School of Engineering, Technology and Maritime Operations

Development of a dynamic vehicle model for the prediction of subsystem and component loading

Draft Report
Name: Jack Clisby Supervisor: Dr Christian Matthews Date: 03 December 2010

.......................................................................................... 3 Aim....................................................................................2 4.................................................................................... 5 Quarter car modelling .........................................................................................................................3 5 6 7 Dymola Modelling .................................. 9 4.................................................................... 12 Jack Clisby 382862 2 ............................................................................................... 7 Spring ................................................................................................................................................................. 5 Damper ..........................................................1 4...........................................................................2.........................................................................1 4....................................2.............................................Development of a dynamic vehicle model for the prediction of subsystem and component loading Contents 1 2 3 4 Introduction............ 4 Literature review ...............................................2.................................................................... 11 References ............................... 5 4........................ 4 Objectives ............................. 9 Newton’s Equation of Motion ............................................................................................................................................................................................................................. 11 Further work ....................................... 10 Conclusion .......2 SAE vehicle axis system .........................................................

Reducing weight improves the handling characteristics and power/weight ratio. The students are required to design. Class 1 requires a fully functional racing car. the car weighed 281 Kg and had a predicted power output of 65kW. The nature of the rules denotes that FS cars generally weigh 150 – 300 Kg with an average power output of 70kW. LJMU competed in class 1 for the first time at FS 2010. The team completed all events and finished 21 st Over All (OA). as they have received little to no analysis in previous designs. suspension and drivetrain assembly. Class 2 requires a conceptually designed car and Class 1A requires a fully functional hybrid or alternative energy car. The competition has 3 entry levels. Jack Clisby 382862 3 . Main areas of weight reduction are aimed at chassis. The car must adhere to strict rules as published by the Society of Automotive Engineers (SAE). the rules are not to restrict design but to ensure safety and encourage solution Engineering. To produce a competitive car for 2011 a strict weight budget has been defined by the team. build and race a single seat racing car.Development of a dynamic vehicle model for the prediction of subsystem and component loading 1 Introduction The Formula Student series is aimed at undergraduate students who wish to improve their knowledge of Engineering applications. These areas have been targeted. Accurate analytical calculations and modelling techniques have not been utilised and materials not critically refined in the target areas. Liverpool John Moores University (LJMU) has been competing in the FS competition since 2008.

Jack Clisby 382862 4 . Validation of the model is achieved with the use of CarSim® a vehicle simulation package. A physical quarter car model utilising strain gauges will provide physical evidence of the calculated forces and torques experienced at the A-arm. The CarSim® package will validate the cornering and weight transfer loads that the vehicle is expected to produce. The construction of this model will enable the prediction of forces and torques that are transmitted through the suspension components. Kinematics and compliance of the A-arm system will also be considered during the comparison process. Specifically a non-linear damping model will replace the linear model as this has been identified as the largest simplification during quarter car modelling (2). The accurate prediction of loading conditions enables components to be critically designed thus improving the performance of the vehicle. The validation is crucial in the development of computer based simulation to ensure that the input parameters are behaving as expected and the results achieved quantifiable. 3 Objectives To build a functional dynamic model using Dymola© software.Development of a dynamic vehicle model for the prediction of subsystem and component loading 2 Aim The aim of this report is to establish a vehicle model that can accurately predict subsystem and component loading of a Formula Student (FS) racing car suspension system. The focus will be on the A-arm structure to ensure that maximum refinement and weight reduction is achieved. During the construction of the simulation model linear components will be utilised for simplicity. Further validation will be achieved with dynamic testing on the vehicle. Dymola© is a comprehensive solution for physical modelling of multi-domain systems to support hardware and control system design and optimisation (1). Through development non-linear characteristics will be built into the model to improve accuracy between the simulated and physical model. Cornering and weight transfer loads are permanently transferred through the A-arm. Failure of the A-arm causes a situation where the vehicle is not moveable under its own power and therefore would result in a Did Not Finish (DNF) at competition.

