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3A6: Heat and Mass Transfer

**Convective Heat Transfer
**

By N. Swaminathan

Lent 2009

Course Objectives: • understand the principles of convective heat transfer - interplay between ﬂuid mechanics and thermodynamics1 • understand and appreciate the richness of the physics involved • learn to analyse heat transfer problems via control volume and scale analyses • learn to use convective heat transfer correlations • apply these to heat exchanger calculation

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It is a good idea to read your IB Heat transfer - Lab. handout

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Contents

1 Introduction 5 1.1 Approximations . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 7 1.2 Types of Flows . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 7 1.3 Equivalent electrical resistance for convection . . . . . . . . . . . . 10 2 Principles of Convection 2.1 Mass Conservation . . . . . . 2.2 Momentum Conservation . . . 2.3 Thermal Energy Conservation 2.4 Boundary Layer Equations . . 2.5 Scale Analysis . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 11 11 12 13 14 16 21 21 22 35 41 42 48 50

3 Forced convection 3.1 Laminar Flows . . . . . . . . . . . . . 3.1.1 External ﬂows – Flat Plate Case 3.1.2 Internal ﬂows . . . . . . . . . . 3.2 Turbulent Flows . . . . . . . . . . . . . 3.2.1 External ﬂows . . . . . . . . . 3.2.2 Internal ﬂows . . . . . . . . . . 3.3 Non-constant Fluid Properties . . . . .

4 Heat exchanger 53 4.1 Heat Exchanger Analysis . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 54 4.1.1 LMTD method . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 54 4.1.2 ε–NTU method . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 58 5 Natural convection 5.1 Laminar Cases - External Convection . . 5.1.1 Scale analysis . . . . . . . . . . . 5.1.2 Integral approach . . . . . . . . . 5.1.3 Uniform wall heat ﬂux . . . . . . 5.1.4 Inclined walls . . . . . . . . . . . 5.2 Laminar Cases - Convection in Enclosures 5.2.1 Semi–inﬁnite size . . . . . . . . . 5.2.2 Finite size . . . . . . . . . . . . . 5.3 Mixed Convection . . . . . . . . . . . . . 5.4 Effect of Turbulence . . . . . . . . . . . 3 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 61 61 62 64 65 66 66 67 69 71 72

. .1 Boiling Regimes . 6. . . . . . . . . . . . . .2 Scale analysis . . . . . . . . . 7 Appendix CONTENTS 75 76 81 81 84 87 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .2. . . . . . . . . . . . .2 Condensation . . . .1 Laminar ﬁlm condensation 6. . . . . . . . . 6. . . . . . . .4 6 Convection with Phase change 6. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .2.

The convective heat transfer usually occurs at the boundaries (interface separting phases) and thus they appears as boundary condition in the analysis of heat transfer problems. In the current climate of energy economics. Convective heat transfer is very common in engineering and in common dayto-day situations.1: • Chip cooling: the temperature of electronic chip is to be kept below a critical value for its normal operation • Turbine Blade cooling: Surface temperature need to be maintained well below a critical temperature • Why and how condensation occur? . however small it may be. This mechanism is govened by the process of diffusion from high temperature to low temperature regions.Chapter 1 Introduction In solids. the rate of energy loss is important and engineers are constantly faced with a challenging question: What is the rate of heat transfer required to achieve a given objective efficiently? Objective can be different in different applications.will be discussed in detail in mass transfer part 5 . 1. You may have already seen this in some heat conduction problems. which is a microscopic process and it is because of random vibration of molecules and the movement of free electrons. conduction is the sole mechanism for energy transport. see Fig.important for condenser design • Industrial and residential heat exchangers • Boiling water for a cuppo . Fluids are usually set in motion and thus conduction alone occurs in them only in special circumstances such as stagnant ﬂuid. The moving ﬂuid particles carry heat in the form of internal energy and this mode of heat transfer is called convection which involves bulk motion. for example ﬁns. In practical terms.pool boiling • Catalytic converters . For example. we strive hard to minimise energy losses. by all possible ways.

6 CHAPTER 1. In (b) the cooling of the chip is by forced convection. In (c) and (d) the turbine blade is cooled by forced convection.1: Typical applications involving heat transfer.In (a) heat is conducted away from the chip and is lost to the surrounding via ﬁns by natural convection. INTRODUCTION Convection FINS ··· Conduction CAP (a) CHIP BASE HOT COLD FLUID Forced Convection CAP CHIP (b) BASE Figure 1. . In (d) the heat transfer from the warm room air to the cold window pane occurs by natural convection.

Newton’s relationship: ˙ Q = hA∆T ˙ applies. The temperature dependence mainly comes if the ﬂuid properties vary strongly with temperature as in liquids and liquid metals (used in nuclear reactors). The heat transfer coefﬁcient is not a constant but depends on many parameters describing the ﬂuid ﬂow. 2. heat transport and also temperature.1. h is the heat transfer coefﬁcient also known as conductance per unit area and time (W m−2 K−1 ). known as body forces (see Fig.2 Types of Flows Two types (1) External and (2) Internal. The background on thermodynamics acquired from IA/IB and 3A5 modules are adequate.1. natural or free convection: the ﬂuid motion arises because of external force ﬁelds. The ﬂuid is Newtonian and its transport properties are constant. The ﬂuid density varies only with temperature . The heat transport and the ﬂuid ﬂow processes are steady. In this part. 1. see Fig. 4. c and d.W). 2. fans. Compressibility effects become important beyond this speed. forced convection: the bulk motion of the ﬂuid is caused by external means such as pumps. 3. Let us revist the blade cooling problem to highlight important aspects. APPROXIMATIONS Types of convection: 7 1. A is the surface area available for heat transfer and ∆T is a characteristic temperature difference (K). 1. vehicle movement. 1. where Q is the heat transfer rate (watt . we study convective heat transfer by applying the laws of continuum ﬂuid mechanics and thermodynamics. The laws of continuum ﬂuid mechanics are brieﬂy discussed in the next chapter. 1. heat transfer problems with additional complexities are introduced gradually.1b. . etc.1 Approximations The following approximations apply to our analysis with exceptions clearly noted.. In the subsequent chapters.1a and e). 1.strictly valid for airﬂow velocity up to 100 m/sec at room temperature.

which may be interpreted as the ratio of heat transfer rate by convection to a notional heat transfer rate which could occur if conduction were the only possible . h is presented via a non-dimensional number called Nusselt number.8 . INTRODUCTION y T∞ U∞ x Tw L Heat conducted into ﬂuid = Heat convected away −κf A ∂T ∂y = h A (Tw − T∞ ) y=0 =⇒ h = −κf (∂T /∂y)y=0 κf ∼ . CHAPTER 1.1) • κf is the thermal conductivity of the ﬂuid (W m−1 K−1 ) • δt is the thermal boundary layer thickness Commonly. (Tw − T∞ ) δt (1.

ie. Pipe Flow Heat Exchanger Hot Natural Convec. The principles of ﬂuid mechanics.1. is important in convective heat transfer A relationship similar to Eq. 9 where L is an appropriate length scale. δt . thermal boundary layer thickness. are required to determine δt /L.. TYPES OF FLOWS mechanism. Nusselt number N uδt = convection hA∆T hL = = conduction κf A(∆T /δt ) κf δt L .1) can be shown for internal ﬂows and natural convection.2. especially boundary layers. g T∞ < T s cold . This forms the basis for most of our analysis in the subsequent chapters. (1.

3 Equivalent electrical resistance for convection ˙ Q Ts ˙ ∆T = QR R= 1 hA ∆T ˙ Q = 1 hA T∞ =⇒ R = The principles of serial and parallel resistances also apply here. .10 CHAPTER 1. INTRODUCTION 1.

rate of change of mass in the control volume = (mass in − mass out) ∂ρu ∂ρ (dx × dy × dz) = ρu(dy × dz) − ρu + dx (dy × dz) + · · · · · · ∂t ∂x net rate of mass ﬂow in x direction =⇒ ∂ρ ∂ρu ∂ρv ∂ρw + + + = 0. 2. u ∂ρu dx ∂x ∂ρv dy ∂y Figure 2. Thus. v ρv + dy ρu ρu + dx ρv x. v and w as the corresponding ﬂuid velocities. 2. kg m−2 s−1 ) coming into and leaving the control volume in x and y directions.1. (2) momentum conservation and (3) energy conservation. y and z with u. We also assume that there is no mass addition or consumption inside the control volume. The ﬂuid density is ρ. To illustrate the method of obtaining these equations.1: Control volume in cartesian coordinate system shown for a 2D case coordinates are x.1) . the laws of mechanics and thermodynamics applied to a medium (solid or ﬂuid) inside an appropriately selected control volume provide the governing equations. The cartesian y.1 Mass Conservation Figure 2. ∂t ∂x ∂y ∂z 11 (2. which are (1) mass conservation. let us consider a control volume of size dx × dy × dz as in Fig.1 shows mass ﬂuxes (mass ﬂow rate per unit area.Chapter 2 Principles of Convection In the continuum approach.

This equation is known as continuity equation. g.12 CHAPTER 2.which is called substantial derivative.) then the continuity equation becomes ∂ui = 0. This gives ∂ρu dx dy dz = ∂t mu − ˙ in out mu ˙ + k k Fx .4) For an incompressible and Newtonian ﬂuid. Dt ∂t ∂xi i = 1. Eq. the shear.5) . PRINCIPLES OF CONVECTION with t denoting time.2) 2. Dt ∂xi ∂xj ∂xj (2. the shear stress is given by (recall from your IA and IB modules on thermoﬂuids) τxy = τyx = µ ∂u ∂v + ∂y ∂x . k for the forces acting in x-direction. which can also be written as Dρ ∂ui = 0. The x forces. ∂xi We will use the above equation in 2D form for our analysis: ∂u ∂v + =0 ∂x ∂y (2. u1 . magnetic forces. is D ∂ ∂ ≡ + ui . acting on the ﬂuid element include the pressure p. force. 2.3) (2. 2. Now. electric.1). If the ﬂuid is incompressible (ρ = const. The forces acting in the coordinate direction is usually taken to be positive. Now the above equation for the balance of forces acting in the x direction of Fig.4) becomes ρ Dui ∂p ∂ 2 ui =− +µ + ρgi . where µ is the dynamic viscosity of the ﬂuid. The reformulation of this law for a ﬂuid states that the sum of all forces must equal the rate of change of momentum of the ﬂuid mass under consideration (see Fig. 2 and 3 (for 3D) with the repeated index implying summation over it (this is called Einstein notation). +ρ Dt ∂xi The symbol D/Dt.2 Momentum Conservation This conservation law is essentially an extension of Newton’s second law of motion. τ . etc. Fx . (2. u2 and u3 are the velocities in x (x1 ).1 (2D case) becomes ∂ρu =− ∂t ∂ρuu ∂ρvu + ∂x ∂y + − ∂p ∂τxx ∂τxy + + + ρgx ∂x ∂x ∂y (2. y (x2 ) and z (x3 ) directions. forces due to viscous effects and the body forces such as gravity.

This tedious exercise is carried out in Appendix–2.1). Eq.7) ∂t ∂x ∂y ρ ∂y ∂x ∂y gx and gy are body forces acting in the x and y direction respectively. Three unknowns (u.2: Control volume for energy conservation. THERMAL ENERGY CONSERVATION 13 after using Eq.3). (2. This equation is the momenutm equation and for 2D this equation in component form is x − component : y − component : ∂u ∂u ∂u 1 ∂p ∂ 2u ∂ 2u +u +v =− + ν 2 + ν 2 + gx . 2. 2.0 for those interested. If the ﬂuid properties are allowed to vary with temperature then one is forced to include the energy equation along with the above three equations in the analysis. (2. which can be used to get thermal energy conservation equation. (2. u ∂x Figure 2.3. Eqs.6) ∂t ∂x ∂y ρ ∂x ∂x ∂y 2 ∂v ∂v 1 ∂p ∂ v ∂2v ∂v +u +v =− + ν 2 + ν 2 + gy . (2. This approximation is also good for gases when the thermodynamic pressure variation is small which is the case at moderate velocities.2. (2. The energy equation is derived next. The kinematic viscosity of the ﬂuid is ν ≡ µ/ρ.9). One should note that the density and ﬂuid properties are assumed to be constant. In the following.1 to obtain an equation for the total energy (kinetic energy + thermal energy) conservation. v dy ρ u cp T qx ˙ dx ρ u cp T + ∂ρ u cp T dx ∂x qx + ˙ ∂ qx ˙ dx ∂x ∂T qx = −κf A ˙ x.6) and (2. (2. which is a reasonably good approximation for liquids with moderate temperature variation. 2. Temperature can be obtained by solving the energy equation after calculating ﬂow ﬁelds 3. ∂ui net viscous workdone = τij „ ∂xj « ∂v ∂u ∂v ∂u1 + τ22 + 2τ12 + = τ11 ∂x ∂y ∂y ∂x y. Some points to note 1.2.7) .3 Thermal Energy Conservation The ﬁrst law of thermodynamics can be applied to the ﬂuid inside the control volume shown in Fig. simply considering the balance of thermal energy in a control volume as shown in Fig. v and p) and three equations. we shall obtain the temperature equation. .there will be a unique solution 2.

and Prandtl number. which becomes zero on the plate because of no-slip condition. 2.3 is oriented along x axis and the free stream velocity is U∞ . Balancing the energy across the control volume. one gets dx dy dx dy + τij ∂T ∂T ∂2T ∂ 2T ∂T +u +v = α 2 + α 2 + νΦ. ∂t ∂x ∂y ∂x ∂y (2. out of which Reynolds number. (2.4 Boundary Layer Equations A ﬂat plate shown in Fig. Let δ be the charactistics length along y for variation of u from U∞ to zero and also δ << L.6). Applying this to Fig. PRINCIPLES OF CONVECTION Since we exclude the compressibility effects. 2.14 CHAPTER 2. one gets ∂ui dx dy ∂xj (2. We also take U∞ . The equations given by Eqs.8) After using Eq. There are two boundary layers. when u = v = 0. Re.1 and it also identiﬁes a number of non–dimensional parameters. The thermal diffusivity (m2 s−1 ) of the ﬂuid is α = κf /ρcp .9) ∂ρcp T =− ∂t ∂ρ u cp T ∂ρ v cp T ∂ qx ∂ qy ˙ ˙ + + + ∂x ∂y ∂x ∂y where Φ is the viscous dissipation. (2. (2. but the wordone by viscous forces are included because this can be substantial in the case of viscous ﬂuids such as oils. The dimensionless forms of the governing equations are given in the Appendix– 2. L and δ as representative quantities respectively for .3.2. given by Φ=2 ∂u ∂x 2 + ∂v ∂y 2 + ∂u ∂v + ∂y ∂x 2 . one gets: Rate of change = Ein − Eout + Energy addition via workdone.1) for 2D and treating the ﬂuid to be incompressible with constant properties. These gradual changes of velocity and temperature occur over thin regions called boundary layers. Also the free stream temperature T∞ becomes Tw on the plate. obtained by carefully expanding τij in the workdone by the viscous forces noted in Fig. ∂t ∂x ∂y 2. one is related to the ﬂuid dynamics and a second one related to the thermal ﬁeld as in Fig.9) generally govern this type of ﬂows and these equations can be simpliﬁed further. 2. An interesting point to note here is. that is the ﬂuid is at complete rest.3). 2. P r are the most important parameters.7) and (2. the workdone by pressure forces are neglected in this ﬁgure. (2.2. the energy equation simply reduces to the unsteady heat conduction equation in 2D: ∂T ∂2T ∂ 2T =α 2 +α 2.

L Now. 2 ∂y δT Now.3).10) since ∂ 2 u/∂x2 ∼ (U∞ /L2 ) which is much smaller than ∂ 2 u/∂y 2 ∼ (U∞ /δ 2 ) when δ << L. when the Reynolds number is large.. This can be achieved using three different methodologies. (2. 2.12) ∂ 2T ∆T ∼ 2 .3: Development of velocity and thermal boundary layers over a ﬂat plate immersed in a ﬂuid with P r < 1 and ﬂowing at U∞ at far stream.12).6). u. Eq. the distance along the plate. the x momentum equation. (ii) integral approach.10) as ∂u ∂u 1 dp∞ ∂ 2u u +v =− + ν 2. From the continuity equation. ∂x ∂y ρ dx ∂y (2. (2.3) . which is zero for a plane wall case (U = U∞ in Fig. and (iii) similarity δt Tw x . ∂x ∂y ∂y (2. the heat transfer analysis is reduced to ﬁnding solutions of u.2. and y.boundary layer with zero pressure gradient.9). becomes u ∂u ∂u 1 ∂p ∂ 2u +v =− + ν 2. This condition implies that p(x. (2. which simpliﬁes Eq. one gets U∞ δ v∼ . ∂ 2T ∆T ∼ 2 2 ∂x L This gives u ∂T ∂T ∂ 2T +v =α 2. Eq. (2. BOUNDARY LAYER EQUATIONS y T 15 U U δ L Figure 2.11) and (2.4.11) If one applies the Bernoullie equation for the ﬂow outside the boundary layer then dp∞ /dx can be related to dU∞ /dx. ∂x ∂y ρ ∂x ∂y (2. (i) dimensional analysis. x.3). (2. Eq. viz. In the energy equation. This means that dp/dx = dp∞ /dx. (2. y) = p(x) only. The nondimensional form of y momentum equation given in the appendix yields ∂p/∂y ≈ 0. v and T via Eqs.

