. 3.

§ 16
1

The public
The investigating committee is to phrase its report so that it may become public, unless this undermines the purpose of the investigation. Possible classification of the report, in accordance with the security regulations, is to be explained when forwarding the report. If the report is to be withheld from the public eye, a new version suitable for publication is to be put together.

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2 3

The report is not to be made public until it has been examined by the Ministry of Defence, unless the MoD decides otherwise. Those to whom in some way damage has been caused, and next of kin to those killed, must be given the possibility to learn the contents of the report to the extent that security clearance or information protected by professional secrecy allows it.

§ 17
1

Changes and complementary regulations
The MoD, or the one who receives the authority from the MoD, may make minor changes in as well as produce complementary regulations in addition to these regulations.

§ 18
1 2

Coming into effect
These regulations came into effect on 1 April 1995. On the same date, the Crown Prince Regent’s resolution of 29 June 1956, no. 9095, concerning investigating committees during accidents in the Armed Forces, was abolished.

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13
1 2

Appendix 13. SAFETY REGULATIONS FOR USE OF LASERS
In general
These regulations have been derived from and come in addition to pt. 6.2.5. Safe distance (NOHD) Magnifying optics gather laser beams passing through the optic system into the observer’s eye. Safe distances in relation to magnifying optics are significantly increased and are referred to as EOHD (Extended Occular Hazard Distance). Safe distance from NOHD (Nominal Occular Hazard Distance) is defined as shortest distance where the energy being radiated from the laser will not cause injury to an eye being exposed to the laser beam. STANAG 3606 refers to this as Rs. Safety table with safety data for lasers and their different configurations Configuration Laser (Name of product) NOHD Filter Dan- Wa- Mulger ve ticlass lengt pulh se/ contin. dB Laser range finders NM81 LP-10 TL NM129 Vector IV Vector 1500 Vector 21? LP-10 TL - single puls/ 10 sek - 5 pulses/ 10 sek - 10 pulses/ 10 1M 1M 1M 1M 1570 0 1570 0 1570 0 1570 0 0 0 0 0 39 1 22 39 3B 3B 1 1 1064 1064 6900 5100 4800 4395 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 nm meter EHD Required eye protection Single pulse OD

3

Short 7x50 10X5 12x1 Non- Magex- + 0+ 20+ magn n OD posur OD e (<3m s) meter

unmentioned

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sek - filter 16 1M IS 2000 G Vingrange 30? Eller 42? PLRF Vectronix PLRF Vectronix (sivil) LP-16 Laser pulse Hvpn LAM/ AN PEQ 6 M6X-000 (rød) M6X-100 (IR) AN/PEQ 2 tidlig versjon AN/PEQ 2A Treningsmodus AN/PEQ-2A Taktisk/skarp modus AN PEQ 6 norsk versjon Skarp peker Skarp illuminator Skarp kombinasjon Trening peker Trening kombinasjon 3R 3R 3B 3R 820- 40 850 820- 325 850 830 830 830 830 830 830 210 60 0 0 0 0 260 0,2 640- 175 670 820- 15 850 1250 200 1,1 0,2 1570 879- 0 925 0 180 180

3B

2325

2,0

3B 3B 3B 1 1

Appendix

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LAM/ AN PEQ 6 Laser pulse Unit weapons+ air support GBD III IZLID 1000P– high - Low - Puls IZLID 200P– high - low - pulse GCP-1/1A GCP-1B RB 70 Pantera Aeropoint HPLT V.4 - pulse Laser designators CILAS DHY 307 - training filter 21,6 GLTD II LTDI Lasers miscellaneous DI 1600 (Landmåling) Zeiss Cilas Miles 4 4 4 1064 1630 0 1064 1360 1064 2000 0 1064 3000 0 114k m 9500 116k m 9700 4 4 4 860 940 940 270 1000 900 70 6980 6360 7120 6490 3B 4 4 4 3B 3B 3B 3B 3B 532 860 860 860 820 820 820 820 820 1160 600 650 420 520 410 300 390 100 250 60 200

