Historia de la Lengua Inglesa IIYear 2011-2012 Prof.

Nuria Calvo Cortés

Andreea Frona Group A Exercises on Dictionaries and Grammar books in Late Modern English

Exercises on Dictionaries: a) Look up three different words in the three dictionaries provided b) Analyse the differences among them c) Which dictionary did you find clearer? Why? d) Was there anything missing in those dictionaries when compared to a monolingual English dictionary that you might use today? Over-rake

Bailey: [among sailors] The Waves are said to over-rake a Ship when they break in and wash her from one End to the other

• Kersey: [Sea term] as the Waves are said to over-rake a Ship, when they break in and wash her from Stern to Stern, or from one End to the other • Johnson: not found • Cambridge Dictionary Online: not found Here, we can see that there are no important differences between the definitions of this word. In fact they are practically the same definition although Kersey seems to expand somehow a little more. It is interesting to notice that this word cannot be found in Johnson’s dictionary and nowadays it does not appear in the Cambridge dictionary. This may be due to the fact that the term fell out of use or was substituted by another word by the time Johnson wrote his dictionary. Suspicious • Kersey: Full of Suspicions, Jealousies or Fears; Jealous, Distrustful; Also that may be Suspected or Feared • Bailey: [Soupsonneux, F. Suspiciosus, L.] full of Suspicion, or Jealousy, distrustful, jealous: also that may be suspected or feared • Johnson: [Suspiciosus, Lat.] 1. Inclined to suspect; inclined to imagine ill without proof 2. Liable to suspicion; giving reason to imagine ill

t ̬ɚ-/ n [U] formal worry /ˌpɜː. fact which is to be appreciated since it develops a bit more the explanation of the word. Restlessness of Passions 3. It's a bit suspicious that no one knows where he was at the time of the murder. It also mentions some names which lead us to believe that they were some kind of ‘bibliography’ for the dictionary. However. His new book bears a suspicious resemblance to a book written by someone else (= His book is so similar to the other book that it seems as if he has copied it). Disorder Bailey: Disquiet. Commotion 4. There's a suspicious-looking van parked at the end of the road. Bailey presents the etymology of the word unlike Kersey although the definition is very similar. We consider it is . This word.təˈbeɪ. Disquiet of Mind. Trouble of Mind.ʃən/ ‘Perturbation’ presents more or less the same aspects we have commented on the previous word.] 1. Perturbation • • • Kersey: Disturbance.əs/ making you feel that something illegal is happening or that something is wrong Her behaviour was very suspicious (Australian informal suss). F. Trouble. Cambridge dictionary is even more complete since it gives the pronunciation as well as examples apart from the definition of the word. Commotion of Passions • Cambridge Dictionary Online: noun ( WORRY ) /ˌpɝː. Confusion. Cause of Disquiet 5.Historia de la Lengua Inglesa IIYear 2011-2012 Prof. again presents the same definition as for Kersey’s and Bailey’s dictionaries with the only difference that Bailey includes a short etymology of the word. It seems almost copied with the addition of other similar words. Disorder. among the three dictionaries. Deprivation of Tranquility 2. of L. Johnson’s is the clearest since it gives two entries for two slightly different meanings. Disturbance. And yet. Johnson: [Perturbatio Lat. Disorder. Nuria Calvo Cortés • Cambridge Dictionary Online: adjective (SEEM GUILTY ) /sə ˈspɪʃ. There were some suspicious characters hanging around outside. Nevertheless Johnson’s dictionary offers again a much more complete explanation with five entries for the word plus its specific etymology. The fire at the bank is being treated as suspicious.

Exercises on Grammar books: a) Choose one grammar aspect and find the information that Lowth’s grammar provides on that topic. pronouns and verbs of the singular number only ( he gives examples) .Historia de la Lengua Inglesa IIYear 2011-2012 Prof. number or case  Varies only as for degrees of comparison  It can express quality by using more or less for the most part  A positive quality can become comparative when adding r or er (wiser) and superlative when adding st or est (wisest)  The adverbs more and most placed before the adjective have the same effect (more wise.google. either agree with the nouns. every. Comprehending the principles and rules of the language” (1808) (http://books. b) Try to find in Google books other grammar books from 18th or 19th century and compare the same topic in the different grammar books According to Lowth. most wise) According to Lindley Murray’s “An English Grammar. the adjective:  Is a word joined by a substantive to express quality  Does not vary according to gender.es/books? id=YHoSAAAAIAAJ&printsec=frontcover&dq=english+grammars&hl=es&sa=X&ei=OfgLT67sBsyIh QehqJCkBA&ved=0CEgQ6AEwAQ#v=onepage&q=english%20grammars&f=false)  Every adjective belong to a substantive expressed or understood  Adjective pronouns must agree in number with their substantive (this book. Nuria Calvo Cortés even more complete than the Cambridge dictionary although this last one offers the pronunciation both in British and American English apart from the written pronunciation. these books)  When two persons or things are spoken of in a sentence and then mentioned again for the sake of distinction that is used for the former and this is in reference to the later (he gives example)  The distributive adjective each.

the substantive takes the nature of an adverb (ex: in general. . each. concise and comprehensible. He identifies many more issues and mistakes made by the users of language and he also mentions cases which should be avoided. Murray’s grammar points out demonstrative adjectives and other such as such and so. Murray details more upon aspect of adjectives such as their placement and how it affects the nature of the substantive it accompanies. Unlike Lowth’s grammar. in particular. Murray’s book makes a big difference as for the adjective. Undoubtedly. every.Historia de la Lengua Inglesa IIYear 2011-2012 Prof. extreme. It is complete. the use of such and so  Double comparatives and superlatives should be avoided  Adjectives that have in themselves a superlative signification do not admit superlatives (chief. It specifies more the use of adjectives and the pronoun adjectives as well.generally. Nuria Calvo Cortés  Sometimes adjectives are improperly used as adverbs (he gives examples such as indifferent honest instead of indifferently honest). For each rule he gives many examples which are much more useful for the reader since it makes it easier to understand the rule itself. particularly) Murray’s Grammar book is much more complete than Lowth’s. etc)  Inaccuracies are often found in the way in which the degrees of comparison are applied and constructed  In some cases adjectives should not be separated by their substantives not even by modifiers (ex: ‘a large enough number surely’). It elaborates upon different sides and aspects and exemplifies those with unambiguous instances. The adjectives is placed before its substantive  Sometimes the adjective becomes a substantive (ex: ‘The vast immense of space’)  When an adjective has a preposition before it.