THIESEL 2002 Conference on Thermo- and Fluid-Dynamic Processes in Diesel Engines

Future and Potential of Diesel Injection Systems
B. Mahr1
1

Robert Bosch GmbH, Diesel Systems, DS-NF/SBN, Postfach 30 02 20, D-70469 Stuttgart, Germany.

E-mail: Bernd.Mahr@de.bosch.com Telephone: +(49) 711 811 311 27 Fax: +(49) 711 811 453 34

Abstract. Heavy duty diesel engines are in conflict between the goals of emission reduction and optimization of fuel consumption.To fulfill future more stringent exhaust gas limits further developments on diesel engine technology are necessary. The diesel injection system assists this development and becomes the decisive factor to reach the emission targets. In the last 30 years a trend to high pressure fuel injection systems with an increase of maximum injection pressure from 800 up to 2000 bar is visible. In future very flexible high pressure fuel injection systems are necessary with multiple injection and rate shaping capabilities and a maximum injection pressure beyond 2000 bar. Very important is a high efficiency of the fuel injection system itself to reach low fuel consumption. New product engineering like new nozzle design (k-factor, vario nozzle,..) or new developed actuators are key factors for the fuel injection development. With a flexible diesel injection system in each point of the engine map the optimum rate shaping, injection timing and multiple injection is possible to get the best compromise between emission trade off and fuel consumption. For example with exhaust gas recirculation (EGR) a rectangular type main injection with high injection pressures at full load is recommended. On the other hand without EGR in this point of the engine map a boot or ramp shape injection leads to the best emission results at constant or improved fuel consumption. With a coupled post injection the soot emission could be reduced. The late post injection is assisting the exhaust gas aftertreatment systems. The regeneration of the diesel particulate filter is for example because of too low exhaust gas temperature without the support of the injection system not under all circumstances possible. The exhaust gas temperature management by late post injection is a measure to improve the efficiency of catalyst systems at low exhaust gas temperatures. Very important in future is the capability of the electronic control unit (ECU) of the diesel injection system to control air management, exhaust gas emission management, tolerance reduction, diagnosis, vehicle functions and combustion process by the fuel injection system.

1. Introduction
Diesel engines are in a conflict between emission reduction and optimized fuel consumption. Especially the fuel consumption of heavy duty diesel engines has a big impact on the overall costs of the haulage business. Since end of the 80’s we have a dramatic reduction of HC, CO, NOx and particulate mass emissions to fulfill the exhaust gas legislation, fig.1. NOx-emission was reduced about 72 percent from 1985 up to now. In the same period of time the CO-emission was reduced about 85 percent and the HC-emission about 81 percent. Additionally the diesel engine manufacturers reached a 86 percent reduction in the particulate mass emission since 1990. This was only possible with consequent optimization of the diesel engine technology. Examples of improvements are turbocharging, intercooling, four valve technology, EGR, combustion chamber design and high injection pressures. In future furthermore exhaust gas aftertreatment systems, low sulphur diesel fuel and further improvements on diesel engine technology are necessary to fulfill future stringent exhaust gas legislation. The change in the onhighway market from inline pump systems to high pressure fuel injection systems (VP44, UIS, UPS, CRS) is in figure 2 presented. This market is mainly driven by emissions. In the off-highway diesel engine market this injection system is also gradually replaced by the high pressure fuel injection systems.

46 87% 85% 4 1. CRS 1990 2000 2010 Fig. History of European emission standards On-highway RP driven by emissions VP44 UIS UPS CRS Off-highway RP VE driven by emissions and standardisation PF VP44.10 0. 1.4 1. UIS. Change to high pressure fuel injection systems (Krieger and Maier 2001) .5 81% 0.02 2000 2005 2010 limits in g/kWh Fig.6 B. 2.1 Euro 0 14. 7 Euro Euro IV III 3.15 0. UPS.66 0.5 89% CO 18 ECE R49/00 2.4 Euro I 8 72% Euro II 7 5 89% NOX 0.2 4.5 2 86% 0. 36 97% 50 0 1985 Particulate 1990 1995 0.5 ECE R49/00 2. Mahr % 100 50 0 100 50 0 100 50 0 100 State of art 2002 3.1 HC 14 ECE R49/00 11.