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BT 46/52/53 Configurations of lasers and laser systems Vingtaqs (LP-16 + Aeropoint) Vingtaqs (LP-16 + DHY307 + Aeropoint) - training filter DHY + Aeropoint M6X + AN/ PEQ 2A (norsk) training modus 4 5 Effect of magnifying optics Use of magnifying optics will increase the safe distance from the laser source. When using magnifying optics, the given NOHD is to be multiplied with the magnifying factor of the optics! Transmission on optics is 100 %. EOHD = NOHD * Magnification Effect of optics with safety filter Safety filter laser on optics will reduce safe distance from the laser source. Laser safety filter (OD) Correction factor 1 3,2 1,5 6 2 10 2.5 18 3 32 3,6 56 4 100 4,5 180 5 320 5,5 560 6 1000 3B 830, 270 1540 1064, 830, 1540 1064, 830, 1540

4

4

6

Note that OD equals dB-level/10. In manuals and handbooks the dampening will be stated either as OD or in dB. In order to determine corrected safe distance laser (NOHD – corr.) for optics containing safety filter laser, the applying safe distance NOHD is to be devided by the applying correction factor for non-magnifying optics. NOHD_corr. = NOHD/ correction factor (Applies to non-magnifying optics) NOHD_korr = NOHD_M / Correction factor

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7

(Applies to magnifying optics) Basis for calculation The calculations have been carried out in accordance with European laser standard IEC 60825-1 and STANAG 3606 ED NR 4. Transmission is 100 %, reflectors have 100 % reflectance and a divergence of 1 mrad. When using laser safety filters, the table above applies.

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Appendix 14. DIRECTIVE FOR EXERCISES ETC. AT POWER SUPPLY INSTALLATIONS
The Norwegian Water Resources and Energy Directorate (NVE) and The Directorate for Civil Protection and Emergency Planning (DSB) have made footnotes to these regulations since the previous edition of UD 2-1. A comprehensive work of revision will be carried out and a new appendix 14 will be added to the net version of UD 2-1. Until the revised regulations have been received from NVE/DSB the regulations below apply.

DIRECTIVE FOR EXERCISES ETC. AT POWER SUPPLY INSTALLATIONS
Determined by the Electricity supervisory board and the NVE valid from 1. of september 1993 Note: After this directive came into force in 1993, changes have been made in other regulations, etc. References with notes explaining the regulations in force today can be found at the end of the document. The notes were updated in June 2007.

PREFACE
In accordance with ’Operational rules for high voltage power installations’ § 905 Access 1. (The Electricity supervisory board2.),only the operational manager or a person acting under his authority can allow access to high voltage power installations. In accordance with the Energy law § 6-6 The user and owner of power plants obligated to allow the NVE and those NVE authorises to access to the power plant if proper ID is shown In accordance with "Guidelines for securing power installations" (NVE, january 1993)3., the owner of a power supply installation is bound to cooperate with the local guards. This includes the possibility for regular exercises at the relevant power supply installation, to the extent that the ‘Operational rules for high voltage power installations’ allow it. 1. Replaced by § 15 Access in "Regulations for safety for work and maintenance on high-voltage electric installations". As prescribed by the Product and electricity inspection of 30. oktober 1998 under the provisions of the law of 24. may 1929 nr. 4 Appendix regarding inspections of electrical installations and electrical equipment, § 2. 2. Now DSB 3. Repl. by chap. 5 Safety measure in "Regulations for emerency prepairdness for power supply"(BfK). Determined by NVE on the 16. december 2002 with provisions in regulations of 7. december 1990 nr. 959 (The Energy Act) § 7-1, and in law by 29. june 1990 nr. 50 regarding production, transforming, transporting, selling, distribution and use of energy etc. (The Energy Act) § 7-6 cf. also the Directive "Object security - Guarding and securing power installations" - determined by NVE, january 1995.

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This directive has been developed in order to clarify the relationship between the regulations mentioned above, and to make sure that exercises are being carried out in a safe and convenient manner at or near power supply installations. The directive provides further regulations for how exercises at power supply installations are to be planned and carried out, and a list of individual responsibilities. The directive was developed by a committee appointed by the NVE. The committee was composed by representatives from the Armed Forces, the Ministry of Justice, the police, Statkraft SF, Statnett SF, Elektrisitetstilsynet and the NVE. The directive has been approved by the said institutions. The directive came into force on 1 September 1993. Users are appealed to send comments and suggestion for improving the directive within one year. The public have access to the directive in accordance with Norwegian Law. 4.. Electricity supervisory board Norwegian Water Resources and Energy Directorate 1. September 1993

4. Originally exempts from public access. This exemption has later been revoked by a later decision which means that the Directive is publicly accesable even though they have "not for public access" written on it.

