CHENNAI INSTITUTE OF TECHNOLOGY

Sarathy Nagar, Kundrathur, Pudupedu, Chennai– 600 069.

Department of Civil Engineering
Subject Name: Strength of Materials Lab
1.

Subject Code: CE 2252

BRINELL’S HARDNESS TEST

AIM To determine the hardness number of various specimens like steel, cast iron aluminium brass. APPARATUS REQUIRED 1. Berinell’s hardness test 2. Ball indicator 3. Traveling microscope FORMULA The surface area of indentation A = πD/2 * (D-√(D²-d²)) Where, D = Diameter of Ball D = the mean diameter of indentation The Brinells hardness number = test load/surface area of indentation = P/A PROCEDURE: 1. Based on the following table, the proper load and ball was selected to suit material in test. The surface of the specimen is brushed and well cleaned. 2. The selected ball is inserted in the machine and specimen load is determined. 3. Now the load is released. 4. The diameter of indentation is measured.

RESULT: BHN FOR “A1” SAMPLE=

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CHENNAI INSTITUTE OF TECHNOLOGY
Sarathy Nagar, Kundrathur, Pudupedu, Chennai– 600 069.

S.NO

MATERIAL LOAD

DIA OF SURFACE BHN INTENTATION AREA OF IN mm INTENTATION IN mm

ALUMINIUM

BRASS STEEL CAST IRON

OBSERVATION

Material of test piece: Type of penetrator:

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The length of ‘l’ of the specimen is measured accurately of seeing into the machine. There are the machine was separated electrically and readings at 10 intervals where the reading is noted continuously unit specimen failed. Kundrathur. APPARATUS REQUIRED 1.in degree values. Torque in N-m graph was drawn. 2. Pudupedu. Chennai– 600 069. After selecting the suitable scale on the machine the initial and angle of twist where adjusted zero. 5. 4. Up to angle of twist the torque was applied zero. Steel rule 4. The modulus of rigidity of sample (from tabulation) = 2. RESULT 1. Caliper FORMULA Torsional equation T/J = Cθ/L Modulus of rigidity C = TL/Jθ Where T= Torsional moment in N-mm L= Length of test pull J= Polar moment of inertia θ= Angle of twist in radian PROCEDURE: 1. The modulus of rigidity of sample (from graph) = CHENNAI INSTITUTE OF TECHNOLOGY Page 3 . 2. Angle of twist in x-axis and torque in y-axis. Torsion testing machine 2. TORSION TEST AIM: To determine the modulus of rigidity of the sample of given rod. 3. Test specimen 3. Using the micrometer the diameter ‘L’ of specimen is measured in four places. GRAPH The angle of twist .CHENNAI INSTITUTE OF TECHNOLOGY Sarathy Nagar.

NO APPLIED TORQUE KGNCM MM ANGLE OF TWIST DEGREE OF FREEDOM θ1 θ2 θ AVERAGE θ IN RADIANS MODULUS OF RIGIDITY IN N. Pudupedu. Chennai– 600 069.CHENNAI INSTITUTE OF TECHNOLOGY Sarathy Nagar. S.MM² OBSERVATION: Material of test piece = Length of the specimen = Diameter of the specimen = CHENNAI INSTITUTE OF TECHNOLOGY Page 4 . Kundrathur.

The specimen is cooled. Then the specimen is soaked for 10 minutes at the same temperature 630˚C. Given material: C-40 steel 3. 3.TEMPERING AIM: To perform the heat treatment tempering on the given material C-40 steel. After soaking it is taken out from the furnace and it is cooled in air. now the tempering is completed. 3. Pudupedu. Chennai– 600 069. 5. RESULT: The heat treatment tempering on the given material C-40 steel and its Rockwell hardness number is measured Rockwell hardness number before tempering = Rockwell hardness number after tempering = CHENNAI INSTITUTE OF TECHNOLOGY Page 5 . 2. APPARATUS REQUIRED: 1. Muffle furnace: tongs 2. The specimen is placed inside the combustion chamber of muffle furnace and is heated up to 630˚ C. 6. Again the specimen is subjected to Rockwell hardness test and Rockwell hardness number is measured. Quenching medium: water PROCEDURE: 1.CHENNAI INSTITUTE OF TECHNOLOGY Sarathy Nagar. Kundrathur. The given specimen is subjected to Rockwell hardness test and Rockwell hardness number is measured before hardening that the specimen is subjected to rough grinding. 4.