However it has been widely proven that the quarter car model is accurate for basic evaluation of body bounce and wheel hop using linear components (3) .2 Quarter car modelling Vehicle dynamic modelling is based on the principles of system dynamics. SAE vehicle axis system (9) Figure 4-2. Modern suspension systems are constructed using a complex mechanical linkage.(6). Utilising a standard enables the transfer of data between different simulation packages to be consistent and to allow for comparison to other authors work that have utilised the SAE axis system. SAE tyre axis system (9) The use of the SAE vehicle axis system enables a sign convention to be applied to the simulation. The 2 degrees of freedom (2DOF) quarter car model is the most commonly used lumped mass system. Simple spring mass (SM) and spring mass damper (SMD) systems are found in many applications with numerous requirements requiring motion and/or vibration control. these can be used to calculate the dynamic functions quickly and easily. 4. Jack Clisby 382862 5 . The quarter car system has been criticised by some authors for the level of accuracy that can be achieved from the model (2).1 SAE vehicle axis system Figure 4-1. The frequencies of the systems are governed by a spring and/or viscous damper. The complexity due to non linearity and compliance of the 3 dimensional (3D) system often results in simple lumped mass models being created.Development of a dynamic vehicle model for the prediction of subsystem and component loading 4 Literature review 4. A vehicle is a good example of dynamic systems as the vehicle ride characteristics are directly related to the motions of systems due to inputs over a time response.

The quarter car model is constructed of four components. The displacement of the un-sprung and sprung mass is denoted by and respectivly. spring mass damper model (7) Figure 4-4.Development of a dynamic vehicle model for the prediction of subsystem and component loading The models accuracy can be improved through introducing non-linear components into the model for more ‘realistic’ data (2) . Sprung and Un-sprung mass (8) Jack Clisby 382862 6 . the un-sprung mass. The sinusoidal input is often used as a method for testing car models as inputs. The Spring damper is shown as a spring and damper in parallel. There are various methods of interpreting road data as an input. Figure 4-3. A frequency sweep between 1. For the purpose of this paper.(6). The un-sprung mass is the mass of the components not supported by the spring damper see Figure 4-4.6 – 24. The road excitations are determined by . sprung mass. This simplified model is used in the linear quarter car model as often the effects of damping in the tyre can be neglected due to its viscoelastic nature (7). The sprung mass is the mass of the vehicle supported by the spring damper see Figure 4-4 and is shown as a lumped mass.0 Hz at 0. The tyre is shown as a simple spring to simulate the tyre wall stiffness. it is shown as a lumped mass. spring damper and Tyre. a sinusoidal input is generated at varying frequencies and amplitudes.001m of amplitude (2) will provide sufficient data to visualise and characterise the quarter car model.

which outweighs the inaccuracies (2). Aurok Ltd who completed testing on behalf of LJMU ran the damper through 10 tests. Each test constituted different settings to ensure a full map of the damper characteristics. Bottom out is stated as complete revolutions. The non-linear damper is more complex to model than a linear representation and research has shown that for quarter car models the linear damping characteristics provide sufficient data for initial design stages. Internals of FOX DHX 5.0 DHX Figure 4-5. Figure 4-5. The Bump simply increases the gas pressure in the cylinder and therefore increases resistance to bump forces.0 oil and air damper (8) To implement the damper into the quarter car model the damping constant is required. The LJMU10 dampers are FOX 5. The inherent nature of dampers creates a non-linear curve when oscillated at a high frequency and amplitude. The damping constant is calculated below in [Equation 1. Bump clicks are always listed first then rebound and then bottom out.1 Damper A damper is commonly used in the automotive suspension system due to its tuneable characteristics which enable the control of motion. They are a gas damper that utilise the pressure of the chamber to control the bump and rebound.2.Development of a dynamic vehicle model for the prediction of subsystem and component loading 4. The damper has two main adjusters that alter the resistive force acting on the bump and rebound. specifically designed for mountain bikes. This is achieved through the use of Roehig 3VS damper dyno. Aurok define damper settings as fully clockwise = 0 clicks (maximum stiffness). These settings will be the focus of analysis and used to calculate the damping constant. [Equation 1] damping constant Jack Clisby 382862 7 . LJMU10 damper settings for Silverstone 2010 were 04/14-3. Critical damping is defined as the minimum amount of viscous damping required in a linear system to bring the displaced mass back to equilibrium without overshoot (6). The rebound adjuster opens an orifice that allows the gas to return at a higher rate.