3 with an objective to ﬁnd the amount of heat transferred from the plate to the ﬂuid. then O(A) ∼ O(10). From Eq. κf Tw − T∞ δt which implies that the nondimensional heat transfer coefﬁcient. Some prelude to these results are noted in Appendix–2. The order of magnitude of the sum or difference is dictated by the dominant term . But it can be done on the back of an envelop yielding many important ﬁrst hand information about the physics of the problem. which is unkown at this stage and the temperature gradient scales as (∆T /δt ). if O(B) > O(C). The similarity solution method is the most accurate and rigorous mathematical approach. (I) Let A = B + C 1. A similar rule applies for division. If B and C are O(B) and O(C) then the order of magnitude of A is O(B). This allows us to choose a length scale for the analysis. thus the normalised convective heat transfer. Advanced mathematics are required for similarity analysis and thus we shall keep our discussion on this method to a bare minimum and borrow the results for our purpose. Let us consider a laminar ﬂow over a ﬂat plate as in Fig. then O(A) ∼ O(B) O(C). The method of dimensional analysis (recall your ﬁrst year experiments on dimensional analysis) is based on scale analysis. 2.1) the Nusselt number is Nu = (∂T /∂y)y=0 L hL = −L ∼ .16 CHAPTER 2. The integral methods are next in the order of accuracy of solutions and its simplicity.2. We also make use of integral methods when required. The symbol O is read as “the order of magnitude”.5 Scale Analysis The scale analysis is nothing but order of magnitude analysis and this method gives only an estimate. (1. (II) If A = B ×C. If B and C are of the same order of magnitude then O(A) ∼ O(B) ∼ O(C). is inversely proportional to δt . PRINCIPLES OF CONVECTION solution methods. In this module. If A = 1 then A is said to be order unity or O(A) ∼ O(1). This method is already used in the brief boundary layer analysis presented above. This method of analysis is simple but yet powerful giving order of magnitude for quantities of interest and it also identiﬁes important dimensionless groups. 2. we will use the control volume analysis predominantly and the scale analysis to get physical understanding.the dominant term rule. (III) Identify the region of interest. 2. . Let us take (Tw − T∞ ) ∼ ∆T . if A = 40. The following rules are deﬁned to guide us in the scale analysis.

15) N u ∼ P r1/2 ReL 1/2 . T ∆T ∆T U δT ∼α 2 δ L δT convection ∼ conduction =⇒ δT ∼ P r−1/3 ReL −1/2 L (2. SCALE ANALYSIS 17 Now we like to see how the thermal boundary layer thickness.17) N u ∼ P r1/3 ReL 1/2 .16) (2. δt . (2. ∂x ∂y ρ dx ∂y U 2 /L U 2 /ρL νU/δ 2 =⇒ δ 1 ∼√ L Re (ρ is taken to be O(1)) The scaling for δT can be found using the temperature equation u ∂T ∂T + v ∂x ∂y = α ∂ 2T ∂y 2 (2. .13) The scales for u and v will depend on the relative size of δ and δT and thus there are two cases. v/δ ∼ U/L and using Eq.11).14) (2.5. Case 2 : y T∞ δ δT U Pr 1 thermal diffusion is slower than momentum diffusion u and v in the thermal B’layer u U u ∼ δT v ∼ δT δ L u. Case 1 : y δT δ T∞ U Pr 1 momentum diffusion is slower than thermal diffusion u and v in the thermal B’layer u u∼U v∼ δ L u. u ∂u ∂u 1 dp∞ ∂ 2u +v =− +ν 2.2. scales. Taking u ∼ U . T U ∆T ∆T ∼α 2 L δT convection ∼ conduction =⇒ δT ∼ P r−1/2 ReL −1/2 L (2.

qw ˙ ρU cp D ∼α qw ˙ ∆T +α . (Detailed analysis of heat transfer in pipe ﬂow is discussed in section 3. the ﬂow is hydrodynamically fully developed.4: Thermal boundary layer development in a pipe ﬂow The energy equation is u ∂T ∂T +v =α ∂x ∂r 1 ∂ r ∂r r ∂T ∂r + ∂ 2T ∂x2 . ∂x D ρU cp D Now the energy equation gives U But h = qw /∆T ˙ =⇒ hD κf ∼ 1+ hD ρU cp D ∼ 1+ hD α κf U D .18 CHAPTER 2. to have N u ≡ hD/κf ∼ 1.1..v x.2). ie. D2 ρU cp D2 Thus. Solution: fully developed region δT D y. We also take u ∼ U and D as appropriate length scale. one requires U D/α 1 (the dominant term rule). PRINCIPLES OF CONVECTION Problem 2. This gives ∂T ∆T qw ˙ ∼ ∼ . one can write the following conditions for N u to be constant . The heat transfer rate per unit area through the wall is qw = ρU cp ∆T ˙ ⇒ ∆T ∼ qw ˙ ρU cp .1: Conduct a scale analysis for the case of heat transfer in laminar pipe ﬂow and ﬁnd the conditions under which the Nusselt number is constant. take v ≈ 0. u entrance region Figure 2. From the above analysis.

4. 2. since we took ∂T /∂r ∼ ∆T /D.5. SCALE ANALYSIS 1.2. In the entrance region the above result is invalid because ∂T /∂r ∼ ∆T /δT and δT D. v ≈ 0 =⇒ the ﬂow is hydrodynamically fully developed. UD α 1. . the ﬂow thermally fully developed. 19 3.

PRINCIPLES OF CONVECTION .20 CHAPTER 2.

An example for internal ﬂow 2 The skin friction coefﬁcient from Eq.3) The scale analysis1 of these equations presented in section 2.5 identiﬁed dependence of N u on Re and P r. 1 21 . The external and internal ﬂows are considered separately. can be neglected. Also.Chapter 3 Forced convection In forced convection the ﬂow is induced by external means and the inertial forces are large compared to the body forces in Eqs. (3. τw = µ(∂u/∂y)y=0 ∼ ∞ √ √ 2 µU∞ /δ ∼ µU∞ ReL /L. Re and P r. the Nusselt number becomes N u = G1 (x+ . (7. The forced convection can occur in laminar or turbulent ﬂows. The following boundary layer equations govern these ﬂows. Exact forms of these solutions depend on the boundary conditions.9). ∂x ∂y ∂y (3.6) and (2. We shall analyse typical cases for each of these. P r. for example) or internal (ﬂow in a pipe. the body forces can be neglected. which are related to one another as we will see later. and hence. ∂x ∂y ρ dx ∂y u ∂T ∂T ∂ 2T +v =α 2. Re. Thus N u depends only on x+ . which can be external (ﬂow over a car. dp+ /dx+ ) and the skin friction coefﬁcient Cf = F1 (x+ . τw ∼ ρU∞ / ReL ⇒ Cf ∼ 1/ Re.2) (3. ∂u ∂v mass : + = 0. (2. Under these circumstances.7). Our objective here is to ﬁnd N u and Cf . for example) ﬂows. the pressure gradient is zero for the plane wall case. Eq.19) is Cf = 2τw /ρU√ . 3. Re. dp+ /dx+ ) (see Appendix 2. (2.2) As it is noted in the previous chapter. Thus. We shall consider steady two-dimensional ﬂows which can also be axisymmetric (such as pipe ﬂows).1 Laminar Flows We consider the heat exchange between a surface and a laminar ﬂuid ﬂow.1) ∂x ∂y momemtum : u energy : ∂u ∂u 1 dp ∂2u +v =− + ν 2. The ﬂow is taken to be incompressible (constant density) and the ﬂuid properties are constant. the ﬂow velocity is taken to be moderate and thus the viscous dissipation term in the energy equation.

Eqs.1. T∞ − Ts Now. The heat transfer to the air ﬂowing over the radiator falls into the external ﬂow category. L y= ˆ y L and Θ= T − Ts . The analysis of these two types are different because of the difference in the nature of the ﬂow involved.5) BC : Θ(ˆ = 0) = 0.1: Control volume for the derivation of displacement. U∞ v= ˆ v . 3. Ts . This means that u and Θ are identical. The ﬂuid velocity is U = U∞ and its temperature is T∞ . ρ U Y B C E Θ= Figure 3.5) and (3.6) and their boundary conditions are identitical implying that their solutions are the same. various quantities are normalised as below: u= ˆ u . y Θ(ˆ → ∞) = 1 y (3.recirculating ﬂow involving ﬂow separation is a typical example. the basic methodology remains the same. to be constant. There are some exceptions to this . (3. ˆy (3. redrawn as Fig. ∂x ∂y ˆ ˆ ∂u ˆ ∂u ˆ 1 ∂ 2u ˆ +v ˆ = . However.4) u(ˆ → ∞) = 1 ˆy (3. solution to boundary layer equations are sufﬁcent to obtain the heat transfer rate. The heat transfer rate is ˙ Q = h A (Ts − T∞ ).22 CHAPTER 3. U∞ x= ˆ x .1. ˆ ∂Θ ∂Θ 1 ∂ 2Θ u ˆ +ˆ v = . 3.6) For P r = 1. ∂x ˆ ∂y ˆ Re ∂ y 2 ˆ BC : u(ˆ = 0) = 0.3 again. the boundary layer equations and their boundary conditions become mass : momen. Analysis of such problem are complex and beyond the level of this module. Thus. For this.1 External ﬂows – Flat Plate Case The heat transfer in external ﬂows are concentrated in the boundary layer. FORCED CONVECTION with heat transfer is the ﬂow through tubes in a heat exchanger such as car radiator. : energy : u ˆ v ∂ u ∂ˆ ˆ + = 0. One needs to know the temperature distribution to obtain the temperature gradient at the wall and thus the energy equation should be solved. where the convective heat transfer coefﬁcient h depends on ∂T /∂y at the wall. let us consider a plane wall in Fig. momentum and energy thicknesses of the boundary layer. We also consider the surface temperature. To exposition the analysis. ∂x ˆ ∂y ˆ Re P r ∂ y 2 ˆ Θ u(y) T − Ts T∞ − Ts Θ (y) A D F . 2.

mass ﬂow across EF.1. which implies that the heat transfer can be obtained from the knowledge of momemtum transfer or skin friction coefﬁcient. for ρ = ρ∞ (3. (3. which is called Reynolds-Colburn analogy. Thus the mass ﬂow rate across BE is = mass ﬂow across AB . 2 ρ∞ U∞ δ1 = ∞ 0 2 ρ∞ U∞ dy − ∞ 0 across EF ρu2 dy − U∞ ρ∞ U∞ 0 ∞ 1− across BE ρu ρ ∞ U∞ dy across AB the momentum thickness is deﬁned as ∞ =⇒ 1 δ1 = 0 u U∞ 1− u U∞ dy.8) which is the integral form of the momentum conservation. advanced analyses show that such analogy exists for P r = 1 also. LAMINAR FLOWS 23 Physically. (3. 3. we learn how to obtain the skin friction coefﬁcient. ∞ ∞ =⇒ 0 (ρ∞ U∞ − ρu) dy = ρ∞ U∞ 0 1− ρu ρ ∞ U∞ dy.7) and allowing Y −→ ∞ =⇒ d 2 U dx ∞ ∞ 0 u U∞ 1− u U∞ dy = ν ∂u ∂y . Momentum transfer Integrating Eq.2) ∂ ∂x Y 0 ∂ ∂x Y u dy 0 since v(0) = 0. one gets v=− From Eq.1) along y upto Y in Fig. for ρ = ρ∞ (3.1.9) By considering the momentum ﬂowing in and out of the control volume. Experimental results offer strong support to this analogy. the displacement thickness is deﬁned as δ∗ = 0 ∞ 1− u U dy. (3.7) u2 dy + uv|Y = ν 0 ∂u ∂y Y . 0 after using Eq. (3. However. 0 (3.3. Now. this implies that the mechanisms for momentum and heat transfers are analogous. It is to be noted that P r = 1 is required for the above analogy to be valid. Equating this to ρ∞ U∞ δ ∗ . 3.10) such analogy for mass transfer also exsists . let us consider the control volume ABEF shown in Fig. This analogy is called Reynolds analogy.1: ∞ ∞ The mass ﬂow across AB = 0 ρ∞ U∞ dy and across EF = 0 ρu dy.1 Now.

let us take u y y =a+b +c U∞ δ δ 2 +d y δ 3 . ∂u = 0 at y = δ. (3.24 Using this δ1 .10) and (3. (3.15) A point to note here is that the scale analysis presented earlier gives the essential features of the above solutions.x = 2τs . Now. x Rex and 0. (3. one need to know how h varies.2).13) dδ 140 ν = dx 13 U∞ By integrating the last part of the above equation. and = 280 2 2 δU∞ ⇒ δ (3. which is different from δ1 and δ ∗ . To obtain the skin friction coefﬁcient by integrating Eq. one obtains 4. dx 2 if Cf.11) This equation states that the rate of increase of momentum deﬁcit in the boundary layer is one half the skin friction coefﬁcient.x = √ . (3. one obtains δ1 = 39 Cf. to have continuous u since both u and v are zero in Eq.11). . This is done next.646 Cf. =√ x Rex and 0. ∂y ∂2u = 0 at y = 0. (3.14) 3 . Rex (3. To establish the direct relationship between Cf.12) are obtained using the boundary conditions u = 0 at y = 0.x = √ Rex which are very close to the exact solutions: δ 5 =√ .64 δ .664 Cf. (3.x and the heat transfer coefﬁcient h. The boundary layer thickness is deﬁned as the distance where u ≈ U∞ .12) where δ is the boundary layer thickness.x = . 2 ρ∞ U∞ (3. ∂y 2 u = U∞ at y = δ. Eq. The four constants in Eq.8) can be written as CHAPTER 3.11). FORCED CONVECTION dδ1 µ(∂u/∂y)0 τs = = .x 3 ν δ. 2 2 dx ρ∞ U∞ ρ ∞ U∞ =⇒ dδ1 Cf. the velocity varition becomes u 3 y 1 y = − U∞ 2 δ 2 δ Using this in Eqs. (3.

7) and Θ deﬁnition and allowing Y −→ ∞ =⇒ d U∞ (Ts − T∞ ) dx ∞ 0 u (1 − Θ) dy = −α U∞ ∂T ∂y .∞ =⇒ dδe = Stx .19) .16) =⇒ δe = dδe −α(∂T /∂y)0 α(∂Θ/∂y)0 h = = = . (3. dx if Stx = h . This is worked out as problem 3. (3. By considering the thermal energy ﬂowing in and out of the control volume. from Eqs. Stx = Cf.16) This equation is the integral form of the energy equation.18) ∞ Stx is called Stanton number which is the ratio of heat transfer per unit area per unit temperature difference to the rate of heat capacity transport by the ﬂow.3. 2 and =⇒ hx = 0.17) Using this δe in Eq.0 (in this chapter) using integral energy balance.∞ Θ∞ ρ∞ U∞ 0 ρu 1− ρ ∞ U∞ dy across BE the energy thickness is deﬁned as u (1 − Θ) dy.∞ Θ∞ dy across AB ∞ − ρucp Θ dy across EF − cp. for P r = 1 .1. along y upto Y in Fig.x . ∞ ρ∞ U∞ cp. 3.332 κf N ux = U∞ νx 1/2 hx x = 0. as we noted earlier. for constant ρ and cp . This gives. 0 after using Eq.332 Re1/2 x κf (3. Θ∞ = 1 U∞ 0 (3. u/U∞ and Θ will be identitical and thus δe = δ1 . one gets ∂ ∂x Y 0 u T dy + v T |Y = α 0 ∂T ∂y Y . LAMINAR FLOWS Heat transfer 25 Integrating the temperature equation.∞ (3. ρ∞ U∞ cp. Eq. dx U∞ (Ts − T∞ ) U∞ ρ∞ U∞ cp.∞ Θ∞ δe = 0 ρ∞ U∞ cp.11) and (3. The Stanton number is also called modiﬁed Nusselt number and St = Nu .3).18).1.(3. (3. 0 (3. Re P r Now.

Now. 2 rδ where r ≡ δT /δ is the ratio of thermal boundary to velocity boundary layer thicknesses. N ux .2: Boundary layer with unheated starting length. 3.331 κf P r 1/3 hx x xo 1/2 and N ux = = 0.2.18). the heat transfer coefﬁcient.21) Now.0 as r= δT 1 xo = P r−1/3 1 − δ 1. one has to solve Eq. for this purpose let us take (3.23) . After applying the boundary conditions Θ(y = 0) = 0. is given by hx = κf = 0 3 κf . and ∂ 2Θ ∂y 2 = 0. (3. ∂Θ ∂y = 0. y=0 . FORCED CONVECTION For P r = 1. for the case shown in Fig. y=δT 3 T − Ts Θ= =A+B T∞ − Ts y δT +C y δT 2 +D y δT 3 . the local heat transfer coefﬁcient. and the y δ δt U T Ts > T T Figure 3. (3.025 x 3/4 1/3 .20) where δT is the thermal boundary layer thickness deﬁned as the distance at which Θ ≈ Θ∞ = 1.331 P r1/3 Rex 1 − κf x T Nu/Nuxo = 0 1 U∞ νx 1/2 xo 1− x 3/4 −1/3 xo L x (3. hx . note : Θ∞ = 1. The value of r has been worked out in Appendix–3. The surface temperature and N u variations along the length of the ﬂat plate are also shown.22) 3/4 −1/3 (3. one gets 3 Θ= 2 y δT ∂Θ ∂y 1 − 2 y δT Θ(y = δT ) = Θ∞ = 1. are hx = 0. hx . local Nusselt number.26 CHAPTER 3.

