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Dr Nasir Al-Lagtah

Nasirmohammedamro.al-lagtah@manchester.ac.uk

Heat Transfer: Physical Origins and Rate Equations .

vibration and electronic states of the atoms and molecules that comprise matter. • What is thermal energy? Thermal energy is associated with the translation. It represents the cumulative effect of microscopic activities and is directly linked to the temperature of matter. .• What is heat transfer? Heat transfer is thermal energy in transit due to a temperature difference. rotation.

DO NOT confuse or interchange the meanings of Thermal Energy. Temperature and Heat Transfer Quantity Thermal Energy+ Meaning Energy associated with microscopic behavior of matter A means of indirectly assessing the amount of thermal energy stored in matter Symbol Units U or u J or J/kg Temperature T K or °C Heat Transfer Thermal energy transport due to temperature gradients Amount of thermal energy transferred over a time interval t> 0 Thermal energy transfer per unit time Heat Q J W W/m 2 Heat Rate & Q Heat Flux Thermal energy transfer per unit time and surface area & q .

Modes of Heat Transfer Convection Heat transfer due to the combined influence of bulk and random motion for fluid flow over a surface. .

Heat Transfer Rates Convection Relation of convection to flow over a surface and development of velocity and thermal boundary layers: .

Introduction to Convection: Flow and Thermal Considerations .

Boundary Layers: Physical Features • Velocity Boundary Layer – A consequence of viscous effects associated with relative motion between a fluid and a surface. – A region of the flow characterized by shear stresses and velocity gradients. – A region between the surface and the free stream whose thickness δ increases in the flow direction.99 . δ→ u ( y) u∞ = 0.

– A region of the flow characterized by temperature gradients and heat fluxes.99 Tw − T∞ ∂T(x.• Thermal Boundary Layer – A consequence of heat transfer between the surface and fluid. y) δt → = 0. Tw − T(x. – A region between the surface and the free stream whose thickness δ t increases in the flow direction. – Manifested by a surface heat & flux q and a convection heat transfer coefficient h . y) & q = −λf ∂y y=0 h= − λ f ∂T ∂y y=0 Tw − T∞ .

Boundary Layers: Physical Features • Is the thicknesses of the thermal boundary layer and the velocity boundary layer are the same? • The relative thickness depends on the Prandtl number. which is a dimensionless number: .

Relating convection heat transfer to fluid mechanics using dimensionless numbers & q = −λf ∂T(x. y) ∂y y=0 & q = −h (x )(T∞ − Tw ) .

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