# 1 Cambridge University Engineering Department Engineering Tripos Part IIA

3A6: Heat and Mass Transfer

Convective Heat Transfer
By N. Swaminathan

Lent 2009

Course Objectives: • understand the principles of convective heat transfer - interplay between ﬂuid mechanics and thermodynamics1 • understand and appreciate the richness of the physics involved • learn to analyse heat transfer problems via control volume and scale analyses • learn to use convective heat transfer correlations • apply these to heat exchanger calculation

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It is a good idea to read your IB Heat transfer - Lab. handout

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Contents
1 Introduction 5 1.1 Approximations . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 7 1.2 Types of Flows . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 7 1.3 Equivalent electrical resistance for convection . . . . . . . . . . . . 10 2 Principles of Convection 2.1 Mass Conservation . . . . . . 2.2 Momentum Conservation . . . 2.3 Thermal Energy Conservation 2.4 Boundary Layer Equations . . 2.5 Scale Analysis . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 11 11 12 13 14 16 21 21 22 35 41 42 48 50

3 Forced convection 3.1 Laminar Flows . . . . . . . . . . . . . 3.1.1 External ﬂows – Flat Plate Case 3.1.2 Internal ﬂows . . . . . . . . . . 3.2 Turbulent Flows . . . . . . . . . . . . . 3.2.1 External ﬂows . . . . . . . . . 3.2.2 Internal ﬂows . . . . . . . . . . 3.3 Non-constant Fluid Properties . . . . .

4 Heat exchanger 53 4.1 Heat Exchanger Analysis . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 54 4.1.1 LMTD method . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 54 4.1.2 ε–NTU method . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 58 5 Natural convection 5.1 Laminar Cases - External Convection . . 5.1.1 Scale analysis . . . . . . . . . . . 5.1.2 Integral approach . . . . . . . . . 5.1.3 Uniform wall heat ﬂux . . . . . . 5.1.4 Inclined walls . . . . . . . . . . . 5.2 Laminar Cases - Convection in Enclosures 5.2.1 Semi–inﬁnite size . . . . . . . . . 5.2.2 Finite size . . . . . . . . . . . . . 5.3 Mixed Convection . . . . . . . . . . . . . 5.4 Effect of Turbulence . . . . . . . . . . . 3 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 61 61 62 64 65 66 66 67 69 71 72

. . . . . . . .2. . . . .4 6 Convection with Phase change 6. . . .1 Boiling Regimes . . . 7 Appendix CONTENTS 75 76 81 81 84 87 .2. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 6. . . . . . . .1 Laminar ﬁlm condensation 6. . . . . . . . . . . . . .2 Condensation . . . . . . . . . . . .2 Scale analysis . . . . . . . . . . 6. . . . . . . . . .

1: • Chip cooling: the temperature of electronic chip is to be kept below a critical value for its normal operation • Turbine Blade cooling: Surface temperature need to be maintained well below a critical temperature • Why and how condensation occur? . In the current climate of energy economics.Chapter 1 Introduction In solids. 1. Convective heat transfer is very common in engineering and in common dayto-day situations.pool boiling • Catalytic converters .will be discussed in detail in mass transfer part 5 . which is a microscopic process and it is because of random vibration of molecules and the movement of free electrons. For example. The moving ﬂuid particles carry heat in the form of internal energy and this mode of heat transfer is called convection which involves bulk motion. The convective heat transfer usually occurs at the boundaries (interface separting phases) and thus they appears as boundary condition in the analysis of heat transfer problems.important for condenser design • Industrial and residential heat exchangers • Boiling water for a cuppo . for example ﬁns. conduction is the sole mechanism for energy transport. however small it may be. the rate of energy loss is important and engineers are constantly faced with a challenging question: What is the rate of heat transfer required to achieve a given objective efficiently? Objective can be different in different applications. we strive hard to minimise energy losses. In practical terms. see Fig. You may have already seen this in some heat conduction problems. by all possible ways. Fluids are usually set in motion and thus conduction alone occurs in them only in special circumstances such as stagnant ﬂuid. This mechanism is govened by the process of diffusion from high temperature to low temperature regions.

INTRODUCTION Convection FINS ··· Conduction CAP (a) CHIP BASE HOT COLD FLUID Forced Convection CAP CHIP (b) BASE Figure 1.1: Typical applications involving heat transfer. In (b) the cooling of the chip is by forced convection.6 CHAPTER 1. In (c) and (d) the turbine blade is cooled by forced convection. In (d) the heat transfer from the warm room air to the cold window pane occurs by natural convection. .In (a) heat is conducted away from the chip and is lost to the surrounding via ﬁns by natural convection.

known as body forces (see Fig. natural or free convection: the ﬂuid motion arises because of external force ﬁelds. The ﬂuid is Newtonian and its transport properties are constant. 2. Newton’s relationship: ˙ Q = hA∆T ˙ applies.1b. The heat transport and the ﬂuid ﬂow processes are steady. In this part. 1. APPROXIMATIONS Types of convection: 7 1.. Let us revist the blade cooling problem to highlight important aspects. heat transport and also temperature. 1. The heat transfer coefﬁcient is not a constant but depends on many parameters describing the ﬂuid ﬂow.1 Approximations The following approximations apply to our analysis with exceptions clearly noted. Compressibility effects become important beyond this speed.1a and e). . see Fig. 1. A is the surface area available for heat transfer and ∆T is a characteristic temperature difference (K). heat transfer problems with additional complexities are introduced gradually. we study convective heat transfer by applying the laws of continuum ﬂuid mechanics and thermodynamics. 2. In the subsequent chapters. The laws of continuum ﬂuid mechanics are brieﬂy discussed in the next chapter.1. c and d. etc. h is the heat transfer coefﬁcient also known as conductance per unit area and time (W m−2 K−1 ). The temperature dependence mainly comes if the ﬂuid properties vary strongly with temperature as in liquids and liquid metals (used in nuclear reactors). where Q is the heat transfer rate (watt . 1. The background on thermodynamics acquired from IA/IB and 3A5 modules are adequate. vehicle movement. 4.1. fans. The ﬂuid density varies only with temperature . forced convection: the bulk motion of the ﬂuid is caused by external means such as pumps.2 Types of Flows Two types (1) External and (2) Internal.strictly valid for airﬂow velocity up to 100 m/sec at room temperature.W). 1. 3.

h is presented via a non-dimensional number called Nusselt number.8 . INTRODUCTION y T∞ U∞ x Tw L Heat conducted into ﬂuid = Heat convected away −κf A ∂T ∂y = h A (Tw − T∞ ) y=0 =⇒ h = −κf (∂T /∂y)y=0 κf ∼ . CHAPTER 1. which may be interpreted as the ratio of heat transfer rate by convection to a notional heat transfer rate which could occur if conduction were the only possible .1) • κf is the thermal conductivity of the ﬂuid (W m−1 K−1 ) • δt is the thermal boundary layer thickness Commonly. (Tw − T∞ ) δt (1.

are required to determine δt /L.2. Nusselt number N uδt = convection hA∆T hL = = conduction κf A(∆T /δt ) κf δt L . thermal boundary layer thickness. The principles of ﬂuid mechanics. especially boundary layers. ie..1. g T∞ < T s cold . (1. Pipe Flow Heat Exchanger Hot Natural Convec.1) can be shown for internal ﬂows and natural convection. δt . This forms the basis for most of our analysis in the subsequent chapters. TYPES OF FLOWS mechanism. 9 where L is an appropriate length scale. is important in convective heat transfer A relationship similar to Eq.

.10 CHAPTER 1. INTRODUCTION 1.3 Equivalent electrical resistance for convection ˙ Q Ts ˙ ∆T = QR R= 1 hA ∆T ˙ Q = 1 hA T∞ =⇒ R = The principles of serial and parallel resistances also apply here.

1 Mass Conservation Figure 2. rate of change of mass in the control volume = (mass in − mass out) ∂ρu ∂ρ (dx × dy × dz) = ρu(dy × dz) − ρu + dx (dy × dz) + · · · · · · ∂t ∂x net rate of mass ﬂow in x direction =⇒ ∂ρ ∂ρu ∂ρv ∂ρw + + + = 0. 2. the laws of mechanics and thermodynamics applied to a medium (solid or ﬂuid) inside an appropriately selected control volume provide the governing equations. which are (1) mass conservation. u ∂ρu dx ∂x ∂ρv dy ∂y Figure 2.1 shows mass ﬂuxes (mass ﬂow rate per unit area. v and w as the corresponding ﬂuid velocities. Thus.1. We also assume that there is no mass addition or consumption inside the control volume. (2) momentum conservation and (3) energy conservation. The ﬂuid density is ρ. y and z with u.Chapter 2 Principles of Convection In the continuum approach. v ρv + dy ρu ρu + dx ρv x. The cartesian y. kg m−2 s−1 ) coming into and leaving the control volume in x and y directions. ∂t ∂x ∂y ∂z 11 (2. let us consider a control volume of size dx × dy × dz as in Fig. To illustrate the method of obtaining these equations.1: Control volume in cartesian coordinate system shown for a 2D case coordinates are x. 2.1) .

which can also be written as Dρ ∂ui = 0.) then the continuity equation becomes ∂ui = 0. force.which is called substantial derivative. acting on the ﬂuid element include the pressure p.4) For an incompressible and Newtonian ﬂuid.3) (2. where µ is the dynamic viscosity of the ﬂuid.1). magnetic forces. Dt ∂t ∂xi i = 1. ∂xi We will use the above equation in 2D form for our analysis: ∂u ∂v + =0 ∂x ∂y (2. the shear stress is given by (recall from your IA and IB modules on thermoﬂuids) τxy = τyx = µ ∂u ∂v + ∂y ∂x . the shear. k for the forces acting in x-direction. u1 . Now the above equation for the balance of forces acting in the x direction of Fig. If the ﬂuid is incompressible (ρ = const. u2 and u3 are the velocities in x (x1 ).2) 2.12 CHAPTER 2. 2 and 3 (for 3D) with the repeated index implying summation over it (this is called Einstein notation). 2. The x forces.4) becomes ρ Dui ∂p ∂ 2 ui =− +µ + ρgi .5) . forces due to viscous effects and the body forces such as gravity. This equation is known as continuity equation. Eq. PRINCIPLES OF CONVECTION with t denoting time. The reformulation of this law for a ﬂuid states that the sum of all forces must equal the rate of change of momentum of the ﬂuid mass under consideration (see Fig. y (x2 ) and z (x3 ) directions. This gives ∂ρu dx dy dz = ∂t mu − ˙ in out mu ˙ + k k Fx .1 (2D case) becomes ∂ρu =− ∂t ∂ρuu ∂ρvu + ∂x ∂y + − ∂p ∂τxx ∂τxy + + + ρgx ∂x ∂x ∂y (2. 2. Dt ∂xi ∂xj ∂xj (2. The forces acting in the coordinate direction is usually taken to be positive. is D ∂ ∂ ≡ + ui . etc. (2. electric.2 Momentum Conservation This conservation law is essentially an extension of Newton’s second law of motion. +ρ Dt ∂xi The symbol D/Dt. Now. g. τ . Fx .

(2.0 for those interested.6) ∂t ∂x ∂y ρ ∂x ∂x ∂y 2 ∂v ∂v 1 ∂p ∂ v ∂2v ∂v +u +v =− + ν 2 + ν 2 + gy . 2. 2.7) ∂t ∂x ∂y ρ ∂y ∂x ∂y gx and gy are body forces acting in the x and y direction respectively. Temperature can be obtained by solving the energy equation after calculating ﬂow ﬁelds 3.7) . THERMAL ENERGY CONSERVATION 13 after using Eq.3 Thermal Energy Conservation The ﬁrst law of thermodynamics can be applied to the ﬂuid inside the control volume shown in Fig. (2. Some points to note 1.1). Eqs. ∂ui net viscous workdone = τij „ ∂xj « ∂v ∂u ∂v ∂u1 + τ22 + 2τ12 + = τ11 ∂x ∂y ∂y ∂x y. Eq. (2. The energy equation is derived next. v and p) and three equations. we shall obtain the temperature equation.3). (2.there will be a unique solution 2. which is a reasonably good approximation for liquids with moderate temperature variation. This equation is the momenutm equation and for 2D this equation in component form is x − component : y − component : ∂u ∂u ∂u 1 ∂p ∂ 2u ∂ 2u +u +v =− + ν 2 + ν 2 + gx . In the following. (2. The kinematic viscosity of the ﬂuid is ν ≡ µ/ρ.9). v dy ρ u cp T qx ˙ dx ρ u cp T + ∂ρ u cp T dx ∂x qx + ˙ ∂ qx ˙ dx ∂x ∂T qx = −κf A ˙ x.6) and (2.2. 2. (2. simply considering the balance of thermal energy in a control volume as shown in Fig. which can be used to get thermal energy conservation equation. If the ﬂuid properties are allowed to vary with temperature then one is forced to include the energy equation along with the above three equations in the analysis. This tedious exercise is carried out in Appendix–2. This approximation is also good for gases when the thermodynamic pressure variation is small which is the case at moderate velocities. One should note that the density and ﬂuid properties are assumed to be constant. .3. u ∂x Figure 2.2: Control volume for energy conservation.1 to obtain an equation for the total energy (kinetic energy + thermal energy) conservation.2. Three unknowns (u.

4 Boundary Layer Equations A ﬂat plate shown in Fig. the energy equation simply reduces to the unsteady heat conduction equation in 2D: ∂T ∂2T ∂ 2T =α 2 +α 2. one gets dx dy dx dy + τij ∂T ∂T ∂2T ∂ 2T ∂T +u +v = α 2 + α 2 + νΦ. and Prandtl number. We also take U∞ . An interesting point to note here is.2. The thermal diffusivity (m2 s−1 ) of the ﬂuid is α = κf /ρcp .3.1 and it also identiﬁes a number of non–dimensional parameters.6). Applying this to Fig. one gets: Rate of change = Ein − Eout + Energy addition via workdone.7) and (2. ∂t ∂x ∂y 2. one gets ∂ui dx dy ∂xj (2. PRINCIPLES OF CONVECTION Since we exclude the compressibility effects.9) ∂ρcp T =− ∂t ∂ρ u cp T ∂ρ v cp T ∂ qx ∂ qy ˙ ˙ + + + ∂x ∂y ∂x ∂y where Φ is the viscous dissipation. 2. when u = v = 0.14 CHAPTER 2. Also the free stream temperature T∞ becomes Tw on the plate. given by Φ=2 ∂u ∂x 2 + ∂v ∂y 2 + ∂u ∂v + ∂y ∂x 2 .9) generally govern this type of ﬂows and these equations can be simpliﬁed further.1) for 2D and treating the ﬂuid to be incompressible with constant properties. that is the ﬂuid is at complete rest. (2. P r are the most important parameters. one is related to the ﬂuid dynamics and a second one related to the thermal ﬁeld as in Fig. The equations given by Eqs. but the wordone by viscous forces are included because this can be substantial in the case of viscous ﬂuids such as oils. The dimensionless forms of the governing equations are given in the Appendix– 2. the workdone by pressure forces are neglected in this ﬁgure. Balancing the energy across the control volume. ∂t ∂x ∂y ∂x ∂y (2. obtained by carefully expanding τij in the workdone by the viscous forces noted in Fig.3 is oriented along x axis and the free stream velocity is U∞ . These gradual changes of velocity and temperature occur over thin regions called boundary layers.8) After using Eq. Re.2. (2. 2. out of which Reynolds number. There are two boundary layers. (2. 2. which becomes zero on the plate because of no-slip condition. Let δ be the charactistics length along y for variation of u from U∞ to zero and also δ << L.3). L and δ as representative quantities respectively for . 2. (2.

viz. 2. This means that dp/dx = dp∞ /dx. which is zero for a plane wall case (U = U∞ in Fig. the heat transfer analysis is reduced to ﬁnding solutions of u. the distance along the plate.3) .11) If one applies the Bernoullie equation for the ﬂow outside the boundary layer then dp∞ /dx can be related to dU∞ /dx. ∂x ∂y ρ ∂x ∂y (2. one gets U∞ δ v∼ . the x momentum equation. ∂ 2T ∆T ∼ 2 2 ∂x L This gives u ∂T ∂T ∂ 2T +v =α 2. (2.10) as ∂u ∂u 1 dp∞ ∂ 2u u +v =− + ν 2.3: Development of velocity and thermal boundary layers over a ﬂat plate immersed in a ﬂuid with P r < 1 and ﬂowing at U∞ at far stream. ∂x ∂y ∂y (2. BOUNDARY LAYER EQUATIONS y T 15 U U δ L Figure 2. ∂x ∂y ρ dx ∂y (2. 2 ∂y δT Now. which simpliﬁes Eq. u. x. L Now. becomes u ∂u ∂u 1 ∂p ∂ 2u +v =− + ν 2. (2.11) and (2. and y. Eq. Eq. This can be achieved using three different methodologies. (i) dimensional analysis. (2.. y) = p(x) only.12).2. and (iii) similarity     δt Tw     x . Eq. The nondimensional form of y momentum equation given in the appendix yields ∂p/∂y ≈ 0. (2. v and T via Eqs. when the Reynolds number is large.10) since ∂ 2 u/∂x2 ∼ (U∞ /L2 ) which is much smaller than ∂ 2 u/∂y 2 ∼ (U∞ /δ 2 ) when δ << L.12) ∂ 2T ∆T ∼ 2 . (2.9).6). In the energy equation. This condition implies that p(x. From the continuity equation.4.boundary layer with zero pressure gradient.3). (2. (ii) integral approach.3).

if A = 40. If B and C are O(B) and O(C) then the order of magnitude of A is O(B). We also make use of integral methods when required. If A = 1 then A is said to be order unity or O(A) ∼ O(1). .5 Scale Analysis The scale analysis is nothing but order of magnitude analysis and this method gives only an estimate.2. The order of magnitude of the sum or difference is dictated by the dominant term . The method of dimensional analysis (recall your ﬁrst year experiments on dimensional analysis) is based on scale analysis. if O(B) > O(C). The symbol O is read as “the order of magnitude”. From Eq. (III) Identify the region of interest. 2. then O(A) ∼ O(10). This allows us to choose a length scale for the analysis.1) the Nusselt number is Nu = (∂T /∂y)y=0 L hL = −L ∼ . Let us consider a laminar ﬂow over a ﬂat plate as in Fig. (1. In this module. This method of analysis is simple but yet powerful giving order of magnitude for quantities of interest and it also identiﬁes important dimensionless groups. Let us take (Tw − T∞ ) ∼ ∆T . (I) Let A = B + C 1. The following rules are deﬁned to guide us in the scale analysis. (II) If A = B ×C. thus the normalised convective heat transfer.the dominant term rule. But it can be done on the back of an envelop yielding many important ﬁrst hand information about the physics of the problem.16 CHAPTER 2. 2. The integral methods are next in the order of accuracy of solutions and its simplicity. Some prelude to these results are noted in Appendix–2. The similarity solution method is the most accurate and rigorous mathematical approach. This method is already used in the brief boundary layer analysis presented above.3 with an objective to ﬁnd the amount of heat transferred from the plate to the ﬂuid. we will use the control volume analysis predominantly and the scale analysis to get physical understanding. If B and C are of the same order of magnitude then O(A) ∼ O(B) ∼ O(C). PRINCIPLES OF CONVECTION solution methods. A similar rule applies for division. Advanced mathematics are required for similarity analysis and thus we shall keep our discussion on this method to a bare minimum and borrow the results for our purpose. 2. is inversely proportional to δt . κf Tw − T∞ δt which implies that the nondimensional heat transfer coefﬁcient. which is unkown at this stage and the temperature gradient scales as (∆T /δt ). then O(A) ∼ O(B) O(C).