2.1.24) Experimental results show that the above relation can be used for 0. Some points to be noted in relation to the above analysis are : 1. (2.5 ≤ P r ≤ 15. can be used.0 × 105 for a smooth ﬂat plate.17). xo 3/4 Cf. which is the case for the most of gases and liquids. x for P r 1 or P ex ≥ 103 . For this situation the plug ﬂow model. (3.331P r−2/3 Re−1/2 1 − x Re P r x or Stx P r2/3 = 3/4 −1/3 . 1/2 N ux = 0. ∂ 2T ∂T =α 2 U∞ ∂x ∂y and T = T∞ for x = 0.19). (3. Eq. in which the velocity inside the thermal boundary layer is constant and it is equal to U∞ .23) and rewritting N ux in terms of Stx as Stx = xo N ux = 0.564 P ex . But it does not apply to laminar ﬂow inside a tube. Although it is shown formally for laminar ﬂow over a ﬂat plate with a speciﬁed temperature distribution it applies to turbulent ﬂows over a ﬂat plate and inside a tube as well. and the results from Reynolds analogy. =⇒ with T = Ts at y = 0.331 P r1/3 Re1/2 . since u = U∞ continuity equation gives v = 0.3. in chapter 2. (3. The value of Rec depends on surface roughness and also depends on the ﬂow type (external or internal). But for liquid metals P r 1. (3. y → ∞.26) 2 x This relation is called as Reynolds-Colburn analogy.x 1− . the thermal boundary layer is taken to be inside the velocity boundary layer (P r > 1). This is justiﬁable since δT >> δ (see the scaling analysis. .25) L The analysis presented above is for laminar ﬂow which occurs when Rex < Rec = 5. The Nusselt number for the plate heated over its entire length is N ux = hx = 0. In the above analysis.15) and (3. for this).564 P r1/2 Re1/2 = 0. The Nusselt number averaged over the entire length of the plate is N uL = where h = 1 L hL = 2N ux=L κf h dx = 2hx=L 0 (3. Comparing Eqs. This result is to be compared with the scaling analysis result in Chapter 2. x κf Pr 1 (3.27) Peclet number number is P e = Re P r. LAMINAR FLOWS 27 The variation of N ux normalised by its value when xo = 0 is also shown in Fig. Eq. 3. 2. From this. −1/3 The solution of unsteady heat conduction in a semi-inﬁnite medium can be used after substituting τ = x/U∞ .

3. area from the plate is q = q1 +q2 = ˙ ˙ ˙ κf 0. 3. FORCED CONVECTION 3.28 CHAPTER 3. is considered to be uniform. 3.331P r1/3 Re1/2 ∆T 1 − x −1/3 x2 3/4 x Figure 3. The local heat transfer rate per unit Ts 111111111111111 000000000000000 111111111111111 000000000000000 x1 x2 x ∆T = (Ts − T∞ ) f T∞ T∞ 111111111111111 000000000000000 111111111111111 000000000000000 κ case (i): q1 = h∆T = ˙ x 0. Note that the heat transfer rate is ˙ ˙ almost inﬁnite at x1 and x2 because the thermal boundary layer thicknesses are zero at these locations(see Fig.331 P r1/3 Re1/2 ∆T x x q∗ ˙ 1− x1 x 3/4 −1/3 − 1− x2 x 3/4 −1/3 .331P r1/3 Re1/2 ∆T 1 − −1/3 x1 3/4 x 111111111111111 000000000000000 111111111111111 000000000000000 −∆T = −(Ts − T∞ ) case (ii): q2 = −h∆T = − ˙ κf 0. for example as shown in Fig. the surface temperature. The negative q for x ≥ x2 implies ˙ 2 that the ﬂuid transfers heat to the plate. 2 If the plate temperature varies continously then the above expression can be generalised as 111111111111111 000000000000000 111111111111111 000000000000000 x ξ q ˙ = [TS (ξ = 0) − T∞ ] + q∗ ˙ x 3/4 −1/3 T∞ Ts 1− 0 ξ x dTs dξ dξ . Ts .3).3. But in many engineering situations it can vary along the length of the plate.3: The principle of superposition for ﬁnding heat transfer rate from a ﬂat plate with a ﬁnite heated length in a laminar ﬂow. The variation of q/q ∗ is shown in Fig. In the above analysis.4.

the pressure gradient is non–zero and this category of ﬂows are called wedge ﬂows.5. the N u is given by N ux = 0. qs is speciﬁed (for example by placing an electrical heater). two speciﬁc cases to our interest are (1) ﬂow over a ﬂat plate and (2) stagnation point ﬂow. Out of many cases studied in the past. 1/2 for The local surface temperature is obtained from Ts. the plate may be inclinded at some angle to the ﬂow. x0 = x2 ) 0 1 2 3 -5 x /x 1 Figure 3.6 shows the variation of √ F = N u/ Rex with Γ. hx κf N ux 5. the blowing or suction parameter. x0 = x1) & qs (Ts .4: Varitiation of q/q ∗ with x/x1 for case (i) (solid line).453 P r 1/3 Rex . in some special cases the plate may even be placed perpendicular to the ﬂow. Figure 3.28) (3. 3. In these situations. The ﬂat plate case also belongs to this category. In the above analysis Ts is speciﬁed. Another point to note in the above analysis is that the pressure gradient is zero (ﬂat plate case). In both cases the ﬂuid is taken to be air (P r = 0.x = 4 C.1 6.3. case (ii) ˙ ˙ (dashed line). (2 − β)Rex and N ux = N Rex .x = T∞ + qs x ˙ qs ˙ = T∞ + .1. The values of C and N are summarised in Table 3. In many practical problems the surface heat ﬂux.6 (3. 1/2 β is related to the orientation of the plate and it is deﬁned in Fig. The heat transfer rate will also be inﬂuenced by suction or blowing through the plate.7).x and N ux are Cf. and the total (line with symbol) heat transfer rate for the plat with temperature distribution shown above. for the above two 4 5 Ts P r > 0. The solutions are given in advanced texts but the ﬁnal solution for Cf.29) . LAMINAR FLOWS 29 T 15 T x2 U x1 qs & * q &s 5 & qs (Ts . For this ˙ case. 4. Some times.

In case of blowing.6866 0. 3.236 1.0 10 1.8 1.30 CHAPTER 3. the temperature gradient at the surface will increase resulting in enhanced heat transfer.523 0. these changes depends on the ratio vs /v. As consequence of this.344 0.2326 0.6. U U(x) U(x ) βπ/2 0<β<1 U(x ) .736 2.1: Values of parameters C and N in Eq. m= β (see Fig.378 0.307 0. there will also be mass transfer and thus one need to consider the combined heat and mass transfer. This technology is widely used in gas turbines. is the same as the free stream ﬂuid in terms of composition. If not.0 5.292 0.29 for isothermal surface β C N P r = 0.2 0.440 0.348 0. This ratio is also related to the parameter Γ which is deﬁned as vs 1/2 Γ= Re U x 2 m+1 1/2 .043 1.813 0. 3.6 1.9276 0.858 0.570 1.5).5 0.0 1.851 0.496 0.730 cases. When there is strong suction. It is also important to note that the injected ﬂuid.403 0.013 0.331 0. The negative Γ implies suction while its positive value means blowing.5: The possible orientations of a ﬂat plate.938 1. This science has led us to the invention of ﬁlm (injection is at angle to the plate) and transpiration (injection is almost perpendicular to the plate) cooling technology.0 0. FORCED CONVECTION Table 3.669 0. There is a critical value of Γ beyond which the heat transfer becomes zero as shown in Fig.332 0.7 0.384 0. rocket nozzles and in nose cones etc. the boundary layers move away from the surface leading to a decrease in the temperature gradient at the surface and thus the heat transfer rate decreases. the heat transfer is very large because the boundary layers moves very close to the surface. 3.4696 0.5210 0. 2−β When the blowing is signiﬁcant. to protect the metal surface from the hot gases..585 0. But the concept of ablative cooling used in the re-entry vehicles such as space shuttle is different as it involves heat y β = 2m/(m+1) x U β=0 U(x) U U β=1 -1 < β < 0 Figure 3.792 1. in the case of blowing. the temperature gradient at the surface will be smaller compared to the case with no injection leading to a decrease in the heat transfer rate. However. where v is the natural cross stream velocity inside the boundary layer and vs is the injection velocity.

0. The average Nusselt number for the case of ﬂow over a sphere is given by N uD = 2 + 1/2 0. Many practical devices involving heat transfer include geometries which can not be simpliﬁed as ﬂat plate. In the above correlation. In these situations. The analysis of this problem is beyond the level of this module. One needs to do a full numerical simulation or comprehensive experiments to obtain the heat transfer rate. +Γ: blowing and mass transfers with chemical reactions inside the boundary layers.4406Γ . The ﬂuid has a Prandtl number of 0.31) Note that when there is no ﬂow the average Nusselt number is 2 which corresponds to heat transfer by conduction from a spherical surface to quiescent inﬁnite medium surrounding the surface4 . The results of these studies can be summarised in terms of average Nusselt number. These behaviors play prominent role and the method of boundary layer analysis is inapplicable. for m = 1 3 2 F = 0.7.2 for few typical cases. The values of C and m are different for different geometries and also depend on the Reynolds number. Tf = 0. D κf (3. LAMINAR FLOWS 31 4 F F = 0. hot gas ﬂow over long tubes in recuperators and re-heaters in industrial boilers and heat exchanger.6: Variation of F = N u/ Rex with blowing parameter Γ in laminar ﬂows over a ﬂat plate (m = 0) and in a two–dimensional stagnation point ﬂow (m = 1) when the surface temperature is kept constant. with T = Ts on the surface at radius r = R and T = T∞ as r → ∞. R r R 3 .592Γ .06ReD Pr 0. the ﬂuid properties are strictly to be evaluated at ﬁlm temperature3 .496 .4 µ µs . ⇒ N uD = = 2. for m = 0 1 0 -6 -4 -2 Γ 0 -1 2 √ Figure 3. 7. −Γ: suction. (3. N u.3.1.5(Ts + T∞ ) dT 4 1 d κf r 2 = 0. 2 dr r dr 1 1 D solving this system one gets (T (r) − Ts ) = (T∞ − Ts )R − .4ReD 1/4 + 2/3 0.0.30) where D is a characteristic length.293 . as N uD = hD = C Rem P r1/3 . These values are given in Table 3. For example. the behavior of the boundary layer depends strongly on the Reynolds number and very often separtation and transition of boundary layers occur.

These correlations are available in heat transfer text and data books. interaction of wakes. obtain the integral form of the energy equation. for example references 1–5 listed at the end.228 0.30) for various geometries Geometry U D ReD 4x104 – 4x105 C 0.805 D 5x103 – 105 0. In this case.16) 0 .102 0.588 D 103 – 104 0.782 8.∞ T∞ v dx = across DF : across CE : qs = wall heat ﬂux = −κf ˙ = −ρ∞ cp.1. the ﬂow is complicated involving separation. Problem 3. (3. There are a number of industrial applications in which ﬂow over banks of tubes are relevant. Eq. The average heat transfer coefﬁcient for these situations is determined largely by experimentally obtained empirical correlations for speciﬁc arrangement of the tubes. etc. (3.675 D 5x103 – 105 0.027 m 0.2: Constants in Eq. ˙ ρ∞ cp.0 : Considering the energy balance in control volume CDEF in Fig.0385 0.638 4 5 D 10 – 10 0. FORCED CONVECTION Table 3.∞ T∞ dx ∂T ∂y 0 ∞ ∂u dy ∂x 0 net rate of energy ﬂowing in =⇒ d dx d dx ∞ 0 ∞ 0 net rate of energy ﬂowing out ∂T ∂y ∂T ∂y u(T − T∞ ) dy = −α u (1−Θ) dy = −α U∞ 0 =⇒ U∞ (T∞ −Ts ) .153 0. (3.32 CHAPTER 3.16).731 D 103 – 105 0. Solution ∞ Rate of energy ﬂowing across CD : 0 ∞ ∞ ρ u cp T dy ρ u cp T dy 0 across EF : 0 ρ u cp T dy + d qs dx. same as Eq.246 0. 3.

3.31 W. we need to know if the ﬂow is turbulent or laminar. LAMINAR FLOWS Problem 3. ˙ Q = hA(Ts − T∞ ) = h(L × W )(Ts − T∞ ) and W = 1.2 m To ﬁnd h. 2 m Pr = 0.1. 2 m Ts = 350 K 1.84E-05 m2/s κf = 0. L (< 5 × 105 ) =⇒ laminar ﬂow. Solution heat dissipation rate = heat transfer rate. Using the properties given above.3 × 105 ν h = Nu κf .25 ˙ =⇒ Q = 0.028 W/m-K Electronic components are mounted at the bottom side U = 2 m/s T = 300 K Determine the rate of heat dissipation from the plate shown in the ﬁgure above. ReL = U∞ L = 1. 3.7 ν= 1.1 : 33 1. N u from Eq. 1/2 .664 ReL P r1/3 × κf × W × (Ts − T∞ ) = 358.

ii) If the plate is mounted ﬂush with a roof surface at 2m from the leading edge of the roof then what is the heat loss? Solution : Air properties at 10◦ C: ν = 14. N uL = 2N uL = 0.2 : Cover plate of a ﬂat-plate solar collector of 1m length and 2m width is at 15◦ C.331 P r1/3 Rex 1 − 3 . Re = U∞ L 2×1 = = 1. i) Determine the convective heat loss from the plate.39E05 ν 14.34 CHAPTER 3.38 × 10−6 1/2 =⇒ laminar ﬂow. κf = 24.71 Given: Ts = 15◦ C. 0.46 2 x −1/2 3/4 −1/3 1− 1.85 κf ˙ Q= N uL A (Ts − T∞ ) = 55. 10◦ C 15◦ C 2m 0 2m xo 1m 2m Rex=3 = 4.94×10−3 Wm−1 K−1 .2 × 105 < 5 × 105 .91 W ˙ =⇒ Q = 27. W = 2 m ˙ (i) Convective heat loss Q = h A (Ts − T∞ ) 2 m/s. x 1/2 N ux = 0. T∞ = 10◦ C and U∞ = 2m/s. A wind at 2 m/s ﬂows parallel to the collector plate. while the ambient air is at 10◦ C. 10◦ C 15◦ C 2m 1m Pr = W To get h = N uL κf /L. with xo = 2 = 38. one needs to know if the ﬂow is laminar or turbulent.08 W L (ii) Flat plate with unheated starting length 2 m/s.664ReL P r1/3 = 220. .38×10−6 m2 s−1 . ˙ Q= 0 L L =⇒ laminar ﬂow 3 q dA ˙ = 0 hx (Ts −T∞ ) W dx xo x 2 x = κf W (Ts −T∞ ) 2 3/4 −1/3 N ux dx.417 (evaluated numerically) Note: about 30% reduction in the heat loss compared to the arrangement in (i). FORCED CONVECTION Problem 3.

7. the viscous effects extend over the entire cross section of the tube and the velocity proﬁle will not change with the distance. For non–circular cross section. From Fig. ie ∂u/dx = 0. Thermal situation is shown for P r < 1. where the merging distance x∗ measured from the entrance depends on the Reynolds number.7: (a) Hydrodynamic and thermal boundary layers in laminar tube ﬂow. of the tube is less than 2000. 3. the viscous force balances the pressure force in the momentum (a) thermal entrance region δt δ fully developed region u/2Ub (b) τ 2πrdx (p + dp)πr2 r Θ(r) p πr2 hydrodynamic entrance region fully developed dx Figure 3.3. (b) control volume for analysis of momentum transfer. This is shown in Fig.7(b) πr2 dp − 2πr dx τ = 0 and using Newton’s expression for τ .5 Thus. LAMINAR FLOWS 35 3. 3. and the diameter. This condition gives the radial velocity v = 0 from the continuity equation . For tube with circular cross section. where Ac is the cross P sectional area of the tube and P is the wetted perimeter.2 Internal ﬂows The growth of the boundary layer is physically contrained in internal ﬂows leading to shrinking of inviscid (potential) ﬂow region and merging of boundary layers unlike in external ﬂows.1. x. Momentun transfer In fully developed region (x > x∗ ). D. equation. Dh = . one gets du = r 2µ dp dx dr. The ﬂow is laminar if the Reynolds number based on the bulk mean velocity (deﬁned below). diameter is the geometric diameter of the tube. =⇒ u(r) = r2 4µ dp dx + C1 . Ub . the 4Ac appropriate diameter is the hydraulic diameter.1. The condition of no–slip velocity at the wall yields u(r) = 5 1 4µ dp dx r 2 − R2 . Fully developed velocity the nondimensional temperature proﬁles are also shown.