CHENNAI INSTITUTE OF TECHNOLOGY Sarathy Nagar. Chennai– 600 069. S.NO SPECIMEN LOAD MATERIAL N PENETRATOR SCALE RHN MEAN RHN CHENNAI INSTITUTE OF TECHNOLOGY Page 6 . Kundrathur. Pudupedu.

4. Chennai– 600 069. 3. 2. Pudupedu. APPARATUS REQUIRED: 1.The given specimen is subjected to Rockwell hardness test and Rockwell hardness number is measured before hardening.CHENNAI INSTITUTE OF TECHNOLOGY Sarathy Nagar. RESULT: The heat treatment hardening on the given material C-40 steel and its Rockwell hardness number is measured Rockwell hardness number before tempering = Rockwell hardness number after tempering = CHENNAI INSTITUTE OF TECHNOLOGY Page 7 .Then the specimen is socked for 10 minutes at the same temperature 830˚C. Kundrathur. now the hardening is completed. Given material: C-40 3. Muffle furnace: tongs 2. 6.After socking it is taken out from the furnace and it is quenched in the water.Again the specimen is subjected to Rockwell hardness test and Rockwell hardness number is measured.The specimen is placed inside the combustion chamber of muffle furnace and is heated up to 830˚ C. Quenching material: water PROCEDURE: 1. 5.The specimen is cooled. HARDENING AIM: To perform the heat treatment on the given material C-40 steel. 4.

Kundrathur. Pudupedu. Chennai– 600 069.NO SPECIMEN LOAD MATERIAL N PENETRATOR SCALE RHN MEAN RHN CHENNAI INSTITUTE OF TECHNOLOGY Page 8 .CHENNAI INSTITUTE OF TECHNOLOGY Sarathy Nagar. S.

release the lever which will release the major load.The test piece was cleaned and placed on the special anvil of the machine. 2. The pointer will rotate in the reverse direction.120˚ diamond cone penetrator 3. 3.The capstan wheel was turned to elevate the test specimen to contact the indenter point. APPARATUS REQUIRED: 1. Pudupedu. 6. copper. ROCKWELL HARDNESS TEST AIM: To determine Rockwell hardness number for steel aluminium.1/16 diamond steel 4. brass. 5. 2.The Rockwell hardness is used on the appropriate scale dial. the dial gauge was set in appropriate position based on the scale used. RESULT: The Rockwell hardness number for Aluminium sample = Copper sample = Steel sample = CHENNAI INSTITUTE OF TECHNOLOGY Page 9 .The pointer was set on to appropriate scale.The lever was pushed forward and the major load was applied. 5. and alloy.specimen PROCEDURE: 1.The wheel was further turned to face the test specimen against the indenter.Rockwell hardness tester. 4. Chennai– 600 069.As soon as the pointer in the dial goes to rest. Kundrathur. 7.CHENNAI INSTITUTE OF TECHNOLOGY Sarathy Nagar. This will ensure that a minor load has been applied on the specimen.

Kundrathur. Chennai– 600 069.NO SPECIMEN LOAD MATERIAL N PENETRATOR SCALE RHN MEAN RHN OBSERVATION: Material of test piece = Type of penetrator = CHENNAI INSTITUTE OF TECHNOLOGY Page 10 . Pudupedu.CHENNAI INSTITUTE OF TECHNOLOGY Sarathy Nagar. S.