2. ∂x ∂y ρ dx ∂y U 2 /L U 2 /ρL νU/δ 2 =⇒ δ 1 ∼√ L Re (ρ is taken to be O(1)) The scaling for δT can be found using the temperature equation u ∂T ∂T + v ∂x ∂y = α ∂ 2T ∂y 2 (2. u ∂u ∂u 1 dp∞ ∂ 2u +v =− +ν 2. SCALE ANALYSIS 17 Now we like to see how the thermal boundary layer thickness. T ∆T ∆T U δT ∼α 2 δ L δT convection ∼ conduction =⇒ δT ∼ P r−1/3 ReL −1/2 L (2.5.14) (2.16) (2. scales. Case 2 : y T∞ δ δT U Pr 1 thermal diffusion is slower than momentum diffusion u and v in the thermal B’layer u U u ∼ δT v ∼ δT δ L u. .11). v/δ ∼ U/L and using Eq. Case 1 : y δT δ T∞ U Pr 1 momentum diffusion is slower than thermal diffusion u and v in the thermal B’layer u u∼U v∼ δ L u. Taking u ∼ U .17) N u ∼ P r1/3 ReL 1/2 .15) N u ∼ P r1/2 ReL 1/2 . T U ∆T ∆T ∼α 2 L δT convection ∼ conduction =⇒ δT ∼ P r−1/2 ReL −1/2 L (2.13) The scales for u and v will depend on the relative size of δ and δT and thus there are two cases. (2. δt .

Solution: fully developed region δT D y. the ﬂow is hydrodynamically fully developed.18 CHAPTER 2. We also take u ∼ U and D as appropriate length scale. This gives ∂T ∆T qw ˙ ∼ ∼ . take v ≈ 0.1. to have N u ≡ hD/κf ∼ 1. ∂x D ρU cp D Now the energy equation gives U But h = qw /∆T ˙ =⇒ hD κf ∼ 1+ hD ρU cp D ∼ 1+ hD α κf U D . ie.1: Conduct a scale analysis for the case of heat transfer in laminar pipe ﬂow and ﬁnd the conditions under which the Nusselt number is constant. From the above analysis. PRINCIPLES OF CONVECTION Problem 2. one can write the following conditions for N u to be constant .. (Detailed analysis of heat transfer in pipe ﬂow is discussed in section 3. The heat transfer rate per unit area through the wall is qw = ρU cp ∆T ˙ ⇒ ∆T ∼ qw ˙ ρU cp .2). D2 ρU cp D2 Thus.v x. one requires U D/α 1 (the dominant term rule). qw ˙ ρU cp D ∼α qw ˙ ∆T +α . u entrance region Figure 2.4: Thermal boundary layer development in a pipe ﬂow The energy equation is u ∂T ∂T +v =α ∂x ∂r 1 ∂ r ∂r r ∂T ∂r + ∂ 2T ∂x2 .

2. 19 3. In the entrance region the above result is invalid because ∂T /∂r ∼ ∆T /δT and δT D.2.5. since we took ∂T /∂r ∼ ∆T /D. SCALE ANALYSIS 1. the ﬂow thermally fully developed. 4. v ≈ 0 =⇒ the ﬂow is hydrodynamically fully developed. UD α 1. .

20 CHAPTER 2. PRINCIPLES OF CONVECTION .

Also. We shall consider steady two-dimensional ﬂows which can also be axisymmetric (such as pipe ﬂows). (2.5 identiﬁed dependence of N u on Re and P r.1 Laminar Flows We consider the heat exchange between a surface and a laminar ﬂuid ﬂow. which are related to one another as we will see later. P r. 1 21 .3) The scale analysis1 of these equations presented in section 2. the Nusselt number becomes N u = G1 (x+ . ∂x ∂y ρ dx ∂y u ∂T ∂T ∂ 2T +v =α 2. the ﬂow velocity is taken to be moderate and thus the viscous dissipation term in the energy equation. Under these circumstances. (7. τw = µ(∂u/∂y)y=0 ∼ ∞ √ √ 2 µU∞ /δ ∼ µU∞ ReL /L. An example for internal ﬂow 2 The skin friction coefﬁcient from Eq. and hence. (2.Chapter 3 Forced convection In forced convection the ﬂow is induced by external means and the inertial forces are large compared to the body forces in Eqs. Thus.19) is Cf = 2τw /ρU√ . The external and internal ﬂows are considered separately.7).2) As it is noted in the previous chapter. Re. for example) or internal (ﬂow in a pipe.2) (3. the body forces can be neglected. Eq. the pressure gradient is zero for the plane wall case.9). The following boundary layer equations govern these ﬂows. Our objective here is to ﬁnd N u and Cf . ∂x ∂y ∂y (3.1) ∂x ∂y momemtum : u energy : ∂u ∂u 1 dp ∂2u +v =− + ν 2. 3. dp+ /dx+ ) (see Appendix 2. Re. The forced convection can occur in laminar or turbulent ﬂows. Thus N u depends only on x+ . Re and P r.6) and (2. (3. We shall analyse typical cases for each of these. Exact forms of these solutions depend on the boundary conditions. ∂u ∂v mass : + = 0. for example) ﬂows. The ﬂow is taken to be incompressible (constant density) and the ﬂuid properties are constant. dp+ /dx+ ) and the skin friction coefﬁcient Cf = F1 (x+ . which can be external (ﬂow over a car. τw ∼ ρU∞ / ReL ⇒ Cf ∼ 1/ Re. can be neglected.

For this. FORCED CONVECTION with heat transfer is the ﬂow through tubes in a heat exchanger such as car radiator. We also consider the surface temperature. The analysis of these two types are different because of the difference in the nature of the ﬂow involved. to be constant.4) u(ˆ → ∞) = 1 ˆy (3. Ts . ∂x ∂y ˆ ˆ ∂u ˆ ∂u ˆ 1 ∂ 2u ˆ +v ˆ = . various quantities are normalised as below: u= ˆ u . where the convective heat transfer coefﬁcient h depends on ∂T /∂y at the wall. (3. redrawn as Fig. To exposition the analysis. Eqs. 3. ∂x ˆ ∂y ˆ Re P r ∂ y 2 ˆ     Θ u(y) T − Ts T∞ − Ts Θ (y) A D F . The heat transfer rate is ˙ Q = h A (Ts − T∞ ). let us consider a plane wall in Fig.1.5) BC : Θ(ˆ = 0) = 0. L y= ˆ y L and Θ= T − Ts . the boundary layer equations and their boundary conditions become mass : momen. solution to boundary layer equations are sufﬁcent to obtain the heat transfer rate.5) and (3. Thus. y Θ(ˆ → ∞) = 1 y (3. ρ U Y B C E Θ= Figure 3. U∞ v= ˆ v . There are some exceptions to this . : energy : u ˆ v ∂ u ∂ˆ ˆ + = 0.1 External ﬂows – Flat Plate Case The heat transfer in external ﬂows are concentrated in the boundary layer. T∞ − Ts Now. ˆ ∂Θ ∂Θ 1 ∂ 2Θ u ˆ +ˆ v = . The ﬂuid velocity is U = U∞ and its temperature is T∞ . The heat transfer to the air ﬂowing over the radiator falls into the external ﬂow category.recirculating ﬂow involving ﬂow separation is a typical example.6) and their boundary conditions are identitical implying that their solutions are the same. ˆy (3.22 CHAPTER 3.6) For P r = 1. 2. momentum and energy thicknesses of the boundary layer. U∞ x= ˆ x . One needs to know the temperature distribution to obtain the temperature gradient at the wall and thus the energy equation should be solved. This means that u and Θ are identical. However. ∂x ˆ ∂y ˆ Re ∂ y 2 ˆ BC : u(ˆ = 0) = 0. the basic methodology remains the same.1. Analysis of such problem are complex and beyond the level of this module.1: Control volume for the derivation of displacement.3 again. 3.

7) and allowing Y −→ ∞ =⇒ d 2 U dx ∞ ∞ 0 u U∞ 1− u U∞ dy = ν ∂u ∂y . LAMINAR FLOWS 23 Physically. Momentum transfer Integrating Eq. for ρ = ρ∞ (3. (3. Equating this to ρ∞ U∞ δ ∗ . one gets v=− From Eq. advanced analyses show that such analogy exists for P r = 1 also. Now. (3. which is called Reynolds-Colburn analogy.mass ﬂow across EF. the displacement thickness is deﬁned as δ∗ = 0 ∞ 1− u U dy.1: ∞ ∞ The mass ﬂow across AB = 0 ρ∞ U∞ dy and across EF = 0 ρu dy. which implies that the heat transfer can be obtained from the knowledge of momemtum transfer or skin friction coefﬁcient.1) along y upto Y in Fig.10) such analogy for mass transfer also exsists .3. Experimental results offer strong support to this analogy. This analogy is called Reynolds analogy.9) By considering the momentum ﬂowing in and out of the control volume. (3. However. this implies that the mechanisms for momentum and heat transfers are analogous.1. let us consider the control volume ABEF shown in Fig.1. (3.2) ∂ ∂x Y 0 ∂ ∂x Y u dy 0 since v(0) = 0. It is to be noted that P r = 1 is required for the above analogy to be valid. 0 (3. 3. ∞ ∞ =⇒ 0 (ρ∞ U∞ − ρu) dy = ρ∞ U∞ 0 1− ρu ρ ∞ U∞ dy. 2 ρ∞ U∞ δ1 = ∞ 0 2 ρ∞ U∞ dy − ∞ 0 across EF ρu2 dy − U∞ ρ∞ U∞ 0 ∞ 1− across BE ρu ρ ∞ U∞ dy across AB the momentum thickness is deﬁned as ∞ =⇒ 1 δ1 = 0 u U∞ 1− u U∞ dy.1 Now.7) u2 dy + uv|Y = ν 0 ∂u ∂y Y . 3. 0 after using Eq. for ρ = ρ∞ (3. we learn how to obtain the skin friction coefﬁcient.8) which is the integral form of the momentum conservation. Thus the mass ﬂow rate across BE is = mass ﬂow across AB .

The four constants in Eq. FORCED CONVECTION dδ1 µ(∂u/∂y)0 τs = = .x = √ Rex which are very close to the exact solutions: δ 5 =√ .x = √ . (3. (3. 2 2 dx ρ∞ U∞ ρ ∞ U∞ =⇒ dδ1 Cf. ∂u = 0 at y = δ.x and the heat transfer coefﬁcient h. (3. x Rex and 0.11).11) This equation states that the rate of increase of momentum deﬁcit in the boundary layer is one half the skin friction coefﬁcient. (3.12) are obtained using the boundary conditions u = 0 at y = 0.13) dδ 140 ν = dx 13 U∞ By integrating the last part of the above equation. (3.64 δ . The boundary layer thickness is deﬁned as the distance where u ≈ U∞ .10) and (3.2). dx 2 if Cf. This is done next. 2 ρ∞ U∞ (3. Eq. Now.15) A point to note here is that the scale analysis presented earlier gives the essential features of the above solutions. To obtain the skin friction coefﬁcient by integrating Eq. let us take u y y =a+b +c U∞ δ δ 2 +d y δ 3 . to have continuous u since both u and v are zero in Eq.x 3 ν δ. one obtains δ1 = 39 Cf.x = . =√ x Rex and 0. ∂y ∂2u = 0 at y = 0.11).646 Cf. one need to know how h varies. (3.24 Using this δ1 . one obtains 4. To establish the direct relationship between Cf.x = 2τs . the velocity varition becomes u 3 y 1 y = − U∞ 2 δ 2 δ Using this in Eqs. . (3.8) can be written as CHAPTER 3.14) 3 . and = 280 2 2 δU∞ ⇒ δ (3. which is different from δ1 and δ ∗ .12) where δ is the boundary layer thickness.664 Cf. Rex (3. ∂y 2 u = U∞ at y = δ.

∞ =⇒ dδe = Stx . one gets ∂ ∂x Y 0 u T dy + v T |Y = α 0 ∂T ∂y Y .x . (3.7) and Θ deﬁnition and allowing Y −→ ∞ =⇒ d U∞ (Ts − T∞ ) dx ∞ 0 u (1 − Θ) dy = −α U∞ ∂T ∂y .16) This equation is the integral form of the energy equation.1.∞ Θ∞ dy across AB ∞ − ρucp Θ dy across EF − cp. 0 (3. By considering the thermal energy ﬂowing in and out of the control volume. u/U∞ and Θ will be identitical and thus δe = δ1 . Re P r Now.11) and (3. along y upto Y in Fig.∞ (3. dx U∞ (Ts − T∞ ) U∞ ρ∞ U∞ cp. from Eqs. for constant ρ and cp . ρ∞ U∞ cp.332 Re1/2 x κf (3. 3. (3. This is worked out as problem 3.19) . LAMINAR FLOWS Heat transfer 25 Integrating the temperature equation.16) =⇒ δe = dδe −α(∂T /∂y)0 α(∂Θ/∂y)0 h = = = . 0 after using Eq. 2 and =⇒ hx = 0. Eq. dx if Stx = h .18) ∞ Stx is called Stanton number which is the ratio of heat transfer per unit area per unit temperature difference to the rate of heat capacity transport by the ﬂow.3.17) Using this δe in Eq.(3.18).3). The Stanton number is also called modiﬁed Nusselt number and St = Nu . This gives. ∞ ρ∞ U∞ cp. for P r = 1 . Θ∞ = 1 U∞ 0 (3. as we noted earlier. Stx = Cf.∞ Θ∞ δe = 0 ρ∞ U∞ cp.∞ Θ∞ ρ∞ U∞ 0 ρu 1− ρ ∞ U∞ dy across BE the energy thickness is deﬁned as u (1 − Θ) dy.1.332 κf N ux = U∞ νx 1/2 hx x = 0.0 (in this chapter) using integral energy balance. (3.

3. The value of r has been worked out in Appendix–3. y=δT 3 T − Ts Θ= =A+B T∞ − Ts y δT +C y δT 2 +D y δT 3 . one has to solve Eq.0 as r= δT 1 xo = P r−1/3 1 − δ 1.18). The surface temperature and N u variations along the length of the ﬂat plate are also shown. 2 rδ where r ≡ δT /δ is the ratio of thermal boundary to velocity boundary layer thicknesses.2.331 P r1/3 Rex 1 − κf x     T Nu/Nuxo = 0 1 U∞ νx 1/2 xo 1− x     3/4 −1/3         xo L x (3.21) Now.26 CHAPTER 3.2: Boundary layer with unheated starting length. hx . local Nusselt number.23) . (3.331 κf P r 1/3 hx x xo 1/2 and N ux = = 0. one gets 3 Θ= 2 y δT ∂Θ ∂y 1 − 2 y δT Θ(y = δT ) = Θ∞ = 1. are hx = 0. Now. and ∂ 2Θ ∂y 2 = 0. note : Θ∞ = 1. N ux .025 x 3/4 1/3 .20) where δT is the thermal boundary layer thickness deﬁned as the distance at which Θ ≈ Θ∞ = 1. FORCED CONVECTION For P r = 1. hx . ∂Θ ∂y = 0. and the y δ δt U T Ts > T T Figure 3. y=0 . for the case shown in Fig.22) 3/4 −1/3 (3. the local heat transfer coefﬁcient. for this purpose let us take (3. the heat transfer coefﬁcient. is given by hx = κf = 0 3 κf . (3. After applying the boundary conditions Θ(y = 0) = 0.

x κf Pr 1 (3.3.331P r−2/3 Re−1/2 1 − x Re P r x or Stx P r2/3 = 3/4 −1/3 . 3.564 P r1/2 Re1/2 = 0. ∂ 2T ∂T =α 2 U∞ ∂x ∂y and T = T∞ for x = 0. The value of Rec depends on surface roughness and also depends on the ﬂow type (external or internal). =⇒ with T = Ts at y = 0. can be used. (3. The Nusselt number averaged over the entire length of the plate is N uL = where h = 1 L hL = 2N ux=L κf h dx = 2hx=L 0 (3.2. and the results from Reynolds analogy. (3. (3.x 1− .15) and (3. (3. xo 3/4 Cf.17). But for liquid metals P r 1. y → ∞. The Nusselt number for the plate heated over its entire length is N ux = hx = 0. which is the case for the most of gases and liquids. in which the velocity inside the thermal boundary layer is constant and it is equal to U∞ . Eq. In the above analysis. This result is to be compared with the scaling analysis result in Chapter 2. LAMINAR FLOWS 27 The variation of N ux normalised by its value when xo = 0 is also shown in Fig. x for P r 1 or P ex ≥ 103 .1. −1/3 The solution of unsteady heat conduction in a semi-inﬁnite medium can be used after substituting τ = x/U∞ . 2.26) 2 x This relation is called as Reynolds-Colburn analogy. Some points to be noted in relation to the above analysis are : 1. For this situation the plug ﬂow model. Although it is shown formally for laminar ﬂow over a ﬂat plate with a speciﬁed temperature distribution it applies to turbulent ﬂows over a ﬂat plate and inside a tube as well. in chapter 2. (2.23) and rewritting N ux in terms of Stx as Stx = xo N ux = 0. for this). From this. since u = U∞ continuity equation gives v = 0.564 P ex . . the thermal boundary layer is taken to be inside the velocity boundary layer (P r > 1). Comparing Eqs.5 ≤ P r ≤ 15.27) Peclet number number is P e = Re P r. This is justiﬁable since δT >> δ (see the scaling analysis. 1/2 N ux = 0. But it does not apply to laminar ﬂow inside a tube.19).25) L The analysis presented above is for laminar ﬂow which occurs when Rex < Rec = 5.331 P r1/3 Re1/2 .0 × 105 for a smooth ﬂat plate.24) Experimental results show that the above relation can be used for 0. Eq.

3. In the above analysis. 3. Note that the heat transfer rate is ˙ ˙ almost inﬁnite at x1 and x2 because the thermal boundary layer thicknesses are zero at these locations(see Fig.3: The principle of superposition for ﬁnding heat transfer rate from a ﬂat plate with a ﬁnite heated length in a laminar ﬂow. is considered to be uniform.331P r1/3 Re1/2 ∆T 1 − −1/3 x1 3/4 x 111111111111111 000000000000000 111111111111111 000000000000000 −∆T = −(Ts − T∞ ) case (ii): q2 = −h∆T = − ˙ κf 0. the surface temperature. The local heat transfer rate per unit Ts 111111111111111 000000000000000 111111111111111 000000000000000 x1 x2 x ∆T = (Ts − T∞ ) f T∞ T∞ 111111111111111 000000000000000 111111111111111 000000000000000 κ case (i): q1 = h∆T = ˙ x 0. for example as shown in Fig.3.28 CHAPTER 3. But in many engineering situations it can vary along the length of the plate. FORCED CONVECTION 3.331P r1/3 Re1/2 ∆T 1 − x −1/3 x2 3/4 x Figure 3.331 P r1/3 Re1/2 ∆T x x q∗ ˙ 1− x1 x 3/4 −1/3 − 1− x2 x 3/4 −1/3 . Ts . area from the plate is q = q1 +q2 = ˙ ˙ ˙ κf 0. 2 If the plate temperature varies continously then the above expression can be generalised as 111111111111111 000000000000000 111111111111111 000000000000000 x ξ q ˙ = [TS (ξ = 0) − T∞ ] + q∗ ˙ x 3/4 −1/3 T∞ Ts 1− 0 ξ x dTs dξ dξ . The variation of q/q ∗ is shown in Fig.4. The negative q for x ≥ x2 implies ˙ 2 that the ﬂuid transfers heat to the plate.3). 3.