4 (3. The above ﬂow is called Hagen–Poiseuille ﬂow.33) Deﬁning the Darcy friction factor (see Fig. The skin friction coefﬁcient for the pipe ﬂow. ⇒ the bulk mean velocity Ub = m ˙ R2 =− ρAc 8µ dp dx 2 =⇒ u(r) r =2 1− Ub R . For tubes with circular cross–section ⇒ Tb = 2 Ub R 2 R r u T dr.7. if one deﬁnes a dimensionless temperature increment Θ(r.15) as f= Heat transfer If the surface temperature of the pipe is Ts then the local heat ﬂux is qs = h(Ts − Tb ). which implies that dTb /dx and ∂T /∂x can never be zero. (3.37) then it is known that ∂Θ/∂x = 0 exists.36) Since the ﬂuid is gaining heat Tb varies in the ﬂow direction x.34) m cp Tb = 2πρcp ˙ 0 r u T dr (3. 3. The ﬂows exhibiting this behaviour are called thermally fully developed ﬂows and have Θ(r. with typical variation shown in Fig. Cf . Thus. the mass ﬂow rate. 0 (3. However.35) is used as a reference temperature since there is no free stream temperature. x) = (T − Ts ) (Tb − Ts ) (3. 3. . which means that the normalised temperature increment does not change with the distance along the pipe. ˙ where Tb is the bulk mean temperature of the ﬂuid which is deﬁned via R 64 ReD =⇒ Cf = f .32) In practice. which is also known as Fanning friction coefﬁcient. m (kg s−1 ) is usually known and thus the bulk mean ˙ velocity is also known. x) = Θ(r).36 Now the mass ﬂow rate is R CHAPTER 3. is Cf = 2τs 16 = 2 ρUb ReD since τs = µ du dr = r=R 8µUb D (3. FORCED CONVECTION m = 2πρ ˙ 0 ru(r) dr. a condition similar to that of ∂u/∂x = 0 can not be used to deﬁne thermally fully developed ﬂow.

LAMINAR FLOWS 37 Figure 3. Two practically meaningful conditions are (i) constant surface heat ﬂux (qs = const) and (ii) constant surface temperature (Ts = const).36 for pipes with circular cross section. The energy balance as in the previous case gives dTb = dx πκf mcp ˙ N uD (Ts − Tb ) (3. For heat transfer analysis of fully developed ﬂows.1). By extending the control volume shown in Fig. R. 3. 3. net energy convected out −ρcp 2πr dr d(uT ) = = net energy conducted in = r ∂T ∂r . based on the diameter of the tube D is constant and it is equal to 4.38) d(qr 2πr dx) ˙ ∂T ∂ =α ∂x ∂r =⇒ u By solving this equation one can ﬁnd T (x. let us consider the energy balance in the control volume in Fig. the energy balance in terms of the bulk mean temperature. if boundary conditions are speciﬁed. gives dTb = dx 2πR mcp ˙ qs ˙ 2πR mcp ˙ (3. N uD = hD/κf .41) . the tube wall.40) (ii) Constant Surface Temperature: For this case also N uD is constant (see Problem 2. −d κf ∂T 2πr dx ∂r (3. ˙ (i) Constant Surface Heat Flux: This case is analysed in Problem 3. The important conclusion is that the Nusselt number.8.1. r).3.8 to. Tb .8: Control volume for heat transfer analysis.39) =⇒ Tb (x) = Tb (xo ) + qs (x − xo ) ˙ (3.3.

which can be used to obtain the heat transfer rate after calculating Tb .9: The variation of Tb and Ts along the pipe length for (a) qs = const ˙ and (b) Ts = const cases.3: N u and f for fully developed laminar tube ﬂows Concept of log mean temperature difference (LMTD) Let us consider a laminar ﬂow inside a tube of length L at a mass ﬂow rate of m ˙ −1 (kg s ). Ts . Table 3. is constant. πκf N uD (x − xo ) mcp ˙ =⇒ Ts − Tb (x) = [Ts − Tb (xo )] exp − (3.42) The above analysis can also be applied for non-circular tubes but D should be replaced by the hydraulic diameter Dh .38 (a) T Ts q ˙ h CHAPTER 3. This N u gives h.3. The surface temperature of the tube. FORCED CONVECTION (b) Ts T Tb Tb x x Figure 3. A ﬂuid enters the . The values of N uD for various cross sections are given in Table 3.

are calculated using the appropriate N u expression. LAMINAR FLOWS 39 tube with a bulk mean temperature of Tb. ln (∆To /∆Ti ) ∆To ∆Ti . ˙ but from Eq. ˙ Q Th hot side Ts cold side Tc .1.o − Tb. (3. For simplicity purpose. ˙ ˙ where c is the speciﬁc heat capacity of the ﬂuid ( = cp for gases) and ∆T = (Ts − ˙ Tb ). let us consider two ﬂuids. which is usually used to calculate the required tube length to achieve the speciﬁed exit temperature for a given inlet temperature. Thus. Now the heat gained by the ﬂuid over the length L is ˙ Q = m c(Tb.i and leaves the tube at Tb. The heat transfer rate can be obtained as Q = hAs (LM T D). The heat transfer rate is ˙ Q = hh Ah (Th − Ts ) = hc Ac (Ts − Tc ) = U A(Th − Tc ) =⇒ (U A)−1 = Th − Tc = (hh Ah )−1 + (hc Ac )−1 . Heat exchangers usually involve two or more ﬂuids (see page 9). The other heat transfer coefﬁcients. one is hot and ﬂowing through the tube and the second one is cold and is ﬂowing outside the tube. m c(∆Ti − ∆To ) = h As (LM T D).3.43) which is known as Log mean temperature difference and often referred to as LMTD ˙ in the analysis of heat exchanger. ˙ Q where U is the overall heat transfer coefﬁcient (W m−2 K−1 ). The equivalent resistance circuit is shown in the ﬁgure below with temperatures and the direction of the heat ﬂow. The heat is transferred from the hot to the cold ﬂuid and the conductive resistance in the tube wall is negligible. hh and hc .i ) = m c(∆Ti − ∆To ).42) Thus LM T D = h As = −m c ln ˙ ∆To − ∆Ti . (3. This Q must have been supplied by the tube wall.o .

) Solution u r 2 =2 1− . in a circular tube when its wall has uniform heat ﬂux. and T (r = R) = Ts r=0 =⇒ ∂T 1 dTs = ∂r rα dx ru dr = 2Ub dTs r r3 − α dx 2 4R2 =⇒ T (r) = Ts − r4 2Ub dTs 3R2 r2 − + α dx 16 4 16R2 From the deﬁnition of the bulk mean temperature Tb . (3. = 0.(3. FORCED CONVECTION Problem 3. (3. This does not apply to turbulent ﬂows. which is hydrodynamically and thermally fully developed. (3.32) Ub R ∂Θ thermally fully developed ﬂow: h is constant. Eq. κf ρUb cp R 2 dTb dx Note: The Nusselt number in fully developed internal laminar ﬂows is constant. (Eq.36. qs . But it requires advanced maths. ∂x dTs ∂Θ ∂T dTs dTs dTb = = 0 in Eq.3 : Determine the Nusselt number for laminar ﬂow. see Eq.: qs = ˙ Equating the above two expressions =⇒ N uD = hD = 4.38). becomes fully developed laminar ﬂow =⇒ u dTs 1 ∂ = α dx r ∂r r ∂T ∂r with ∂T ∂r (since Ts −Tb = qs ˙ = const) h = 0.40).40 CHAPTER 3.37) gives = −Θ − ∂x ∂x dx dx dx dx the energy equation. ˙ (Recall Example 2. .5. Tb −Ts = 2 Ub R 2 R uT r dr−Ts 0 = − 11 96 2Ub α dTb 2 R dx note : dTs dTb = dx dx =⇒ qs = h ˙ 11 96 2Ub α dTb 2 R dx But from the control volume analysis. A simillar result can be obtained for Ts = const case also.1 in section 2.

4: Critical Reynolds number for transition to turbulent ﬂow External ﬂows Rex ∼ 106 Internal ﬂows ReD ∼ 2000 Free jet (round) ReD ∼ 30 Film condensation on a vertical wall Rex ∼ 450 The turbulent ﬂows are observed to have mean and ﬂuctuations in velocity and other quantities (see Fig. Table 3. Formally these quantities can be shown (after some algebra)6 to be 6 for energy conservation in Eq. If a small disturbance is introduced into a ﬂow then the viscous force will dampen the disturbance while the inertial forces will amplify them via non–linear interaction. beyond which the turbulent behavior is predominant. These additional ﬂuxes are T signal T u U t Figure 3.3. Rec . with u = 0.3): ∂uT ∂vT ∂2T ∂uT ∂vT ∂2T + = α 2. One can naturally think of a critical Reynolds number. the instantaneous values can be written as u = U +u . the disturbance grows and multiply and the lamella structure in the laminar ﬂow is lost leading to turbulent ﬂow. TURBULENT FLOWS 41 3.10: Typical traces of velocity and temperature signals in a low Re turbulent ﬂow.10). the ratio of inertial to viscous forces determines whether the disturbance grows or dies. 3.4. Thus.⇒ + = α 2 − ∂x ∂y ∂y ∂x ∂y ∂y . v = 0. u 2 = 0. If one considers the control volume analysis as for the laminar cases. these ﬂuctuations will give rise to additional transport of momentum and energy across the control volume. Thus. pressure and inertial forces. These ﬂuxes are called Reynolds stress and Reynolds ﬂux respectively for momentum and energy transport. non-zero in the mean and they can be very large in high Re ﬂows. (3. T = T +T .2. where the overbar indicates the mean values and u and T denote the ﬂuctuations in the velocity and temperature respectively. The Reynolds number is the ratio of these two forces and thus if the Reynolds number is large.2 Turbulent Flows The force balance for a moving ﬂuid parcel includes viscous. The value of Rec depends on the type of ﬂow and its typical values are given in Table 3. and u T = 0.

42

CHAPTER 3. FORCED CONVECTION

−ρu v and −ρu T (note that ρ = const for our analysis). These two quantities do not dependent on ﬂuid but they srongly depend on the ﬂow and they are to be modelled using turbulence modelling. Let us consider a simple algebraic model called eddy viscosity or eddy diffusivity model. This model assumes that these quantities are proportional to the gradients in the respective mean quantities in a manner analogous to molecular transport (Newton’s law for shear stress or Fourier law for heat conduction) as −u v = νt ∂U ∂y and − v T = αt ∂T νt ∂T = , ∂y P rt ∂y (3.44)

where the constants of proportionality, νt and αt , are turbulent diffusivities which depends on the ﬂow and are to be modelled. Now, the total shear stress and the conductive heat ﬂux will be the sum of molecular and turbulent parts: τ = ρ(ν + νt ) ∂U ∂y and − q = ρc(α + αt ) ˙ ∂T . ∂y (3.45)

To obtain a simple model for turbulence viscosity νt , let us consider two points separated by some distance l along y inside the boundary and let us denote the mid point as yo . Now expanding the velocity U about yo using Taylor’s series, U yo + l 2 = U (yo ) + l ∂U , 2 ∂y and U yo − l 2 = U (yo ) − l ∂U 2 ∂y

It is postulated (called Prandtl’s mixing length postulate) that u and −v are of the order of ∆U between the two points considered. Thus, ∂U u ≈l , ∂y ⇒ −u v = l

2

∂U ∂y

2

= νt

∂U ∂y

=⇒ νt = l2 |

∂U ∂y|,

where l is the mixing length given by l = K y, with K ≈ 0.4 known as Von Karman constant.

3.2.1 External ﬂows

If one uses the above model for νt and conducts the analysis given in Appendix 3.1 then the complex structure of the turbulent boundary layer becomes apparent. This structure is shown in Fig. 3.11. The molecular viscosity plays an important role in the viscous sublayer while the turbulent viscosity plays a predominant role in the outer layer. Between these two layers, the effects of both the molecular and the turbulent viscosity play important role. In an analogous manner, one can expect similar structure in thermal boundary layer also, as noted in Appendix 3.1. For heat transfer calculation, recalling the Reynolds–Colburn analogy, Eq. (3.26), Cf,x , 2 one needs to know the skin friction coefﬁcient. This can be obtained by considering the momemtum transfer. Stx P r2/3 =

∂u T ∂v T − ∂x ∂y

3.2. TURBULENT FLOWS

U∞

43

outer layer U inner layer

turbulent layer (ν buffer layer (ν ≈ νt ) viscous sub-layer (ν

νt )

νt )

Figure 3.11: Structure of turbulent boundary layer over a ﬂat plate. Momentum transfer A number of experimental studies suggest that U over the entire boundary layer and the local skin friction coefﬁcient can be approximated as U = 8.75 τw ρ

4/7

y ν

1/7

and

Cf,x τw = = 0.0225 2 2 ρU∞

U∞ δ ν

−1/4

,

(3.46)

where δ is the turbulent boundary layer thickness. To calculate this thickness, one needs to consider the integral momentum balance as we did for laminar ﬂow. This is given as problem 5 in example sheet 3. The boundary layer thickness δ is δ Cf,x −1/5 = 0.3707Rex =⇒ = 0.0288Re−1/5 . x x 2 (3.47)

One should be aware that a number of correlations, based on experimental measurements, are available for higher Reynolds number ﬂows. Details of these correlations can be found in appropriate data books and reference listed in this notes. Heat transfer The heat transfer coefﬁcient can now be obtained using the Reynolds–Colburn analogy and Eq. (3.47) as Stx P r2/3 = =⇒ N ux = Cf,x 2 = 0.0288 Re−1/5 x since Stx = N ux , Rex P r

L

hx 4/5 = 0.0288 Rex P r1/3 , κf

(3.48)

**The average Nusselt number is N uo−L hL 4/5 = = 0.038 ReL P r1/3 , κf 1 where h = L h dx.
**

0

(3.49)

h comes from Eq. (3.48). Some points and extensions to note from the above results are:

44

**CHAPTER 3. FORCED CONVECTION
**

1. Although N ux given above is obtained for an isothermal plate, it can also be used for constant heat ﬂux from the plate. The error is typically within 4%. 2. When there is suction or blowing at velocity vs , through the plate as shown in Fig. 3.12, there will be advection of momentum and heat in the direction perpendicular to the plate inside the boundary layer. This should be taken into account in the analysis, which is complicated. But the ﬁnal results for the skin friction coefﬁcient and the Stanton number are given as Cf,x ln(1 + Γt ) = , (Cf,x )o Γt and Stx ln(1 + Bt ) = (Stx )o Bt Cf,x (Cf,x )o

1/2

,

where the subscript o refers to the case with no blowing or suction. The parameters Γt and Bt are deﬁned as Γt = vs Cf,x , U∞ 2 and Bt = vs . U∞ Stx

Thus, the expressions for Cf,x and Stx are implicit. The positive value for Γt and Bt means blowing while their negative values mean suction.

U∞

U

vs

Figure 3.12:

3. As we noted in the laminar ﬂow case, a plate with unheated starting length provides basic building block for constructing solutions for non–isothermal surfaces. The solution process is complex and laborious but the ﬁnal result is simply

Ts T∞

x

xo

Stx P r2/3 =

Cf,x 2

1−

xo x

9/10 −1/9

,

(3.50)

where (Cf,x /2) is given by Eq. (3.47). 4. The wall surface roughness disturbs the laminar sublayer when the roughness size is comparable to the viscous sublayer thickness. Thus the momentum

(3. and • in range of Re∗ between the above two limits. hlam . This is justiﬁable to some extent. (3. (3.52) . 3.28) for constant surface heat ﬂux case.664Rexc + 0. the wall is considered to be aerodynamically smooth • for Re∗ > 70. htur . This situation is shown schematically in Fig.24) for constant surface temperature case or Eq. the wall is considered to be fully rough. Deﬁning a roughness Reynolds number as Re∗ ≡ . xc (3. Equation (3.x becomes independent of Re when the surkuτ face is fully rough.51) The heat transfer coefﬁcient for the laminar part. Usually. it is unlikely that the entire boundary layer will remain laminar throughout or be turbulent from the begining. Note that Stk is deﬁned based on uτ to imply its signiﬁcance near the wall.2 P r−0.30). For heat transfer over a rough surface. in strict sense.038 ReL − Re4/5 xc κf .13. TURBULENT FLOWS 45 transfer does not occur via the rubbing mechanism but it occurs via the pressure drag mechanism .48) is to be used for the turbulent part. Geometries other than ﬂat plate case.8 Re∗ −0. The analysis in the transition region is complicated and for our purpose we consider the change from laminar to turbulent boundary layer is abrupt. The average heat transfer rate over the entire length of the plate is ˙ Qs = hAs (Ts − T∞ ) with h= 1 L xc hlam dx + o 1 L L htur dx. The Stanton number for a rough plate is Stk = hk ≈ 0.2. the average Nusselt number is Nu = hL 4/5 1/2 = P r1/3 0. ν where k is the surface roughness height. is obtained using Eq.since the length of the transition region is small compared to the total length of the plate and thus the error introduced by this approximation can be small. are already discussed in laminar ﬂow section and the appropriate Nusselt number to be used is given by Eq. the initial laminar boundary layer will develop into turbulent one. molecular conduction remains significant and there is no impact mechanism for heat transfer.impact or the dynamic pressure acting on the upstream side of roughness elements. (3. For example.44 ρ c p uτ based on experiments. considering the plate to be isothermal. If one takes the critical Reynolds number as 5 × 105 then xc = 5 × 105 ν/U∞ . 5. for rough surfaces. Mixed boundary layers In practice. • for Re∗ < 5. the characteristics of smooth surface persists and the wall is transitionally rough. This also implies that the analogy between the momentum and heat transfer becomes questionable.3. This also implies that the molecular viscosity does not play a role and thus Cf.