FORMULA: Impact strength = Energy required to break the specimen Area of cross section of notch point PROCEDURE: 1.The pendulum was brought to rest by applying brake.caliper.The pointer scale was read. 3. 6. 6. APPARATUS REQUIRED: 1.. This is the energy required to break the specimen. 5. 4.CHENNAI INSTITUTE OF TECHNOLOGY Sarathy Nagar.test specimen.The striker was released by operating a lever and the specimen was broken.J/mm².impact testing machine. 4.The pointer and the scale value were read.The test specimen was fixed on support with the notch.scale. Pudupedu. 3. Chennai– 600 069. Kundrathur.The hammer was screwed freely to note down the energy loss due to friction.The broken specimen and the striker are removed. 7. 8. 2. CHENNAI INSTITUTE OF TECHNOLOGY Page 11 .IMPACT TEST (CHARPY) AIM: To determine the impact of the material using Charpy’s glove.The striker was screwed firmly to the center of the hammer. 2. RESULT: Impact strength of the given material was found to be =…….

Kundrathur. Chennai– 600 069.NO LOSS OF ENERGY DUE TO FRICTION Jm ENERGY REQUIRED BREAK THE SPECIMEN Jm ACTUAL ENERGY REQUIRED Jm IMPACT STRENGTH Jm OBSERVATION: Dimension of test piece Type of notch Angle of notch Depth of notch = = = = CHENNAI INSTITUTE OF TECHNOLOGY Page 12 . Pudupedu. S.CHENNAI INSTITUTE OF TECHNOLOGY Sarathy Nagar.

Caliper. 7.The pointer scale was read. 8. FORMULA: Impact strength = Energy required to break the specimen Area of cross section of notch point PROCEDURE: 1.The hammer was swing freely to note down the energy loss due to friction.The pendulum was brought to rest by applying brake. Test specimen.The striker was screwed firmly to the center of the percussion of the hammer with screws.CHENNAI INSTITUTE OF TECHNOLOGY Sarathy Nagar.J/mm². 3. This is the energy required to break the specimen. IMPACT TEST (IZOD’S) AIM: To determine the impact of the material using Izod’s glove. Chennai– 600 069. 3. Izod’s machine.The broken specimen and the striker are removed. CHENNAI INSTITUTE OF TECHNOLOGY Page 13 . Izod’s accessories.. 5. 2. Kundrathur. 2. 7.The pointer and the scale value were read. 4.The striker is released by operating a lever and the specimen was broken. RESULT: Impact strength of the given material was found to be =……. Impact testing machine. Pudupedu. 4. 6. APPARATUS REQUIRED: 1.The test specimen was fixed on support with the notch facing the striking direction and the clamp screw are tightened. 5.

Kundrathur.CHENNAI INSTITUTE OF TECHNOLOGY Sarathy Nagar.NO LOSS OF ENERGY DUE TO FRICTION Jm ENERGY REQUIRED BREAK THE SPECIMEN Jm ACTUAL ENERGY REQUIRED Jm IMPACT STRENGTH Jm OBSERVATION: Dimension of test piece Type of notch Angle of notch Depth of notch Distance of notch from one end = = = = = CHENNAI INSTITUTE OF TECHNOLOGY Page 14 . S. Pudupedu. Chennai– 600 069.

Place the given beam over the supports of measure the span of the beam. 2. Load the beam at uniform rate of note down the corresponding deflectometer reading. VERIFICATION OF MAXWELL’S RECIPROCAL THEOREM AIM: To verify the Maxwell’s reciprocal theorem. Chennai– 600 069. 4. Vernier caliper 6. Deflectometer 5. 5. 8. Pudupedu. E= E= CHENNAI INSTITUTE OF TECHNOLOGY Page 15 . 6. 3. Note the deflectometer reading at no load position. Roller supports 3. Set of weight of hanger 4. RESULT: Deflection of beam from load at A and deflection for at B Deflection of beam from load at B and deflection for at A Therefore Maxwell’s reciprocal theorem is verified. Kundrathur.CHENNAI INSTITUTE OF TECHNOLOGY Sarathy Nagar. Beam to be tested 2. Scale PROCEDURE: 1. Now place the deflectometer at ¼ of span from left hand side and place hanger at ¼ of span from right hand side and repeat the steps 4 and 6. APPARATUS: 1. Decrement the load at the same uniform rate and down the corresponding deflectometer reading. Place the hanger ¼ span from right hand side.