3. 3000 2500 Injection Pressure [bar] 2000 1500 1000 500 0 1970 1975 1980 1985 1990 1995 2000 Year 2005 2010 Fig. One of the first applications of the inline pump in 1927 The inline pump system is in production at BOSCH since 1927.Future and Potential of Diesel Injection Systems 7 Fig. Figure 3 demonstrates one of the first applications of the inline pump. 4. Development of injection pressure of HD engine . In average the pressure was increased from 800 (inline pump) to 2000 bar (high pressure fuel injection systems) in only three decades (Projahn 2002). The development of the maximum injection pressure of heavy duty engines over the last 30 years is presented in figure 4. This fuel injection system was continuous updated and optimized and is since 75 years still in production.

8 B. service and diagnosis. Mahr 2. To control generating of NOx during the first phase of combustion a pressure controlled rate shaping of the main injection with boot shape. To reduce noise and NOx-emissions one or two pilot injections at low pressure level should be possible. Key factors for diesel fuel injection system development 3. lifetime. power output. . With a late post injection at moderate pressure it is possible to manage exhaust gas temperature for regeneration of a diesel particulate filter or to provide hydrocarbons for NOx adsorber catalyst. rate shaping of the main injection and an increased maximum injection pressure. Furthermore high efficiency of the injection system itself is important. 2001). Additionally the possibility of a coupled post injection under high pressure is necessary to reduce soot emission. fuel consumption. 5. The nozzle needle should be closed rapidly at the end of the main injection. nozzle design and ECU control strategies also for exhaust gas aftertreatment are key factors for future diesel engine technology. To achieve future more stringent exhaust gas limits additionally low sulphur diesel fuel is necessary. Diesel injection system specification The specification for all diesel engines are restricted more and more regarding exhaust gas limits. Figure 5. triangular (ramp) or rectangular shape at completely opened needle should be possible. Applying EGR or increased rated speed to a heavy duty diesel engine higher maximum injection pressures are essential . variable boot length. The upper curve in figure 6 shows the pressure at nozzle needle seat and the curve below the corresponding needle lift curve with multiple injections. Optimum pressure and needle lift curve In several engine tests with pressure controlled and needle lift controlled development tools the system requirements for a future flexible diesel fuel injection systems were investigated on single cylinder diesel engine and multi cylinder engines. noise and costs and this with increasing demands on driveability. The flexible diesel fuel injection system is assisting this development with the measures multiple injection. As a summary of the results the optimum needle lift and pressure curve in figure 6 was investigated. A maximum injection pressure of at least 2000 bar is advantageous. New developments on actuators (new solenoid and piezo technique). Fig. Mixing of oil with the fuel must be reduced for more stringent exhaust gas limits due to the influence of sulphur content in the lubrication oil on the overall soot emissions with a downstream oxidation catalyst (Jacob et al.

several engine tests were carried out to investigate the impact of rate shaping of the main injection on soot-NOx-trade-off and fuel consumption.1 Rate shaping With a first prototype of the development tool APCRS. In each injector amplifier modules are integrated to generate high injection pressures determined by a stepped piston. With the boot shape injection an earlier start of injection is possible than with rectangular injection shape. An increase of the system pressure with a standard common rail system for heavy duty engines leads to high effort on rail and high pressure pump design. Dürnholz. It’s possible to reach with rectangular injection shape as common rail type injection the same fuel consumption than with boot shape and the same injection duration (DoI). 2000). Pilot injections and late post injections are possible without activating the amplifier piston at the intermediate pressure in the rail. lower efficiency and durability. With the boot shaped pressure curve an advantage in soot-NOx-trade-off and specific fuel consumption was figured out in comparison to the rectangular shape of a typical common rail injection.Future and Potential of Diesel Injection Systems 9 NOX Pressure at needle seat Increased injection pressure Noise EGT Soot Needle lift Time Fig. High pressure pump and rail of the development tool APCRS are designed for intermediate pressure level and higher capacity depending on the ratio of amplifier piston. 4. Polach and Grieshaber. high injection pressure and high hydraulic efficiency of the injection system to reduce emissions and fuel consumption. To fulfill future exhaust gas limits especially with EGR high injection pressures (2000 bar and more) are required. Improvement of diesel injection system With an analytic approach a new high pressure fuel injection system called APCRS was developed to fulfill these requirements (Mahr. With this reduced pressure of the late post injection the risk of oil dilution can be minimized. . consisting of an amplifier piston module and a standard common rail injector. To avoid mixing of engine oil with fuel the high pressure pump for APCRS is fuel lubricated. The hydraulic layout of the pressure amplified development tool is apart from the amplifier piston modules similar to the standard Common Rail System but with a middle rail pressure. Without activating this solenoid the injection system acts as a standard common rail system because of the bypass path with non-return valve. The APCRS is designed for multiple injection. Varying energizing timing of both solenoid valves flexible pressure curves from ramp to rectangular can be generated. Optimum pressure and needle lift curve for future heavy duty diesel engine FIE 4. 6. rate shaping. In figure 7 engine results of a single cylinder engine with one liter displacement at 1400 rpm under full-load without EGR with variation of start of injection are compared. but higher soot and NOx-emission. The amplifier is activated by a second solenoid valve in the injector.