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1
1.1

INTRODUCTION
Area of application The directive applies to exercises at all power supply installations, where access permission is required due to personnel safety and in accordance with ’Operational rules for high voltage power installations’ § 905 Access, or where safety measures may be required implemented in accordance with the ’Guidelines for securing of power supply installations’ (NVE; January 1993). Purpose Certain power supply installations have been prioritized for keeping armed guards, should the situation demand it. Guards may come from the police, the company home guard, the Home Guard or other Norwegian Defence forces. In order to make the guards familiar with the installations, carrying out realistic exercises is imperative. This directive provides rules for how to carry out exercises in a safe and practical manner, emphasizing how to reduce the risk which is involved during all exercises at high voltage power installations. The directive is in accordance with the criteria presented in the ’Operational rules for high voltage power installations’ § 905 Access, for this type of activity.

1.2

2
2.1

NOTIFICATION AND PLANNING
Notification A Unit – Home Guard district, Police authority, etc. planning exercises at power supply installations will send a notification in writing to the owner of the installation (att. the operational manager) with a copy to the relevant station chief. The notification is to be sent as soon as the exercise plan is complete – no later than 2 months before the exercise is to be executed. Information must be provided about time, duration, extent and other important factors. It is to be stated in particular whether the exercise is planned to be carried out solely or partially within the power supply installation’s closed/fenced in area. Points of contact The unit is to appoint an OCE who is in charge of the concrete planning and implementation of the exercise at the relevant power supply installation. The OCE and the owner of the installation (his/her operational manager) or the person authorized by him/her will function as points of contact. Planning A meeting is to be arranged in good time before the exercise commences, where the Appendix said points of contact meet, discuss and determine the exercise plan and its details – particularly focusing on safety for personnel. The power supply installation is to be reconnoitred and the specific content of/elements in the exercise are to be decided. The following must be determined (and marked clearly on a map): The areas/parts of the installation where according to ’Operational regulations for high voltage power installations’, § 905 Access, an access card is required – i.e. rooms and areas cordoned off for high voltage installations.

2.2

2.3

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Parts of the installations where training must be conducted and where access may be granted (i.e. ‘safe’ area and cordoned off area). Restrictions that have to be made on the exercise or the elements which are to be trained during the exercise.

When it comes to safety measures, see the points below.

3
3.1

IMPLEMENTATION – RESPONSIBILITIES AND DUTIES
Extent The exercise will normally be limited in time to one working day plus one night (until 2400 hours). In addition, time during the previous or next working day must be set aside for preparations, instruction, tidying up, etc. The training force must not be so large that carrying out efficient instructions and checks before the exercise becomes difficult and at the same time keeping full control during the exercise. The allowed number of participants should be considered in each separate case. Preparations The owner of the power supply installation must ascertain that the station is manned sufficiently during the exercise, so that a general overview can be kept at all times. The operational manager, or a person authorized by him/her, will in cooperation with the OCE and the training unit see to marking/putting up signs, locking off high voltage rooms, battery rooms, communication rooms, etc. or, if possible, disconnect parts of the installation. The training force will normally be allowed to use the installation’s facilities, such as toilets/rest rooms, rooms suitable for setting up command posts, use of telephones (not for private calls), common rooms, etc. Concerning preparations of facilities for the guard unit see “Directions for securing power supply installations” NVE. The OCE is responsible for briefing the commander of the training unit on all plans and agreements concerning safety at the power supply installation. Before the exercise commences, the commander of the training unit must study all plans, agreements and decisions concerning safety etc. at the power supply installation. Access (see also pt. 1.2) Prior to the exercise the commander of the training unit is to pick the crews that are to be given access to the power supply installation. All must be individuals he/she considers worthy of being given access. The operational manager, or the person he/she authorizes, may demand a list of names of the persons that have been cleared for access. Prior to the exercise the operational manager, or a person authorized by him/her, ascertains that the appointed crews receive the required safety instructions – including: going through the installation’s construction plans and how it is built danger elements hazard distance and safe distance

3.2

3.3

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accidents and first aid

a walk-through at the installation ’Safe’ area and areas cordoned off Special circumstances (use of vehicles, communications equipment, etc.)

