SECTION 1.

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TOWAGE GUIDELINES

Port of Larne has consulted with representatives from Belfast Lough Pilots Ltd, PEC holders at the port, and tug operators who all collaborated and agreed in the development of these towage guidelines. The Towage Guidelines are to be used by all operators when manoeuvring within Larne Harbour Limits.

5 Factors considered in developing the Towage Guidelines Towage Guidelines Compliance of tug vessels operating at Port of Larne Tug Crews Appendices Appendix 1 Appendix 2 Appendix 3 Appendix 4 Appendix 5 Risk Assessment Towage procedures for tankers bound for Ballylumford Power Station Tug information on Bollard Pull and SWL McLoughlin Shipping Tug Fleet.3 1. .CONTENTS 1.4 1. Svitzer Marine Ltd Tug Fleet.2 1.1 1.

Larne’s navigational complexity. 9 were identified as using tugs and workboats as a control measure.9 Some large ships can be handled in Larne without tug assistance if conditions and circumstances allow. The smooth and gentle handling of small ships is more difficult with powerful tugs and the bollards and fairleads of small ships are not strong enough for the forces that can be delivered by a powerful tug. minimum standards and human factors. Whether movement of ships in and out of the port can be expedited by use of tugs. A risk assessment should be carried out of the situation taking into account the local available experience and will result in a more realistic and economical tug use.1. The Risk Assessment comprised of data gathering including a structured Hazard Identification meeting from which hazards in relation to Navigation within the port in terms of • • • • • the geography of the port and its approaches i.7 1.1. The 9 hazards are described in Appendix 1.1 Factors considered in developing the Towage Guidelines A Risk Assessment of marine operations was carried out by Marico Marine between November 2000 and March 2001.1 1.1. 1. Assessing how much tug power is needed to handle ships safely is an important part of the port authorities role particular for high windage ships such as the ro-ro and cruise ships and deep draught ships such as tankers for the Power Station.4 1. No port is the same and tug requirements differ by port.3 From the final list of 69 hazards and good practice.1.1.1.e. • The situation where the mass of the vessel is the predominant factor • The situation where external forces working on the ship are the governing factors such as wind and/or current forces.1. In this context the greater the shiphandler’s experience the better the results will be.6 1. Prevailing tidal stream and weather factors Size. small ships should preferably be handled by small tugs.5 1. type and manoeuvrability of ships using the port. All final decisions about risk control methods will take into account relevant legislation.1.1.8 1. To assess how strong the tug should be or how much tug power is needed. difficulties associated with particular berths at Larne and Ballylumford. .2 1. Tugs should be suitable for the size of the ship. The Harbour Authority will supplement the original assessment with a continuous review process of the risk assessments with formal reviews at suitable intervals.1. two basic situations have to be considered. 1. A distinction should be made between the required tug power or bollard pull for• Handling ships that normally visit the port • Handling specific ships that visit the port on a particular occasion or for specific situations in the port.

The question of whether some ships can be handled without tugs or with a minimum of tug assistance will be answered by a desk study taking account of • Port particulars • Environmental conditions • Particulars of the ship to be expected • Available experience of ship captain or pilot All masters of vessels berthing with major defects of main engine.7 . These circumstances include wind strength and direction. In all cases.2 1. tidal state and current flow. Masters of these vessel types are recommended to have a tug/s on stand-by in sufficient time to avoid any incidents. the tug effectiveness decreases as the tug master will vary the towing power in order to avoid to high dynamic forces in the towline which results in a less effective tug assistance. and the condition of the vessels main engines. The Harbour Authority can give an appropriate special direction to mitigate risk likely to arise in instances were the guidelines are ignored or where vessels Master or pilot decline to take the recommended number of tugs. bow thrusts and steering.2 Towage Guidelines The use of tugs will be determined by the following guidelines.2. tidal state and current flow.2. Appendix 3 provides information on tug power and bollard pull.1 Scheduled Ro-Ro Ferries .the Master will assess the requirement for tug assistance based on the existing prevailing circumstances when manoeuvring at the port. Tankers . tugs should be strong enough to handle the ships in the port safely and efficiently.6 1. bow thrusts and steering.4 1. Non-Schedule Ferries. Mooring Breakout – high sided ships such as Ro-Ro’s.2. 1. tankers in ballast and cruise ships are exposed to the potential of a mooring failure especially during squalls with severe wind gusts.2. In wave conditions.5 1. traffic density. cruise ships and tug and tow operations the Pilot will assess the requirement for tug assistance based on the existing prevailing circumstances when manoeuvring at the port.2. 1. even under unfavourable conditions of wind and current. bow thrusters and steering will carry out a individual and specific risk assessment on the planned manoeuvre. and the condition of the vessels main engines. The use of tugs under these circumstances is recommended by the Harbour Authority as a risk control.the towage guidelines for tankers are mandatory and are explained in Appendix 2. bulk cargo ships.2.2. traffic density.1. These circumstances include wind strength and direction. The port operates shipping movement regarding maximum wind speeds and visibility.3 1.