4. With a flexible fuel injection system it’s possible to optimize the rate shaping of the pressure curve in each point of the engine map with and without EGR to get the best compromise between emissions and fuel consumption. therefore with boot shape injection higher mean effective pressures are feasible without EGR. With a SCR catalyst system using low sulphur fuel and an oxidation catalyst upstream the SCR system an additional soot reduction up to 40 percent is measured (Mahr.0° KW g/kWh 0. The fuel consumption with the higher injection pressure of 2000 bar is slightly higher than with 1800 bar.10 B. This is shown in left diagram of figure 9 at 1710 rpm and half-load at an single cylinder engine with two liter displacement with EGR. To fulfill future exhaust gas limits exhaust gas aftertreatment systems are necessary.5° KW Dol = 24. The influence of the coupled post injection on the soot emission is presented at a maximum injection pressure of 1800 bar and 2000 bar with a rectangular shape main injection. Alternative a lower urea consumption at equal NOx-emission is possible. Polach and Ripper. Comparison of boot shape injection with rectangular shape (CR) injection at a single cylinder engine with a displacement of approximately 1 l/cylinder Without EGR at part load a common rail type pressure curve under moderate pressure or a ramp type injection is possible.10 2 10 Dol = 24. 7.15 260 240 0. With the higher maximum injection pressure of 2000 bar the NOx-emission could be decreased. w/o EGR g/kWh Boot Rectangular Rectangular pmax = 1440 bar pmax = 1000 bar pmax = 1400 bar 6 Soot 0. 2000). Euro 5 exhaust gas limits are for example possible with a SCR catalyst system with urea as reductant. With EGR the common rail type pressure curve with a high injection pressure leads in a wide area of the engine map to the best emission results. 100% load. This system allows NOx-reductionrates up to 90 percent. Rate shaping of the pressure curve in this case is less important than the pressure level. Applying a boot shape main injection in figure 8 lower NOx-emission in the European steady state cycle than with square or ramp shape injector are feasible. No significant change in fuel consumption was found with changes in the EGR-rate. Mahr Operating point: 1400 rpm.05 -3 -9 0 0 4 8 NOX 12 g/kWh 0 4 8 NOX 12 g/kWh -6 220 200 Fig. At full-load without EGR the boot type injection curve demonstrates the best results.2 Coupled post injection The coupled post injection under high injection pressure is a measure to reduce the soot emissions (Mahr et al 2000). In the right diagram of figure 9 the specific fuel consumption for the different rail pressures with and without post injection are shown. With the coupled post injection the fuel consumption was slightly reduced. At full-load and low speed the torque normally is limited by the maximum allowed cylinder peak pressure. bsfc .5° KW Dol = 20.

8. Engine results with rectangular shape injection with and without coupled post for a single cylinder diesel engine with a displacement of approximately 2 l/cylinder sfc / g/kWh 8 240 .02 g/kWh 12 w/o EGR 260 250 10 NOx / g/kWh 6 4 2 0 η SCR ˜ 90 % NOx limit EURO 4 NOx limit EURO 5 230 220 210 200 boot ramp rectangle boot ramp rectangle Fig.Future and Potential of Diesel Injection Systems 11 PM < 0. Influence of rate shaping of main injection on NOx-emissions and fuel consumption with SCR catalyst application Fig. 9.