(see problem 6 in example sheet 3 for heat transfer in mixed boundary layer ﬂows) Problem 3. Determine the heat loss from the body when this person is walking in a wind of 15 m/s at −5◦ C. (3.04 × 10−6 m2 /s κf = 23. . m = 0.027 from Table 3.805 and C = 0.8 m ˙ Q = hAs (Ts −T∞ ).2 for the case of ﬂow over a long cylinder.74 × 10−3 W/m-K P r = 0.30) D κf For ReD = 3.3m Ts = 24◦ C at T∞ = −5◦ C = 268 K U∞ = 15 m/s T∞ = −5◦ C ν = 13.725 neglect walking speed compared to wind speed L = 1.45 × 105 .4 : Assume that a person can be approximated as a cylinder of 0.71 kW. ˙ =⇒ Q = 2.8m height with a surface temperature of 24◦ C. N uD = hD = C Rem P r1/3 from Eq. FORCED CONVECTION Turbulent Laminar 0 x xc L Figure 3.46 CHAPTER 3.3m diameter and 1. Solution: D = 0. As = πD L.13: A case of mixed boundary layers.

239 × 10−5 h = 54.2. Di = 5mm Do = 10mm k = 35 W/m-k L = 0.774 kg/m3 .3. and the base temperature. But the average heat transfer coefﬁcient must be known for this.6. If the difference between the calculated and assumed T∞ is large then an iterative process is to be followed to determine the air temperature.5 : Consider the arrangements shown in the ﬁgure below.20W/m2 K 2 2 π(Do − Di ) P = πDo = 0. [2]. Ac = = 5. =⇒ C = 0. Table A. determine the air temperature.9◦ C.2 3.239 × 10−5 m2 /s. [1].73m−1 .73 × 10−2 W/m-K. U = 3 m/s Solution: Assume T∞ = 450 K to get air properties: ν = 3. T2 are known ⇒ T∞ can be obtained from the ﬁn theory.4.01 ReDo = = 926.average heat transfer coefﬁcient obtained from N u = C Rem P r1/3 for ﬂow D over a cylinder. P r = 0. From theory of ﬁns: T − T∞ cosh m(L − x) + (h/mk) sinh m(L − x) = . 3 × 0. T1 = 450 K T2 = 375 K Steel. Table 6. (from Ref.) =⇒ m = 28. TURBULENT FLOWS 47 Problem 3.4) • the well is like a ﬁn of uniform cross sectional area and conduction is only along its length (x) • the tip temperature. (The selection and the use of experimental correlation is also remarked above and in problem 3.683. m = 0.2.15m Air at T . T1 . Neglecting radiation. T∞ . ρ = 0. (i) T∞ = 451. hP k Ac 1/2 T1 − T∞ −1 (i) = cosh mL + (h/mk) sinh mL T2 − T∞ h . κf = 3. where m = T2 − T∞ cosh mL + (h/mk) sinh mL for x = L.466 from ref.0314m. =⇒ Note: Thus assuming T∞ = 450◦ C for ﬂuid property selection is acceptable.89×10−5 m2 4 From Eq.

For heat transfer part. 0 R+ 0 2 2 = +2 Cf R U + (R+ − y + ) dy + . In turbulent ﬂow.53) where τw and R are the shear stress at the wall and the tube radius respectively. 3. the shear stress τ varies linearly with r as in Fig.5 ln y + + 5. As in laminar cases.74 ln(ReD Cf ) − 0.1. We will consider the fully developed region D for our analysis. =⇒ τ r = . there is an initial distance for the development of the boundary layer and this region is called entry region. FORCED CONVECTION 3.25 .2 Internal ﬂows Smooth pipe Internal ﬂows become turbulent when ReD = Ub D/ν > 2000. 3.(see Appendix 3.54) Cf τw r x y R τ Ub (r) Figure 3. 2 Note that the subscript x for the Stanton number and the skin friction coefﬁcient has been dropped since they do not depend on the location along the pipe length in fully developed ﬂows.39. (3. where Ub is the bulk mean velocity velocity. dr The bulk mean velocity Ub is 2 Ub = 2 R =⇒ Ub+ = Ub τw /ρ = R U r dr. τw R (3. dU Since = 0 at r = 0.2 and carefully noting the contributions to the shear stress τ .623 Re0.1) the skin friction coefﬁcient is 1 = 1.7. see Fig.14: Distribution of shear stress and the bulk mean velocity in a turbulent pipe ﬂow.2). the shear force includes contributions from the laminar and the Reynolds stress components.1.48 CHAPTER 3.14. Its typical size is x∗ /D ≈ 0. where the pressure force balances the shear force at the wall in a mean sense (refer the force balance done in section 3. . one can invoke the Reynolds–Colburn analogy. The skin friction coefﬁcient can be obtained by considering the force balance.2. Recalling the analysis in section 3. which states that Cf St P r2/3 = .5. the mean force balance is r dP dU = (µ + µt ) 2 dx dr = τ. Using the logrithamic variation U + = 2. D is the diameter of the tube and ν is the kinematic viscosity of the ﬂuid.

59) . Because of the implicit nature of this equation many simple correlations have been suggested in the past.56) 1 = −1. The variation of Cf with ReD and surface roughness was measured by Nikuradse in 1930s and his results were compiled into an elegant form by Moody in 1944. For example. By using any of the above relation for Cf .55) For a fully rough pipe. 4/5 n = 0. ks /D 1.023ReD P r1/3 4/5 4Cf for 2 × 104 ≤ ReD ≤ 106 (3.4 for heating. the Nusselt number can be obtained via Reynolds–Colburn analogy. (3. for example in [5.3 for cooling the ﬂuid (3. The commonly used correlation for pipe ﬂows is the Dittus–Boelter correlation: N u ≈ 0. 3.254 + 3. By combining Eqs.15 to assist us in heat transfer analysis. TURBULENT FLOWS 49 This relationship is called Karman–Nikuradse relation and it is valid for ReD < 1 × 106 . This compilation is called Moody’s chart and is given in Fig.(3.74 ln (D/ks ) + 2.2.28]−2 .6].74 ln Cf which is known as Colebrook equation.55) for Cf then N u ≈ 0.15: Friction factor f = 4Cf for duct ﬂow.707 ReD Cf . This chart can be used for ﬂows in ducts of other cross section by using hydraulic diameter Dh instead of D. One such correlation is Cf = 0.54) and (3.046 ReD −1/5 for 2 × 104 ≤ ReD ≤ 106 (3. if one uses Eq.58) There are many such correlations available in the heat transfer literature. (3. n = 0.57) (3. the skin friction coefﬁcient is Cf = [1.3.56) Figure 3.023ReD P rn .

Inﬂuence of surface roughness The presence of wall roughness increases Cf (see Fig. full numerical solution or comprehensive experimental measurements are required. the size of the roughness element should be within viscous sub-layer to gain beneﬁt on heat transfer augmentation.215 . with n = 0.15) and thus N u is expected to increase. The above result suggests that the heat transfer rate can be enhanced by artiﬁcially roughening the surface. Experiments suggests that N u for a rough pipe is Nu = N uo Cf Cfo n . For certain ﬂuids. is an example for this.50 CHAPTER 3.68P r0. Typically. This is because of the presence of complicated secondary ﬂows. 3. Dh . a mathematical transformation is used to render the boundary layer equations into a form which is the same as for constant property case. the temperature dependence of ﬂuid properties may be strong and thus one needs to account for this appropriately.332Re1/2 x∞ 1/3 P r∞ Pr P r∞ 1/3 ν∞ ν 1/2 .3 Non-constant Fluid Properties The ﬂuid properties are taken to be constant in the analysis discussed so far. for example.7 This method is used only in theoretical analysis. experimental studies showed that N u does not increases further with roughCf ness when > 4. For such situation. one should be aware that the concept of hydraulic diameter is not very accurate when there are sharp corners as in the triangular ducts. (ii) The second method is called property ratio method where N u variation.61) where the subscript ∞ refers that the ﬂuid properties are taken at T∞ . (3. The Howarth-Dorodnitzyn transformation. It is also noted that the experimental correlations account for property variation with temperature. FORCED CONVECTION The above expressions can be used for ﬂows in ducts of other cross section by simply replacing D by hydraulic diameter. However. However. given by Eq. one needs to pay sufﬁcient attention in introducing the Cfo artiﬁcial roughness otherwise the pumping power requirement will increase because of the increase in Cf for marginal or no gain in the heat transfer rate. (3. discovered by an English (Cambridge University Professor) and a Russian scientist in around 1940. (3. Three methods are normally employed for this purpose: (i) In the ﬁrst method.24) is written as Nu = 0. 7 . Also this approximation is found to be sufﬁciently accurate when the temperature difference is moderate. 3.60) where N uo is the Nusselt number for a smooth pipe. Some experimental correlations are reported in this form. Thus.

κf = 2 × 1. which is deﬁned as (T∞ + Ts )/2.1 .1 with ﬂuid properties evaluated at ﬁlm temperature.0646 =⇒ ˙ ∆Q = −1. However. By comparing the new results with the previous results calculate the error involved in assuming constant ﬂuid properties (our approximation 2 in section 1. Solution: 300 + 350 = 325 K 2 0.704 Tf = ReL = ⇒ ν = 1.84 × 10−5 1/2 ˙ Q = hA(Ts − T∞ ) = 0. The ﬂuid properties required for N u are obtained at Tf .0141 0. which is most commonly used.9% ˙ Q .664 ReL P r1/3 κf W (Ts − T∞ ) Taking ln and differentiating ˙ ∆Q 1 ∆Re 1 ∆P r ∆κf = + + ˙ 2 Re 3 Pr κf Q −0. Tf .0695 −0. is based on the concept of ﬁlm temperature.84 × 10−5 m2 /s.6 : Rework the problems 3. most of the experimental correlations available will normally note the temperature to be used for ﬂuid properties evaluation. P r = 0.this approximation is very good if the temperature variation is moderate in the ﬂow). Problem 3.3 × 105 < 5 × 105 ⇒ ﬂow is laminar 1.3.3.2 = 1.028 W/m − K. NON-CONSTANT FLUID PROPERTIES 51 (iii) The third method.

52 CHAPTER 3. FORCED CONVECTION .

cost analyses and an optimization process. The radiators used in automobiles and in air–conditioners. The design of these devices is a complex process involving heat transfer. are compact in size and less expensive. ⇒ P ∼ Ub . most commonly used and also known as recuperators. The liquid coupling results in some reduction of the overall size of the device. the radiators (as it is commonly called) used for space heating are examples of simple heat exchangers. This type forms the building blocks for the analysis of indirect transfer type and compact heat exchangers. Complex heat exchangers are very common in power plants (using fossil fuels or nuclear power). Ub . An example for this type of heat exchanger is the Ljungstrom air preheater used in coal power plants. to the power 0. The heat absorbing medium absorbs the heat from the hot gases when the hot gases ﬂow through them and releases this heat to ˙ ˙ pumping power P = V∆p. industries.. The periodic ﬂow type heat exchangers. reﬁning oil. where V is the volume ﬂow rate (m3 s−1 ) and ∆p is the pressure 3 2 drop. The direct transfer type is the simplest of all types. But ∆p = ρUb Cf /2 in the fully developed ﬂow. Since the speciﬁc heat transfer rate (h W/m2 − K) for a given temperature difference varies as the average velocity. But the pumping power requirement varies like the cube of the average velocity.Chapter 4 Heat exchanger Heat exchanger is a device which facilitates heat transfer from one ﬂuid stream to another. These heat exchangers can be of (i) direct transfer. However. (iii) periodic ﬂow and (iv) compact heat exchanger types as shown in Fig. etc. The liquid coupled indirect transfer type is mostly used in situation where the possible contamination of hot and cold ﬂuids should be totally avoided. A common construction involves concentric tubes or shell–and–tube. 1 53 . (ii) indirect transfer. food processing.1 Thus. this additional liquid circuit will introduce further complexities and cost. chemical processing. The sizing of the heat exchangers are primarily determined by two factors. (i) the heat transfer rate per unit area and (ii) pumping power requirement.1. for example as in nuclear reactors. one can see that a delicate balance is required for proper sizing and design of heat exchanger. we shall conduct simple analysis of heat exchangers using the principles learnt in the previous chapters. 4.58). The heat exchangers are classiﬁed according to the ﬂow arrangement and its construction. also called as regenerators. The variations of these two arrangements are used in practice. (3.8 (see Eq. In this chapter. one may think that the heat transfer rate can be increased by increasing the average velocity.

where U is the overall heat transfer coefﬁcient.2.1: Types of heat exchanger based on ﬂow arrangement.1.1 LMTD method This methodology is already discussed in section 3. 4.1. However.1. Compact heat exchangers are special and important class involving one of the above types specially arranged and made (commonly involving ﬁns). A is the area available for the heat transfer and ∆Tlm is the LMTD. From the analysis in section 3. This class of heat exchangers provide heat transfer area in excess of 700 m2 per cubic meter and usually involves ﬂow passages with a hydraulic diameter of 5 mm or below. The analysis of this class of heat exchanger is speciﬁc to each cases and detailed discussions are presented in [5].1. there will be some mixing of hot and cold ﬂuids because of the residues left in the matrix and also there will be leakage issues for high pressure situations.2. self cleaning of the heat exchanger is possible. the cold ﬂuid when the rotating matrix travels through the cold ﬂuid passage.54 CHAPTER 4. Thus.1 Heat Exchanger Analysis The analysis of heat exchanger is commonly done via two methods: 1. Since the ﬂow direction in the matrix is reversed periodically. HEAT EXCHANGER Any of type (i) cold hot Co-flow cold hot Counter flow hot Cross flow cold cold hot cold Two-pass (i) Direct transfer type (iii) Periodic flow type Heat absorbing media hot (ii) Liquid coupled indirect transfer type cold hot Figure 4. the heat transfer rate is ˙ Q = U A∆Tlm . the ﬂow involved are usually laminar and the pressure drop across the heat exchanger unit becomes an important factor to consider. or 2.2. But requires a small modiﬁcation because of multiple streams present in the heat exchanger operation. ε-NTU method 4. Log-Mean Temperature Difference (LMTD) concept discussed in section 3. which depends on the ﬂow arrangement in the .

h and Rf. The ﬁrst and last resistance marked as Rf. If there are no ﬁns.001 m2 − K/W. can be obtained using the N u relations given in the previous chapters. 4. For the co-ﬂow heat exchanger shown in Fig. 4.c are the fouling factors which are usually tabulated in heat transfer data book. heat exchanger.2: (a) Control volume for heat transfer analysis. cc ˙ cold dx Tc. The resistance Rcond at the center is the conduction resistance in the tube wall which is usually negligible as thin walled tubes are commonly used in heat exchangers.h Rcond Rc Rf. with Af is the ﬁn area with efﬁciency ηf (see theory of ﬁns in heat conduction). • Rw is the conduction resistance given by [ln(ro /ri )/(2πLκ)] for a circular tube of length L having outer and inner radii as ro and ri with thermal conductivity κ.i 1111111111111111111 0000000000000000000 1111111111111111111 0000000000000000000 mh . The overall heat transfer coefﬁcient. ch ˙ hot x (b) ˙ ∆Q Rh Rf.h and Rf.c are due to fouling. It is given by ηo = 1 − Af (1 − ηf )/A.h 1 1 Rf.4.o L Tc Th Figure 4. U .c Th. These deposits increase the thermal resistance. The resistance marked as Rh and Rc are convective resistance on the hot and cold sides and are related to the respective heat transfer coefﬁcients. then ηo = 1.1.2b. an equivalent electrical resistance circuit is given in Fig. (b) equivalent resistance circuit. Its typical value varies from 0.c = Rtot = + + Rcond + + . The total resistance in the above circuit yields 1/U A.1) .0001 to 0. (4. which is given by 1 Rf.o 55 Th.i mc .2a. UA (ηo A)h (ηo hA)h (ηo hA)c (ηo A)c where • Rf. • ηo is the overall surface efﬁciency or temperature effectiveness of a ﬁnned surface. For a clean surface it is zero. which occurs because of deposition of impurities (such as salts and minerals) in the ﬂuid on the heat transfer surface. HEAT EXCHANGER ANALYSIS (a) Tc.