3 1. (2) that any reports that are submitted are sufficiently detailed to allow assessment and approval of the subject craft against the requirements of the code. The approval system and procedures are contained in the Marine Services Manual.3. and (3) before LHL approval the craft will be inspected to verify that the report is an accurate representation of the condition of the vessel with respect to the appropriate code. Under the Port Marine Safety Code. workboats and passenger vessels used in the harbour comply with the Merchant Shipping (Small Work Boats) Regulations 1998 and the associated Safety of Small Work Boats and Pilot Boats Code of Practice. LHL must ensure. This will be in addition to MCA inspection / certificates and includes both certified and non-certified craft. by inspection that all tugs. 1. and that they are ‘fit for purpose’ for any use to which they are put. Section 2.1.2 1.3.3. Compliance Procedure for all small vessels operating at the Port of Larne. The Harbour Master is responsible for establishing and operating the approval system and to this end (1) will ensure that the periodic inspections of tugs and workboats are carried out by the responsible organisations (MCA) at least annually.3 .1 Compliance of Tug Vessels operating at Port of Larne.

However. A list of suitably trained and qualified crew will be provided by the operator on 1st January each year or as and when requested by Larne Harbour Ltd.4. The regular use of tugs by ferries.4 1.1.4.2 For the operation of the Pilot Boat or Passenger boats. PEC candidates must gain operational experience on the tugs prior to attending the examination. based in Belfast. if the operator can demonstrate experience this may be wavered. Chief Engineer and two GPR Ratings.4 Tug Crews Port of Larne will ensure that all harbour vessels used in the harbour are fit for purpose and that the crew are appropriately trained and qualified for the tasks they are likely to perform.4. Pilots have extensive operating experience with the tugs from Belfast and with the local crew in Larne. it is required that the skipper hold a Class 2 Boatmasters Certificate For the operation on non-certificated workboats.4.4. to a minimum of Tug Master.3 1. tankers and small cargo ships has provided a large core of experienced and knowledgeable crew.5 6 . Tugs. it is preferred that a Class 3 Boatmasters licence should beheld by the skipper. but used for towage services at Larne will be manned with appropriately trained and qualified crew. 1.1 1. 1. Current practice of cross training throughout port operations is a strong feature at the Port of Larne.

especially ebb tide on Continental Quay. The 9 hazards are: 1. • Failure to take a tug.Last Date Reviewed : Nov 2005 Tugs and workboats are used as one of the risk controls for 9 of 69 hazards identified during the port risk assessment process. Ferry lands nearly on linkspan • Due to insufficient power in marginal conditions • Strong SE winds on ebb tide • Failure to take a tug Control • Tug and workboats available • Tugs to be used in adverse conditions 2. Control • Tug and workboats available • Tugs to be used in adverse conditions 3 Mooring breakout – Tanker • Lack of attention to moorings • Condition of mooring ropes Control • Tug available to hold alongside • Use of tugs 4 Mooring Breakout – Barge on ‘A’ Jetty • Lack of attention to moorings • Condition of mooring ropes Control • Tug available to hold alongside • Use of tugs 5 Ferry contacts another during manoeuvring • Poor weather conditions with strong winds • Strong ebb tide • Loss of power • Misjudgement • Strong SE Winds can set vessels towards berths.Appendix 1 Hazman Risk Assessments . 7 . HSC contacts quay berthing • Restricted view from conning position • Wind funnelling between hulls causes handling difficulties. Control • Tug and workboats available • Tugs to be used in adverse conditions.