With higher boost pressure soot emission can be reduced significantly. 10. the air motion and the air-fuel-ratio are important measures to improve the combustion to reach low raw emissions of exhaust gas to meet the stringent exhaust gas limits of the future. To avoid oil dilution a moderate injection pressure for the late post injection is recommended. possibility of a higher EGR-rate and higher charge air pressures by VTG or even better with a two stage turbocharger systems. Purpose of late post injection . Suitable changes on the engine are higher maximum combustion peak pressure. the compression ratio. Furthermore the generation of hydrocarbons for the regeneration of a adsorber catalyst system is assisted by the late post injection of a fuel injection system if nessesary. 10. High exhaust gas temperatures for the regeneration of a DPF or the desulphurization of lean NOx catalysts are feasible with a late post injection. Mahr Beside the injection system the EGR-rate. 4.12 B. High exhaust gas temperatures for the regeneration of a DPF or desulphurization of lean NOx catalysts Exhaust gas temperature management at low exhaust gas temperatures Late post injection at moderate pressure level Generation of hydrocarbons for lean NOx catalysts Fig. fig. the shape of the combustion chamber. This requires a flexible high pressure fuel injection system with a high average fuel injection pressure combined with an efficient electronic control strategy. The impact of a higher boost pressure together with a higher possible EGR-rate on the soot emission is visible in the left graph in figure 9 at 1800 bar without post injection.3 Late post injection The regeneration of a diesel particulate filter (DPF) is not under all engine conditions possible because of too low exhaust gas temperatures. The exhaust gas temperature management at low exhaust gas temperatures is an important feature to increase the temperature to get higher efficieny of the exhaust gas aftertreatment system.

The Spray characteristics of the nozzle are particulary influenced by the microgeometry of the spray holes. length. 4 l displacement. Influence of nozzle design on exhaust gas emissions . inlet edge. The parameters of the spray-hole (diameter. With a reduced sac hole volume the hydrocarbon emission is decreased. 11. it’s possible to reduce cavitation effects in the spray hole and to increase the efficiency of fuel and air mixture. 2000). Therefore the diameter of the spray hole is at part load to large for an optimum combustion with low soot formation. 12. The spray hole geometry has an impact on soot and NOx-emissions and the seat geometry on engine noise. The influence of conic spray holes in comparison to cylindric spray holes on engine emissions are demonstrated in figure 13. as the precision geometry feature of the nozzle body. Fig.Future and Potential of Diesel Injection Systems 13 4. With improved nozzle geometry the fuel injection system is adapted to the combustion chamber design to improve the combustion and to reduce emissions. With the conical spray holes a benefit in soot-NOx-trade-off and in the specific fuel consumption was found at part load and at full load at this four cylinder diesel engine with approx. The spray hole diameter is defined by number of spray holes. injection duration and injected fuel quantity at full load. fig. geometry. 11. Addiditionally a reduced distribution of hydraulic flow at maximum needle lift is achieved. form and micro surface) work together for an optimal flow profile so that the injection spray requirements of the engine are met (Potz et al.4 Nozzle design The spray hole. fig. Vario nozzles or two phase nozzles are using the benefit of a reduced spay hole orrifice at part load to reduce particulate emission. defines the spray characteristics and thus the emissions of the engine. With ks-nozzles and k-factor nozzles with conical spray hole.

12 0. 14 0 2 4 6 8 10 [g/kWh] 12 14 0. 13.06 0. Mahr k-Factor and ks-Nozzle ⇒ Conical spray hole Target k-Factor • Increased efficency • Avoid cavitation effects in the spray hole • Reduced distribution of hydraulic flow at max.12 0.09 0. spec.0 mm VCO nozzle with conic sprayholes 7 * Ø 0.00 0 2 4 6 8 10 [g/kWh] 12 Euro 3 limits VCO nozzle with cylindric sprayholes 7 * Ø 0. NOx em.09 0. Conical spray hole operation speed: 2305 rpm 400 380 [g/kWh] 360 340 320 300 [g/kWh] 0.00 spec. 12. 4 l displacement.175 / Ø 0.03 spec.160 * 1. NOx em. needle lift Influence on emissions • Potential for the reduction of the particulate emissions ks-Nozzle Fig. Fig. (4 cylinder engine.03 0.06 0. Qhydr 600 cm3 at 100 bar) spec. soot em. [g/kWh] bsfc [g/kWh] 25 % load 100 % load 280 .0 mm 300 260 240 220 200 bsfc 25 % load 100 % load 0.14 B.194 * 1. Influence of conic sprayholes on engine emissions. soot em.