˙ ˙ the subscripts i and o respectively denote inlet and outlet conditions.o − Tc.i and Ch = ˙ Q . Under the balanced ﬂow condition 2(Tc. the balance of ˙ the total energy transfer. ln(∆To /∆Ti ) LM T D (4. dx Cc dTc = U P(Th − Tc ) dx d(Th − Tc ) 1 1 = −U P(Th − Tc ) + . Tc. ∆To = ∆Ti and thus the variation ln(∆To /∆Ti ) of Th and Tc along the length of the heat exchanger will be linear. For counterﬂow case.2) gives.56 CHAPTER 4.3) should be integrated numerically. HEAT EXCHANGER The LMTD = ∆Tlm is obtained via control volume analysis. Then Eq.4) dx Ch Cc Integrating this equation over the full length of the heat exchanger taking U and the heat capacities to be constant along L. The counterﬂow of hot and cold streams can also be considered but the ﬁnal result will exactly be the same.o − Tc.i − Th. Th. (4. Ch dTh = −U P(Th − Tc ). (4. Let us consider the coﬂow (both hot and cold ﬂuids ﬂow in the same direction) situation shown in Fig. 2 .2 For a general case.o ) = Q. the overall energy balance in Eq.6) LM T D is the log mean temperature difference and U is taken to be a constant in the above analysis. If the concern is only with the entrance effect then an average value of U . which is P∆x with P as the wetted perimeter. (4. ˙ ˙ (4.i ∆Ti 1 1 + Ch Cc .3 The condition Ch = Cc is called balanced ﬂow condition.5) and rearranging ˙ Q = U PL A ∆To − ∆Ti = U A LM T D.3). The energy balance across dx: Cc Ch (4.2) ˙ mc cc ∆Tc = − mh ch ∆Th = ∆Q = U ∆A(Th − Tc ). Cc = ˙ Q . 3 U can vary along the length due to entrance effect and ﬂuid property variation with temperature.i ) LM T D for parallel ﬂow is . Q.2a.o − Tc. U= L 0 can be used in Eq. =⇒ Th. For the case shown in Fig.o − Tc.o Using this in Eq. (4. from the hot to cold stream is ˙ mc cc (Tc.i − Tc. (4. deﬁned as 1 L U dx.i − Th.i ) = mh ch (Th. 4. Using Eq.6).2a. (4.3) where ∆A is the differential area.o ∆To = = exp −U PL Th. (4. 4.5) If Ch = Cc then it is called balanced ﬂow condition.

o Th.i Th. Because ∆To for counterﬂow arragement is larger than for the parallel ﬂow arrangement.i − Tc.o T hot dq cold ∆Tlm = (∆Tout − ∆Tin ) ln(∆Tout ∆Tin ) x x Figure 4.o Tc.1. 1 ( F Cc )↑ Ch Th.o – Tc.i 1 Figure 4. The heat transfer rate in multi–pass and cross ﬂow heat exchanger (other than the double pipe arrangement) is obtained using ˙ Q = U A(F × LM T Dcf ) = U A∆Tlm .i Tc.4.i . A typical graph is shown in Fig.o Tc.i ∆Tout = Th.i Th.i – Tc.o Th.4.pf Tc. for the co-ﬂow.i ∆Tin = Th.o ∆Tlm.cf > ∆Tlm.o Th.o Tc.i – Tc. cold ∆Tin = Th.o – Tc.i T Tc. 4. Thus.i 0.3: Variation of temperature along the length of the heat exchanger in (a) parallel and (b) counterﬂow arrangements.4: Typical variation of correction factor F for the ﬂow arrangement shown on the right. the size of heat exchanger with counterﬂow arrangement will be smaller for given operating conditions and so it is used as a basis for comparison and evaluation of heat exchanger performance.i hot dq (b) Counter Flow: ∆Tout = Th. The calculation of F involves advanced analysis (see Appendix 4.o − Tc. 4.5 0 Tc.1 if you are interested) but the ﬁnal results are given in graphs which can be found in text and data books on heat transfer. HEAT EXCHANGER ANALYSIS 57 The variation of temperature along the heat exchanger length is shown in Fig. the LMTD for counterﬂow case is larger than (a) Parallel Flow: Th. where F is the correction factor because of complicated ﬂow conditions. The hot and cold streams can be swapped or reversed.3 along the with ∆T deﬁnitions. mc cc is denoted ˙ as Cc .

Cmax (4.o − Tc. the ﬂuid temperature remains essentially constant or the ﬂuid acts as if it has inﬁnite speciﬁc heat capcity.i − Tc.7) ˙ Q Cc (Tc. (4.i ) Ch (Th. Ch ). ε.o − Tc.8) and rearranging yields ε= 1 − e−NTU(1+Rc ) . A similar analysis for counterﬂow arrangement gives ε= 1 − eNTU(1−Rc ) . This can be obtained from NTU for a given condition (ε and Rc are known). In boiling and condensation processes.o Cmin = exp −NTU 1 + Th. otherwise an iterative method needs to be employed to determine the heat transfer rate and the outlet temperatures. ˙ ˙ (4.o = Th.i Cmax with NTU = UA . Cmin = exp [−NTU (1 + Rc )] .5) can be written as Th. ε–NTU method is preferred when the outlet temperatures are not speciﬁed. 1 + Rc and NTU = 1 1 ln 1 + Rc 1 − (1 + Rc )ε (4. ε = 1 − eNTU .o − Tc. 1 − Rc e−NTU(1−Rc ) and NTU = 1 ln Rc − 1 1−ε 1 − εRc .i ) Cmin (Th.1. is deﬁned as ε= ε= where actual heat transfer rate maximum possible heat transfer rate (4.i − Th. HEAT EXCHANGER 4.i − Tc. ˙ Qmax = Cmin (Th.o ) = = ˙ Cmin (Th. (4. The effectiveness of the heat exchanger.8) From the overall energy balance in Eq.i − Tc.58 CHAPTER 4. In these cases Rc −→ 0 and the above ε-NTU relations become simply with Cmin = mc cc for condenser.10) In the above analysis. Equation (4.i ) Qmax Cmin = min(Cc . The overall heat transfer coefﬁcient is obtained from the correlations noted in the pervious chapter. The effectiveness will be a function of Cmin /Cmax and the Number of Transfer Units (NTU).2) Th.11) In heat exchanger calculation.i ) substituting this into Eq.i − Tc. . one is usually set out to ﬁnd the required heat transfer area A (sizing of the heat exchanger).i ). (4.2 ε–NTU method The LMTD method requires the inlet and outlet temperatures to be speciﬁed a priori. it is implicitly assumed that there is no phase change of the ﬂuids.9) Using the above equation is equivalent to using the LMTD approach.i − Rc (Tc. Cmin = mh ch for boiler. and Rc = Cmin .

L 59 oil Tc. Solution: (a) Energy balance on the hot side: ˙ Q = mh ch (Th.0: For the heat exchanger arrangement shown below.o = 60 ◦ C using (i) LMTD method. q and Tc. . =⇒ L = 40. (ii) ε–NTU method.4.32 m Note: IF U is not given then you need to ﬁnd the convective heat transfer coefﬁcient h using appropriate N u relations (see previous chapters) for the cold and hot side conditions and then calculate U .i ) =⇒ Tc.i − Tc.i = 100o C 0.i = 30o C 0.1 ◦ C ˙ ˙ (b) (i) Using LMTD method: Q = U A∆Tlm = U (πDL)∆Tlm ∆To − ∆Ti (60 − 30) − (100 − 48.571 ˙ Qmax ∆Tlm = NTU relationship in Eq.i − Th.1 kg/s oil Property U = 60 w/m2-K ρ (kg/m3) Cp (J/kg-K) ν (m2/s) water 1000 4200 7E-07 0.64 4.32 m ln(∆To /∆Ti ) ln(30/51.3 kW =⇒ ε = = 0. mc cc = 420 J kg − K = ˙ ˙ Cmax Cmin = 0.o ) = 0.o = 60◦ C ˙ (b) Determine L required to achieve Th.1.1 × 1900 × (100 − 60) = 7.452 =⇒ Rc = Cmax ˙ Q ˙ Qmax = Cmin (Th.7 oil water Th.9) (ii) Using ε–NTU method: mh ch = 190 J kg − K = Cmin .o − Tc.1 kg/s φ = 25 mm φ = 45 mm 800 1900 1E-05 0.6 kW ˙ on the cold side: ˙ Q = mc cc (Tc.10) → NTU = 0.i ) = 13. HEAT EXCHANGER ANALYSIS Problem 4.1) = ≈ 40 ◦ C.134 140 κ(w/m-K) Pr (a) Calculate the heat transfer rate.999 = UA → Cmin L = 40.o if Th.o = 48. (4.

HEAT EXCHANGER .60 CHAPTER 4.

ie. the stagnant environment temperature.External Convection The boundary layer equations with body force included govern the natural convection case shown in Fig. u ∂x ∂y ∂x Note that the hydrostatic equation dP∞ = −ρ∞ g dy 61 (5.1. using conservation principles. δT .1 Laminar Cases ..3) . But in natural convection. the ﬂow is driven by buoyancy forces and thus the ﬂow and thermal ﬁelds are coupled strongly to each other.1. 5. The environment is at pressure p∞ and g is the acceleration due to gravity. we also note that h ∼ κf /δT . From chapter 1. Now. These equations are ∂u ∂v + =0 ∂x ∂y ∂v ∂v dP∞ ∂ 2v ρu + ρv =− + µ 2 − ρg ∂x ∂y dy ∂x 2 ∂ v = µ 2 + (ρ∞ − ρ)g ∂x ∂T ∂ 2T ∂T +v =α 2.2) (5. as we noted earlier. Thus our task here is to ﬁnd the variation of the thermal boundary layer thickness.Chapter 5 Natural convection This is class of problem differs fundamentally from forced convection where the ﬂow is driven by pressure gradient created by an external source and the ﬂow problem is decoupled from the thermal problem when the ﬂuid properties are taken to be temperature independent. Consider the case shown in Fig. 5. the plate is at a temperature Ts > T∞ . 5. we ask what is the heat transfer rate from the hot plate? The answer is simply ˙ Q = h A (Ts − T∞ ). h is inversely proportional to the thermal boundary layer thickness.1) (5.

the buoyancy term is simpliﬁed as follows using Taylor series for small (T −T∞ ): ρ = ρ∞ + =⇒ (ρ∞ − ρ) = ρ∞ β(T − T∞ ). NATURAL CONVECTION Ts g H δT ∼ y 1/4 T∞ .5) which clearly shows the strong coupling between the ﬂow and thermal ﬁelds and the driving potential for the ﬂow is the buoyancy force. for the inertial or advective terms 2. v ∼ v . Let us take the following representative scales: x ∼ δT . where ∂ρ ∂T (T −T∞ )+H. (5. ρ = ρ∞ .T p β=− 1 ρ ∂ρ ∂T . ∂x ∂y ∂x (5. u ∼ u.1. Eq. y ∼ H. p (5. p∞ x. is used to relate the pressure gradient to the body force. Since the ﬂuid next to the wall is lighter than the surrounding ﬂuid. heat conducted from the wall horizontally into the ﬂuid is swept upward inside the boundary layer by the ﬂuid motion.1 Scale analysis In a steady state. an upward motion is setup because of buoyancy.1: Natural convection along a vertical wall at Ts > T∞ . 5.2) becomes u ∂v ∂v ∂ 2v +v = ν 2 + βg(T − T∞ ). v CHAPTER 5. With the above two approximations. u Figure 5.O. The momentum equation can be simpliﬁed further using Boussinesq approximation which consists of two parts 1.62 y.4) with β as the volumetric coefﬁcient of thermal expansion.the local ﬂuid density is constant and is equal to its value at T∞ .

11) and (5.5. Ra−1 P r−1 H intertial H δT viscous where RaH RaH = g β ∆T H 3 . This variation is shown in Fig. 5. 5. this gives δT at a given y as δT ∼ y 1/4 (see Fig.10) is the Rayleigh number based on H. H ⇒v∼ (5. inertia ∼ buoyancy −1/4 H δT 4 Ra−1 P r−1 ∼ 1 H 1/4 P r−1/4 . 5. one can make the following observations: 1.9) v2 H βg∆T . Thus for (i) P r 1. : =⇒ v∆T v∆T + H H v2 + H H δT 4 63 u δT ∼ α ∼ ν v 2 δT 4 ∼ ∆T 2 δT v . Ra−1 H 1.8) (5. If the plate is cold compared to the surrounding then the ﬂow will be reversed (from top to bottom.12) gives the surface heat ﬂux as qs ˙ ∼ y −1/4 . .1. the competition between the inertial and viscous term is determined by P r.1) Now. viscous term ∼ buoyancy: −1/4 H δT 4 Ra−1 ∼ 1 H ⇒ δT ∼ HRaH . LAMINAR CASES . and N uH ∼ RaH P r1/4 .2. (5. mass : energy (after using Eq. 2 δT (5.7) (5. (5. the Nusselt number is N uH ≡ H 1/4 ∼ RaH δT since h ∼ κf δT (5. with appropriate P r correction.6) αH . αν (5.9). When the buoyancy term is of order one. then the inertial term is of order Ra−1 P r−1 and the viscous term is of order Ra−1 H H 2.6) : moment.11) (ii) Simillarly for P r ⇒ δT ∼ HRaH 1.EXTERNAL CONVECTION Now.12) Equations (5. From Eq.

3) and (5. one can see that the boundary layer thickness will be large at the bottom and thus the heat transfer rate will be small. But the scale analysis suggest a dependence on P r.2 Integral approach Integrating Eqs. For this case. The Boussinesq number deﬁned as Bo ≡ Ra P r is some times used in the analysis instead of Ra and P r for P r 1 cases. v CHAPTER 5. The proﬁle method we adopted for forced convection 1 This can also be obtained via the integral momentum balance over a control volume. 5. . GrH ≡ RaH Pr in the scale analysis. the boundary layer will grow from the top and the above analysis applies.1.13) v(T − T∞ ) dx = −α 0 (5. The Grashof number is generally interpreted as the ratio of buoyancy forces to viscous forces.2: Variation of surface heat ﬂux in TS = const case.2) across the boundary layer and after using the appropriate boundary conditions. NATURAL CONVECTION g ∆T T∞ . It is clear from the above analysis that RaH is the natural scaling parameter for the natural convection problems and thus this parameter shall be used. u Figure 5. This physics causes the condensation droplets to occur at the bottom of the window pane as we observe in our homes. (5.64 y. The scaling analysis gives only the order of magnitudes and the constants missing in the above equations are to be found using experiments or advanced analysis.14) 0 One requires v and (T − T∞ ) to solve the above equations. one gets1 d dy δ 0 v 2 dx = −ν d dy δ ∂v ∂x δ +gβ 0 0 (T − T∞ ) dx ∂T ∂x (5. It is quite common to use Grashof number. p∞ qs ∼ y −1/4 ˙ x.

From that analysis.8 + P r 1/5 . LAMINAR CASES . advanced analysis yields ˆ 1/5 N uH = f1 (P r) RaH . the surface was taken to be isothermal at Ts . the wall heat ﬂux is qs = h ∆T ∼ ˙ κf ∆T . 5.18) ˆ where RaH is a Rayleigh number based on qs : ˙ g β qs H 4 ˙ ˆ RaH ≡ . (5. 5. For other values of P r.12).16) 5. (5.17) (ii) P r 1: ˆ −1/5 δT ∼ H RaH P r−1/5 ⇒ Nu = H ˆ 1/5 ∼ RaH P r1/5 .3 Uniform wall heat ﬂux In the above case.783Ra1/4 y N u = 0.689Ra1/4 P r1/4 y for for Pr Pr 1. δT =⇒ ∆T qs δT ˙ . the Nusselt number is N u = 0.5. 1.15) (5.19) . (5.3. κf Substituting this ∆T in the deﬁnition of Ra and rearranging Eqs. with f1 (P r) = 0. ν α κf Since the wall heat ﬂux is constant. From engineering points of view. This condition will be a good approximation if the plate is massive and highly conductive along y (see Fig. the above equations give ∆T = (Ts − T∞ ) ∼ y 1/5 .1. Note that this ﬁgure is drawn for P r = 1.1.1). in the cooling of electronic components).1. δT (5. walls with uniform heat ﬂux are also important (ex.11) and (5.EXTERNAL CONVECTION 65 case can also be used here. Regardless of the boundary condition. one gets (i) P r 1: ˆ −1/5 δT ∼ H RaH ⇒ Nu = H ˆ 1/5 ∼ RaH δT (5. This process is outlined in the Appendix 5.616 Pr 0. as shown in Fig.

u Figure 5. . v φ g g cos φ x. the boundary layers developing from the opposite walls will eventually interact with one another.2 Laminar Cases . Thus.66 y.3: Variation of ∆T in qS = const case. etc.Convection in Enclosures When the convection occurs in enclosures such as between two parallel vertical or horizontal walls. u Figure 5. 5. the gravity is acting at an angle.1.4. ˙ 5. This implies that N u expressions obtained in the previous section can be used after replacing Ray by Raφ : Raφ = Ray cos φ and ˆ ˆ Raφ = Ray cos φ. The analyses in the previous sections can be simply extended to this case by considering the appropriate component of the body force. NATURAL CONVECTION g qs ˙ T∞ . 5.4 Inclined walls In the case of inclined walls. p∞ ∆T ∼ y 1/5 x.4: Natural convection along an inclined wall. viz. v CHAPTER 5... y. inside a box. the boundary layer development is constrained because of the geometry. φ. to the plate as shown in Fig. the enclosures can be broadly classiﬁed into two types. in the annular region between two concentric cylinders.