1. The heat transfer rate will also be inﬂuenced by suction or blowing through the plate.28) (3. the pressure gradient is non–zero and this category of ﬂows are called wedge ﬂows. In many practical problems the surface heat ﬂux. 1/2 for The local surface temperature is obtained from Ts.453 P r 1/3 Rex . The solutions are given in advanced texts but the ﬁnal solution for Cf. The values of C and N are summarised in Table 3.1 6. for the above two   4 5 Ts     P r > 0. Some times. 1/2 β is related to the orientation of the plate and it is deﬁned in Fig.6 (3. case (ii) ˙ ˙ (dashed line).5. Out of many cases studied in the past.4: Varitiation of q/q ∗ with x/x1 for case (i) (solid line). 3.x = T∞ + qs x ˙ qs ˙ = T∞ + .29) .3.x = 4 C. In the above analysis Ts is speciﬁed. in some special cases the plate may even be placed perpendicular to the ﬂow. In both cases the ﬂuid is taken to be air (P r = 0. x0 = x1) & qs (Ts . The ﬂat plate case also belongs to this category. Another point to note in the above analysis is that the pressure gradient is zero (ﬂat plate case). qs is speciﬁed (for example by placing an electrical heater). 4.x and N ux are Cf. Figure 3. x0 = x2 ) 0 1 2 3 -5 x /x 1 Figure 3. LAMINAR FLOWS 29 T 15 T x2 U x1  qs  &  * q   &s  5 & qs (Ts . For this ˙ case. (2 − β)Rex and N ux = N Rex . In these situations. two speciﬁc cases to our interest are (1) ﬂow over a ﬂat plate and (2) stagnation point ﬂow. the N u is given by N ux = 0. hx κf N ux 5.6 shows the variation of √ F = N u/ Rex with Γ. the plate may be inclinded at some angle to the ﬂow. and the total (line with symbol) heat transfer rate for the plat with temperature distribution shown above.7). the blowing or suction parameter.

2 0. 3.585 0.6.0 10 1.851 0.331 0.378 0.9276 0.792 1. 2−β When the blowing is signiﬁcant.348 0.307 0.2326 0.496 0. to protect the metal surface from the hot gases. is the same as the free stream ﬂuid in terms of composition.736 2.013 0. rocket nozzles and in nose cones etc.8 1.29 for isothermal surface β C N P r = 0.403 0. the heat transfer is very large because the boundary layers moves very close to the surface.669 0.7 0.5 0. There is a critical value of Γ beyond which the heat transfer becomes zero as shown in Fig.5210 0.858 0.523 0. FORCED CONVECTION Table 3.730 cases.344 0. in the case of blowing.30 CHAPTER 3.1: Values of parameters C and N in Eq. the temperature gradient at the surface will increase resulting in enhanced heat transfer.     U U(x) U(x )     βπ/2 0<β<1 U(x ) .5).0 0. 3. As consequence of this. However. This science has led us to the invention of ﬁlm (injection is at angle to the plate) and transpiration (injection is almost perpendicular to the plate) cooling technology.292 0. these changes depends on the ratio vs /v.570 1. there will also be mass transfer and thus one need to consider the combined heat and mass transfer.813 0.332 0. the temperature gradient at the surface will be smaller compared to the case with no injection leading to a decrease in the heat transfer rate.384 0.938 1. the boundary layers move away from the surface leading to a decrease in the temperature gradient at the surface and thus the heat transfer rate decreases. where v is the natural cross stream velocity inside the boundary layer and vs is the injection velocity.6866 0. But the concept of ablative cooling used in the re-entry vehicles such as space shuttle is different as it involves heat y β = 2m/(m+1) x U β=0 U(x) U U β=1 -1 < β < 0 Figure 3. It is also important to note that the injected ﬂuid.0 5. In case of blowing. When there is strong suction. m= β (see Fig. The negative Γ implies suction while its positive value means blowing.0 1.236 1.440 0.043 1. This ratio is also related to the parameter Γ which is deﬁned as vs 1/2 Γ= Re U x 2 m+1 1/2 .5: The possible orientations of a ﬂat plate. If not.6 1. This technology is widely used in gas turbines.. 3.4696 0.

592Γ .4ReD 1/4 + 2/3 0. N u.6: Variation of F = N u/ Rex with blowing parameter Γ in laminar ﬂows over a ﬂat plate (m = 0) and in a two–dimensional stagnation point ﬂow (m = 1) when the surface temperature is kept constant.4406Γ . LAMINAR FLOWS 31 4 F F = 0. −Γ: suction. with T = Ts on the surface at radius r = R and T = T∞ as r → ∞. One needs to do a full numerical simulation or comprehensive experiments to obtain the heat transfer rate. In the above correlation. ⇒ N uD = = 2. as N uD = hD = C Rem P r1/3 .3. R r R 3 . The ﬂuid has a Prandtl number of 0. the behavior of the boundary layer depends strongly on the Reynolds number and very often separtation and transition of boundary layers occur.2 for few typical cases. Tf = 0. The values of C and m are different for different geometries and also depend on the Reynolds number. D κf (3. 7. These values are given in Table 3. Many practical devices involving heat transfer include geometries which can not be simpliﬁed as ﬂat plate.293 . In these situations. for m = 1 3 2 F = 0.7. hot gas ﬂow over long tubes in recuperators and re-heaters in industrial boilers and heat exchanger. for m = 0 1 0 -6 -4 -2 Γ 0 -1 2 √ Figure 3.1.5(Ts + T∞ ) dT 4 1 d κf r 2 = 0.30) where D is a characteristic length. +Γ: blowing and mass transfers with chemical reactions inside the boundary layers. (3.4 µ µs . the ﬂuid properties are strictly to be evaluated at ﬁlm temperature3 . The average Nusselt number for the case of ﬂow over a sphere is given by N uD = 2 + 1/2 0. The analysis of this problem is beyond the level of this module. These behaviors play prominent role and the method of boundary layer analysis is inapplicable.496 .0.31) Note that when there is no ﬂow the average Nusselt number is 2 which corresponds to heat transfer by conduction from a spherical surface to quiescent inﬁnite medium surrounding the surface4 . 2 dr r dr 1 1 D solving this system one gets (T (r) − Ts ) = (T∞ − Ts )R − .0. For example. The results of these studies can be summarised in terms of average Nusselt number.06ReD Pr 0.

obtain the integral form of the energy equation.16) 0 .2: Constants in Eq.∞ T∞ v dx = across DF : across CE : qs = wall heat ﬂux = −κf ˙ = −ρ∞ cp.30) for various geometries Geometry U D ReD 4x104 – 4x105 C 0. same as Eq.782 8.0385 0.∞ T∞ dx ∂T ∂y 0 ∞ ∂u dy ∂x 0 net rate of energy ﬂowing in =⇒ d dx d dx ∞ 0 ∞ 0 net rate of energy ﬂowing out ∂T ∂y ∂T ∂y u(T − T∞ ) dy = −α u (1−Θ) dy = −α U∞ 0 =⇒ U∞ (T∞ −Ts ) .805 D 5x103 – 105 0.16). Problem 3.675 D 5x103 – 105 0.153 0.588 D 103 – 104 0. for example references 1–5 listed at the end. (3.0 : Considering the energy balance in control volume CDEF in Fig. 3. interaction of wakes.246 0. The average heat transfer coefﬁcient for these situations is determined largely by experimentally obtained empirical correlations for speciﬁc arrangement of the tubes. FORCED CONVECTION Table 3.102 0. Eq.32 CHAPTER 3. In this case.1. (3.638 4 5 D 10 – 10 0.731 D 103 – 105 0. the ﬂow is complicated involving separation.027 m 0. ˙ ρ∞ cp. These correlations are available in heat transfer text and data books. There are a number of industrial applications in which ﬂow over banks of tubes are relevant. (3. Solution ∞ Rate of energy ﬂowing across CD : 0 ∞ ∞ ρ u cp T dy ρ u cp T dy 0 across EF : 0 ρ u cp T dy + d qs dx. etc.228 0.

ReL = U∞ L = 1.1.25 ˙ =⇒ Q = 0.7 ν= 1. 1/2       .31 W.1 : 33 1. N u from Eq. ˙ Q = hA(Ts − T∞ ) = h(L × W )(Ts − T∞ ) and W = 1.84E-05 m2/s κf = 0. 2 m Pr = 0.3.2 m To ﬁnd h.028 W/m-K Electronic components are mounted at the bottom side U = 2 m/s T = 300 K Determine the rate of heat dissipation from the plate shown in the ﬁgure above. 3. we need to know if the ﬂow is turbulent or laminar.664 ReL P r1/3 × κf × W × (Ts − T∞ ) = 358. Solution heat dissipation rate = heat transfer rate. Using the properties given above.3 × 105 ν h = Nu κf . LAMINAR FLOWS Problem 3. L (< 5 × 105 ) =⇒ laminar ﬂow. 2 m Ts = 350 K 1.

x 1/2 N ux = 0.417 (evaluated numerically) Note: about 30% reduction in the heat loss compared to the arrangement in (i). N uL = 2N uL = 0.71 Given: Ts = 15◦ C.38 × 10−6 1/2 =⇒ laminar ﬂow.39E05 ν 14.331 P r1/3 Rex 1 − 3 . A wind at 2 m/s ﬂows parallel to the collector plate. 0.38×10−6 m2 s−1 .664ReL P r1/3 = 220. κf = 24. . FORCED CONVECTION Problem 3.08 W L (ii) Flat plate with unheated starting length 2 m/s. 10◦ C 15◦ C 2m 1m Pr = W To get h = N uL κf /L.2 × 105 < 5 × 105 . ii) If the plate is mounted ﬂush with a roof surface at 2m from the leading edge of the roof then what is the heat loss? Solution : Air properties at 10◦ C: ν = 14.91 W ˙ =⇒ Q = 27. W = 2 m ˙ (i) Convective heat loss Q = h A (Ts − T∞ ) 2 m/s.34 CHAPTER 3. T∞ = 10◦ C and U∞ = 2m/s. Re = U∞ L 2×1 = = 1. 10◦ C 15◦ C 2m 0 2m xo 1m 2m Rex=3 = 4.85 κf ˙ Q= N uL A (Ts − T∞ ) = 55.94×10−3 Wm−1 K−1 . one needs to know if the ﬂow is laminar or turbulent. while the ambient air is at 10◦ C. ˙ Q= 0 L L =⇒ laminar ﬂow 3 q dA ˙ = 0 hx (Ts −T∞ ) W dx xo x 2 x = κf W (Ts −T∞ ) 2 3/4 −1/3 N ux dx. with xo = 2 = 38.46 2 x −1/2 3/4 −1/3 1− 1. i) Determine the convective heat loss from the plate.2 : Cover plate of a ﬂat-plate solar collector of 1m length and 2m width is at 15◦ C.

=⇒ u(r) = r2 4µ dp dx + C1 .3. where the merging distance x∗ measured from the entrance depends on the Reynolds number. and the diameter. D. Momentun transfer In fully developed region (x > x∗ ). Thermal situation is shown for P r < 1. where Ac is the cross P sectional area of the tube and P is the wetted perimeter. The ﬂow is laminar if the Reynolds number based on the bulk mean velocity (deﬁned below). Fully developed velocity the nondimensional temperature proﬁles are also shown.7.1.7(b) πr2 dp − 2πr dx τ = 0 and using Newton’s expression for τ .1. ie ∂u/dx = 0. This condition gives the radial velocity v = 0 from the continuity equation . equation. For tube with circular cross section.2 Internal ﬂows The growth of the boundary layer is physically contrained in internal ﬂows leading to shrinking of inviscid (potential) ﬂow region and merging of boundary layers unlike in external ﬂows. 3. the viscous force balances the pressure force in the momentum (a) thermal entrance region δt δ fully developed region u/2Ub (b) τ 2πrdx (p + dp)πr2 r Θ(r) p πr2 hydrodynamic entrance region fully developed dx Figure 3. the 4Ac appropriate diameter is the hydraulic diameter.5 Thus. This is shown in Fig.7: (a) Hydrodynamic and thermal boundary layers in laminar tube ﬂow. of the tube is less than 2000. diameter is the geometric diameter of the tube. LAMINAR FLOWS 35 3. The condition of no–slip velocity at the wall yields u(r) = 5 1 4µ dp dx r 2 − R2 . For non–circular cross section. x. 3. one gets du = r 2µ dp dx dr. From Fig. the viscous effects extend over the entire cross section of the tube and the velocity proﬁle will not change with the distance. Dh = . Ub . (b) control volume for analysis of momentum transfer.

Thus. if one deﬁnes a dimensionless temperature increment Θ(r.35) is used as a reference temperature since there is no free stream temperature. However.36) Since the ﬂuid is gaining heat Tb varies in the ﬂow direction x. which implies that dTb /dx and ∂T /∂x can never be zero. with typical variation shown in Fig. The ﬂows exhibiting this behaviour are called thermally fully developed ﬂows and have Θ(r. 0 (3.33) Deﬁning the Darcy friction factor (see Fig. a condition similar to that of ∂u/∂x = 0 can not be used to deﬁne thermally fully developed ﬂow. 3. The above ﬂow is called Hagen–Poiseuille ﬂow. (3. m (kg s−1 ) is usually known and thus the bulk mean ˙ velocity is also known. which means that the normalised temperature increment does not change with the distance along the pipe.34) m cp Tb = 2πρcp ˙ 0 r u T dr (3.7. ˙ where Tb is the bulk mean temperature of the ﬂuid which is deﬁned via R 64 ReD =⇒ Cf = f . 4 (3. 3. Cf .37) then it is known that ∂Θ/∂x = 0 exists. x) = Θ(r). x) = (T − Ts ) (Tb − Ts ) (3. the mass ﬂow rate. . FORCED CONVECTION m = 2πρ ˙ 0 ru(r) dr.15) as f= Heat transfer If the surface temperature of the pipe is Ts then the local heat ﬂux is qs = h(Ts − Tb ).36 Now the mass ﬂow rate is R CHAPTER 3.32) In practice. ⇒ the bulk mean velocity Ub = m ˙ R2 =− ρAc 8µ dp dx 2 =⇒ u(r) r =2 1− Ub R . The skin friction coefﬁcient for the pipe ﬂow. For tubes with circular cross–section ⇒ Tb = 2 Ub R 2 R r u T dr. is Cf = 2τs 16 = 2 ρUb ReD since τs = µ du dr = r=R 8µUb D (3. which is also known as Fanning friction coefﬁcient.

36 for pipes with circular cross section. By extending the control volume shown in Fig. based on the diameter of the tube D is constant and it is equal to 4.39) =⇒ Tb (x) = Tb (xo ) + qs (x − xo ) ˙ (3.8.8: Control volume for heat transfer analysis. Tb . if boundary conditions are speciﬁed. net energy convected out −ρcp 2πr dr d(uT ) = = net energy conducted in = r ∂T ∂r . let us consider the energy balance in the control volume in Fig. LAMINAR FLOWS 37 Figure 3.3.1). R.41) . 3. N uD = hD/κf . The energy balance as in the previous case gives dTb = dx πκf mcp ˙ N uD (Ts − Tb ) (3. −d κf ∂T 2πr dx ∂r (3. Two practically meaningful conditions are (i) constant surface heat ﬂux (qs = const) and (ii) constant surface temperature (Ts = const).1. r). 3. For heat transfer analysis of fully developed ﬂows. The important conclusion is that the Nusselt number. ˙ (i) Constant Surface Heat Flux: This case is analysed in Problem 3.38) d(qr 2πr dx) ˙ ∂T ∂ =α ∂x ∂r =⇒ u By solving this equation one can ﬁnd T (x. the energy balance in terms of the bulk mean temperature.8 to. gives dTb = dx 2πR mcp ˙ qs ˙ 2πR mcp ˙ (3.40) (ii) Constant Surface Temperature: For this case also N uD is constant (see Problem 2. the tube wall.3.

Ts . which can be used to obtain the heat transfer rate after calculating Tb . Table 3. is constant.3: N u and f for fully developed laminar tube ﬂows Concept of log mean temperature difference (LMTD) Let us consider a laminar ﬂow inside a tube of length L at a mass ﬂow rate of m ˙ −1 (kg s ).38 (a) T Ts q ˙ h CHAPTER 3.3. The values of N uD for various cross sections are given in Table 3. πκf N uD (x − xo ) mcp ˙ =⇒ Ts − Tb (x) = [Ts − Tb (xo )] exp − (3. A ﬂuid enters the .9: The variation of Tb and Ts along the pipe length for (a) qs = const ˙ and (b) Ts = const cases. The surface temperature of the tube.42) The above analysis can also be applied for non-circular tubes but D should be replaced by the hydraulic diameter Dh . This N u gives h. FORCED CONVECTION (b) Ts T Tb Tb x x Figure 3.

i and leaves the tube at Tb. For simplicity purpose. ˙ ˙ where c is the speciﬁc heat capacity of the ﬂuid ( = cp for gases) and ∆T = (Ts − ˙ Tb ). (3. one is hot and ﬂowing through the tube and the second one is cold and is ﬂowing outside the tube. hh and hc . The equivalent resistance circuit is shown in the ﬁgure below with temperatures and the direction of the heat ﬂow.3. The other heat transfer coefﬁcients.42) Thus LM T D = h As = −m c ln ˙ ∆To − ∆Ti . The heat is transferred from the hot to the cold ﬂuid and the conductive resistance in the tube wall is negligible. m c(∆Ti − ∆To ) = h As (LM T D).o . which is usually used to calculate the required tube length to achieve the speciﬁed exit temperature for a given inlet temperature. Thus.1.43) which is known as Log mean temperature difference and often referred to as LMTD ˙ in the analysis of heat exchanger. ˙ Q Th hot side Ts cold side Tc . ˙ but from Eq. ln (∆To /∆Ti ) ∆To ∆Ti . This Q must have been supplied by the tube wall. ˙ Q where U is the overall heat transfer coefﬁcient (W m−2 K−1 ). are calculated using the appropriate N u expression.o − Tb. The heat transfer rate can be obtained as Q = hAs (LM T D). Now the heat gained by the ﬂuid over the length L is ˙ Q = m c(Tb. LAMINAR FLOWS 39 tube with a bulk mean temperature of Tb. (3.i ) = m c(∆Ti − ∆To ). let us consider two ﬂuids. The heat transfer rate is ˙ Q = hh Ah (Th − Ts ) = hc Ac (Ts − Tc ) = U A(Th − Tc ) =⇒ (U A)−1 = Th − Tc = (hh Ah )−1 + (hc Ac )−1 . Heat exchangers usually involve two or more ﬂuids (see page 9).

κf ρUb cp R 2 dTb dx Note: The Nusselt number in fully developed internal laminar ﬂows is constant. (3. A simillar result can be obtained for Ts = const case also. Eq. Tb −Ts = 2 Ub R 2 R uT r dr−Ts 0 = − 11 96 2Ub α dTb 2 R dx note : dTs dTb = dx dx =⇒ qs = h ˙ 11 96 2Ub α dTb 2 R dx But from the control volume analysis. qs . .5. becomes fully developed laminar ﬂow =⇒ u dTs 1 ∂ = α dx r ∂r r ∂T ∂r with ∂T ∂r (since Ts −Tb = qs ˙ = const) h = 0. This does not apply to turbulent ﬂows. (3.38). But it requires advanced maths.36.1 in section 2. ∂x dTs ∂Θ ∂T dTs dTs dTb = = 0 in Eq.37) gives = −Θ − ∂x ∂x dx dx dx dx the energy equation.) Solution u r 2 =2 1− .3 : Determine the Nusselt number for laminar ﬂow. see Eq. in a circular tube when its wall has uniform heat ﬂux.40). ˙ (Recall Example 2.40 CHAPTER 3. FORCED CONVECTION Problem 3. (Eq.32) Ub R ∂Θ thermally fully developed ﬂow: h is constant. and T (r = R) = Ts r=0 =⇒ ∂T 1 dTs = ∂r rα dx ru dr = 2Ub dTs r r3 − α dx 2 4R2 =⇒ T (r) = Ts − r4 2Ub dTs 3R2 r2 − + α dx 16 4 16R2 From the deﬁnition of the bulk mean temperature Tb . = 0. (3.(3. which is hydrodynamically and thermally fully developed.: qs = ˙ Equating the above two expressions =⇒ N uD = hD = 4.