Pudupedu. Kundrathur.CHENNAI INSTITUTE OF TECHNOLOGY Sarathy Nagar. Chennai– 600 069. DEFLECTION AT “A” AND LOAD AT “B” S.C YOUNG’S MODULUS IN N/mm² CHENNAI INSTITUTE OF TECHNOLOGY Page 16 .NO LOAD DEFLECTOMETER READING IN mm LOADING UNLOADING MEAN DEFLECTION DEFLECTION AT “A” IN mm * L.

Position of deflectometer = = = = = = CHENNAI INSTITUTE OF TECHNOLOGY Page 17 . Length of simply supported beam 2.C OBSERVATION: 1.CHENNAI INSTITUTE OF TECHNOLOGY Sarathy Nagar. Depth of simply supported beam 4. Kundrathur. Pudupedu. DEFLECTION AT “B” AND LOAD AT “A” S. Chennai– 600 069.NO LOAD DEFLECTOMETER READING IN mm DEFLECTION YOUNG’S AT “B” IN MODULUS LOADING UNLOADING MEAN IN N/mm² DEFLECTION mm * L. Position of load from left support 5. Breadth of simply supported beam 3. Position of load from right support 6.

9. Weight with hangs 4. Deflection vs. The beam was loading at uniform rate and corresponding deflectometer readings were noted. load graph was drawn and young’s modulus of beam material was found out. Roller supports 3. Beam to be rested 2. Deflectometer 5. 5. Calipers 6. 4. 6. Measuring scale FORMULA: The general expression for deflection of any point ‘x’ is given by ∆ = wbx(l²-b²-x²) 6EIl for x<a where l = a+b I = moment of Inertia = Bd³/12 (mm^4) ∆ = deflection (mm) B = breadth of simply supported beam (mm) l = length of simply supported beam (mm) x = position of deflectometer b = position of load w = load PROCEDURE: 1. Chennai– 600 069. CHENNAI INSTITUTE OF TECHNOLOGY Page 18 . 2. The deflectometer reading was noted down at no reading condition. Kundrathur.CHENNAI INSTITUTE OF TECHNOLOGY Sarathy Nagar. APPARATUS: 1. The breadth ‘B’ and depth ‘d’ of beam where measured accurately. DEFLECTION TEST ON BEAMS (simply supported) Aim: To determine the young’s modulus of the given beam material. The loading point was marked and the distance ‘y’ from left support. 3. Graph: A graph draw by taking load in the y-axis and deflection in the ‘x’ axis. The supports are arranged to the required span and the beam is placed over the supports. Pudupedu.

Distance of load system from left support 3. Kundrathur. Breadth of beam 4. Least count of deflectometer = = = = = = CHENNAI INSTITUTE OF TECHNOLOGY Page 19 . Pudupedu. Result: The young’s modulus of the beam material is found to be for steel from tabulations E = From graph E = S. Span of simply supported beam 2.CHENNAI INSTITUTE OF TECHNOLOGY Sarathy Nagar.C OBSERVATION: 1.NO LOAD DEFLECTOMETER READING IN mm DEFLECTION YOUNG’S AT “b” IN mm MODULUS LOADING UNLOADING MEAN IN N/mm² DEFLECTION * L. Distance of deflection from left support 6. Chennai– 600 069. Depth of beam 5.