A simple criterion like δ ∼ (D/2) can be used to determine the size of the entry region. The region 0 < y ≤ yT is entry region and y > yT is the fully developed region.5: Natural convection in a channel formed between two vertical heated plates of width L for P r 1. The ﬂow and ∆T ≡ (T − T∞ ) variation across the channel at various cross sections is also shown.1 Semi–inﬁnite size This class includes the natural convection ﬂow in channels of various cross section when the channel walls are at temperature Ts > T∞ . LAMINAR CASES . semi–inﬁnite size – two ends of the enclosure are open to ambient and thus there are direct ﬂuid mechanical and thermal interactions between the ﬂuid inside the enclosure and in the ambient. dx as boundary conditions. from Eq.CONVECTION IN ENCLOSURES 67 1.2. The boundary layers developing from the individual plates interact at a height yT .5.20) 2 dx ν dv with v = 0 at x = ±D/2. . 5. D g v ∆T Fully developed region H v yT Entry region ∆T δ y. The natural convection ﬂow enters the channel at T∞ and exits at Ts . ﬁnite size . v x. The variations of ﬂow and temperature in the channel is shown in Fig. u Figure 5. and 2.2.5. In the fully developed region viscous force is balanced by buoyancy force. (5. 5. Let us consider the channel formed between two vertical parallel plates with temperatures Ts . Thus.5) g β (T − T∞ ) dv 2 =− .the ﬂuid medium inside the enclosure is completely separated from the ambient ﬂuid and their thermal interaction occurs via the enclosure walls. and = 0 at x = 0. (5.

(5. In the case of horizontal channel formed between a hot and cold plates.21) to satisfy the boundary conditions also.68 CHAPTER 5. the thermal boundary layer thickness is given by Eq. . Now. The heat transfer rate per unit area.23) =⇒ qs = ˙ =⇒ g βD3 (Ts − T∞ ) ρcp (Ts − T∞ ) ν 24H hy qs y ˙ RaD = = . The heat transfer process is by conduction and thus N uH = 1. Eq. which can be taken to be constant if the wall is isothermal and T∞ is also invariant with y. is ˙ qs = ˙ ˙ total heat transferred mcp (Ts − T∞ ) ˙ Q = = Area 2H L 2H L D/2 where. (5. the convective motions are setup when the temperature difference exceeds a critical value and the bottom plate is hotter.6(a). If the temperature difference is below the critical value then the ﬂuid is quiescent and the temperature decreases linearly from Th to Tc . yT Rearranging this for yT . the condition H > yT for the fully developed ﬂow can be written as H RaD > for P r 1. This case is shown in Fig. NATURAL CONVECTION To obtain v one requires T . At y = yT . D 16 A similar condition can be obtained for P r 1 as H BoD > . The condition for the onset of convective motion is RaH ≥ 1708. the mass ﬂow rate is m = 2L ˙ 0 ρ u dx = g β D3 (Ts − T∞ ) ρ 12ν (5.22) (5. =− 2 dx ν which can be integrated to give v(x) = gβ(Ts − T∞ )D2 1− 8ν x D/2 2 . κf (Ts − T∞ ) κf 24 Nu ≡ which is valid in the fully developed region for all P r. (5. if (Ts − T ) (Ts − T∞ ). 5.20) becomes dv 2 g β (Ts − T∞ ) . Let us write (T − T∞ ) = (Ts − T∞ ) − (Ts − T ) ≈ (Ts − T∞ ).11) as δT ∼ yT Ra−1/4 . D 16 The above method of analysis and the conditions deduced can be extended to channels of different cross–section. qs .

thermally stratified fluid Tc H Th (a) Cellular flow pattern (b) RaH < 1708 Nu H = 1 RaH > 1708 Nu H > 1 Figure 5.2 These cells are called B´ nard cells and the e convective ﬂow becomes more complicated when RaH is very large. The left wall is heated while the right wall is cooled with a temperature difference of ∆T .2 Finite size In this case. viz.2. When RaH > 1708. the natural convection is as varied as the geometry and orientation of the enclosure and these cases can be loosely organised into two large classes. enclosures heated from the sides – Ex.CONVECTION IN ENCLOSURES 69 where RaH is the Rayleigh number based on H and (Th − Tc ). A typical setup is shown in Fig. LAMINAR CASES . cooking processes. 5. heat transfer through a ﬂat roof attic space. the buoyancy will be opposed and balanced by the viscous forces in the region close to the heated wall. Hence.25) In heat transfer and ﬂuid mechanics literature this problem is referred to as Rayleigh-B´ nard e convection. cavity wall insulations.24) which is the well known thermal diffusive layer thickness from the theory of heat conduction. 5. For a very small time interval in the beginning. 2. the convective ﬂow consists of counter rotating two dimensional rolls with almost square cross–section (see Fig. air circulation in a room. ν (5.7(a). conduction alone will occur.6). 1. the establishment of the convective ﬂow ﬁeld is unsteady and it will eventually attain a steady state. the ﬂuid is isothermal at T and motionless.6: Natural convection in a channel formed between two horizontal plates heated from below. As the ﬂow develops. (5. when the Prandtl number is large g β ∆T ∼ ν 2 v . Quiescent. 5. √ δT ∼ αt. Thus. Before the establishment of ∆T across the cavity. 2 δT =⇒ v∼ 2 g β ∆T δT . Thus. The ﬁrst category is more of engineering importance and application.. enclosures heated from below – Ex.2.5. . where the top and bottom walls are adiabatic and thus no heat transfer through them. solar collectors.

the following conditions can be written. Using this physical picture.11). the heat transfer is dominated by the convection process and there will be boundary layers associated to thermal and velocity ﬁelds. But the ﬂow will eventually attain a steady state. To ﬁnd the time required to achieve the steady state. (5. The thermal boundary layer thickness is δT ∼ HRaH −1/4 see Eq.∆T/2 νt Th vertical jet v y. The velocity and the momentum boundary layer thickness are respectively. Vertical Plume: δT < L H L 1/4 < RaH (5. v αt x 0 x.26) H δT g β∆T α After this time. =⇒ ts ∼ .24) in the above equation for δT .7(b). √ α 1/2 vs ∼ RaH . one realises that v increases linearly with time.27) . 5. (5. The vertical plume will be dominant when δT < L and the horizontal jet becomes important when the heat conduction across the top and bottom plates is dominated by the convection. (5. 5. These structures lead to the ﬂow pattern sketched in Fig. NATURAL CONVECTION (a) (b) Heated Th = T + ∆T/2 T δ Cooled Tc = T . one of these ﬂows will play dominant role in the heat transfer process. we make use of energy balance ”convection ∼ diffusion”: 1/2 v νH α ∼ 2 . 1.70 horizontal jet H CHAPTER 5. The development of thermal and velocity boundary layers is shown in (b). consisting of a vertical plume and horizontal jet like ﬂows. Using Eq. and δ ∼ ν ts = P r1/2 δT . u L δT Figure 5.7: Natural convection in a rectangular enclosure with isothermal side walls.7(a). H These results suggest that the variation of T and v inside the enclosure as shown in Fig. Depending on the value of RaH .

3 Mixed Convection Both natural and forced convection occurs simultaneously and they interact with one another in mixed convection situation.E+12 T RaH -1/4 . (5. < 1. N C.E-04 T IV Figure 5. P r 1: Ra1/4 y Re1/2 P r1/3 y > 1. The heat loss from a building via its roof may be considered to be a natural convection on a calm day.14). f ) H T 1. The subscripts N C and F C respectively stand for natural convection and forced convection. 5. δT.12). However.11) and (5.29) ¦ ¢ conduction ¥ ¡ T Ra H II T B’layer regime 1/4 § £ ¤ Ra H 1. (2.N C < δT.16). This condition can be translated into the following statements using Eqs.8: The regime of heat transfer for natural convection in a 2D enclosure with isothermal side walls. If δT.28) The above two conditions identify four different regime of natural convective ﬂow inside a rectangular cavity depending on the values of (H/L) and RaH as shown in Fig.8.E+00 1.E-02 1.E+02 Q / depth ~ κ f ( ∆T / L) H III 1. 5.3.E+04 Q / depth ~ κ f (∆T / δ T . (2. f ) H 1. 1. Since the solid surface will leak (gain) heat to (from) the nearest heat sink (source). Horizontal Jet: Qcond < Qconvec ∆T κf L < (ρvs δT )cp ∆T H 71 ⇒ H L > RaH −1/4 . (5. the type of convection mechanism is decided by the smaller of the two thermal thicknesses.E+16 1. if there is wind then the heat loss may no longer be a natural convection and will depend on the wind attributes. How to calculate the heat loss when the convection occurs in mixed mode? Let us consider an isothermal wall.5.F C . MIXED CONVECTION ˙ ˙ 2. Q / depth ~ κ f ( ∆T / L) H Tall system 1.E+08 Shallow system Q / depth ~ κ f (∆T / δ T .E+04 H/L I 1. (5. F C.F C then the natural convection mechanism will dominate the heat transfer process and vice–versa.E+00 1.N C and δT.

The natural convection ﬂow will become complex and simple analysis is difﬁcult. analysis using the integral approach were carried out in the past. P r 1: Bo1/4 y Re1/2 P r1/2 y CHAPTER 5. a large number of Nusselt number correlations have been developed based on experimental data and are available in the heat transfer literature. This analysis uses Eqs.31) for isothermal plate. 5.30) The Nusselt number in the mixed convection case is approximated by N un = N un ± N un FC NC with n ≈ 3. (5.72 2.492/P r)9/16 ]8/27 1/6 2 .825 + [1 + (0. (5. N u0−y = 0. N C. However.14) for time averaged velocity and temperature along with an assumed proﬁle for v and T . .4 Effect of Turbulence The laminar boundary layer formed on a heated vertical plate will become turbulent if the local Grashof number. Thus. Gry is higher than 109 for all Prandtl numbers of practical interest.13) and (5. < 1.387Ray 0. This relatively simple integral analysis yields N uy ∼ Ra2/5 while the experimental data suggests Ra1/3 scaling for N uy . transition and turbulent. we shall use the following average Nusselt number correlation for our purpose here. F C. NATURAL CONVECTION > 1. y y However. The positive sign applies for assisting and transverse ﬂows while the negative sign applies for opposing ﬂows. over the entire Rayleigh number range: laminar.(5.

(i) fully developed ﬂow when δT ∼ (ii) boundary layer ﬂow when D > δT (i) Fully developed ﬂow regime: g β (Ts − T∞ )2 D3 ρ cp ˙ Heat transferred per channel = Qc = qs × (2 H W ) = ˙ W ν 12 area per board from Eq. L H D T Solution: Two possible limits are . EFFECT OF TURBULENCE 73 Problem 5. and =⇒ from .22) L 2D 2 3 ˙ ˙ L = gβ(Ts − T∞ ) D W ρcp L Total heat transfer rate Q1 = Qc 2D ν 24 D ˙ Q1 ∼ D 2 number of channels = n = 2 (ii) Boundary layer limit: per plate: q = h A ˙ Eq.4.11) 2H W ∆T hH 4 = N u = N u = 1. so that the rate of heat transferred from the board via natural convection is maximum.5. Dopt . The entry temperature for air is T∞ while its exit temperature is Ts . (5. W is the width in the direction perpendicular to the page. Our objective is to ﬁnd the optimum spacing. (5. This package has n = L/D number of boards placed at equal spacing of D with electronic components which generate heat.0: Consider an electronic packaging of size L × H × W as shown in the ﬁgure below.044 Ra1/4 H κf 3 D 2 . Let us take each board to be isothermal at Ts .

as has been routinely done in many text books.088κf Ra1/4 W ∆T ˙ H =q ˙ L L = 2. of plates ˙ 1 ˙ Q2 ∼ D ˙ Q1 ∼ D 2 ˙ Q ˙ Q2 ∼ 1/D Dopt D at Dopt ˙ ˙ Q1 = Q2 ⇒ 3 g β (Ts − T∞ )2 Dopt ρ cp L L W = 2.566κf ∆T RaH H ˙ ˙ ˙ The same expression for Qmax will result if Q1 is used instead of Q2 .11 H 3 RaH −3/4 ⇒ Dopt = 3. while analysing internal ﬂows with heat transfer (see problem 4 in example sheet 3).69 H LW 1/2 ˙ =⇒ Qmax = 0. Note: One should not simply consider the fully developed regime alone. .088κf Ra1/4 W ∆T H ν 24 Dopt Dopt 3 =⇒ Dopt = 50.088κf Ra1/4 W ∆T H D D =⇒ ˙ Total heat transfer rate Q2 = q×No.69 H RaH −1/4 ˙ using Q2 expression above ˙ Qmax = 2. 3.74 CHAPTER 5.088κf Ra1/4 W ∆T H L 1/4 RaH . NATURAL CONVECTION =⇒ q = 2.

. κf ].1) =⇒ N uL = F where Ja is called the Jackob number which is the ratio of sensible heat to latent heat and this number is usually a small number (of the order of 10−1 ). Bo . The above four nondimensional parameters govern the behavior of N uL in boiling and condensation processes. the surface tension σ. effects are signiﬁcant compared to the convective effect. cp . Since phase change is involved.Chapter 6 Convection with Phase change This class of problem includes boiling and condensation. P r is the Prandtl number. (ρl − ρv )g. the heat transfer coefﬁcient. Ja. µ. hf g . σ. The governing equations for boiling heat transfer are complicated as two–phase ﬂuid ﬂow is involved. L. h. cp . 10 variables and 5 independent dimensions =⇒ (10 − 5) = 5 dimensionless numbers or Π groups 1 75 . µ2 (6. These parameters are the buoyancy force due to difference in liquid and its vapor densities g (ρl − ρv ). We shall understand important phenomena associated with the boiling heat transfer. from the Buckingham Π theorem. Thus. This is quite unusual from what we have learnt so far in this module. These processes involve phase change of the ﬂuid and thus the heat transfer occurs without inﬂuencing the ﬂuid temperature. κl ) and an appropriate temperature difference ∆T . µ. the latent heat. In boiling the heat is transferred from a solid surface to a liquid and in condensation the direction is reversed. thermo–physical properties of the ﬂuid (ρ. ρ. ⇒ N uL = F ρ g[ρl − ρv ] L3 cp ∆T µ cp g[ρl − ρv ] L2 . . P r. is1 h = h[∆T. µ2 hf g κf σ ρ g[ρl − ρv ] L3 . There are also other parameters playing important roles. hf g . The ﬁrst group of parameters (has some resemblance to Rayleigh number) is because of the natural convection due to buoyancy. . This mode of heat transfer can transfer large amount of heat over small temperature difference which is advantageous for modern engineering application such as heat pipes. Bo is called Bond number and it is the ratio of buoyancy to surface tension forces.

qs = ˙ . 2 In the ﬁrst setup. These locations are called nucleation sites. one can plot the variation of qs with ∆T ≡ ˙ ˙ (Ts − Tsat ) as shown in Fig. They. Tsat Ts Liquid.1. Tsat Hot fluid V Power Controlled (Nukiyama. πDL where m is the ﬂow rate of hot ﬂuid with speciﬁc heat capacity cp entering the tube of diameter D ˙ and length L at temperature Tin and exiting at Tout . In this setup. 1934) Temperature Controlled (Drew & Mueller. qs . where i is the current ﬂowing through the wire of diπDL m cp (Tin − Tout ) ˙ ameter D and length L with electrical resistance Rw . 6. as well as the heat ﬂux.1: The pool boiling curve in (a) power controlled and (b) temperature controlled experiments. As the excess temperature increases further.76 CHAPTER 6. In the second setup. the heat transfer occurs via natural convection as the liquid near the surface becomes hot. Depending on the liquid temperature the bubbles can collapse or grow further. Let us say. For very low values of excess temperature. qs = ˙ . In the second setup. we can measure the surface temperature. the outer surface temperature of the tube remains constant. 1937) (a) Burn out point (b) qs & qs & ∆T ∆T Figure 6. The relationship between qs and ∆T depends on the shape and orientation of the ˙ heating element. The bubbles formed at these sites grow in size until the buoyancy force overcomes the surface tension force at the wall–bubble interface. In a steady state. In both experiments the surface temperature can be varied by changing either the amount of current ﬂowing through the wire or by changing the conditions of the steam. These movements create enthalpy ﬂux and thus for energy i2 Rw (W/m2 ).2 Then. then. These curves are commonly known as boiling curves.1 for both experiments. break away from the surface and rise through the hot liquid. which is a complex process. where the saturated liquid is heated by two different methods. the upward mass ﬂux of the vapor must be balanced by the downward ﬂux of the liquid. the liquid is heated by passing superheated steam through a tube immersed in the liquid. Thus an appropriate natural convection correlation can be used to determine the heat transfer rate. In the ﬁrst method. CONVECTION WITH PHASE CHANGE 6. Ts Liquid. 6. Ts . the liquid is heated up by passing electric current through a ﬁne wire which gives a constant heat ﬂux at the wire surface.1 Boiling Regimes Consider the experiments shown in Fig. ∆T = (Ts − Tsat ) ≤ 5◦ C. the liquid starts to boil locally at discrete locations forming vapor bubbles.