10). If one considers the control volume analysis as for the laminar cases. TURBULENT FLOWS 41 3. non-zero in the mean and they can be very large in high Re ﬂows. the disturbance grows and multiply and the lamella structure in the laminar ﬂow is lost leading to turbulent ﬂow. v = 0.4: Critical Reynolds number for transition to turbulent ﬂow External ﬂows Rex ∼ 106 Internal ﬂows ReD ∼ 2000 Free jet (round) ReD ∼ 30 Film condensation on a vertical wall Rex ∼ 450 The turbulent ﬂows are observed to have mean and ﬂuctuations in velocity and other quantities (see Fig. Formally these quantities can be shown (after some algebra)6 to be 6 for energy conservation in Eq. If a small disturbance is introduced into a ﬂow then the viscous force will dampen the disturbance while the inertial forces will amplify them via non–linear interaction. the ratio of inertial to viscous forces determines whether the disturbance grows or dies. One can naturally think of a critical Reynolds number. Rec .4. These ﬂuxes are called Reynolds stress and Reynolds ﬂux respectively for momentum and energy transport. These additional ﬂuxes are T signal T u U t Figure 3. beyond which the turbulent behavior is predominant. where the overbar indicates the mean values and u and T denote the ﬂuctuations in the velocity and temperature respectively. the instantaneous values can be written as u = U +u .2. Thus. pressure and inertial forces.10: Typical traces of velocity and temperature signals in a low Re turbulent ﬂow. The Reynolds number is the ratio of these two forces and thus if the Reynolds number is large.3. 3. Table 3. (3. u 2 = 0.⇒ + = α 2 − ∂x ∂y ∂y ∂x ∂y ∂y . these ﬂuctuations will give rise to additional transport of momentum and energy across the control volume.3): ∂uT ∂vT ∂2T ∂uT ∂vT ∂2T + = α 2. Thus. and u T = 0. T = T +T .2 Turbulent Flows The force balance for a moving ﬂuid parcel includes viscous. with u = 0. The value of Rec depends on the type of ﬂow and its typical values are given in Table 3.

42

CHAPTER 3. FORCED CONVECTION

−ρu v and −ρu T (note that ρ = const for our analysis). These two quantities do not dependent on ﬂuid but they srongly depend on the ﬂow and they are to be modelled using turbulence modelling. Let us consider a simple algebraic model called eddy viscosity or eddy diffusivity model. This model assumes that these quantities are proportional to the gradients in the respective mean quantities in a manner analogous to molecular transport (Newton’s law for shear stress or Fourier law for heat conduction) as −u v = νt ∂U ∂y and − v T = αt ∂T νt ∂T = , ∂y P rt ∂y (3.44)

where the constants of proportionality, νt and αt , are turbulent diffusivities which depends on the ﬂow and are to be modelled. Now, the total shear stress and the conductive heat ﬂux will be the sum of molecular and turbulent parts: τ = ρ(ν + νt ) ∂U ∂y and − q = ρc(α + αt ) ˙ ∂T . ∂y (3.45)

To obtain a simple model for turbulence viscosity νt , let us consider two points separated by some distance l along y inside the boundary and let us denote the mid point as yo . Now expanding the velocity U about yo using Taylor’s series, U yo + l 2 = U (yo ) + l ∂U , 2 ∂y and U yo − l 2 = U (yo ) − l ∂U 2 ∂y

It is postulated (called Prandtl’s mixing length postulate) that u and −v are of the order of ∆U between the two points considered. Thus, ∂U u ≈l , ∂y ⇒ −u v = l
2

∂U ∂y

2

= νt

∂U ∂y

=⇒ νt = l2 |

∂U ∂y|,

where l is the mixing length given by l = K y, with K ≈ 0.4 known as Von Karman constant.

3.2.1 External ﬂows
If one uses the above model for νt and conducts the analysis given in Appendix 3.1 then the complex structure of the turbulent boundary layer becomes apparent. This structure is shown in Fig. 3.11. The molecular viscosity plays an important role in the viscous sublayer while the turbulent viscosity plays a predominant role in the outer layer. Between these two layers, the effects of both the molecular and the turbulent viscosity play important role. In an analogous manner, one can expect similar structure in thermal boundary layer also, as noted in Appendix 3.1. For heat transfer calculation, recalling the Reynolds–Colburn analogy, Eq. (3.26), Cf,x , 2 one needs to know the skin friction coefﬁcient. This can be obtained by considering the momemtum transfer. Stx P r2/3 =
∂u T ∂v T − ∂x ∂y

3.2. TURBULENT FLOWS
U∞

43

outer layer U inner layer

turbulent layer (ν buffer layer (ν ≈ νt ) viscous sub-layer (ν

νt )

νt )

Figure 3.11: Structure of turbulent boundary layer over a ﬂat plate. Momentum transfer A number of experimental studies suggest that U over the entire boundary layer and the local skin friction coefﬁcient can be approximated as U = 8.75 τw ρ
4/7

y ν

1/7

and

Cf,x τw = = 0.0225 2 2 ρU∞

U∞ δ ν

−1/4

,

(3.46)

where δ is the turbulent boundary layer thickness. To calculate this thickness, one needs to consider the integral momentum balance as we did for laminar ﬂow. This is given as problem 5 in example sheet 3. The boundary layer thickness δ is δ Cf,x −1/5 = 0.3707Rex =⇒ = 0.0288Re−1/5 . x x 2 (3.47)

One should be aware that a number of correlations, based on experimental measurements, are available for higher Reynolds number ﬂows. Details of these correlations can be found in appropriate data books and reference listed in this notes. Heat transfer The heat transfer coefﬁcient can now be obtained using the Reynolds–Colburn analogy and Eq. (3.47) as Stx P r2/3 = =⇒ N ux = Cf,x 2 = 0.0288 Re−1/5 x since Stx = N ux , Rex P r
L

hx 4/5 = 0.0288 Rex P r1/3 , κf

(3.48)

The average Nusselt number is N uo−L hL 4/5 = = 0.038 ReL P r1/3 , κf 1 where h = L h dx.
0

(3.49)

h comes from Eq. (3.48). Some points and extensions to note from the above results are:

44

CHAPTER 3. FORCED CONVECTION
1. Although N ux given above is obtained for an isothermal plate, it can also be used for constant heat ﬂux from the plate. The error is typically within 4%. 2. When there is suction or blowing at velocity vs , through the plate as shown in Fig. 3.12, there will be advection of momentum and heat in the direction perpendicular to the plate inside the boundary layer. This should be taken into account in the analysis, which is complicated. But the ﬁnal results for the skin friction coefﬁcient and the Stanton number are given as Cf,x ln(1 + Γt ) = , (Cf,x )o Γt and Stx ln(1 + Bt ) = (Stx )o Bt Cf,x (Cf,x )o
1/2

,

where the subscript o refers to the case with no blowing or suction. The parameters Γt and Bt are deﬁned as Γt = vs Cf,x , U∞ 2 and Bt = vs . U∞ Stx

Thus, the expressions for Cf,x and Stx are implicit. The positive value for Γt and Bt means blowing while their negative values mean suction.
U∞

U

vs

Figure 3.12:

3. As we noted in the laminar ﬂow case, a plate with unheated starting length provides basic building block for constructing solutions for non–isothermal surfaces. The solution process is complex and laborious but the ﬁnal result is simply
Ts T∞

x

xo

Stx P r2/3 =

Cf,x 2

1−

xo x

9/10 −1/9

,

(3.50)

where (Cf,x /2) is given by Eq. (3.47). 4. The wall surface roughness disturbs the laminar sublayer when the roughness size is comparable to the viscous sublayer thickness. Thus the momentum

For heat transfer over a rough surface. the initial laminar boundary layer will develop into turbulent one. xc (3. the wall is considered to be fully rough. (3. hlam . the characteristics of smooth surface persists and the wall is transitionally rough. considering the plate to be isothermal. the wall is considered to be aerodynamically smooth • for Re∗ > 70.51) The heat transfer coefﬁcient for the laminar part. 5. If one takes the critical Reynolds number as 5 × 105 then xc = 5 × 105 ν/U∞ .30). The analysis in the transition region is complicated and for our purpose we consider the change from laminar to turbulent boundary layer is abrupt. for rough surfaces. This situation is shown schematically in Fig. The average heat transfer rate over the entire length of the plate is ˙ Qs = hAs (Ts − T∞ ) with h= 1 L xc hlam dx + o 1 L L htur dx.44 ρ c p uτ based on experiments. Note that Stk is deﬁned based on uτ to imply its signiﬁcance near the wall.3.x becomes independent of Re when the surkuτ face is fully rough. Mixed boundary layers In practice. • for Re∗ < 5.038 ReL − Re4/5 xc κf .48) is to be used for the turbulent part. Equation (3.2.664Rexc + 0. The Stanton number for a rough plate is Stk = hk ≈ 0. This also implies that the analogy between the momentum and heat transfer becomes questionable. the average Nusselt number is Nu = hL 4/5 1/2 = P r1/3 0. Usually.2 P r−0.since the length of the transition region is small compared to the total length of the plate and thus the error introduced by this approximation can be small. For example.52) . is obtained using Eq. TURBULENT FLOWS 45 transfer does not occur via the rubbing mechanism but it occurs via the pressure drag mechanism .impact or the dynamic pressure acting on the upstream side of roughness elements. This is justiﬁable to some extent. 3. in strict sense. (3. (3. htur . (3. are already discussed in laminar ﬂow section and the appropriate Nusselt number to be used is given by Eq. Deﬁning a roughness Reynolds number as Re∗ ≡ . it is unlikely that the entire boundary layer will remain laminar throughout or be turbulent from the begining.13.8 Re∗ −0. This also implies that the molecular viscosity does not play a role and thus Cf. Geometries other than ﬂat plate case.28) for constant surface heat ﬂux case. and • in range of Re∗ between the above two limits. ν where k is the surface roughness height. molecular conduction remains significant and there is no impact mechanism for heat transfer.24) for constant surface temperature case or Eq.

027 from Table 3.4 : Assume that a person can be approximated as a cylinder of 0.2 for the case of ﬂow over a long cylinder.71 kW.8m height with a surface temperature of 24◦ C. (3.805 and C = 0.04 × 10−6 m2 /s κf = 23.3m diameter and 1.3m Ts = 24◦ C at T∞ = −5◦ C = 268 K U∞ = 15 m/s T∞ = −5◦ C ν = 13.13: A case of mixed boundary layers. N uD = hD = C Rem P r1/3 from Eq.74 × 10−3 W/m-K P r = 0. Determine the heat loss from the body when this person is walking in a wind of 15 m/s at −5◦ C. . (see problem 6 in example sheet 3 for heat transfer in mixed boundary layer ﬂows) Problem 3. FORCED CONVECTION Turbulent Laminar 0 x xc L Figure 3. As = πD L. ˙ =⇒ Q = 2.8 m ˙ Q = hAs (Ts −T∞ ).30) D κf For ReD = 3.725 neglect walking speed compared to wind speed L = 1. Solution: D = 0.46 CHAPTER 3.45 × 105 . m = 0.

Ac = = 5.774 kg/m3 . P r = 0. From theory of ﬁns: T − T∞ cosh m(L − x) + (h/mk) sinh m(L − x) = .4) • the well is like a ﬁn of uniform cross sectional area and conduction is only along its length (x) • the tip temperature.73m−1 . Table A.01 ReDo = = 926. [2]. Neglecting radiation. But the average heat transfer coefﬁcient must be known for this. ρ = 0.0314m.average heat transfer coefﬁcient obtained from N u = C Rem P r1/3 for ﬂow D over a cylinder. =⇒ Note: Thus assuming T∞ = 450◦ C for ﬂuid property selection is acceptable. where m = T2 − T∞ cosh mL + (h/mk) sinh mL for x = L.9◦ C. (The selection and the use of experimental correlation is also remarked above and in problem 3. If the difference between the calculated and assumed T∞ is large then an iterative process is to be followed to determine the air temperature.2 3.239 × 10−5 h = 54. κf = 3.15m Air at T . m = 0.2. (from Ref. Di = 5mm Do = 10mm k = 35 W/m-k L = 0.239 × 10−5 m2 /s. T1 . T1 = 450 K T2 = 375 K Steel.89×10−5 m2 4 From Eq. (i) T∞ = 451. Table 6. and the base temperature.6.2. TURBULENT FLOWS 47 Problem 3.73 × 10−2 W/m-K.466 from ref. hP k Ac 1/2 T1 − T∞ −1 (i) = cosh mL + (h/mk) sinh mL T2 − T∞ h . [1]. =⇒ C = 0. determine the air temperature. T2 are known ⇒ T∞ can be obtained from the ﬁn theory.5 : Consider the arrangements shown in the ﬁgure below.)       =⇒ m = 28. 3 × 0. T∞ .20W/m2 K 2 2 π(Do − Di ) P = πDo = 0.3.4.683. U = 3 m/s Solution: Assume T∞ = 450 K to get air properties: ν = 3.

We will consider the fully developed region D for our analysis. 2 Note that the subscript x for the Stanton number and the skin friction coefﬁcient has been dropped since they do not depend on the location along the pipe length in fully developed ﬂows.5. The skin friction coefﬁcient can be obtained by considering the force balance.54) Cf τw r x y R τ Ub (r) Figure 3. Its typical size is x∗ /D ≈ 0. dr The bulk mean velocity Ub is 2 Ub = 2 R =⇒ Ub+ = Ub τw /ρ = R U r dr.5 ln y + + 5. the shear force includes contributions from the laminar and the Reynolds stress components.2.2 Internal ﬂows Smooth pipe Internal ﬂows become turbulent when ReD = Ub D/ν > 2000.1. For heat transfer part.74 ln(ReD Cf ) − 0. where the pressure force balances the shear force at the wall in a mean sense (refer the force balance done in section 3.25 . τw R (3. dU Since = 0 at r = 0.7. see Fig.623 Re0. 3. 0 R+ 0 2 2 = +2 Cf R U + (R+ − y + ) dy + . Recalling the analysis in section 3. D is the diameter of the tube and ν is the kinematic viscosity of the ﬂuid. the mean force balance is r dP dU = (µ + µt ) 2 dx dr = τ. the shear stress τ varies linearly with r as in Fig. where Ub is the bulk mean velocity velocity.53) where τw and R are the shear stress at the wall and the tube radius respectively. 3.2). Using the logrithamic variation U + = 2. As in laminar cases. FORCED CONVECTION 3.2 and carefully noting the contributions to the shear stress τ . In turbulent ﬂow.1. which states that Cf St P r2/3 = .(see Appendix 3.14. =⇒ τ r = .39.1) the skin friction coefﬁcient is 1 = 1.14: Distribution of shear stress and the bulk mean velocity in a turbulent pipe ﬂow. one can invoke the Reynolds–Colburn analogy. there is an initial distance for the development of the boundary layer and this region is called entry region. .48 CHAPTER 3. (3.

3.4 for heating.58) There are many such correlations available in the heat transfer literature.2.56) 1 = −1.023ReD P rn . The commonly used correlation for pipe ﬂows is the Dittus–Boelter correlation: N u ≈ 0.15 to assist us in heat transfer analysis. ks /D 1. TURBULENT FLOWS 49 This relationship is called Karman–Nikuradse relation and it is valid for ReD < 1 × 106 . One such correlation is Cf = 0. This compilation is called Moody’s chart and is given in Fig. This chart can be used for ﬂows in ducts of other cross section by using hydraulic diameter Dh instead of D.707 ReD Cf .6].74 ln Cf which is known as Colebrook equation. if one uses Eq. By using any of the above relation for Cf . n = 0. the skin friction coefﬁcient is Cf = [1. for example in [5. By combining Eqs.3 for cooling the ﬂuid (3. (3.55) for Cf then N u ≈ 0.023ReD P r1/3 4/5 4Cf for 2 × 104 ≤ ReD ≤ 106 (3.74 ln (D/ks ) + 2. the Nusselt number can be obtained via Reynolds–Colburn analogy.57) (3.56) Figure 3. 4/5 n = 0. 3.(3.254 + 3.046 ReD −1/5 for 2 × 104 ≤ ReD ≤ 106 (3. The variation of Cf with ReD and surface roughness was measured by Nikuradse in 1930s and his results were compiled into an elegant form by Moody in 1944.59) .55) For a fully rough pipe. Because of the implicit nature of this equation many simple correlations have been suggested in the past.15: Friction factor f = 4Cf for duct ﬂow.54) and (3. (3. For example.28]−2 .

215 . given by Eq. Thus.60) where N uo is the Nusselt number for a smooth pipe. Inﬂuence of surface roughness The presence of wall roughness increases Cf (see Fig. a mathematical transformation is used to render the boundary layer equations into a form which is the same as for constant property case.24) is written as Nu = 0. one should be aware that the concept of hydraulic diameter is not very accurate when there are sharp corners as in the triangular ducts. Experiments suggests that N u for a rough pipe is Nu = N uo Cf Cfo n . The Howarth-Dorodnitzyn transformation. 3. the temperature dependence of ﬂuid properties may be strong and thus one needs to account for this appropriately. Some experimental correlations are reported in this form. for example. Three methods are normally employed for this purpose: (i) In the ﬁrst method. (3. experimental studies showed that N u does not increases further with roughCf ness when > 4. It is also noted that the experimental correlations account for property variation with temperature. 3. Also this approximation is found to be sufﬁciently accurate when the temperature difference is moderate.61) where the subscript ∞ refers that the ﬂuid properties are taken at T∞ .3 Non-constant Fluid Properties The ﬂuid properties are taken to be constant in the analysis discussed so far. 7 . the size of the roughness element should be within viscous sub-layer to gain beneﬁt on heat transfer augmentation. FORCED CONVECTION The above expressions can be used for ﬂows in ducts of other cross section by simply replacing D by hydraulic diameter. The above result suggests that the heat transfer rate can be enhanced by artiﬁcially roughening the surface.50 CHAPTER 3. one needs to pay sufﬁcient attention in introducing the Cfo artiﬁcial roughness otherwise the pumping power requirement will increase because of the increase in Cf for marginal or no gain in the heat transfer rate. Dh . However. This is because of the presence of complicated secondary ﬂows. full numerical solution or comprehensive experimental measurements are required. For such situation. For certain ﬂuids. (3.7 This method is used only in theoretical analysis.332Re1/2 x∞ 1/3 P r∞ Pr P r∞ 1/3 ν∞ ν 1/2 . (ii) The second method is called property ratio method where N u variation. (3. However.68P r0. is an example for this. with n = 0. Typically.15) and thus N u is expected to increase. discovered by an English (Cambridge University Professor) and a Russian scientist in around 1940.