During acceleration of the engine the maximum injected fuel quantity is reduced depending on the fuel-air-ratio to avoid soot formation. In figure 14 the NOx-emission and opacity results in hot test heavy duty transient cycle (HDTC) are compared with and without the function transient rail pressure increase. Beside the control of the fuel injection system itself it’s more and more important to control additionally air management and exhaust emission management with the engine ECU to get the best compromise in soot-NOx-trade-off and fuel consumption in each point of the engine map and during transient conditions.5 New and improved control strategies Since more than 25 years the diesel engine is equipped with an electronic engine control unit. fuel quality balancing control and single cylinder control for each cylinder. New sensors and new developments at the engine itself (VTG. closed loop EGR correction. 2002). Another example for new control strategies is the transient.. engine braking systems. 1 l/cyl.Future and Potential of Diesel Injection Systems 15 4.) . The potential for future diesel optimization is in the complete system control of the combustion process in the diesel engine. With a transient rail pressure increase of a common rail system during acceleration the soot emission (opacity) was reduced with a neclectable disadvantage on NOx-emissions (Becher et al. EGR. New control functions are for example zero fuel quantity calibration.) enable further improvement of the complete system with new engine control strategies in the ECU especially during transient engine conditions. Rail pressure [MPa] 140 100 60 20 16 w/o Rail pressure increase Rail pressure increase 400 bar Opacity [%] NOX [ppm] 12 8 4 0 1200 900 600 300 0 0 50 100 150 Time [s] 200 250 300 Fig. Influence of transient rail pressure increase on emission results in hot test HDTC (approx. figure 16. In figure 15 the hot test HDTC emission results are compared with and without this new control strategy. 14. With the ECU tolerance reduction is achieved to reduce emissions.. The control strategy is based on lambda sensor signal or on difference pressure measured with a venturi nozzle in the exhaust gas pipe.. Without the transient closed loop correction high peaks in opacity (soot formation) are found because of a too high EGR rate at low fuel-air-ratios during acceleration.

16. – fuel quantity balancing control – single cyl.16 B. control Fig.) Fuel injection system – new generation – injection rate shaping – reduced tolerance – optimized nozzle Air management Throttle. 1 l/cyl.control Combustion process Tolerance reduction – zero fuel quantity calibr. 15. closed loop EGR correction on emissions results in hot test HDTC (approx. Mahr w/o transient correction EGR valve duty cycle [%] 100 80 60 40 20 8 6 4 2 0 800 NOX [ppm] 600 400 200 0 360 380 400 Time [s] open closed with transient correction Opacity [%] 420 440 460 Fig. Potential for future diesel system optimization . Influence of transient./swirl valve Electric charger Exhaust emission-management Exhaust emission aftertreatment with sensors .

and Fluid-dynamic Processes in Diesel engines. References Becher S. With higher boost pressure a significant reduction of soot emission is feasible. Internationales Motorensymposium. higher EGR-rate and higher charge air pressures by VTG or even better with two stage turbocharger systems. the compression ratio.The potential of injection rate shaping for optimization of emissions and fuel consumption. VDA Technical Congress 2000 Mahr B. In addition to engine internal measures for emission reduction exhaust gas aftertreatment systems are necessary to fulfill future exhaust gas limits. Rothe D.Future and Potential of Diesel Injection Systems 17 Conclusions Beside the injection system the EGR-rate. 5th International Filtration Conference . Polach W and Grieshaber H (2000) Heavy Duty Diesel Engines . VDI Reihe 12 Nr. 20. pp 133-143 Projahn U (2002) Requirements on diesel fuel injection equipment and fuel cleanliness under consideration of global market aspects. VDI Reihe 12 Nr. 455. Forthmann S and Tichy B (2002) Abgasrückführregelung beim Nkw-Dieselmotor im dynamischen Betrieb. pp 286-301 Krieger K and Maier R (2002) Challenges of global market requirements on diesel FIE. Beside the control of the fuel injection system itself with new control strategies it’s more and more important to control additionally air management and exhaust emission management with the engine ECU to get the best compromise in soot-NOx-trade-off and fuel consumption in each point of the engine map and during transient conditions. Internationales Wiener Motorensymposium. the shape of the combustion chamber. Rammer F and Richter K. Ripper W(2000) Dosing system for reducing agent of SCR catalysts. Polach W and. Suitable changes on the engine are higher maximum combustion peak pressure.(2001) The influence of lubricating oil on the emissions of diesel engines with exhaust gas aftertreatment. Gotre W. rate shaping and multiple injection. 376 Potz D. Further development targets are reduced tolerances and optimized nozzle design. the air motion and the air-fuel-ratio are important measures to improve the combustion to reach low exhaust gas raw emissions to achieve future stringent exhaust gas limits for heavy duty engines. Christ W and Dittus B (2000) Diesel system – The determining interface between injection system and combustion chamber. AVL International Commercial Powertrain Conference. Dresden Jacob E. Thermo. Tagung:Emission Control. 22. The exhaust gas aftertreatment system are assisted by the injection system by temperature management. Mahr B. Dürnholz M. This requires a very flexible fuel injection system with a high average injection pressure. Springer. Budapest.