• Lack of attention to moorings • Condition of mooring ropes • Unsuitable lead of mooring ropes Control • Tug available to hold alongside • Use of tugs 9 Mooring breakout – Other quays • Berth fendering and moorings are not tailored to individual vessels • Vessels passing at speed • Lack of attention to moorings • Condition of mooring ropes • Unsuitable lead of mooring ropes Control • Tug available to hold vessel alongside • Use of tugs 8 .6 Ferry contacts HSE during manoeuvring • Loss of power • Misjudgement • Poor weather conditions with strong SE winds • Strong ebb tide • SE Winds set vessels towards berths Control • Tug and workboats available • Tugs to be used in adverse conditions 7 HSE contacts ferry during manoeuvring • Loss of power • Misjudgement • Poor weather conditions with strong SE winds • Strong ebb tide • SE Winds set vessels towards berths Control • Tug and workboats available • Tugs to be used in adverse conditions 8 Mooring breakout – Continental Quay • Strong NW winds and flood tide • Seaward end of berth is suspended construction and vessel is exposed to wind at that and • Vessel passing at speed • Berth fendering and moorings are not tailored to individual vessels.

Orders received prior to such consultation should be considered as provisional advance notice only. Further information on Tugs.000 dwt: Over 20.e.000 dwt 1 or 2 tugs 2 or 3 tugs 2. 4. When such requests are communicated via Pilots (or Larne Port Control Centre) it must be clearly stated whether or not such request is being made after consultation with the Master. Moorings Pilots should be aware that moorings for tankers should be in accordance with the OCIMF “Mooring Equipment Guidelines”. Mixed moorings are not permitted at any oil terminal jetty – i. including ordering. ropes and wires) should not be run together in the same direction. lines in a given service (e.e. However. Pilots should bear in mind that agents require a minimum of 24 hours notice to order additional tugs from Belfast.000 dwt. The above numbers may be varied at the pilots discretion. known ships limitations or special propulsion and manoeuvring systems (i.000 dwt or two tugs if over 20. each thruster counts as one tug. high-lift rudders. depending on weather. twin screws. in all cases.Appendix 2 Towage Guidelines Tankers bound for Ballylumford Power Station 1. 3. tankers and vessels carrying hazardous goods in bulk must have at least one tug in attendance if under 20. The numbers of tugs required for unberthing shall be based on the number required for berthing but may be reduced at the pilot’s discretion.g. etc). provided the thrusters are fully operational and the vessel’s draft is sufficient for the thruster to operate satisfactorily. forward springs) should be the same length. however tugs should be fast before the vessel passes No 1 buoy. however the following may be used as a guide for berthing:Up to 20. it is preferable that ropes are used for head and stern lines and wires for the breastlines and springs. Rendezvous The rendezvous position and time will be as advised by the pilot. For vessels with thrusters. Where possible. 9 . Such instructions may be communicated directly by the ship’s agent or through the Marine Officer at Larne Port Control Centre. thrusters. Number Of Tugs There is no set number of tugs required for a particular ship operation. within a given mooring pattern. lines of different elasticity (i. notice and shift change procedures is contained in Larne Harbour Port Control (VTS) Manual. This decision will be made by the master and Pilot in consultation.e. inward bound. If a vessel has insufficient wires to present a complete mooring pattern. Ordering Tugs Tugs should be ordered by the Master or Agent only.

Unberthing may proceed when port control has confirmed that the vessel may leave the berth. Port Control will then either confirm that the vessel may leave the berth or request the vessel to wait (e. Outbound Vessels Before disembarking outward bound vessels. the Pilot shall discuss the proposed navigational passage with the Master. 10 . Unberthing Prior to singling up. Pilots shall ensure that the vessel is sufficiently to seaward and that the Master is given sufficient guidance to avoid any navigational hazards. Larne Port Control Centre will be informed that the vessel is ready to depart the berth.g. These discussions shall include all applicable items in paragraph 6.5. When singled-up.5 Communications shall be tested prior to singling up. 6. due to the movement of another vessel in the proximity).