NON-CONSTANT FLUID PROPERTIES 51 (iii) The third method. Solution: 300 + 350 = 325 K 2 0.2 = 1. By comparing the new results with the previous results calculate the error involved in assuming constant ﬂuid properties (our approximation 2 in section 1. which is deﬁned as (T∞ + Ts )/2. most of the experimental correlations available will normally note the temperature to be used for ﬂuid properties evaluation. is based on the concept of ﬁlm temperature.84 × 10−5 1/2 ˙ Q = hA(Ts − T∞ ) = 0.3 × 105 < 5 × 105 ⇒ ﬂow is laminar 1. However. Problem 3. which is most commonly used.this approximation is very good if the temperature variation is moderate in the ﬂow).1 with ﬂuid properties evaluated at ﬁlm temperature.664 ReL P r1/3 κf W (Ts − T∞ ) Taking ln and differentiating ˙ ∆Q 1 ∆Re 1 ∆P r ∆κf = + + ˙ 2 Re 3 Pr κf Q −0.6 : Rework the problems 3.1 .704 Tf = ReL = ⇒ ν = 1. The ﬂuid properties required for N u are obtained at Tf .0695 −0.0646 =⇒ ˙ ∆Q = −1.0141 0. κf = 2 × 1. Tf .3.84 × 10−5 m2 /s.9% ˙ Q .028 W/m − K. P r = 0.3.

52 CHAPTER 3. FORCED CONVECTION .

The direct transfer type is the simplest of all types. (ii) indirect transfer. (iii) periodic ﬂow and (iv) compact heat exchanger types as shown in Fig. Since the speciﬁc heat transfer rate (h W/m2 − K) for a given temperature difference varies as the average velocity. 4. But ∆p = ρUb Cf /2 in the fully developed ﬂow. to the power 0. A common construction involves concentric tubes or shell–and–tube. most commonly used and also known as recuperators.8 (see Eq. industries. (3. Complex heat exchangers are very common in power plants (using fossil fuels or nuclear power). where V is the volume ﬂow rate (m3 s−1 ) and ∆p is the pressure 3 2 drop. one can see that a delicate balance is required for proper sizing and design of heat exchanger. 1 53 .1 Thus. In this chapter. the radiators (as it is commonly called) used for space heating are examples of simple heat exchangers. we shall conduct simple analysis of heat exchangers using the principles learnt in the previous chapters. etc. are compact in size and less expensive. But the pumping power requirement varies like the cube of the average velocity. chemical processing.58).. This type forms the building blocks for the analysis of indirect transfer type and compact heat exchangers. The heat absorbing medium absorbs the heat from the hot gases when the hot gases ﬂow through them and releases this heat to ˙ ˙ pumping power P = V∆p. The variations of these two arrangements are used in practice. The design of these devices is a complex process involving heat transfer. An example for this type of heat exchanger is the Ljungstrom air preheater used in coal power plants. However.Chapter 4 Heat exchanger Heat exchanger is a device which facilitates heat transfer from one ﬂuid stream to another. ⇒ P ∼ Ub . also called as regenerators. one may think that the heat transfer rate can be increased by increasing the average velocity. cost analyses and an optimization process. The radiators used in automobiles and in air–conditioners. reﬁning oil. These heat exchangers can be of (i) direct transfer. The liquid coupled indirect transfer type is mostly used in situation where the possible contamination of hot and cold ﬂuids should be totally avoided. The sizing of the heat exchangers are primarily determined by two factors.1. (i) the heat transfer rate per unit area and (ii) pumping power requirement. Ub . The liquid coupling results in some reduction of the overall size of the device. this additional liquid circuit will introduce further complexities and cost. for example as in nuclear reactors. food processing. The periodic ﬂow type heat exchangers. The heat exchangers are classiﬁed according to the ﬂow arrangement and its construction.

A is the area available for the heat transfer and ∆Tlm is the LMTD. Compact heat exchangers are special and important class involving one of the above types specially arranged and made (commonly involving ﬁns).1 Heat Exchanger Analysis The analysis of heat exchanger is commonly done via two methods: 1. which depends on the ﬂow arrangement in the . or 2.2. However.1. ε-NTU method 4. From the analysis in section 3. Thus. The analysis of this class of heat exchanger is speciﬁc to each cases and detailed discussions are presented in [5].1.1. where U is the overall heat transfer coefﬁcient. the ﬂow involved are usually laminar and the pressure drop across the heat exchanger unit becomes an important factor to consider. the heat transfer rate is ˙ Q = U A∆Tlm . 4. HEAT EXCHANGER Any of type (i) cold hot Co-flow cold hot Counter flow hot Cross flow cold cold hot cold Two-pass (i) Direct transfer type (iii) Periodic flow type Heat absorbing media hot (ii) Liquid coupled indirect transfer type cold hot Figure 4.1: Types of heat exchanger based on ﬂow arrangement.1. self cleaning of the heat exchanger is possible. the cold ﬂuid when the rotating matrix travels through the cold ﬂuid passage. Log-Mean Temperature Difference (LMTD) concept discussed in section 3.2. This class of heat exchangers provide heat transfer area in excess of 700 m2 per cubic meter and usually involves ﬂow passages with a hydraulic diameter of 5 mm or below. Since the ﬂow direction in the matrix is reversed periodically.1 LMTD method This methodology is already discussed in section 3. there will be some mixing of hot and cold ﬂuids because of the residues left in the matrix and also there will be leakage issues for high pressure situations.2. But requires a small modiﬁcation because of multiple streams present in the heat exchanger operation.54 CHAPTER 4.

h and Rf.i 1111111111111111111 0000000000000000000 1111111111111111111 0000000000000000000 mh .c = Rtot = + + Rcond + + . It is given by ηo = 1 − Af (1 − ηf )/A. HEAT EXCHANGER ANALYSIS (a) Tc.i mc . • Rw is the conduction resistance given by [ln(ro /ri )/(2πLκ)] for a circular tube of length L having outer and inner radii as ro and ri with thermal conductivity κ.o 55 Th.2b. (4.c are due to fouling. (b) equivalent resistance circuit. The resistance Rcond at the center is the conduction resistance in the tube wall which is usually negligible as thin walled tubes are commonly used in heat exchangers. The resistance marked as Rh and Rc are convective resistance on the hot and cold sides and are related to the respective heat transfer coefﬁcients.2a. then ηo = 1. U .2: (a) Control volume for heat transfer analysis. The ﬁrst and last resistance marked as Rf. cc ˙ cold dx Tc.0001 to 0.001 m2 − K/W. For a clean surface it is zero. If there are no ﬁns.h Rcond Rc Rf. with Af is the ﬁn area with efﬁciency ηf (see theory of ﬁns in heat conduction). an equivalent electrical resistance circuit is given in Fig.1. which occurs because of deposition of impurities (such as salts and minerals) in the ﬂuid on the heat transfer surface. The overall heat transfer coefﬁcient. These deposits increase the thermal resistance. 4. ch ˙ hot x (b) ˙ ∆Q Rh Rf.4.o L Tc Th Figure 4. For the co-ﬂow heat exchanger shown in Fig. can be obtained using the N u relations given in the previous chapters. • ηo is the overall surface efﬁciency or temperature effectiveness of a ﬁnned surface.c Th.1) . The total resistance in the above circuit yields 1/U A.h and Rf. UA (ηo A)h (ηo hA)h (ηo hA)c (ηo A)c where • Rf. which is given by 1 Rf.h 1 1 Rf. heat exchanger. Its typical value varies from 0. 4.c are the fouling factors which are usually tabulated in heat transfer data book.

˙ ˙ (4.i ) = mh ch (Th.i and Ch = ˙ Q .2 For a general case. which is P∆x with P as the wetted perimeter. Th. the balance of ˙ the total energy transfer.i ) LM T D for parallel ﬂow is .2a.56 CHAPTER 4.4) dx Ch Cc Integrating this equation over the full length of the heat exchanger taking U and the heat capacities to be constant along L. 2 . For the case shown in Fig.o − Tc.6).2) gives.6) LM T D is the log mean temperature difference and U is taken to be a constant in the above analysis. Then Eq. (4.i ∆Ti 1 1 + Ch Cc .o − Tc. the overall energy balance in Eq.5) and rearranging ˙ Q = U PL A ∆To − ∆Ti = U A LM T D. 4.o Using this in Eq.3 The condition Ch = Cc is called balanced ﬂow condition. Under the balanced ﬂow condition 2(Tc. Ch dTh = −U P(Th − Tc ). (4. Cc = ˙ Q . 3 U can vary along the length due to entrance effect and ﬂuid property variation with temperature. Let us consider the coﬂow (both hot and cold ﬂuids ﬂow in the same direction) situation shown in Fig.i − Tc. If the concern is only with the entrance effect then an average value of U .2a.o − Tc.i − Th. Using Eq. The energy balance across dx: Cc Ch (4.3). ∆To = ∆Ti and thus the variation ln(∆To /∆Ti ) of Th and Tc along the length of the heat exchanger will be linear. (4. 4. Tc. For counterﬂow case. The counterﬂow of hot and cold streams can also be considered but the ﬁnal result will exactly be the same.2) ˙ mc cc ∆Tc = − mh ch ∆Th = ∆Q = U ∆A(Th − Tc ). dx Cc dTc = U P(Th − Tc ) dx d(Th − Tc ) 1 1 = −U P(Th − Tc ) + . from the hot to cold stream is ˙ mc cc (Tc. Q. (4. deﬁned as 1 L U dx.3) should be integrated numerically. U= L 0 can be used in Eq.o ) = Q. (4.5) If Ch = Cc then it is called balanced ﬂow condition. HEAT EXCHANGER The LMTD = ∆Tlm is obtained via control volume analysis. (4.3) where ∆A is the differential area.o − Tc. ln(∆To /∆Ti ) LM T D (4. =⇒ Th.o ∆To = = exp −U PL Th.i − Th. (4. ˙ ˙ the subscripts i and o respectively denote inlet and outlet conditions.

the LMTD for counterﬂow case is larger than (a) Parallel Flow: Th. Because ∆To for counterﬂow arragement is larger than for the parallel ﬂow arrangement.o Th.1 if you are interested) but the ﬁnal results are given in graphs which can be found in text and data books on heat transfer. The hot and cold streams can be swapped or reversed.o Th.o T hot dq cold ∆Tlm = (∆Tout − ∆Tin ) ln(∆Tout ∆Tin ) x x Figure 4.i − Tc.o – Tc.i ∆Tin = Th. mc cc is denoted ˙ as Cc .i T Tc.3 along the with ∆T deﬁnitions.     cold ∆Tin = Th.4.i 0.o ∆Tlm.3: Variation of temperature along the length of the heat exchanger in (a) parallel and (b) counterﬂow arrangements.i – Tc.o Tc. Thus. 1 ( F Cc )↑ Ch Th. 4.o Th.o – Tc.5 0 Tc.1.i Tc.i ∆Tout = Th.i hot dq (b) Counter Flow: ∆Tout = Th.i 1 Figure 4.o − Tc. for the co-ﬂow.i Th.i Th.o Tc. where F is the correction factor because of complicated ﬂow conditions. 4.4: Typical variation of correction factor F for the ﬂow arrangement shown on the right.i – Tc. A typical graph is shown in Fig. The heat transfer rate in multi–pass and cross ﬂow heat exchanger (other than the double pipe arrangement) is obtained using ˙ Q = U A(F × LM T Dcf ) = U A∆Tlm .4.cf > ∆Tlm.o Tc. The calculation of F involves advanced analysis (see Appendix 4.pf     Tc.i . the size of heat exchanger with counterﬂow arrangement will be smaller for given operating conditions and so it is used as a basis for comparison and evaluation of heat exchanger performance. HEAT EXCHANGER ANALYSIS 57 The variation of temperature along the heat exchanger length is shown in Fig.

1 − Rc e−NTU(1−Rc ) and NTU = 1 ln Rc − 1 1−ε 1 − εRc . A similar analysis for counterﬂow arrangement gives ε= 1 − eNTU(1−Rc ) . ε–NTU method is preferred when the outlet temperatures are not speciﬁed. Cmin = mh ch for boiler. otherwise an iterative method needs to be employed to determine the heat transfer rate and the outlet temperatures.10) In the above analysis.2) Th.11) In heat exchanger calculation. one is usually set out to ﬁnd the required heat transfer area A (sizing of the heat exchanger). (4.8) and rearranging yields ε= 1 − e−NTU(1+Rc ) . ε.58 CHAPTER 4.o ) = = ˙ Cmin (Th.i Cmax with NTU = UA . ˙ Qmax = Cmin (Th.9) Using the above equation is equivalent to using the LMTD approach.2 ε–NTU method The LMTD method requires the inlet and outlet temperatures to be speciﬁed a priori. Ch ).o − Tc.i ) Ch (Th. it is implicitly assumed that there is no phase change of the ﬂuids. (4. (4.8) From the overall energy balance in Eq.i ) substituting this into Eq. the ﬂuid temperature remains essentially constant or the ﬂuid acts as if it has inﬁnite speciﬁc heat capcity. HEAT EXCHANGER 4. The overall heat transfer coefﬁcient is obtained from the correlations noted in the pervious chapter.o − Tc.o = Th.1.i ) Qmax Cmin = min(Cc . In boiling and condensation processes. and Rc = Cmin . The effectiveness will be a function of Cmin /Cmax and the Number of Transfer Units (NTU). The effectiveness of the heat exchanger. This can be obtained from NTU for a given condition (ε and Rc are known). Cmax (4.i − Tc.7) ˙ Q Cc (Tc. is deﬁned as ε= ε= where actual heat transfer rate maximum possible heat transfer rate (4.i − Rc (Tc. Equation (4. In these cases Rc −→ 0 and the above ε-NTU relations become simply with Cmin = mc cc for condenser.i − Tc. 1 + Rc and NTU = 1 1 ln 1 + Rc 1 − (1 + Rc )ε (4. .5) can be written as Th.o − Tc.i − Th.i − Tc. ε = 1 − eNTU .i − Tc. Cmin = exp [−NTU (1 + Rc )] .i ). ˙ ˙ (4.o Cmin = exp −NTU 1 + Th.i ) Cmin (Th.

q and Tc. mc cc = 420 J kg − K = ˙ ˙ Cmax Cmin = 0.4. =⇒ L = 40.1 × 1900 × (100 − 60) = 7.i = 30o C 0. (ii) ε–NTU method.i = 100o C 0. .10) → NTU = 0.1 ◦ C ˙ ˙ (b) (i) Using LMTD method: Q = U A∆Tlm = U (πDL)∆Tlm ∆To − ∆Ti (60 − 30) − (100 − 48.134 140 κ(w/m-K) Pr (a) Calculate the heat transfer rate.i ) =⇒ Tc.6 kW ˙ on the cold side: ˙ Q = mc cc (Tc.i − Th.571 ˙ Qmax ∆Tlm = NTU relationship in Eq.32 m Note: IF U is not given then you need to ﬁnd the convective heat transfer coefﬁcient h using appropriate N u relations (see previous chapters) for the cold and hot side conditions and then calculate U .1 kg/s φ = 25 mm φ = 45 mm 800 1900 1E-05 0.o if Th.i − Tc. HEAT EXCHANGER ANALYSIS Problem 4.o − Tc.o ) = 0.999 = UA → Cmin L = 40.1) = ≈ 40 ◦ C.1 kg/s oil Property U = 60 w/m2-K ρ (kg/m3) Cp (J/kg-K) ν (m2/s) water 1000 4200 7E-07 0.i ) = 13.7 oil water Th. L 59 oil Tc. Solution: (a) Energy balance on the hot side: ˙ Q = mh ch (Th. (4.0: For the heat exchanger arrangement shown below.32 m ln(∆To /∆Ti ) ln(30/51.9) (ii) Using ε–NTU method: mh ch = 190 J kg − K = Cmin .3 kW =⇒ ε = = 0.o = 60◦ C ˙ (b) Determine L required to achieve Th.1.64 4.o = 60 ◦ C using (i) LMTD method.o = 48.452 =⇒ Rc = Cmax ˙ Q ˙ Qmax = Cmin (Th.

HEAT EXCHANGER .60 CHAPTER 4.

1 Laminar Cases . we also note that h ∼ κf /δT . u ∂x ∂y ∂x Note that the hydrostatic equation dP∞ = −ρ∞ g dy 61 (5. From chapter 1..3) . h is inversely proportional to the thermal boundary layer thickness. as we noted earlier.External Convection The boundary layer equations with body force included govern the natural convection case shown in Fig. we ask what is the heat transfer rate from the hot plate? The answer is simply ˙ Q = h A (Ts − T∞ ).1. the stagnant environment temperature. using conservation principles.Chapter 5 Natural convection This is class of problem differs fundamentally from forced convection where the ﬂow is driven by pressure gradient created by an external source and the ﬂow problem is decoupled from the thermal problem when the ﬂuid properties are taken to be temperature independent. 5.2) (5. Consider the case shown in Fig. The environment is at pressure p∞ and g is the acceleration due to gravity. the plate is at a temperature Ts > T∞ . 5. the ﬂow is driven by buoyancy forces and thus the ﬂow and thermal ﬁelds are coupled strongly to each other. Thus our task here is to ﬁnd the variation of the thermal boundary layer thickness. 5. These equations are ∂u ∂v + =0 ∂x ∂y ∂v ∂v dP∞ ∂ 2v ρu + ρv =− + µ 2 − ρg ∂x ∂y dy ∂x 2 ∂ v = µ 2 + (ρ∞ − ρ)g ∂x ∂T ∂ 2T ∂T +v =α 2. δT . Now. ie. But in natural convection.1) (5.1.

p∞ x.the local ﬂuid density is constant and is equal to its value at T∞ .1 Scale analysis In a steady state. With the above two approximations. u Figure 5. Let us take the following representative scales: x ∼ δT . ∂x ∂y ∂x (5. ρ = ρ∞ . where ∂ρ ∂T (T −T∞ )+H. v ∼ v . The momentum equation can be simpliﬁed further using Boussinesq approximation which consists of two parts 1.1.4) with β as the volumetric coefﬁcient of thermal expansion. Eq. is used to relate the pressure gradient to the body force. Since the ﬂuid next to the wall is lighter than the surrounding ﬂuid. NATURAL CONVECTION Ts g H δT ∼ y 1/4 T∞ . p (5.5) which clearly shows the strong coupling between the ﬂow and thermal ﬁelds and the driving potential for the ﬂow is the buoyancy force. an upward motion is setup because of buoyancy. the buoyancy term is simpliﬁed as follows using Taylor series for small (T −T∞ ): ρ = ρ∞ + =⇒ (ρ∞ − ρ) = ρ∞ β(T − T∞ ). u ∼ u. for the inertial or advective terms 2. (5.O.62 y.T p β=− 1 ρ ∂ρ ∂T .2) becomes u ∂v ∂v ∂ 2v +v = ν 2 + βg(T − T∞ ). v CHAPTER 5. heat conducted from the wall horizontally into the ﬂuid is swept upward inside the boundary layer by the ﬂuid motion. 5.1: Natural convection along a vertical wall at Ts > T∞ . y ∼ H.

this gives δT at a given y as δT ∼ y 1/4 (see Fig. From Eq. 2 δT (5. 5. αν (5. When the buoyancy term is of order one. (5. then the inertial term is of order Ra−1 P r−1 and the viscous term is of order Ra−1 H H 2.11) and (5.9) v2 H βg∆T . This variation is shown in Fig.EXTERNAL CONVECTION Now. 5. 5. viscous term ∼ buoyancy: −1/4 H δT 4 Ra−1 ∼ 1 H ⇒ δT ∼ HRaH . . and N uH ∼ RaH P r1/4 .2. with appropriate P r correction. the competition between the inertial and viscous term is determined by P r. Ra−1 H 1.1) Now. If the plate is cold compared to the surrounding then the ﬂow will be reversed (from top to bottom. Thus for (i) P r 1.6) : moment.7) (5. mass : energy (after using Eq.12) gives the surface heat ﬂux as qs ˙ ∼ y −1/4 .1.11) (ii) Simillarly for P r ⇒ δT ∼ HRaH 1.9).12) Equations (5. H ⇒v∼ (5. one can make the following observations: 1. (5.6) αH .8) (5. inertia ∼ buoyancy −1/4 H δT 4 Ra−1 P r−1 ∼ 1 H 1/4 P r−1/4 .10) is the Rayleigh number based on H. the Nusselt number is N uH ≡ H 1/4 ∼ RaH δT since h ∼ κf δT (5. LAMINAR CASES .5. Ra−1 P r−1 H intertial H δT viscous where RaH RaH = g β ∆T H 3 . : =⇒ v∆T v∆T + H H v2 + H H δT 4 63 u δT ∼ α ∼ ν v 2 δT 4 ∼ ∆T 2 δT v .