3.4

The picked crews may receive time-limited access cards from the operational manager, or the person authorized by him/her. The access cards are to be numbered, in order to register who has received each card. The commander of the training unit is responsible for his/her own crews’ safety during the exercise. He/she is to ascertain that all personnel who are given access to the power supply installation in connection with the exercise have been cleared for access and have received the required safety instructions (see pt 3.3.1). The OCE is responsible for making sure that the exercise is carried out within the agreed area(s), and that it is conducted according to plan. Participating personnel who do not observe the directions they are given – such as signs and cordons – may be escorted out of the fenced in area for high voltage power installations by the OCE or the commander of the training unit. The operational manager, or the person acting on his/her behalf, may demand that such action is taken immediately. If the exercise, or elements of the exercise, is considered to be developing in an undesirable way in terms of safety by the operational manager or the person acting under his/her authority, the exercise/element is to be stopped immediately. The commander of the training unit is responsible for tidying up etc. after end-ex. Any possible damage that the personnel participating in the exercise may have caused to objects or others must immediately be reported through the chain of command. Special conditions Using vehicles within the power supply installation is prohibited. If, during planning, there should emerge special needs, the operational manager or the person acting on his/her behalf may authorize: Stationary vehicles (used for command or communication, ambulances, etc.) which are placed in position before the exercise commences and are withdrawn after end-ex. Non-stationary vehicles in connection with special missions or tasks, under the condition that these only are used on roads and in passages that are designed for vehicles in accordance with § 30402 in ‘Regulations for electric power supply installations’ marked with cordons.

Appendix

All vehicles must be without antennae or other high objects. Bringing and using long objects of about 2 metres or more – such as antennae, ladders, etc. is prohibited at the power supply installation. Should there be a special need for ladders for entering buildings etc. this has to be

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3.5

emphasized during the planning stages of the exercise, so that it takes place in a safe area, and the necessary cordons are put up. Use of communications equipment – such as radio transmitters, cables, etc. and use of training ammunition, thunder-flash, illumination shells, smoke grenades etc. must be discussed during the planning stages of the exercise and be authorized by the operational manager, or the person acting on his/her authority. Special considerations must be made when training in darkness and when visibility is poor. If visibility is particularly reduced by e.g. dense fog, snow drift, etc. the training should be called off or postponed. Responsibility in case of an accident The operational manager or the person acting on his/her authority has the responsibility for the required safety instructions, to cordon off areas, etc. (see pts 3.2.2 and 3.3.1). The OCE and all participants are responsible for observing the received instructions, guidelines, cordoned off areas, etc. Should an accident occur as a result of instructions and guidelines not being followed, by e.g. not respecting the cordons, the responsibility lies with the OCE and each participant.

4
4.1

EVALUATION AND FOLLOW-UP
Immediately after endex, an evaluation or debriefing of the exercise, including safety measures and safety conditions, is to be carried out on site. The commander of the training unit is to report back to the owner of the object with a copy to DIF/ local official authorities/ similar. If required, an evaluation meeting is to be held with the owner of the object. The OCE and the operational manager, or the person authorized by him/her, are responsible for follow-up in the shape of concrete measures and amendments/changes in the set plans.

5
5.1

FINANCIAL CONDITIONS
Each party is to cover their own costs when planning and carrying out exercises in accordance with this directive.

6
6.1

IMPLEMENTATION
This Directive is determined by "The Electricity supervisory board" in accordance with Law of 24. may 1929 nr. 4 regarding supervision and inspection of electrical installations and by The Norwegian Water Resources and Energy Directorate(NVE) in accordance with Law of 29. juni 1990 nr. 50 regarding production, transforming, transporting, selling, distribution and use of energy etc. (The Energy Act). The Directive is determined for use from 1. September 1993

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Appendix 15. INPUT DATA FOR HOW TO DRAW UP SAFETY TEMPLATES
Small arms
Weapo HK 416 HK 416 LMG AG-3 HK ns Primary Seconda 417 sight ry sight Ammu- 5.56 nition mm 5.56 mm 5.56 mm 7.62 mm lead free 7.62 mm lead free Other MG-3 Other MP5/ GUR weapo weapo Glock ns ns 7.62 mm lead 7.62 mm lead free 7.62 mm lead free 9 mm 40 mm

lr(Dmax) 2300 m 2300 m 2300 3900 3900 4400 3900 4300 1750 m m m m m m m l (Amin) m a side 88711
-