R = (Do+Di )/4 Where Do = outer diameter of spring Di = inner diameter of spring. 10. FORMULA USED: 1. Chennai– 600 069. of turns] 3.The angle of helix α = tan-1 (pitch/2 π R) Average pitch = [total height spring/No. CHENNAI INSTITUTE OF TECHNOLOGY Page 20 .Open coiled helical spring 2. 2. 3. The stiffness of the spring is given by S = W/D * N/mm 5. Caliper etc. To find the stiffness of the spring. 3.The rigidity modulus of the material is found from the mean deflection using the following ∆ = 64WR3N secα d^4 Cos²α C + 2sin²α E 4. Kundrathur. Spring testing machining. The diameter of the coil was measured. 2. APPARATUS REQUIRED: 1.COMPRESSION TEST ON HELICAL SPRING (Open coiled) AIM: 1.The inner and outer diameter of the spring was measured. The energy is started for particular load is given by U = ½ WD N-mm PROCEDURE: 1.CHENNAI INSTITUTE OF TECHNOLOGY Sarathy Nagar. 2. Pudupedu. To determine the energy absorbed by the spring for a particular load. 3. The mean radius of the spring is touch using the inner and outer diameter of spring. The number of turns and the angle of helix counted. To determine the rigidity modulus of the spring.

The energy started in the spring for a load of …. 4. 6. The spring was loaded at uniform rate and the corresponding scale reading was noted at every step 5.N from graph= CHENNAI INSTITUTE OF TECHNOLOGY Page 21 .N = From graph The load of ….CHENNAI INSTITUTE OF TECHNOLOGY Sarathy Nagar. Chennai– 600 069. GRAPH: The graph was drawn taking mean deflection in x-axis level in y-axis.Thestiffnes of the given spring is = 2.The scale was placed between the places at reading unit. The rigidity modulus of the spring = 3. Pudupedu. Kundrathur. The load was released at the same step and the scale readings are noted... RESULT: 1.

Pudupedu.CHENNAI INSTITUTE OF TECHNOLOGY Sarathy Nagar. of turns = CHENNAI INSTITUTE OF TECHNOLOGY Page 22 .NO LOAD VERTICAL SCALE READING DEFLECTION STIFFNESS RIGIDITY IN mm IN N/mm² MODULUS IN N/mm² INITIAL FINAL DEFLECTION MEAN= OBSERVATION Outer dia of the spring = Inner dia of the spring = Young’s modulus = Dia of the coil wire = Length of the spring = No. Kundrathur. Chennai– 600 069. S.

4. The spring was placed between the plates of the loading unit.axis. Chennai– 600 069. Pudupedu. 3. Kundrathur.Strain energy stored in the spring 2. 6. To determine the energy started in the spring at particular load.Stiffness of the spring 4. To find the stiffness of the spring. of turns ∆ = deflection in mm D = diameter of coil wire in mm N/mm² Stiffness of the spring = W/∆ Strain energy rated = W*∆ /2 N/mm² PROCEDURE: 1. 2. To determine the rigidity modulus of the spring material. Caliper’s etc. 3. 11. 8. FORMULA: Rigidity modulus P = 64WR³N ∆ d^4 W = load in N N = No. Closed coiled helical spring 2. Spring testing machine 3.Rigidity modulus of the spring 3. The load was applied at an uniform 7. TENSION TEST ON HELICAL SPRING (Closed coil) AIM: 1. 5. APPARATUS REQUIRD: 1. GRAPH: The mean value of deflection was plotted on x. The scale readings were noted for regular interval of increased a load. The inner and outer diameters of the spring were measured. The number of turns of before curve was counted. The diameter of coil was measured. RESULT: 1. Then the released at same point steps and scale readings were noted.CHENNAI INSTITUTE OF TECHNOLOGY Sarathy Nagar. The initial scale reading was noted.axis and load was plotted on y. 2.By graph = = = = Page 23 CHENNAI INSTITUTE OF TECHNOLOGY .