2) across the boundary layer and after using the appropriate boundary conditions.3) and (5. p∞ qs ∼ y −1/4 ˙ x. 5. (5. It is quite common to use Grashof number.1. v CHAPTER 5. For this case. the boundary layer will grow from the top and the above analysis applies. The Boussinesq number deﬁned as Bo ≡ Ra P r is some times used in the analysis instead of Ra and P r for P r 1 cases. The scaling analysis gives only the order of magnitudes and the constants missing in the above equations are to be found using experiments or advanced analysis. But the scale analysis suggest a dependence on P r. The Grashof number is generally interpreted as the ratio of buoyancy forces to viscous forces. one can see that the boundary layer thickness will be large at the bottom and thus the heat transfer rate will be small. NATURAL CONVECTION g ∆T T∞ .2 Integral approach Integrating Eqs. u Figure 5. This physics causes the condensation droplets to occur at the bottom of the window pane as we observe in our homes. It is clear from the above analysis that RaH is the natural scaling parameter for the natural convection problems and thus this parameter shall be used.2: Variation of surface heat ﬂux in TS = const case. GrH ≡ RaH Pr in the scale analysis. The proﬁle method we adopted for forced convection 1 This can also be obtained via the integral momentum balance over a control volume.13) v(T − T∞ ) dx = −α 0 (5.64 y. .14) 0 One requires v and (T − T∞ ) to solve the above equations. one gets1 d dy δ 0 v 2 dx = −ν d dy δ ∂v ∂x δ +gβ 0 0 (T − T∞ ) dx ∂T ∂x (5.

12).18) ˆ where RaH is a Rayleigh number based on qs : ˙ g β qs H 4 ˙ ˆ RaH ≡ . Regardless of the boundary condition.616 Pr 0.689Ra1/4 P r1/4 y for for Pr Pr 1. δT (5. as shown in Fig. ν α κf Since the wall heat ﬂux is constant. advanced analysis yields ˆ 1/5 N uH = f1 (P r) RaH .5. the wall heat ﬂux is qs = h ∆T ∼ ˙ κf ∆T .783Ra1/4 y N u = 0. κf Substituting this ∆T in the deﬁnition of Ra and rearranging Eqs.1.EXTERNAL CONVECTION 65 case can also be used here. From that analysis. the above equations give ∆T = (Ts − T∞ ) ∼ y 1/5 . δT =⇒ ∆T qs δT ˙ .19) .16) 5. the Nusselt number is N u = 0.3. Note that this ﬁgure is drawn for P r = 1.1.8 + P r 1/5 . (5. 5. one gets (i) P r 1: ˆ −1/5 δT ∼ H RaH ⇒ Nu = H ˆ 1/5 ∼ RaH δT (5. 5. walls with uniform heat ﬂux are also important (ex. (5. From engineering points of view. This condition will be a good approximation if the plate is massive and highly conductive along y (see Fig. This process is outlined in the Appendix 5. LAMINAR CASES . with f1 (P r) = 0.11) and (5.1. (5. the surface was taken to be isothermal at Ts . in the cooling of electronic components). 1.17) (ii) P r 1: ˆ −1/5 δT ∼ H RaH P r−1/5 ⇒ Nu = H ˆ 1/5 ∼ RaH P r1/5 .1).3 Uniform wall heat ﬂux In the above case. For other values of P r.15) (5.

This implies that N u expressions obtained in the previous section can be used after replacing Ray by Raφ : Raφ = Ray cos φ and ˆ ˆ Raφ = Ray cos φ. v φ g g cos φ x. φ. ˙ 5. the enclosures can be broadly classiﬁed into two types.Convection in Enclosures When the convection occurs in enclosures such as between two parallel vertical or horizontal walls. in the annular region between two concentric cylinders. 5.. u Figure 5. to the plate as shown in Fig.4.. viz. The analyses in the previous sections can be simply extended to this case by considering the appropriate component of the body force. the boundary layers developing from the opposite walls will eventually interact with one another. the gravity is acting at an angle. p∞ ∆T ∼ y 1/5 x.2 Laminar Cases .3: Variation of ∆T in qS = const case. v CHAPTER 5.4: Natural convection along an inclined wall. the boundary layer development is constrained because of the geometry. inside a box. y. Thus.4 Inclined walls In the case of inclined walls. 5. NATURAL CONVECTION g qs ˙ T∞ . . etc.66 y.1. u Figure 5.

The boundary layers developing from the individual plates interact at a height yT . and 2. v x.20) 2 dx ν dv with v = 0 at x = ±D/2.2.CONVECTION IN ENCLOSURES 67 1. The variations of ﬂow and temperature in the channel is shown in Fig. A simple criterion like δ ∼ (D/2) can be used to determine the size of the entry region. (5.5: Natural convection in a channel formed between two vertical heated plates of width L for P r 1.the ﬂuid medium inside the enclosure is completely separated from the ambient ﬂuid and their thermal interaction occurs via the enclosure walls.1 Semi–inﬁnite size This class includes the natural convection ﬂow in channels of various cross section when the channel walls are at temperature Ts > T∞ . The region 0 < y ≤ yT is entry region and y > yT is the fully developed region.5) g β (T − T∞ ) dv 2 =− .5. Let us consider the channel formed between two vertical parallel plates with temperatures Ts . dx as boundary conditions.2. 5. D g v ∆T Fully developed region H v yT Entry region ∆T δ y. 5. LAMINAR CASES . semi–inﬁnite size – two ends of the enclosure are open to ambient and thus there are direct ﬂuid mechanical and thermal interactions between the ﬂuid inside the enclosure and in the ambient. The ﬂow and ∆T ≡ (T − T∞ ) variation across the channel at various cross sections is also shown. . Thus. (5. In the fully developed region viscous force is balanced by buoyancy force. u Figure 5. from Eq. ﬁnite size . The natural convection ﬂow enters the channel at T∞ and exits at Ts .5. and = 0 at x = 0.

Let us write (T − T∞ ) = (Ts − T∞ ) − (Ts − T ) ≈ (Ts − T∞ ). Now. the convective motions are setup when the temperature difference exceeds a critical value and the bottom plate is hotter. Eq. In the case of horizontal channel formed between a hot and cold plates. If the temperature difference is below the critical value then the ﬂuid is quiescent and the temperature decreases linearly from Th to Tc . (5. D 16 The above method of analysis and the conditions deduced can be extended to channels of different cross–section. (5. =− 2 dx ν which can be integrated to give v(x) = gβ(Ts − T∞ )D2 1− 8ν x D/2 2 . D 16 A similar condition can be obtained for P r 1 as H BoD > .20) becomes dv 2 g β (Ts − T∞ ) . the condition H > yT for the fully developed ﬂow can be written as H RaD > for P r 1. The condition for the onset of convective motion is RaH ≥ 1708. The heat transfer process is by conduction and thus N uH = 1. NATURAL CONVECTION To obtain v one requires T . the mass ﬂow rate is m = 2L ˙ 0 ρ u dx = g β D3 (Ts − T∞ ) ρ 12ν (5.6(a). if (Ts − T ) (Ts − T∞ ). At y = yT . The heat transfer rate per unit area.11) as δT ∼ yT Ra−1/4 .68 CHAPTER 5. which can be taken to be constant if the wall is isothermal and T∞ is also invariant with y. . κf (Ts − T∞ ) κf 24 Nu ≡ which is valid in the fully developed region for all P r. 5. yT Rearranging this for yT . the thermal boundary layer thickness is given by Eq. qs .22) (5. is ˙ qs = ˙ ˙ total heat transferred mcp (Ts − T∞ ) ˙ Q = = Area 2H L 2H L D/2 where. This case is shown in Fig.23) =⇒ qs = ˙ =⇒ g βD3 (Ts − T∞ ) ρcp (Ts − T∞ ) ν 24H hy qs y ˙ RaD = = .21) to satisfy the boundary conditions also. (5.

.2. Thus. Hence. the establishment of the convective ﬂow ﬁeld is unsteady and it will eventually attain a steady state.2 These cells are called B´ nard cells and the e convective ﬂow becomes more complicated when RaH is very large. the convective ﬂow consists of counter rotating two dimensional rolls with almost square cross–section (see Fig.6). 2 δT =⇒ v∼ 2 g β ∆T δT .6: Natural convection in a channel formed between two horizontal plates heated from below. thermally stratified fluid Tc H Th (a) Cellular flow pattern (b) RaH < 1708 Nu H = 1 RaH > 1708 Nu H > 1 Figure 5. where the top and bottom walls are adiabatic and thus no heat transfer through them. enclosures heated from the sides – Ex. 5. conduction alone will occur. When RaH > 1708. the natural convection is as varied as the geometry and orientation of the enclosure and these cases can be loosely organised into two large classes. For a very small time interval in the beginning. viz. the ﬂuid is isothermal at T and motionless. A typical setup is shown in Fig. the buoyancy will be opposed and balanced by the viscous forces in the region close to the heated wall. heat transfer through a ﬂat roof attic space. √ δT ∼ αt. The left wall is heated while the right wall is cooled with a temperature difference of ∆T . Thus.2 Finite size In this case. (5. Before the establishment of ∆T across the cavity. cooking processes. enclosures heated from below – Ex. ν (5. As the ﬂow develops.5.25) In heat transfer and ﬂuid mechanics literature this problem is referred to as Rayleigh-B´ nard e convection. air circulation in a room. 5. . LAMINAR CASES . The ﬁrst category is more of engineering importance and application. cavity wall insulations. when the Prandtl number is large g β ∆T ∼ ν 2 v .2. 5.7(a). Quiescent.24) which is the well known thermal diffusive layer thickness from the theory of heat conduction. 2. solar collectors. 1.CONVECTION IN ENCLOSURES 69 where RaH is the Rayleigh number based on H and (Th − Tc ).

70 horizontal jet H CHAPTER 5. consisting of a vertical plume and horizontal jet like ﬂows. The vertical plume will be dominant when δT < L and the horizontal jet becomes important when the heat conduction across the top and bottom plates is dominated by the convection. 5.24) in the above equation for δT .7(a).27) . 1. (5. The development of thermal and velocity boundary layers is shown in (b). one realises that v increases linearly with time. Using this physical picture. u L δT Figure 5.26) H δT g β∆T α After this time. Using Eq. one of these ﬂows will play dominant role in the heat transfer process.∆T/2 νt Th vertical jet v y. and δ ∼ ν ts = P r1/2 δT . Depending on the value of RaH . v αt x 0 x. (5. H These results suggest that the variation of T and v inside the enclosure as shown in Fig. NATURAL CONVECTION (a) (b) Heated Th = T + ∆T/2 T δ Cooled Tc = T .11). The thermal boundary layer thickness is δT ∼ HRaH −1/4 see Eq. the following conditions can be written. (5.7: Natural convection in a rectangular enclosure with isothermal side walls. =⇒ ts ∼ .7(b). the heat transfer is dominated by the convection process and there will be boundary layers associated to thermal and velocity ﬁelds. The velocity and the momentum boundary layer thickness are respectively. 5. But the ﬂow will eventually attain a steady state. we make use of energy balance ”convection ∼ diffusion”: 1/2 v νH α ∼ 2 . To ﬁnd the time required to achieve the steady state. √ α 1/2 vs ∼ RaH . These structures lead to the ﬂow pattern sketched in Fig. Vertical Plume: δT < L H L 1/4 < RaH (5.

3. N C. P r 1: Ra1/4 y Re1/2 P r1/3 y > 1. 5. The subscripts N C and F C respectively stand for natural convection and forced convection.F C . If δT. This condition can be translated into the following statements using Eqs.3 Mixed Convection Both natural and forced convection occurs simultaneously and they interact with one another in mixed convection situation. (5.29) ¦ ¢ conduction ¥ ¡ T Ra H II T B’layer regime 1/4 § £ ¤   Ra H 1. (5. if there is wind then the heat loss may no longer be a natural convection and will depend on the wind attributes.14). δT.8: The regime of heat transfer for natural convection in a 2D enclosure with isothermal side walls. 5.11) and (5. the type of convection mechanism is decided by the smaller of the two thermal thicknesses. However.E+00 1.N C < δT.12). Q / depth ~ κ f ( ∆T / L) H Tall system 1. Horizontal Jet: Qcond < Qconvec ∆T κf L < (ρvs δT )cp ∆T H 71 ⇒ H L > RaH −1/4 .E-02 1. (2.E-04 T IV Figure 5.28) The above two conditions identify four different regime of natural convective ﬂow inside a rectangular cavity depending on the values of (H/L) and RaH as shown in Fig. How to calculate the heat loss when the convection occurs in mixed mode? Let us consider an isothermal wall. F C. < 1.F C then the natural convection mechanism will dominate the heat transfer process and vice–versa.E+12 T RaH -1/4 . 1.E+02 Q / depth ~ κ f ( ∆T / L) H III 1.8. MIXED CONVECTION ˙ ˙ 2.16).E+00 1. f ) H T 1. Since the solid surface will leak (gain) heat to (from) the nearest heat sink (source). (2. The heat loss from a building via its roof may be considered to be a natural convection on a calm day.5.N C and δT. (5.E+04 Q / depth ~ κ f (∆T / δ T . f ) H 1.E+16 1.E+04 H/L I 1.E+08 Shallow system Q / depth ~ κ f (∆T / δ T .

P r 1: Bo1/4 y Re1/2 P r1/2 y CHAPTER 5. over the entire Rayleigh number range: laminar.72 2. However. analysis using the integral approach were carried out in the past.(5. we shall use the following average Nusselt number correlation for our purpose here. . N C. 5. (5. y y However.31) for isothermal plate. (5. This analysis uses Eqs.14) for time averaged velocity and temperature along with an assumed proﬁle for v and T .825 + [1 + (0.13) and (5.4 Effect of Turbulence The laminar boundary layer formed on a heated vertical plate will become turbulent if the local Grashof number. F C. This relatively simple integral analysis yields N uy ∼ Ra2/5 while the experimental data suggests Ra1/3 scaling for N uy . NATURAL CONVECTION > 1. Gry is higher than 109 for all Prandtl numbers of practical interest. The natural convection ﬂow will become complex and simple analysis is difﬁcult. < 1. a large number of Nusselt number correlations have been developed based on experimental data and are available in the heat transfer literature. transition and turbulent. Thus.30) The Nusselt number in the mixed convection case is approximated by N un = N un ± N un FC NC with n ≈ 3. The positive sign applies for assisting and transverse ﬂows while the negative sign applies for opposing ﬂows. N u0−y = 0.492/P r)9/16 ]8/27 1/6 2 .387Ray 0.

Dopt . Let us take each board to be isothermal at Ts . (5.0: Consider an electronic packaging of size L × H × W as shown in the ﬁgure below.11) 2H W ∆T hH 4 = N u = N u = 1. and =⇒ from . L H D T Solution: Two possible limits are . W is the width in the direction perpendicular to the page. The entry temperature for air is T∞ while its exit temperature is Ts . EFFECT OF TURBULENCE 73 Problem 5.(i) fully developed ﬂow when δT ∼ (ii) boundary layer ﬂow when D > δT (i) Fully developed ﬂow regime: g β (Ts − T∞ )2 D3 ρ cp ˙ Heat transferred per channel = Qc = qs × (2 H W ) = ˙ W ν 12 area per board from Eq. so that the rate of heat transferred from the board via natural convection is maximum. (5.4. Our objective is to ﬁnd the optimum spacing.044 Ra1/4 H κf 3       D 2 . This package has n = L/D number of boards placed at equal spacing of D with electronic components which generate heat.5.22) L 2D 2 3 ˙ ˙ L = gβ(Ts − T∞ ) D W ρcp L Total heat transfer rate Q1 = Qc 2D ν 24 D ˙ Q1 ∼ D 2 number of channels = n = 2 (ii) Boundary layer limit: per plate: q = h A ˙ Eq.

3. while analysing internal ﬂows with heat transfer (see problem 4 in example sheet 3).088κf Ra1/4 W ∆T H L 1/4 RaH .11 H 3 RaH −3/4 ⇒ Dopt = 3. . Note: One should not simply consider the fully developed regime alone.69 H RaH −1/4 ˙ using Q2 expression above ˙ Qmax = 2. of plates ˙ 1 ˙ Q2 ∼ D ˙ Q1 ∼ D 2 ˙ Q ˙ Q2 ∼ 1/D Dopt D at Dopt ˙ ˙ Q1 = Q2 ⇒ 3 g β (Ts − T∞ )2 Dopt ρ cp L L W = 2.088κf Ra1/4 W ∆T H ν 24 Dopt Dopt 3 =⇒ Dopt = 50.088κf Ra1/4 W ∆T H D D =⇒ ˙ Total heat transfer rate Q2 = q×No.74 CHAPTER 5.69 H LW 1/2 ˙ =⇒ Qmax = 0.088κf Ra1/4 W ∆T ˙ H =q ˙ L L = 2.566κf ∆T RaH H ˙ ˙ ˙ The same expression for Qmax will result if Q1 is used instead of Q2 . as has been routinely done in many text books. NATURAL CONVECTION =⇒ q = 2.

This is quite unusual from what we have learnt so far in this module. . hf g . σ. is1 h = h[∆T. Bo .Chapter 6 Convection with Phase change This class of problem includes boiling and condensation. 10 variables and 5 independent dimensions =⇒ (10 − 5) = 5 dimensionless numbers or Π groups 1 75 . The above four nondimensional parameters govern the behavior of N uL in boiling and condensation processes. In boiling the heat is transferred from a solid surface to a liquid and in condensation the direction is reversed. Bo is called Bond number and it is the ratio of buoyancy to surface tension forces. These parameters are the buoyancy force due to difference in liquid and its vapor densities g (ρl − ρv ). Since phase change is involved. from the Buckingham Π theorem. the latent heat. L. µ. cp . The ﬁrst group of parameters (has some resemblance to Rayleigh number) is because of the natural convection due to buoyancy. κl ) and an appropriate temperature difference ∆T . Ja. . ρ. There are also other parameters playing important roles. κf ]. hf g . ⇒ N uL = F ρ g[ρl − ρv ] L3 cp ∆T µ cp g[ρl − ρv ] L2 . We shall understand important phenomena associated with the boiling heat transfer. Thus. µ. µ2 hf g κf σ ρ g[ρl − ρv ] L3 . effects are signiﬁcant compared to the convective effect. the surface tension σ. The governing equations for boiling heat transfer are complicated as two–phase ﬂuid ﬂow is involved. h. P r is the Prandtl number. . P r. µ2 (6. the heat transfer coefﬁcient. cp . This mode of heat transfer can transfer large amount of heat over small temperature difference which is advantageous for modern engineering application such as heat pipes. These processes involve phase change of the ﬂuid and thus the heat transfer occurs without inﬂuencing the ﬂuid temperature. thermo–physical properties of the ﬂuid (ρ. (ρl − ρv )g.1) =⇒ N uL = F where Ja is called the Jackob number which is the ratio of sensible heat to latent heat and this number is usually a small number (of the order of 10−1 ).

