1/19/12

Nick Ehrecke is the Supplemental Instruction instructor this semester. Sessions are: Mondays 10:30 - 11:20 in 234 BHC Tuesdays 2 - 2:50 in 140 BHC Wednesdays 3:30 - 4:20 in 240 BHC Sessions will start the 2nd week of classes

Bryan  T.  Phillips  PhD   Asst.  Professor  of  Biology   Office  200  BBE;  phone    335-­‐2071   Lab  214  BBE   bryan-­‐phillips@uiowa.edu   Office  hours:  Tuesday  and  Wednesday  9:30-­‐11am   B.Sc.  1998  in  Biology  from  University  of  Illinois   PhD  2004  in  Biology/Developmental  GeneTcs  from  Texas  A&M  University    DissertaTon:  Cell  signaling  during  zebrafish  hindbrain  and  inner  ear  development   Postdoc  2004-­‐2009  UW-­‐Madison/Howard  Hughes  Medical  InsTtute    Cell  signaling  and  asymmetric  cell  division  during  C.  elegans  development   Professor  at  Univ  of  Iowa,  Dept  of  Biology  since  2009  

Caenorhabditis elegans

Topics covered over the next 4 weeks: Biological molecules Cell structure and function Inheritance of genetic information Cellular energetics

1

John Menninger Dr. Mark Holbrook Myself Material Composition of Organisms 2 .1/19/12 Acknowledgements This unit’s powerpoints are the product of former lecturers in this course: Dr.

1/19/12 •  Ecosystem  Organism  Organs  Tissues  Cells  Organelles  Molecules  Atoms  … •  Reductionism – Goal is to understand the parts in order to understand the whole Reductionism Predicts that once the parts are understood well enough and assembled in the correct pattern. Gibson et al 2010 Examples: viruses bacteria: Mycoplasma mycoides Reconstruction is instrumentalidentifies gaps filled by new properties of the parts synthetic wild-type 3 . the whole should be reproducible.

and as a result.. new properties of how the parts work together are revealed (they emerge) These emergent properties of how the parts work together can be essential for understanding the whole. understanding life. niacin) 4 .1/19/12 Emergent properties •  At each step in the hierarchy. • Few elements used as such in organisms: o  N2. folic acid. energy obtained as molecules • Some molecules essential: o  8/20 common amino acids (human) o  vitamins (e. O2 • Most mass.g.

1/19/12 Strong Weak (but indispensable for life) electron “cloud” of Methane molecular orbital another example 5 .

6 .1/19/12 (shared hydrogen) A polar moleculeorients in an electrical field inter-water distance larger average charge any two molecules can interact via vdW because all molecules can have positively or negatively charged regions instantaneous charge or Inter-atomic distance attraction Energy of vdW interaction between two atoms is weak but if many atoms interact the energy is additive and can result in significant binding.

Signal recognition Receptor for signal molecules 7 .1/19/12 Gecko “Glue” due to vdW interactions 2. Membrane transport of most molecules Specific transporter 3.

1/19/12 Fig.7 8 . 3. 3.8 Fig.

1/19/12 Hydrogen ion or proton •  H+ and OH.are both very reactive •  Biological functions can only operate within a narrow range of [H+] and [OH-] 9 .

5 pH changes can cause problems to living organisms Buffers keep pH stable Carbonic Acid Bicarbonate 10 .1/19/12 pH Value [H+] in M 10-1 10-2 10-3 10-4 10-5 10-6 10-7 10-8 10-9 10-10 10-11 10-12 10-13 [OH-] in M 10-13 10-12 10-11 10-10 10-9 10-8 10-7 10-6 10-5 10-4 10-3 10-2 10-1 pH ≡ -log10 [H+] Increasing pH 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 Decreasing pH 10 11 12 13 7.4 Milk of magnesia pH = 10.

1/19/12 Principle of Le Chatelier (mass action) 11 .

1/19/12 Buffer carbonic anhydrase acetazolamide Carbonic Acid Bicarbonate 12 .