When a tug is handling a ship that has speed. Together with the forces caused by the tug’s resistance through the water. which can generate pull forces as a result of the hydrodynamic forces working on the tug hull. The negative effect of tug propeller wash impinging on the ships hull. A few examples: • A stern tug operating in the indirect mode can generate high pulling forces. basically the exerted force is generated by tugs propeller thrust only. the tug actual pull can then be high. A conventional tug can also create high towline forces. consequently. pulling at a ship with no or almost zero speed or when pulling straight ahead as forward tug or straight astern as stern tug on a ship having headway. sometimes even in addition to the propeller thrust forces. which is largest effect with a small under keel ship clearance and a short towline is to be noted. When a ship has no speed. decreasing with ship’s increasing speed.Appendix 3 Tug Information on Bollard Pull and Safe Work Loads Bollard pull is the static force exerted by a tug on a fixed towline. Bollard pull tests are carried out in what can be called a static situation and is an important indication of a tugs capability. However in all the dynamic situations of day-to-day operations the actual pull exerted by the tug varies considerably from the bollard pull test values and are often much higher than the stated bollard pull. 11 . The tug’s hull does not play an important role when. the exerted pull is less than the bollard pull. the exerted pull of the tug is approximately the same as the bollard pull. In addition. Therefore these exerted forces should not be referred to as ‘bollard pull’. propeller thrust is less due to the positive water flow through the propeller. the propellers are working in a negative water flow and a high trust can be developed. the tug can make use of the hydrodynamic forces working on the tug’s hull. A tug braking a ship’s speed and working under a small angle with the ship’s heading can exert high braking forces caused by the propeller thrust and tug resistance through the water. while the propeller thrust is used to keep the tug in an optimal position to achieve the highest possible pulling forces. • • These few examples show that the exerted pull can be much higher than the bollard pull and that it does not always have a direct relation to the bollard pull. For the forward tug pulling straight ahead at a ship having headway. As mentioned. generated by the hydrodynamic forces working on the tug hull when towing under an angle to a ship’s heading on a ship having headway. the tug has to propel itself through the water with the cost of engine power. which increase with the ship’s speed (and at a speed of 10 knots can be a high as twice the bollard pull). The ‘bollard pull’ value is used as a standard measure of the towing capability of a tug. Tugs are built to produce higher forces than the bollard pull by creating an optimal underwater form of the tug’s hull. these hydrodynamic forces can generate high pulling forces. When a stern tug is braking the ship’s speed. which can result in a even higher pull than the bollard pull.

Of equal importance are the forces that can be generated in the towline by such a tug during day-to-day operations. and/or local situations and conditions. peak loads are generated in the towline. The requirements for such tests differ by classification society and so the results can be different even for the same tug. When discussing the SWL of the ship’s bollards. However. forces in the towline. as is the case with the safety factor of a tug’s towline. the tug’s bollard pull is not the only factor to be taken into account. in the dynamic situation of day-to-day operations. (peak forces). the actual pull that can be exerted by the tug can be lower but can often also be much higher. are not strong enough for the forces exerted by them. Due to the unsteady circumstances the tug operates in. the forces that can be generated in the towline of present tugs are often much higher than their bollard pull and this should be a factor taken into account when determining an accurate and meaningful safe working load of shi bollards and fairleads. The forces generated by the tug are passed to the towline. Pulling at full power will cause higher forces in the towline that the maximum exerted pull. or continuous bollard pull. sometimes resulting in the requirement for an even higher safety factor. 12 . In addition.Forces in the Towline The exerted pull is passed to the towline. Bollard pull tests are carried out in more or less static situations. The forces in the towline can vary considerably and can reach high values. tug size. This may vary by tug type. The safe working load of the ship’s bollards depends on ship size and the mean braking loads of the ship’s mooring lines. In consequence. However. It is not without reason that the SWL of a harbour tug’s towline is based on a force in the towline of at least twice the bollard pull. 2. Add to that the forces caused by the unsteady situation between tug and ship and it will be clear that the forces in the towline may become so high that the towline may part. tugs handling ships in locks or dry-docks often operate with a short steep towline. When the tug is working with a steep towline angle. These may also be caused by non-smooth tug handling or by waves. mainly caused by the unsteady and continuously varying situation of the tug compared with the assisted ship and the often vertical angle of the towline. The sustained bollard pull. due to the vertical towline angle. due to the hydrodynamic forces working on the tug’s hull. on occasion. The bollard pull is an important indication of a tug’s capability. Conclusion 1. When pulling in such an unsteady dynamic situation. This should result in a safety factor of the towline of not less than a factor of about four times the bollard pull. can become much higher than the bollard pull and the maximum pull that can be generated by the tug during ship assistance. These forces exerted by the tug should not be called ‘bollard pull’. It is worth noting that as harbour tugs become more powerful. towline forces can be much higher than the maximum pull that can be exerted by the tug. the bollards and fairleads of ships. 4. 3. measured during bollard pull tests over a certain period of time (such as five or ten minutes) is a tug’s ‘bollard pull’. forces in the towline further increase.