Ts Liquid. CONVECTION WITH PHASE CHANGE 6. then. where the saturated liquid is heated by two different methods. In both experiments the surface temperature can be varied by changing either the amount of current ﬂowing through the wire or by changing the conditions of the steam.1 for both experiments. They. one can plot the variation of qs with ∆T ≡ ˙ ˙ (Ts − Tsat ) as shown in Fig. For very low values of excess temperature. where i is the current ﬂowing through the wire of diπDL m cp (Tin − Tout ) ˙ ameter D and length L with electrical resistance Rw . break away from the surface and rise through the hot liquid. we can measure the surface temperature. The bubbles formed at these sites grow in size until the buoyancy force overcomes the surface tension force at the wall–bubble interface. These curves are commonly known as boiling curves. In the second setup. Depending on the liquid temperature the bubbles can collapse or grow further. 2 In the ﬁrst setup. πDL where m is the ﬂow rate of hot ﬂuid with speciﬁc heat capacity cp entering the tube of diameter D ˙ and length L at temperature Tin and exiting at Tout . qs = ˙ . 1937) (a) Burn out point (b) qs & qs & ∆T ∆T Figure 6. As the excess temperature increases further. Tsat Ts Liquid. the heat transfer occurs via natural convection as the liquid near the surface becomes hot. In a steady state. qs = ˙ .1. In this setup. 1934) Temperature Controlled (Drew & Mueller.2 Then. the liquid is heated up by passing electric current through a ﬁne wire which gives a constant heat ﬂux at the wire surface.1: The pool boiling curve in (a) power controlled and (b) temperature controlled experiments. These locations are called nucleation sites. ∆T = (Ts − Tsat ) ≤ 5◦ C. Thus an appropriate natural convection correlation can be used to determine the heat transfer rate. the outer surface temperature of the tube remains constant. Let us say. 6.1 Boiling Regimes Consider the experiments shown in Fig. Ts . qs .76 CHAPTER 6. as well as the heat ﬂux. the liquid starts to boil locally at discrete locations forming vapor bubbles. In the second setup. These movements create enthalpy ﬂux and thus for energy i2 Rw (W/m2 ). the liquid is heated by passing superheated steam through a tube immersed in the liquid. 6. the upward mass ﬂux of the vapor must be balanced by the downward ﬂux of the liquid. Tsat Hot fluid V Power Controlled (Nukiyama. which is a complex process. In the ﬁrst method. The relationship between qs and ∆T depends on the shape and orientation of the ˙ heating element.

1. Also. the buoyancy and surface tension forces are competing at the moment of detachment and thus R Vapor bubble.4) qs ˙ for the ﬁlm thickness. the droplets can descent into the ﬁlm layer intermittently (this will modify the above equation for δﬁlm ). The constant C depends on the surface–liquid properties such as the contact angle. For example. which are formed at a frequency of f in a nucleation site and there are S nucleation sites per unit area of the surface. Q = ρv Vv hf g . one sees that the ﬁlm thickness increases if ∆T is increased. From the above equation. BOILING REGIMES conservation vapor enthalpy ﬂux = liquid enthalpy ﬂux ˙ ˙ =⇒ total heat transfer.2 results for the surface heat ﬂux. which is called critical heat ﬂux (this is about 106 W/m2 for water). The simple treatment given above outlines the basic elements involved in the analysis of nucleate boiling and there are many details which are beyond the level of this module. in simple terms. As the excess temperature increases further. Under these conditions. The heat transfer occurs mainly by conduction through the vapor layer and thus one gets.2) 3 The bubble radius is determined by the balance among buoyancy. the vapor–liquid interface is unstable and thus vapor bubles escape intermittently leading to unsteady nucleate boiling. The above expression gives R C1 σ g (ρl − ρv ) 1/2 (6. Up to ∆T 30. (6. this region is called transition regime. the boiling curve behaves in the same way in the above two experiments and the surface heat ﬂux attains a maximum value. etc. then the heat ﬂux is 4π 3 qs = ˙ R S f ρv hf g . If one carefully accounts for them then a relationship of the form given in Fig. the droplets are suspended near . surface tension and viscous drag forces. the frequency of the bubble formation increases and the vapor bubbles start to interact forming slugs and columns. 77 ˙ where the density of the vapor is ρv and its upward volume ﬂow rate is V . This boiling is called nucleate boiling and it occurs for 5 < ∆T ≤ 30. ∆T κv δﬁlm ∼ .6. If one approximates the bubbles to be spheres of radius R. However. ρv ρl CR 4π 3 R g (ρl − ρv ) 3 σ C R.3) As the excess temperature is increased further. This impedes the heat transfer rate leading to a decrease in the heat ﬂux and qs attains a minimum ˙ ◦ value at ∆T ≈ 120 C. a thin vapor ﬁlm is formed on the surface. Thus. 6. (6.

qmax .min = 0 . the surface heat ﬂux varies as g in nucleate boiling regime and it varies as g 1/4 for ﬁlm boiling regime. In the power controlled experiment (see Fig. showing a hysteresis. In most cases.. hrad is the heat transfer coefﬁcient for radia4 tion. 6. hrad ≡ (εσ[Ts4 − Tsat ])/(Ts − Tsat ). After this the heat ﬂux continues to increase with ∆T because of the greater role played by radiation heat transfer across the ﬁlm. qmax is often called burnout point or boiling crisis. As the imposed heat ﬂux increases slightly above the maximum value. CONVECTION WITH PHASE CHANGE the surface.2 along with the following points: √ 1.78 CHAPTER 6. This effect is called Leidenfrost effect and the corresponding ∆T is called Leidenfrost temperature. the excess temperature decreases along the ﬁlm boiling portion of the boiling curve until qmin is ˙ reached. ˙ q s = µ l h fg g( ρ l − ρ v ) 1/ 2 c p . The above discussion can be summarised as in Fig. this temperature will usually be above the melting point of the surface material and thus the heating surface burns up.1). This high temperature mode is called ﬁlm boiling. but they are not allowed to touch the surface by the vapor layer and the vapor layer acts as a lubrication layer. the transition regime is absent. 09 h fg ρ v Nucleate Bubbles Slugs law er w Po Transition 5 10 30 120 ∆T Figure 6. with σ as Stefan–Boltzmann constant. on the previous ˙ value of qs . where the heat ﬂux attains a minimum. experiments show that the heat ﬂux is nearly independent of gravity in nucleate boiling regime.max = 0 . After attaining this point.2: The regimes of boiling curve and ﬂow pattern in pool boiling of saturated water at atmospheric pressure. Thus. 146 h fg ρ v σ g( ρ l − ρ v ) 2 ρv log ( q s ) Free convection chapter NC q s . the surface temperature suddenly drops to the value associated with the nucleate boiling regime. E " q s − as in the previous σ g( ρ l − ρ v ) (ρ l + ρ v )2 Film Boiling @  9  9  A  C B  B  D ! 3  2 © 2 © 4  6  5  5  7  σ C sf h fg Pr ln £ & ¢ ¢ % ¤ ' % 3 8  ¦ ) ¥ £ ( & ¥ ¢ ( ' § % 0 ¤ ) ¦ ( ¥ 0 § 1 ¨ 1/ 4 4/3 h 4 / 3 = hconv + hrad h 1 / 3 3 h = hconv + hrad if hconv > hrad 4 #   \$ ¡ 1/ 4 . the boiling curve in power controlled mode not only depends on qs but also on the history. ˙ the surface temperature increases abruptly to the value associated with the ﬁlm boiling portion of the boiling curve. ie.l ∆ T q s . 6. When the power ˙ controlled experiment is run in reverse by decreasing the heat ﬂux. Hence. However.

the maximum heat ﬂux strongly depends on the pressure via latent heat and surface tension. .3). BOILING REGIMES 79 2. qmax approaches zero ˙ since hf g approaches zero. For example near critical pressure. This effect of surface roughness suggests that it can be used in some form for augmentation of nucleate boiling. The surface roughness will play an important role in boiling heat transfer by promoting nucleate boiling and this effect will come via C1 in Eq. (6.6.1.

CONVECTION WITH PHASE CHANGE Problem 6. 6. 6.596) 1.0: In the case shown below determine (a) Ts . Also note that the value of Cs.7231 3 (numerical values are taken from Tables in ref.f will depend on liquid–surface material combination. In the above example the plate is taken to be copper.05 × 106 W m−2 H c) Using boiling heat transfer correlation: ∆T = Ts − Tsat = 112.2%) .9E − 03 1/2 4.006 × 2256. 2.) =⇒ Ts = Tsat +∆T = 108.5 − 100 = 12. using your conduction theory. and ˙ (c) Ts using boiling heat transfer correlation in Fig. (b) qs .216E03 × ∆T 0.l ∆T Csf hf g P rln 3 9. & qv = 7 E07 κ = 50 W/m-k W/m3 & qs 15 mm Ts insulated T = 270 o C Solution:a) d2 T κ 2 + qv = 0 with ˙ dy T (0) = 270◦ C and qv 2 ˙ y 2κ dT dy =0 0 =⇒ T (y) = 270 − =⇒ Ts = T (H) = 270 − 7 × 107 × (15 × 10−6 )2 = 112. Saturated water at 1 atm.05E06 = 278×10 ×2256.7E03 58.5◦ C 2 × 50 b) surface heat ﬂux qs = −κ ˙ dT dy = 1.7E03 × 1.80 CHAPTER 6.5 − 0. 1.5◦ C =⇒ nucleate boiling with slugs (see Fig.2.2) q s = µl h f g ˙ −6 g(ρl − ρv ) σ 1/2 cp.92◦ C (error = 3.8 × (961.

effect of surface tension.3(b) and the following approximations are made: 1. Thus to maintain high heat transfer rates.6. 6. v (b) δ Vapor at Tsat linear T Ts v Tsat x Ts < Tsat Turbulent & qs dy & h m & hg dm & & m + dm ρv g τ dy dx τ + dτ ρl g Figure 6. 6. The condenser design is often based on the principles of ﬁlm condensation. which occurs when the surface has substances that inhibit surface wetting. You may have noticed water droplets formed on glass window panes in your home during cold winter days. CONDENSATION 81 6. The condensate ﬂow has three distinct regions: laminar. the ﬂow is laminar with constant ﬂuid properties and the ﬂuid is Newtonian. v (a) L y. and turbulent. the uncertainty associated with the location of nucleation sites. In all cases. (a) Different regimes and (b) laminar ﬁlm condensation and its attributes. etc. and move downward due to gravity. These droplets are because of dropwise condensation. However maintaining dropwise condensation is difﬁcult because of its unsteady nature. transition. x.3: Film condensation over a cooled vertical surface. u δ y.3(a).2 Condensation Condensation is the reverse of boiling and it occurs when a vapor comes in contact with cool surface at a temperature below Tsat for the given pressure. dropwise condensation is better than ﬁlm condensation at least by an order of magnitude. u Laminar Reδ ≈ 30 Vapor at Tsat Reδ ≈ 1800 Ts < Tsat x. . Because of these factors analysing dropwise condensation is difﬁcult. the condensate form a ﬁlm on the surface. Usually.1 Laminar ﬁlm condensation This case is shown in Fig.2. as shown in Fig.2. the condensate provides resistance to heat transfer between the vapor and the surface. 6.

3 3. and 5. (6. (6.A) with dp/dy = ρv g and neglecting the advective (inertial) terms. ∂x2 (6.5) can also be obtained from ρl u ∂v ∂v +v ∂x ∂y =− dp ∂2v + µl 2 + ρl g. dy ∂x (6. 4. CONVECTION WITH PHASE CHANGE 2. ∂x By integrating the above equation.3b gives: ∆ condensation rate = dm. 3µl (6. v= g(ρl − ρv ) 2 δ µl x 1 x − δ 2 δ 2 . δ hf g = κl (Tsat − Ts ) δ (hf g + cp. 5 Eq. the heat conduction at the liquid-vapor interface is negligible.8) a single component vapor ∂v/∂x = 0.5) ∂v with v = 0 at x = 0.7) The energy balance across the control volume gives dm (hg − hl ) − qs dy = 0. ˙ The force balance gives5 µl ∂ 2v + (ρl − ρv )g = 0. ˙ ˙ =⇒ qs ˙ dm ˙ = dy hg − hl κl (Tsat − Ts ) . the temperature variation inside the liquid ﬁlm is linear The heat transfer rate is qs ˙ −κl (Ts − Tsat ) = − H (Ts − Tsat ).82 CHAPTER 6. (6.6) and the condensate ﬂow rate per unit width of the plate is δ δ m= ˙ 0 dm ˙ = o ρl v dx = ρl g (ρl − ρv )δ 3 . ˙ y ⇒ condensation rate at y = 0 dm. . the vapor is at unifrom saturation temperature. The mass balance across the CV in Fig. and = 0 at x = δ. velocity of the condensate is maximum at x = δ. there is no shear4 at the edge of the liquid ﬁlm boundary layer. Tsat and it is pure. ⇒ v. δ We follow control volume analysis to obtain H.l (Tsat − T ) sub−cooling ≈ 3 4 if cp.l (Tsat − T ) hf g . 6.

11).9) κ3 g hf g (ρl − ρv ) κl H= = l δ 4 νl (Tsat − Ts ) y −1/4 .12) which shows that the average heat transfer rate increases with the degree of subcooling and the latent heat of the condensate. (6. CONDENSATION Using Eq.11). (6.8). 2. with H ≡ κl L 3 L o 4 H dy = HL 3 1/4 L g hf g (ρl − ρv ) ⇒ N uL = 0. 5. if R δ.11). The process of condensation on the inner and outer surfaces of a vertical tube of radius R can also be analysed using Eq. (6. can also be used for laminar ﬁlm condensation on horizontal cylinder of diameter D after replacing 0. Equation. with respect to vertical axis. The condensate moving down because of graity become turbulent when Rey ≡ 4my /µl > 1800.11) can be used for condensation over plates inclined at an angle θ.2.36 Ja].10) and (6. (6. Tf = (Tsat + Ts )/2. To account for the sub-cooling effect. (6. by replacing g by g cos θ for moderate values of θ. (6. 3.6 should be used instead of hf g in Eqs. 4. (6.7) in the above equation and solving for δ gives 4νl κl (Tsat − Ts ) δ= g hf g (ρl − ρv ) and 1/4 83 y 1/4 . The following points are to be noted: 1. and the latent heat at Tsat are used. Relaxing assumptions 4 and 5 introduces a small correction to the above result which can be ignored.943 by 0.729 and L by D. 1/4 (6. Eq. Also. The average rate of heat transfer per unit width of the plate is ˙ ˙ Q = HL(Tsat − Ts ) = κl (Tsat − Ts )N uL = mL hf g [1 + 0.11) which is within 3% of the experimentally measured values when the ﬂuid properties at ﬁlm temperature. see Eq.943 κl νl (Tsat − Ts ) .10) The average Nusselt number is N uL = HL 1 .68 Ja] with Ja as the Jacob number. ˙ 6 Ja = cpl (Tsat − Ts ) hf g . (6. the augmented latent heat of formation hf g = hf g [1 + 0.6. (6.

l ∆T ∗ ) L ∼ κl ∆T .3(b). V2 L inertia ∼ νl V δ2 ρl − ρv ρl Buoyancy g.9) except for the constant.l ∆T convec. For water. V .2. 1 . The mass conservation inside the boundary layer will yield ∂u ∂v U V + = 0. see books on heat transfer. (6.17) The above equation is the same as Eq. (6. (6. Thus the velocity V scales as V ∼ From the energy balance. the two phase ﬂow becomes annular and the analysis becomes complex because of inertial effects.11) can be used to obtain the average heat transfer rate. (6. buoy. It is apparent that near the plate the ﬁrst limit is more likely to apply. Thus. v. νl (6.13) where U . However. 6. L (6.14) becomes hf g P rl cp. δ . Eq. 6.l ∆T ∗ ) κl νl ∆T 1/4 (6.2 Scale analysis Let us consider the case shown in Fig. The condensation process in this situation is complicated and depends strongly on the velocity of vapor ﬂow. δ and L are representative scales for u. Eq. P rﬁlm 40 for ∆T = 30. Another case of engineering interest is the condensation of vapor ﬂowing through tubes. it is clear that the buoyancy is balanced by the viscous forces only if the ﬁlm prandtl number is large otherwise the inertial forces will also play a role in the condensation process. Examples for this are.A). But two obvious limits are (i) the balance between the viscous and buoyancy forces and (ii) the balance between the inertial and buoyancy forces. CONVECTION WITH PHASE CHANGE A number of correlations are available. . for this situation to calculate the average condensation rate. Using the above scales for δ and V .14) viscous the boundary layer thickness δ is to be obtained using energy balance. condensers used in refrigeration and air–conditioning systems and steam power plants. (6. (6. then the condensation process is dominated by the natural convection and thus Eq. Eq.16) ρl − ρv ρl g δ2 . ∂x ∂y δ L ⇒ U∼ V δ .84 CHAPTER 6. −1 ∼ 1 visc. From the momentum balance. If this velocity is small (ρv Vv D/µv < 3.15) L ⇒ ∼ δ ∆ρ g L3 (hf g + cp. (6.5×104 ).8). at higher velocities. x and y respectively. ρl V δ (hf g + cp. =⇒ + ∼ 0.

Eq. (6. ⇒ Heat transfer rate = condensation rate ×hf g =⇒ ˙ QL mL ˙ = .729(C D3 )1/4 . mD ˙ ˙ QD ˙ but Q = hA(Tsat − Ts ) =⇒ hL 2L(Tsat − Ts ) mL ˙ = = 1. .11): for ﬂattend case : for cylinder : hD L = 0.1: 85 W W 1111111 0000000 D 1111111 0000000 1111111 0000000 1111111 0000000 1111111 0000000 1111111 0000000 1111111 0000000 1111111 0000000 1111111 0000000 1111111 0000000 1111111 0000000 1111111 0000000 1111111 0000000 1111111 0000000 coolant at Ts ﬂattening the round tube Design modiﬁcation to change the condensation rate L surrounding is stagnant saturated vapor laminar ﬁlm condensation on a thin walled circular tube Determine the change in the condensation rate.2. CONDENSATION Problem 6.943(C L3 )1/4 κl with C = π L = D 2 ghf g (ρl − ρv ) κl νl (Tsat − Ts ) hD D = 0.6. Solution: laminar ﬁlm solution.155 mD ˙ hD πD(Tsat − Ts ) Therefore the change in the condensation rate is about 16%. κl Area for condensation is πD W = 2L W.

ISBN 0-13-096247-3. 3. M. Fundamentals of Heat and Mass Transfer. Holman.. A. 5th edition. Mills. Kays & A. B. . McGraw–Hill. CONVECTION WITH PHASE CHANGE Reference 1. P. ISBN 007-123829-8. John Wiley & Sons Inc. & W. 9th edition. Crawford. London.L. and Dewitt. 5. 2005. Incropera. 2nd edition. S. J. McGraw-Hill. 2002. 1999. 2. ISBN 0-471-38650-2. Handbook of single–phase convective heat transfer. Convective Heat and Mass Transfer. M. F.. Wiley. Kakac. New York.86 CHAPTER 6. Kays. 4th edition. F. 4. ISBN 0-07240655-0. Prentice Hall. 2002. Shah. Aung. P. 1987. Compact heat exchangers. Heat Transfer. Basic heat and mass transfer. New York. McGraw Hill. 1984 6. W. and Weigand. R. D. M. K. W.