400m 150m

191310
-

14 12 15
-

555
-

100 - 2470 7
-

100 - 100 70 7
-

400 400 400 530 800 350m

7a up a down 8IAcrit b MRR wR s Note 530 800 1900m 350m 0

2219
-

7050 *
-

530 800 1900m 350m 0

530 - 530 - 530 - 530 - 530 - 530 - 530 800 - 800 - 800 - 800 - 800 - 800 - 800 1900 2800 2800 3900 2800 3800 1600 m m m m m m m 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 * assumed value

350m 500m 500m 900m 500m 900m 400m 50m 100m

Appendix

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Appendix 16. INPUT DATA FOR DRAWING UP SAFETY TEMPLATES
Medium calibre
Ammunition 12.7 mm target practice lr(Dmax) l m(Amin a side a up a down IAcrit b MRR wR s b sa l sa Note Firing range 5
-

12.7 mm API/Ball 6300m 100
-

12.7 mm MP 6300m 100
-

30 mm MP 8500m 350m 50
-

30 mm APFSDS

6300m

38100m 500m 50 -

55530 800 800
-

530 800
-

530 800
-

530 800
-

400 800 13000m 1600m 500500m

4300m
-

4300m 800m

4300m 800m 100m

5700m 800m 200m 500250m

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Appendix 17. INPUT VALUES FOR CONSTRUCTING SAFETY TEMPLATES
Anti-tank weapons
Ammunition M72 live round lr(Dmax) l m(Amin a IAcrit b MRR wR s u y b sa l sa Merknad 1350m 75m 200 400 800 900m 150m 200m 40m 25m 500 200m 300m 15m 15m 1000 50m 15m 15m 1000 400m 40m 50m 1300 40m 50m 1300 ERYX 3200m 150m 500 ERYX training 3200m 150m 500 TOW 5200m 950m 500 TOW training 5200m 950m 500 -

Appendix

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Appendix 18. INPUT VALUES FOR CONSTRUCTING SAFETY TEMPLATES
84mm recoilless gun ”CG”
Ammo HE FFV441B 2500m 100 530
-

HEAT SMK ILL FF- Training 63 mm Exercise FFV551 FFV469 V545 NM227 training 7.62 mm NM191 3200m 150m 100 530
-

lr(Dmax) a IAcrit b MRR wR s u y b sa l sa Note

2600m 150m 100 530
-

2700m 300m 200 530
-

3200m 50m 100 530
-

2000m 50 m 100 530
-

2300m 50m 100 530800 2100m 400m 0 15m 15m

l m(Amin) 400m

800 2000m 350m 400m 40m 60m 500
-

800 2700m 500m 150m 40m 60m 500
-

800 2000m 350m 150m 40m 60m 500
-

800 2200m 400m 100m 40m 60m 500
-

800 2700m 500m 0 40m 60m 500
-

800 1600m 300m 0 40 m 60 m 500
-

150m

150m

150m

150m

150m

150m

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Appendix 19. INPUT DATAFOR DRAWING UP SAFETY TEMPLATES
Leo I armoured fighting vehicle 105mm
Ammo lr(Dmax) l m(Amin) a IAcrit b MRR wR s b sa l sa Note HEAT M456A1 8200m 600m 50 530 800 6300m 1100m 400m 500
-

APFSDS F1 83500m 500m 50 400 800 22600m 3600m 500
-

HEAT Øving 8200m 500m 50 530 800 6300m 1100m 500
-

TPDS NM220 8000m 500m 50 530 800 5600m 1100m 500
-

HEP M323A2 9800m 600m 50 530 800 7400m 1300m 400m 500 250m

250m

700m

250m

700m

Appendix

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Appendix 20. INPUT VALUES FOR CONSTRUCTING SAFETY TEMPLATES
Leo II Tank gun 120 mm
Ammunition lr(Dmax) l m(Amin) a IAcrit b MRR wR s b sa l sa Note HEAT DM 12A1 8700m 700m 50 400 800 5000m 700m 500m 1000
-