is the factor for the escort rating number of the tug. 13 .5. for an escort tug notation of a classification society. Measurements are carried out during active escorting and the achieved maximum mean towing pull. comparable with the sustained bollard pull during bollard pull tests. Finally. the maximum towing forces that can be generated by the tug at a particular ship’s speed are important. The escort rating number shows the capability of a new escort tug in delivering steering forces at 8 and 10 knots speed.

5 x 2.4 T 2 x 1200 Litres Sailor 144 (1) JRC Radar 2 in one for castle cabin Built under Lloyds Nil British 1980 Bristol. Displacement Trip Hook Yes Nil 2.5 x 4.15 33 T.5 x 4. Displacement Trip Hook Yes Nil 2.4 T 2 x 1200 Litres Sailor 144 (1) JRC Radar 2 in one for castle cabin Built under Lloyds Nil British 1980 Bristol. David Abels Maria Conventional 8 Tons 8 Knots Volvo Penta Tamp 121 c __________________ Sarah Conventional 8 Tons 8 Knots Volvo Penta Tamp 121 c __________________ .5 x 2.15 33 T. David Abels 12.Appendix 4 John McLoughlin & Son Shipping Tug Fleet TUG DETAILS Tug Type Bollard Pull Speed Main Engines Auxilary Engines Length / Beam / Max Draft Gross Tonnage Towing Equipment Fifi (m hr) Dispersant Fresh Water Capacity Fuel Capacity Radio Nav Equipment Furono Radar Plus GPS Accommodation Classification Flag Y O B Yard 12.

Appendix 5 Svitzer Tug Fleet BELFAST TUG DETAILS – JUNE 2006 TUG Type NORTON CROSS Twin Aquamaster 43.O. Liverpool 1989 Richards Ltd.6 knots 2 Ruston Diesels.85m / 8. Gt. Yarmouth Bollard Pull Speed Main Engines Auxilary Engines Length/Beam/max Draft Gross Tonnage Towing Equipment Fifi (m³ hr) Dispersant Fresh Water Capacity Fuel Capacity Radio Nav.75 m 392 m 1 Winch FWD / 1 Winch AFT Foam 16 tonnes 10 t 26 tonnes 81 tonnes GMDSS – A2 6 Crew in Single cabins 6 Pullman Bunks for Extras UK.50 m / 4. 1700 BHP each 2 x Lister HRW 6MA 42 Kw 27.B. Yard . Middlesborough 1985 Richard Dunston WILLOGARTH Azimuthing Kort Stern Drive 45 Tonnes 12 knots 2 x Ruston 6 RK 27 OM. Equipment Accommodation Classification Flag Y.0 m / 9.0 m 189 Quick Release 50 TC SWL Aft Dk towing winch N/A N/A 7.8 tonnes 11.6 tonnes 23 tonnes Marconi Argonaut VHF Decca Radar 6 Berths: 2 Double : 2 Single Lloyds 100 A1 Class 1xa UK. 1700 BHP each 3 Gardner 6 LXB 80 kw 31.8m / 5.