1: Rate of work performed by the surface stresses and body forces acting in the x direction on the ﬂuid in a control volume. given by ρuet . enuτ zx + ∂uτ zx dz ∂z ∂uτ yx ∂y uτ yx + dy -[ τ xx − p ]u ρ ug x [ τ xx − p ]u + ρ uet + ε x −uτ yx ∂ [ τ xx − p ]u dx ∂x ∂x [ρ uet + ε x ] + ∂[ρ uet + ε x ] dx −uτ zx Figure 7. and as kinetic (mechanical) energy. can be applied to the ﬂuid in the control volume.0: A close at energy conservation equation The energy is contained in the ﬂuid as internal (thermal) energy. The sum of these two quantities is called total energy and is denoted by et = e + KE in Fig. The rate of energy ﬂux.1. 7. (7. the ﬁrst law of thermodynamics. This energy balance can therefore be written as ˙ ˙ ˙ ˙ dEi = dW + dEc + dEM .5(u2 + v 2 + w2 ). The kinetic energy per unit mass is given by the well known form 0. ˙ The rate of energy increase inside the control volume is dEi . The energy transferred 87 . tering into and leaving the control volume is shown by the block arrow in Fig.Chapter 7 Appendix Appendix . This ﬁgure also shows the rate of work performed by the surface stresses and body forces acting in the x direction.1.2. e. 7. This law states that the sum of the rate of energy ﬂuxes entering the control volume through its boundaries must be equal to the rate of increase of energy contained in the ﬂuid inside the control volume.1) The dot above the individual term represents that this equation is a rate equation. KE. Now the law of conservation of energy. The internal energy is obtained from thermodynamic consideration. Similar expressions can be written by considering the surface and body forces acting in y and z directions.

88

CHAPTER 7. APPENDIX

˙ ˙ by the forces acting on the ﬂuid in the control volume is given by dW . dEc is the energy transported with the ﬂuid which crosses the control volume boundaries by the bulk ﬂuid motion. All other forms of energy transported across the boundary by ˙ molecular movements, for example heat conduction, is given by dEM . For our purpose, the work added to the ﬂuid will be considered positive (in Thermodynamics work done by the ﬂuid is +ve). The rate of work performed by the forces acting in the x direction on the volume element per unit area is shown in Fig. 7.1. This work is positive when the forces act in the ﬂow direction and negative when they act in opposite to the ﬂow direction. The energy transport by ˙ the molecular movement represented by dEM is denoted by i in Fig. 7.1. Taking the stock of the rate of energy entering and leaving and the work done on the control volume one can write the following ∂ρet ˙ dEi = dx dy dz ∂t ∂ρui et ˙ dEc = −dx dy dz ∂xi ∂ i ˙ dEM = −dx dy dz ∂xi ∂τij ui ∂pui ˙ dW = dx dy dz ρui gi + − . ∂xj ∂xi (7.2) (7.3) (7.4) (7.5)

Substituting Eqs.(7.2)-(7.5) into Eq. (7.1), one obtains a balance equation for total energy, et , as ∂ρet ∂ρui et ∂ i ∂pui ∂τij ui + =− − + + ρui gi . ∂t ∂xi ∂xi ∂xi ∂xj (7.6)

The two terms on the left–hand–side of the above equation are respectively the temporal and the convective changes in the total energy of the ﬂuid. The ﬁrst term on the right–hand–side is because of the energy transport by heat conduction and other molecular processes. In a single component ﬂuid, which is of interest here, i is totally given by the Fourier’s law of heat conduction: i = −κf (∂T /∂xi ), where κf and T are respectively thermal conductivity and temperature of the ﬂuid. The next two terms represent the work performed by the surface forces while the last term denotes the work performed by the body force. As noted above et is the total energy which includes the thermal and kinetic energy of the ﬂuid. We are interested in studying the heat transfer which directly depends on the temperature distribution in the ﬂuid as note in Eq. (1.1). Thus, it is instructive to obtain a balance equation for temperature variation which can be obtained from the internal energy, e, or enthalpy, h, equation. By subtracting ui times the momentum equation from Eq. (7.6), the transport equation for the internal energy can be obtained as ρ De ∂ i ∂ui ∂ui =− −p + τij . Dt ∂xi ∂xi ∂xj (7.7)

The momentum equation is ρ Dui ∂p ∂τij =− + + ρgi . Dt ∂xi ∂xj (7.8)

89 Using Eq. (7.7) and the thermodynamic relations: e = h−p/ρ and dh = cp dT + [1 + (∂ ln ρ/∂ ln T )p ]dp/ρ1 one can write ρcp DT ∂ 2T = κf − Dt ∂xi ∂xi ∂ ln ρ ∂ ln T ∂ui Dp + τij . Dt ∂xj (7.9)

p

after using the Fourier law of conduction for i . If one assumes the ﬂuid to be an ideal gas then the coefﬁcient for Dp/Dt term becomes unity. The last term in Eq. (7.9), which can be shown to be a positive deﬁnite quantity, is the viscous dissipation term representing the conversion of mechanical energy into heat by the action of ﬂuid viscosity. The magnitude of this term and Dp/Dt are signiﬁcant only if the ﬂuid is moving at a speed comparable to the speed of sound. However, the Dp/Dt term becomes important in some cases where there is a large variation of pressure in the ﬂow as in the internal combustion engines. Also, if the ﬂuid is very viscous, signiﬁcant heat can be produced even at relatively low speeds, for example as in oil lubricated journal bearings.

Appendix - 2.1: Nondimensional Equations and Parameters
The governing equations obtained earlier in this chapter describes the ﬂow and thermal ﬁelds in viscous ﬂuid ﬂow. A complete analysis of these equations is a difﬁcult task even for computer simulation. Thus, it is highly desirable to simplify these equations. The simpliﬁcations can be made for very small and very large Reynolds numbers. The ﬂows which are of engineering interest are usually at high Reynolds number, Re. In high Re ﬂows involving heat transfer from or to the ﬂuid and the viscous effects occur over a thin region of size δ adjacent to the solid boundary. This observation was ﬁrst made by Ludwig Prandtl and he called this thin region as boundary layer. Figure 2.3 shows this situation for a ﬂow, at free stream velocity U∞ and temperature T∞ , over a ﬂat plate which is at temperature Tw . The thickness of the thin region can be different for ﬂow and thermal ﬁelds. Generally, this thickness is deﬁned as the thickness over which the quantity of interest attains 99% of its free stream value. We will introduce a more formal deﬁnition later. We take the ﬂow to be steady and two dimensional for simplicity purpose. We make the governing equations for mass, momentum and temperature dimensionless by using a reference length scale L, a reference velocity, uref , and ﬂuid density, ρo . The temperature is made dimensionless using a suitable temperature difference ∆T , so that the dimensionless temperature T + varies from zero, on the surface, to unity, in the free stream. The dimensionless governing equations are mass :
1

∂ρ+ u+ ∂ρ+ v + + = 0, ∂x+ ∂y +

(7.10)
From thermodynamics dh = cp dT +
1 ρ ∂ρ ∂T

This relationship can be obtained as follows.
∂v ∂T p ∂ ln ρ ∂ ln T dp ρ .

−T

+ v dp and v = 1/ρ. Using these two expressions, it is straight forward to write
p

dh = cp dT + 1 +

Also dh = cp dT + [1 − βT ] dp , where β = ρ

p

is the

coefﬁcient of volumetric thermal expansion. In some text books, the second form for dh may be used while deriving the energy conservation equation

90 momentum: x: y: ρ + u+ ρ+ u+ ∂u+ ∂p+ 1 ∂u+ +ρ+ v + + = − + + ∂x+ ∂y ∂x Re ∂v + ∂v + ∂p+ 1 +ρ+ v + + = − + + + ∂x ∂y ∂y Re

CHAPTER 7. APPENDIX

∂ 2 u+ ∂ 2 u+ 1 + + + + + + ρ gx , ∂x+ ∂x+ ∂y ∂y Fr (7.11) ∂ 2v+ ∂ 2v+ 1 + + + + ρ gy , ∂x+ ∂x+ ∂y + ∂y + Fr (7.12) ∂2T + ∂2T + + + + + Ec P r Φ+ ∂x+ ∂x+ ∂y ∂y ∂p+ ∂p+ +Ec u+ + + v + + (7.13) . ∂x ∂y

energy :

ρ+ u+

∂T + ∂T + 1 + ρ+ v + + = + ∂x ∂y P r Re

The dimensionless viscous dissipation is denoted by Φ+ in Eq. (7.13). There are four non-dimensional parameters in the above equations. They are Reynolds, Froude, Prandtl and Eckert numbers which are deﬁned respectively as ρo uref L Re ≡ ; µ u2 F r ≡ ref ; go L ν µcp Pr ≡ = ; α κf u2 Ec ≡ ref . cp ∆T

The Froude number is the ratio of inertial force to body force. In forced convection problems, Froude number is usually large and thus the body force term (due to gravitational effect) can be neglected. However, we will retain it to make the equation general. The Prandtl number of ﬂuids varies in a wide range from a value of order 0.01 for liquid metals to a value of order 1000 or more for viscous oils. The Eckert number is the ratio of ﬂuid kinetic energy to its thermal energy. This number is of appreciable magnitude only if the ﬂuid moves at speed comparable to the speed of sound. One should note that in some applications such as hydrodynamic bearings involving liquids with high Prandtl number, the viscous dissipation can not be neglected even the ﬂuid velocities and velocity gradients are moderate. The product of P r and Ec is called Brinkman number Br which signiﬁes the ratio of viscous dissipation to thermal conduction, ie., µ(∂u/∂y)2 /κf (∂T /∂y).

Appendix - 2.2: Functional form of solution
A close examination of dimensionless boundary layer equations will allow us to expect the solution to momentum and temperature equations of the form u+ = F x+ , y + , Re, dp+ ,Fr dx+ dp+ ,Fr dx+ (7.14)

and

T + = G x+ , y + , Re, P r, Ec,

(7.15)

respectively. The appearance of the pressure gradient in the above solution form represents the inﬂuence of geometry of the surface on the velocity and temperature distributions. The above solution forms apply to laminar as well as turbulent ﬂows and are also known as similarity solutions. The speciﬁc forms of these solutions

16) to deﬁne a dimensionless parameter called Nusselt number.1). it could be used to compute the values of local heat transfer coefﬁcient. (7. the average Nusselt number is Nu = hL = G2 (Re. The Nusselt number can be expressed as N u = G1 x+ . Cf = F1 (x+ .17) For a prescribed geometry. Re. to ﬁnd these solutions. In the dimensionless form. Under some circumstances. The interest of heat transfer analysis is to ﬁnd these solutions. h. one can write hL = κf ∂T + ∂n+ ≡ Nu n+ =0 (7. Another important parameter in the boundary layer is the shear stress at the wall. the average heat transfer between the solid body and the ﬂuid can be computed by integrating over the surface of the body. Nusselt number will not depend on the pressure gradient. We will borrow these results as we require for analysis. Re. We shall explore these relations in the next chapter and understand why it occurs. n+ =0 (7. dp+ /dx+ . . Ec. this is given by Cf = τw 2 = 2 ρuref /2 Re ∂u+ ∂n+ . for different ﬂuids and different ﬂow conditions. h. This functional form implies that the Nusselt number must be a universal function of the ﬁve parameters.91 are very much dependent on the problem. Also. This information will then enable us to compute the local heat transfer using the Newton’s law of cooling. the objective of convective heat transfer analysis is to ﬁnd the heat transfer coefﬁcient. dx+ (7.14).18) Now our task is reduced to ﬁnding the functional forms G1 and G2 for the problems of our interest. F r) .Fr . As remarked in chapter 1. Thus. If this function was known. This average value must be independent of the spatial position x+ .19) From Eq. F r). (1. we require the ﬂow ﬁeld as well. The analysis of self similar boundary layers are treated in detail in many ﬂuid mechanics text books. From Eq. Ec. P r. we can get a direct relationship between N u and Cf . However. dp+ . κf (7. N u. P r. This parameter physically signiﬁes the ratio of heat transferred by convection to the amount of heat transferred by conduction in the ﬂuid.

APPENDIX Appendix .025 Thus. From Eq. Substituting (7. 1 P r−1/3 .2. 3. (3. If one considers the situation shown in Fig. and the Stanton number.18) and carrying out the required algebra one gets r3 + 4xr2 13 α dr 13 1 = = . and Stx = 3α . (3. (7. where the plate is initially unheated upto a distance xo . let us follow the proﬁle method used for momentum transfer problem.20) Using Eqs.0: Solution to laminar thermal boundary layer on a ﬂat plate To ﬁnd a solution to Eq. For this condition. where the thermal and velocity boundary layers start to grown from the same location then evaluating C1 is not possible.1. (3.13) and (3.22) The value of C1 is obtained by imposing the boundary condition on r. let us consider the situation shown in Fig. respectively become δe = 3δ r2 r4 − 20 280 .18). . the energy thickness. Stx . Also when xo = 0. 14P r 1. Alternatively.92 CHAPTER 7.21) Θ= 3 2 y δT − 1 2 y δT 3 . δe .21). one get C1 = − 13 3/4 x . 1. 2δT U∞ where r = δT /δ.3 or 3.1. Now r = 0 at x = xo since the thermal boundary layer starts to grow from xo . This condition implies δT δ which also means P r 3 r = ξ. (3. for unity Prandtl number δT ≈ δ as shown in Fig. Substituting the above expressions into Eq. 3. the above equation can be simply written as dξ 3 + ξ= dx 4x which has a general solution: ξ = r3 = C1 x−3/4 + 13 14P r 3 4x 13 . 2. 14P r o =⇒ r= δT 1 xo = P r−1/3 1 − δ 1.025 x r= 3/4 1/3 .3.21) 4 dr 3 x dx 3 for r 1. dx 14 ν 14 P r (7.

7. qw ˙ . Similar to τ ≈ τw . Experiments give U + = 5. (7.93 Appendix . a number of observations can be made: 1. which is observed to be reasonable. which is typically lies in the region 0 < y + < 5 νt νt νt dU + 2 ≈ 1. Experimental measurements give U + = 2. The mixing length model gives νt = νK 2 y + ν dy + =⇒ U+ ≈ 1 ln y + + B. The relative roles played by molecular and turbulent viscosity in different layer are also noted in that ﬁgure. let us say q ≈ qw and ˙ ˙ using the Prandtl number (P r = ν/α).45). uτ uτ = yτ = If one makes an assumption τ ≈ τw . (3. in the near wall region then Eq. 7. dy + The velocity varies linearly with the distance inside the viscous sublayer. dU + dy 2.23) From this simple equation.30 < y + < 400.2b is normalised using the wall variable uτ and δτ as U+ = where U . For ν dU + ≈1 =⇒ U + ≈ y + .0 ln y + − 3. In the buffer layer (5 < y + < 30). (3. uτ and τw ρ y+ = and y .). The velocity variation shown in Fig.2a.05 Thermal boundary layer The thermal boundary layer in turbulent ﬂows has many similarities to the momentum boundary layer.45) can be written as 1+ νt ν dU + ≈ 1. both molecular and turbulence viscosity plays equally important role. dy + with U + = 0 at y + = 0. see Eq. K (B is a const. Deﬁne : ˙ ∂y T + = (Tw − T ) ρ c p uτ . one gets ν 1 νt 1 + P r P rt ν ∂T ≈ −qw . yτ ν .5 3.5 ln y + + 5.3.1: Structure of turbulent boundary layer Hydrodynamic boundary layer To emphasis the structure of turbulent boundary layer over a smooth ﬂat plate is considered in Fig. For ν There is logarithemic variation in the turbulent (outer) layer .

E+01 1.24) =⇒ P r P rt ν dy + From this equation.2: Structure of turbulent boundary layer over a ﬂat plate.94 U∞ CHAPTER 7.E+02 1. the following observations can be made. 3. This Pr P rt ν region is called thermal sublayer or molecular diffusion layer.E+00 1. 1. + 1 1 νt dT + ≈1 (7. a buffer layer will exsists between the sublayer and the turbulent layer. 1 Pr 1 νt .molecular conduction mechanism plays important role. where P rt is the turbulence Prandlt number and its typical value range from 0.E+03 1.turbulence transport dominates molecular conduction P rt ν 2.E+04 y + b) Figure 7.7 to 1. 1 1 νt . APPENDIX outer layer U inner layer turbulent layer (ν buffer layer (ν ≈ νt ) viscous sub-layer (ν νt ) a) 30 νt ) 25 20 viscous wall layer Outer layer Wake region u + 15 10 Viscous sub-layer 5 Buffer layer 0 1. .

o ) = mc cc (Tc.25) to obtain θm . Equating this expression to F times the LMTD for counterﬂow arrangement yields the required result.C: Th = Th.3.o − Tc. 4.cf deﬁnes F . via energy balance analysis. 4.1: A method to obtain the correction factor F Let us consider a simple case of one-pass shell side and two-pass tube side heat exchanger shown in Fig.i ) = 2(U A∗ L)θm ˙ ˙ mh ch (Th.2 Th Tc. The steps involved hot Th.2 – dTc Th + dTh Tc.m . The laborious analyses have been performed in the past for a number of cases and the results are summarised in graphical form in many heat transfer text books and hand books.i − Th. As one can observe that the ﬁnal result for F will depend on the number of passes on the shell and tube sides.o Th. Solution to the above second order ODE gives an expression for 2(U A∗ L) which can be used in Eq.1 + dTc 0 x dx Tc. θm = Th. Equating θm to F ∆Tlm.m − Tc.i − Th.cf F & Figure 7.i − Th ) = 0.1 L Tc. The over all energy balance is mh ch (Th.i Tc.o ) ˙ ⇒ 2(U A∗ L) = .26) with B. d2 Th −2 dx2 U A∗ mh ch ˙ dT + dx U A∗ mc cc ˙ 2 (Th.3: Parallel ﬂow heat exchanger: one–pass shell side. The energy balance across the differential length. dx. two–pass tube side.i at x = 0 and Th = Th. (7. 3. A typical result is shown in Fig. after some algebra. 7.o cold Tc. (7. are: 1.o at x = L.4 which show that the heat transfer rate decreases as the heat capacity of the cold stream increases for given inlet temperatures of hot and cold streams. The method involves obtaining an expression for an appropriate mean temperature difference between hot and cold ﬂuids. yields. θm (7.25) 2.95 Appendix 4.i q = (UA*L)θm = (UA*L)∆Tlm. .

. V. (7.Proﬁle method for natural convection boundary layers Since the veloctiy and temperature variation inside the boundary layer depends on P r.783Ra1/4 y Pr 1 case: According to Fig. we consider P r 1 and P r 1 cases individually. δv x (T − T∞ ) = (Ts − T∞ ) exp − . The algebra involved is lengthy and thus only the ﬁnal result for N u is given below as N u = 0. 5.689Ra1/4 P r1/4 y for P r → 0. The third appropriate equation to consider is the balance between the friction and buoyancy in the region adjacent to the wall.2(a): v = V (y) exp − and x δ 1 − exp − x δT x δT . Pr 1 case: From Fig.14) and letting the upper limit. (T − T∞ ) = (Ts − T∞ ) exp − Substituting these form into Eqs. Integrating this equation from zero to δT yields an algebraic equation.1 . δv ∼ y 1/4 and V ∗ ∼ y 1/2 from the scale analysis. APPENDIX Appendix 5. Solving this equation with the above two ODEs after noting that δ ∼ y 1/4 and V ∼ y 1/2 yields an expression for N u = y/δT . δT and δv as unknown functions of y which are to be found.96 CHAPTER 7.28) . Following the procedure given above for P r 1 after noting that δT ∼ y 1/4 . (1 + q)(1 + 2q) δ involving three unknowns. (5. δ −→ ∞: d dy and V 2 δq 2 2(1 + q)(2 + q) =− d dy νV q δ + gβ(Ts − T∞ ) δ q Vδ α = .27) with V ∗ . 5. (7. δ and q ≡ (δ/δT ). δT 1 − exp − x δT for P r → ∞.2(b) v = V ∗ (y) exp − and x .13) and (5. one obtains N u = 0.