APFSDS DM TPCSDS 33 A1 DM38A4 93800m 800m 50 400 800 26000m 6000m 1000
-

HE 13500m 400m 50 400 800 10000m 2000m 500m 1000 700m unsecure basis

8900m 800m 50 400 800 6300m 1600m 1000
-

250m

700m

250m

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Appendix 21. INPUT VALUES FOR CONSTRUCTING SAFETY TEMPLATES
Other systems
Ammo lr(Dmax) a IAcrit b MRR wR s b (1) Note (1) – Total dispersion angle for splinters M19 950m 200 530 800
-

M100 / FFV013 1650m 200 530 800 1450m 300m 500m
-

850m 200m 300m 1000

900 -

Appendix

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Appendix 22. TESTING OF NON-QUALIFIED WEAPON SYSTEMS AND AMMUNITION
In general
This appendix applies to all forms of testing that are not covered by, or in addition to, chapters 2 and 3 in UD 2-1. This includes designing and developing/modifications or additional equipment etc. for weapon systems and ammunition that so far have not been approved and hence will not be covered by other chapters. The systems that are being tested may require special measures in order to reduce the risk of injury to own personnel and others. These measures may be personal protective equipment (PPE), physical measures or cover used when the weapon is being fired.

Personnel to command and control
During this type of test firing, the following personnel whose responsibility is safety are to be ordered: Test leader (may also function as officer conducting firing) Officer conducting firing Safety officer (may also function as safety controller and EOD officer) Safety controller Safety posts (according to regulations and type of testing) EOD officer

Testing will normally be initiated by the professional authority, in connection with modifications or materiel procurement, or by scientists/industry. Test personnel will be picked among highly qualified personnel. Test leader will normally be chosen from among one of the Armed Forces’ test institutions, e.g. the NDLO (FLO/Systemstyring/Landkapsiteter/Test- og verifikasjon). Before the testing begins, a test plan has to be drawn up, describing all the tests and giving an evaluation of safety which may include safety templates, safety evaluations and EOD procedures. These documents must have been presented to the professional authority and the authority responsible for firing range/test area, and must have received approval before the testing begins. A meeting is to be held before testing begins in order to ensure that all participating personnel know the plan for the test and the safety regulations in force. Changes in the plan must not result in safety being compromised. When in doubt, the test is to be called off until a new safety evaluation has been made.

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The test plan is to include a plan for potential visitors, and one person is to be ordered to accompany these.

Safety evaluations
If safety templates are lacking, a safety evaluation is to be conducted by well qualified and experienced personnel, e.g. at the Norwegian Defence Research Establishment. This is to include an evaluation of safety for own personnel and third parties. The probability of injury to own personnel and third party should be in accordance with what is acceptable to society in general. It may be accepted that existing safety templates are reduced in cases where the weapon’s movements are physically restrained and that special documented procedures secure that the weapon system is being set up correctly. This will also apply when the explosion of ammunition is guaranteed, for instance firing from culvert.

Appendix

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Appendix 24. FORM FOR EVALUATING/ASSESSING RISK

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CERTIFICATION LIST, EDUCATION – ARMY. Duration 3 weeks 3 weeks 3 weeks 3 weeks 2 weeks 5 days 2 weeks 2 weeks 3 weeks 3 weeks 3 weeks 10 weeks 10 weeks 10 weeks 1 week 1 week 2 weeks 102 hours Passed Medical Corps Exam, theoretical and practical 2 years Vehicle driver SISU ATTC Exam, theoretical and practical 3-5 years Manoeuvre The Army’s Medical Corps Passed SISU course ATTC/unit Exam, theoretical and practical 3-5 years Manoeuvre Applies to new vehicle commanders after 1 August 2010. Recertification required during international operations. Content according to the AMC’s education plans. Recertification required during international operations. Content according to the AMC’s education plans. The S Law with regulations Vehicle driver M 113 ATTC/unit Exam, theoretical and practical 3-5 years Manoeuvre Driving license class B The Army’s Tactical Training Centre/Manoeuvre Exam, theoretical and practical 3-5 years Manoeuvre Driving license class B The Army’s Tactical Training Centre/Manoeuvre Exam, theoretical and practical 3-5 years Manoeuvre Driving license class B The Army’s Tactical Training Centre/Manoeuvre Exam, theoretical and practical 3-5 years Manoeuvre Unit selection The Army’s Tactical Training Centre/unit Exam, theoretical and practical 3-5 years Manoeu