0) Bump y = 18. This and other factors such as frictional stiction or hysteresis could be a cause of non-linearity. the damper is designed with corresponding asymmetry so the rebound coefficient is about twice that of bump.Development of a dynamic vehicle model for the prediction of subsystem and component loading 04_14_3 FOX DHX 5. The damping component of the quarter car model is shown by [Equation 2.925x . [Equation 2] damping force Jack Clisby 382862 8 . Newton’s second law of motion governs the quarter car model.4. Milliken (8) suggests that research on vehicles has proven that the wheel velocity in bump is higher than the velocities in rebound by about a factor of two.0 Linear (04_14_3 FOX DHX 5.0 300 250 200 150 100 50 04_14_3 FOX DHX 5.0 Figure 4-6 shows data from testing which clearly shows the non-linear characteristics of the damper.2401 Force (lbs) 0 -50 -100 -150 -15 -10 -5 0 5 10 15 Rebound -200 -250 Velocity (in/sec) Figure 4-6. Linear damping constant for FOX DHX 5.

2 Spring The spring in the system is to create a stiffness and reaction to the oscillating forces. and and are the spring stiffness and tyre stiffness respectively. is the damping constant .2. Jack Clisby 382862 9 .3 Newton’s Equation of Motion By combing all of the elements of the quarter car model the equation of motion can be generated. un-sprung mass and sprung mass respectively. .2.Development of a dynamic vehicle model for the prediction of subsystem and component loading 4. It is a linear system. [Equation 3] Spring force 4. The governing differential equations of motion of the linear quarter car model in Figure 4-3 are: [Equation 4] equation of motion for the Un-sprung mass [Equation 5] equation of motion for the sprung mass Where is the sprung mass and the un-sprung mass. The spring component of the quarter car model is shown in [Equation 3. and are the displacements of the Road input.

Figure 5-2. The simulation of the model creates the output seen in Figure 5-2. This can be calculated and serve as a validation of the system. Further analysis will generate the natural frequency of the system. comparison of un-sprung and sprung acceleration This initial data from Dymola is showing the frequency response of the vehicle. Jack Clisby 382862 10 .Development of a dynamic vehicle model for the prediction of subsystem and component loading 5 Dymola Modelling Figure 5-1. Dymola generated quarter car model The model generated in Dymola Figure 5-1 is generated using the initial condition of the vehicle.

However this data is only useful if validated. To accurately predict the forces and torques experienced in the suspension components a non-linear model is required. Jack Clisby 382862 11 . The Dymola quarter car model will be validated using the mathematical model. The validation can be proved mathematically and with the use of pre validated models in CarSim®. However many nonlinear components and compliances in the connections create very non-linear data. 7 Further work Further development of the quarter car model to gain a full understanding and effects on the dynamic response of the parameters. Knowing this validation will enable the Dymola model to be refined with non-linear components. The use of Dymola® enables for easy and efficient quarter car modelling that can then be extended into a full car model. The ultimate aim is to create a model that can be utilised in a full car model and be an accurate representation of the dynamic response of the vehicle. Many authors have researched and written papers on the subject and agree with the statement above.Development of a dynamic vehicle model for the prediction of subsystem and component loading 6 Conclusion The linear quarter car model will act as the basis for the development of non-linear quarter car model. The linear model is a good representation of basic characteristics of the vehicle.

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