NO LOAD VERTICAL SCALE READING DEFLECTION STIFFNESS RIGIDITY IN mm IN N/mm² MODULUS IN N/mm² INITIAL FINAL DEFLECTION MEAN= OBSERVATION Outer dia of the spring = Inner dia of the spring = Young’s modulus = Dia of the coil wire = Length of the spring = No. Chennai– 600 069. Pudupedu. S. of turns = CHENNAI INSTITUTE OF TECHNOLOGY Page 24 . Kundrathur.CHENNAI INSTITUTE OF TECHNOLOGY Sarathy Nagar.

Yield load may be calculated by product of projected yield stress (250N/mm² in case of steel) and the area of cross section. Kundrathur. 4. Note down the load at yield i. 9.. At the ultimate load the red pointer will be left in position and the black point which indicate the instantaneous applied load will move in to reverse direction. 3. To determine the breaking stress of steel.. Note down the break point load at which the specimen fails. Universal testing machine. 12. Mark the gauge length to determine the elongation. 2. APPARATUS To determine the yield stress of steel. the short deviation of time when the pointer remains stationary.e. 3. Scale. Chennai– 600 069. REQUIRED 1. 2. 6. 4. To determine the ultimate stress of steel. To determine the elasticity modulus of steel. 5. Fix the test specimen between the steel grips of the UTM taking care to see that the load will be applied axially and fix the extensometer. 4. Remove the extensometer after 70% of the yield load is applied . 7.TENSION TEST ON MILD STEEL ROD AIM 1. choose the load range in UTM for the given steel bar the ultimate Stress may be assumed as 500N/mm² and the required Ultimate load can be calculated. 5. Assuming the ultimate stress of the material. Extensometer. To determine the reduction in area in steel. Accurately measure the diameter of given rod. 2. Vernier caliper etc. PROCEDURE 1. 3. 6. Remove the specimen and note down the diameter of the neck and the elongation.. 10.CHENNAI INSTITUTE OF TECHNOLOGY Sarathy Nagar. CHENNAI INSTITUTE OF TECHNOLOGY Page 25 . Apply the load gradually and in uniform steps and note down the corresponding extensometer reading. To determine the percentage of elongation of steel. Pudupedu. 8. Increase the load and note down the ultimate load.

RESULT 1. The breaking stress of material 4. Percentage of reduction of cross section area = N/mm² = N/mm² = N/mm² = % = % OBSERVATION: Specimen load Diameter of specimen Area of specimen Gauge length = = = = mm CHENNAI INSTITUTE OF TECHNOLOGY Page 26 . Pudupedu. Kundrathur. Chennai– 600 069.CHENNAI INSTITUTE OF TECHNOLOGY Sarathy Nagar. Percentage of elongation of material 5. The yield stress of material 2. The ultimate stress of material 3.

3. FORMULA Cross sectional area of the specimen = π/4 * d² Ultimate shear strength = Failure load/ 2π /4 *d² PROCEDURE 1. The specimens were inserted in shearing apparatus and tightly screwed 3. APPARATUS USED 1.CHENNAI INSTITUTE OF TECHNOLOGY Sarathy Nagar. Universal testing machine 2. By using calipers. This assembly is kept between the plates of the compression zone of the UTM 4. Kundrathur. Calipers etc.. Shear test attachment. measure the diameter of specimen. RESULT The Ultimate shear strength of the given material = N/mm² CHENNAI INSTITUTE OF TECHNOLOGY Page 27 . Pudupedu. This experiment was repeated for more specimens. Chennai– 600 069. The load was applied gradually and the failure load was noted. DOUBLE SHEAR TEST AIM To determine the ultimate shear strength of the material by conducting a double shear test. 5. 13. 2.

NO TYPE OF MATERIAL LOAD OF FAILURE (N) ULTIMATE SHEAR STRENGTH N/mm² OBSERVATION Material of test piece = Length of specimen = Diameter of specimen = CHENNAI INSTITUTE OF TECHNOLOGY Page 28 . S. Kundrathur. Chennai– 600 069.CHENNAI INSTITUTE OF TECHNOLOGY Sarathy Nagar. Pudupedu.