Also. This boiling is called nucleate boiling and it occurs for 5 < ∆T ≤ 30. Q = ρv Vv hf g . in simple terms. then the heat ﬂux is 4π 3 qs = ˙ R S f ρv hf g . ∆T κv δﬁlm ∼ . The constant C depends on the surface–liquid properties such as the contact angle. Up to ∆T 30. If one carefully accounts for them then a relationship of the form given in Fig.3) As the excess temperature is increased further.2 results for the surface heat ﬂux. From the above equation.1. the frequency of the bubble formation increases and the vapor bubbles start to interact forming slugs and columns. one sees that the ﬁlm thickness increases if ∆T is increased. this region is called transition regime. However. a thin vapor ﬁlm is formed on the surface. Thus. surface tension and viscous drag forces. The heat transfer occurs mainly by conduction through the vapor layer and thus one gets. the buoyancy and surface tension forces are competing at the moment of detachment and thus R Vapor bubble. If one approximates the bubbles to be spheres of radius R. Under these conditions. This impedes the heat transfer rate leading to a decrease in the heat ﬂux and qs attains a minimum ˙ ◦ value at ∆T ≈ 120 C. which is called critical heat ﬂux (this is about 106 W/m2 for water). As the excess temperature increases further. (6.2) 3 The bubble radius is determined by the balance among buoyancy. etc. which are formed at a frequency of f in a nucleation site and there are S nucleation sites per unit area of the surface. The simple treatment given above outlines the basic elements involved in the analysis of nucleate boiling and there are many details which are beyond the level of this module. (6. the droplets are suspended near .4) qs ˙ for the ﬁlm thickness. the boiling curve behaves in the same way in the above two experiments and the surface heat ﬂux attains a maximum value.6. 6. the vapor–liquid interface is unstable and thus vapor bubles escape intermittently leading to unsteady nucleate boiling. BOILING REGIMES conservation vapor enthalpy ﬂux = liquid enthalpy ﬂux ˙ ˙ =⇒ total heat transfer. the droplets can descent into the ﬁlm layer intermittently (this will modify the above equation for δﬁlm ). For example. ρv ρl CR 4π 3 R g (ρl − ρv ) 3 σ C R. The above expression gives R C1 σ g (ρl − ρv ) 1/2 (6. 77 ˙ where the density of the vapor is ρv and its upward volume ﬂow rate is V .

This high temperature mode is called ﬁlm boiling. but they are not allowed to touch the surface by the vapor layer and the vapor layer acts as a lubrication layer. This effect is called Leidenfrost effect and the corresponding ∆T is called Leidenfrost temperature. the transition regime is absent. E " q s − as in the previous σ g( ρ l − ρ v ) (ρ l + ρ v )2 Film Boiling @ 9 9 A C B B D ! 3 2 © 2 © 4 6 5 5 7 σ C sf h fg Pr ln £ & ¢ ¢ % ¤ ' % 3 8 ¦ ) ¥ £ ( & ¥ ¢ ( ' § % 0 ¤ ) ¦ ( ¥ 0 § 1 ¨ 1/ 4 4/3 h 4 / 3 = hconv + hrad h 1 / 3 3 h = hconv + hrad if hconv > hrad 4 # $ ¡ 1/ 4 . the boiling curve in power controlled mode not only depends on qs but also on the history. After this the heat ﬂux continues to increase with ∆T because of the greater role played by radiation heat transfer across the ﬁlm. on the previous ˙ value of qs .. the excess temperature decreases along the ﬁlm boiling portion of the boiling curve until qmin is ˙ reached. After attaining this point. In most cases.1). where the heat ﬂux attains a minimum. However. hrad ≡ (εσ[Ts4 − Tsat ])/(Ts − Tsat ). ie. qmax is often called burnout point or boiling crisis. The above discussion can be summarised as in Fig. When the power ˙ controlled experiment is run in reverse by decreasing the heat ﬂux.min = 0 . hrad is the heat transfer coefﬁcient for radia4 tion.max = 0 . with σ as Stefan–Boltzmann constant. the surface temperature suddenly drops to the value associated with the nucleate boiling regime. the surface heat ﬂux varies as g in nucleate boiling regime and it varies as g 1/4 for ﬁlm boiling regime. Thus. 146 h fg ρ v σ g( ρ l − ρ v ) 2 ρv log ( q s ) Free convection chapter NC q s . Hence.78 CHAPTER 6. 6. qmax . 09 h fg ρ v Nucleate Bubbles Slugs law er w Po Transition 5 10 30 120 ∆T Figure 6. 6. CONVECTION WITH PHASE CHANGE the surface. As the imposed heat ﬂux increases slightly above the maximum value. showing a hysteresis. ˙ the surface temperature increases abruptly to the value associated with the ﬁlm boiling portion of the boiling curve.2: The regimes of boiling curve and ﬂow pattern in pool boiling of saturated water at atmospheric pressure. experiments show that the heat ﬂux is nearly independent of gravity in nucleate boiling regime. In the power controlled experiment (see Fig. ˙ q s = µ l h fg g( ρ l − ρ v ) 1/ 2 c p . this temperature will usually be above the melting point of the surface material and thus the heating surface burns up.l ∆ T q s .2 along with the following points: √ 1.

. the maximum heat ﬂux strongly depends on the pressure via latent heat and surface tension. (6. This effect of surface roughness suggests that it can be used in some form for augmentation of nucleate boiling.3). For example near critical pressure.6. qmax approaches zero ˙ since hf g approaches zero. BOILING REGIMES 79 2. The surface roughness will play an important role in boiling heat transfer by promoting nucleate boiling and this effect will come via C1 in Eq.1.

7E03 58.0: In the case shown below determine (a) Ts .80 CHAPTER 6.2%) .5◦ C =⇒ nucleate boiling with slugs (see Fig.05E06 = 278×10 ×2256.7E03 × 1.9E − 03 1/2 4. In the above example the plate is taken to be copper. (b) qs .5◦ C 2 × 50 b) surface heat ﬂux qs = −κ ˙ dT dy = 1. and ˙ (c) Ts using boiling heat transfer correlation in Fig.05 × 106 W m−2 H c) Using boiling heat transfer correlation: ∆T = Ts − Tsat = 112.7231 3 (numerical values are taken from Tables in ref. CONVECTION WITH PHASE CHANGE Problem 6.92◦ C (error = 3. 1. using your conduction theory.596) 1. Saturated water at 1 atm.006 × 2256. 6. & qv = 7 E07 κ = 50 W/m-k W/m3 & qs 15 mm Ts insulated T = 270 o C Solution:a) d2 T κ 2 + qv = 0 with ˙ dy T (0) = 270◦ C and qv 2 ˙ y 2κ dT dy =0 0 =⇒ T (y) = 270 − =⇒ Ts = T (H) = 270 − 7 × 107 × (15 × 10−6 )2 = 112.5 − 0. 2.2.l ∆T Csf hf g P rln 3 9.216E03 × ∆T 0.) =⇒ Ts = Tsat +∆T = 108.8 × (961. 6.5 − 100 = 12. Also note that the value of Cs.f will depend on liquid–surface material combination.2) q s = µl h f g ˙ −6 g(ρl − ρv ) σ 1/2 cp.

Because of these factors analysing dropwise condensation is difﬁcult. the ﬂow is laminar with constant ﬂuid properties and the ﬂuid is Newtonian.2. etc. 6. transition. which occurs when the surface has substances that inhibit surface wetting. Usually.3(a). u Laminar Reδ ≈ 30 Vapor at Tsat Reδ ≈ 1800 Ts < Tsat x. CONDENSATION 81 6. v (b) δ Vapor at Tsat linear T Ts v Tsat x Ts < Tsat Turbulent & qs dy & h m & hg dm & & m + dm ρv g τ dy dx τ + dτ ρl g Figure 6. u δ y. the condensate provides resistance to heat transfer between the vapor and the surface. 6. v (a) L y. and turbulent. You may have noticed water droplets formed on glass window panes in your home during cold winter days. However maintaining dropwise condensation is difﬁcult because of its unsteady nature.2 Condensation Condensation is the reverse of boiling and it occurs when a vapor comes in contact with cool surface at a temperature below Tsat for the given pressure. the condensate form a ﬁlm on the surface. effect of surface tension. Thus to maintain high heat transfer rates. and move downward due to gravity. x. dropwise condensation is better than ﬁlm condensation at least by an order of magnitude. The condensate ﬂow has three distinct regions: laminar. as shown in Fig.3(b) and the following approximations are made: 1.6.1 Laminar ﬁlm condensation This case is shown in Fig. In all cases. (a) Different regimes and (b) laminar ﬁlm condensation and its attributes. These droplets are because of dropwise condensation. the uncertainty associated with the location of nucleation sites.2. 6. .3: Film condensation over a cooled vertical surface. The condenser design is often based on the principles of ﬁlm condensation.

8) a single component vapor ∂v/∂x = 0.3b gives: ∆ condensation rate = dm. the vapor is at unifrom saturation temperature. and = 0 at x = δ. 6. the heat conduction at the liquid-vapor interface is negligible.3 3. The mass balance across the CV in Fig.82 CHAPTER 6. (6.l (Tsat − T ) hf g . 3µl (6. 4.7) The energy balance across the control volume gives dm (hg − hl ) − qs dy = 0. 5 Eq.6) and the condensate ﬂow rate per unit width of the plate is δ δ m= ˙ 0 dm ˙ = o ρl v dx = ρl g (ρl − ρv )δ 3 .A) with dp/dy = ρv g and neglecting the advective (inertial) terms.5) ∂v with v = 0 at x = 0. (6. there is no shear4 at the edge of the liquid ﬁlm boundary layer. ˙ The force balance gives5 µl ∂ 2v + (ρl − ρv )g = 0. v= g(ρl − ρv ) 2 δ µl x 1 x − δ 2 δ 2 . ˙ y ⇒ condensation rate at y = 0 dm. and 5. . CONVECTION WITH PHASE CHANGE 2. velocity of the condensate is maximum at x = δ. the temperature variation inside the liquid ﬁlm is linear The heat transfer rate is qs ˙ −κl (Ts − Tsat ) = − H (Ts − Tsat ). ∂x By integrating the above equation. ˙ ˙ =⇒ qs ˙ dm ˙ = dy hg − hl κl (Tsat − Ts ) .l (Tsat − T ) sub−cooling ≈ 3 4 if cp. δ We follow control volume analysis to obtain H. (6. ∂x2 (6.5) can also be obtained from ρl u ∂v ∂v +v ∂x ∂y =− dp ∂2v + µl 2 + ρl g. Tsat and it is pure. dy ∂x (6. ⇒ v. δ hf g = κl (Tsat − Ts ) δ (hf g + cp.

5.10) and (6. with respect to vertical axis.8). Eq. (6. 3. with H ≡ κl L 3 L o 4 H dy = HL 3 1/4 L g hf g (ρl − ρv ) ⇒ N uL = 0. and the latent heat at Tsat are used.11). can also be used for laminar ﬁlm condensation on horizontal cylinder of diameter D after replacing 0.11) which is within 3% of the experimentally measured values when the ﬂuid properties at ﬁlm temperature. (6.68 Ja] with Ja as the Jacob number. Relaxing assumptions 4 and 5 introduces a small correction to the above result which can be ignored. by replacing g by g cos θ for moderate values of θ.2.36 Ja].11) can be used for condensation over plates inclined at an angle θ. The condensate moving down because of graity become turbulent when Rey ≡ 4my /µl > 1800. 4. (6.729 and L by D. The average rate of heat transfer per unit width of the plate is ˙ ˙ Q = HL(Tsat − Ts ) = κl (Tsat − Ts )N uL = mL hf g [1 + 0. Also.6 should be used instead of hf g in Eqs. Equation. The following points are to be noted: 1. (6.943 by 0.7) in the above equation and solving for δ gives 4νl κl (Tsat − Ts ) δ= g hf g (ρl − ρv ) and 1/4 83 y 1/4 . (6. To account for the sub-cooling effect. (6. if R δ. (6.9) κ3 g hf g (ρl − ρv ) κl H= = l δ 4 νl (Tsat − Ts ) y −1/4 . 2.11). (6. see Eq. Tf = (Tsat + Ts )/2. the augmented latent heat of formation hf g = hf g [1 + 0.10) The average Nusselt number is N uL = HL 1 .11). CONDENSATION Using Eq.12) which shows that the average heat transfer rate increases with the degree of subcooling and the latent heat of the condensate. (6.6. The process of condensation on the inner and outer surfaces of a vertical tube of radius R can also be analysed using Eq. 1/4 (6.943 κl νl (Tsat − Ts ) . ˙ 6 Ja = cpl (Tsat − Ts ) hf g .

at higher velocities. 6. 6. ρl V δ (hf g + cp. Eq. .5×104 ). The condensation process in this situation is complicated and depends strongly on the velocity of vapor ﬂow. Another case of engineering interest is the condensation of vapor ﬂowing through tubes. CONVECTION WITH PHASE CHANGE A number of correlations are available. Using the above scales for δ and V .2. 1 . Eq.17) The above equation is the same as Eq. (6. =⇒ + ∼ 0. x and y respectively.13) where U . νl (6.8). δ and L are representative scales for u.l ∆T ∗ ) κl νl ∆T 1/4 (6. L (6.16) ρl − ρv ρl g δ2 . the two phase ﬂow becomes annular and the analysis becomes complex because of inertial effects. (6. V2 L inertia ∼ νl V δ2 ρl − ρv ρl Buoyancy g. For water. (6. −1 ∼ 1 visc. However.14) viscous the boundary layer thickness δ is to be obtained using energy balance.l ∆T ∗ ) L ∼ κl ∆T .11) can be used to obtain the average heat transfer rate. Thus. buoy. P rﬁlm 40 for ∆T = 30. see books on heat transfer. It is apparent that near the plate the ﬁrst limit is more likely to apply. for this situation to calculate the average condensation rate. (6.14) becomes hf g P rl cp.l ∆T convec. Examples for this are.2 Scale analysis Let us consider the case shown in Fig. But two obvious limits are (i) the balance between the viscous and buoyancy forces and (ii) the balance between the inertial and buoyancy forces. (6. From the momentum balance. (6. ∂x ∂y δ L ⇒ U∼ V δ . Thus the velocity V scales as V ∼ From the energy balance. it is clear that the buoyancy is balanced by the viscous forces only if the ﬁlm prandtl number is large otherwise the inertial forces will also play a role in the condensation process.84 CHAPTER 6. V .15) L ⇒ ∼ δ ∆ρ g L3 (hf g + cp. The mass conservation inside the boundary layer will yield ∂u ∂v U V + = 0. If this velocity is small (ρv Vv D/µv < 3.3(b). (6.A). δ . condensers used in refrigeration and air–conditioning systems and steam power plants. then the condensation process is dominated by the natural convection and thus Eq. Eq.9) except for the constant. v.

6.155 mD ˙ hD πD(Tsat − Ts ) Therefore the change in the condensation rate is about 16%.1: 85 W W 1111111 0000000 D 1111111 0000000 1111111 0000000 1111111 0000000 1111111 0000000 1111111 0000000 1111111 0000000 1111111 0000000 1111111 0000000 1111111 0000000 1111111 0000000 1111111 0000000 1111111 0000000 1111111 0000000 coolant at Ts ﬂattening the round tube Design modiﬁcation to change the condensation rate L surrounding is stagnant saturated vapor laminar ﬁlm condensation on a thin walled circular tube Determine the change in the condensation rate. . CONDENSATION Problem 6.2. ⇒ Heat transfer rate = condensation rate ×hf g =⇒ ˙ QL mL ˙ = . Solution: laminar ﬁlm solution.943(C L3 )1/4 κl with C = π L = D 2 ghf g (ρl − ρv ) κl νl (Tsat − Ts ) hD D = 0.729(C D3 )1/4 . (6. κl Area for condensation is πD W = 2L W.11): for ﬂattend case : for cylinder : hD L = 0. mD ˙ ˙ QD ˙ but Q = hA(Tsat − Ts ) =⇒ hL 2L(Tsat − Ts ) mL ˙ = = 1. Eq.

and Dewitt. Basic heat and mass transfer. Incropera. 9th edition. McGraw–Hill. M. Handbook of single–phase convective heat transfer. Convective Heat and Mass Transfer. Prentice Hall. P. 2nd edition. ISBN 0-07240655-0. 5th edition. London. 2005. W. M. 1984 6. McGraw Hill. Compact heat exchangers. F. Wiley. . S. 2002. Holman. 4. ISBN 0-13-096247-3. 2. McGraw-Hill. J. CONVECTION WITH PHASE CHANGE Reference 1. 4th edition. ISBN 0-471-38650-2. Kays & A. 2002. 1987. Fundamentals of Heat and Mass Transfer. W. Mills. New York. New York. & W. Aung. 5.. Kays. 3.L. B. R. John Wiley & Sons Inc. and Weigand. D. Heat Transfer. Kakac. ISBN 007-123829-8. M.86 CHAPTER 6.. K. P. 1999. F. A. Crawford. Shah.

The kinetic energy per unit mass is given by the well known form 0. The rate of energy ﬂux.1. Similar expressions can be written by considering the surface and body forces acting in y and z directions. the ﬁrst law of thermodynamics. tering into and leaving the control volume is shown by the block arrow in Fig. e.Chapter 7 Appendix Appendix . Now the law of conservation of energy.5(u2 + v 2 + w2 ). enuτ zx + ∂uτ zx dz ∂z ∂uτ yx ∂y uτ yx + dy -[ τ xx − p ]u ρ ug x [ τ xx − p ]u + ρ uet + ε x −uτ yx ∂ [ τ xx − p ]u dx ∂x ∂x [ρ uet + ε x ] + ∂[ρ uet + ε x ] dx −uτ zx Figure 7. and as kinetic (mechanical) energy. can be applied to the ﬂuid in the control volume.0: A close at energy conservation equation The energy is contained in the ﬂuid as internal (thermal) energy.1. This law states that the sum of the rate of energy ﬂuxes entering the control volume through its boundaries must be equal to the rate of increase of energy contained in the ﬂuid inside the control volume. ˙ The rate of energy increase inside the control volume is dEi .1: Rate of work performed by the surface stresses and body forces acting in the x direction on the ﬂuid in a control volume. This ﬁgure also shows the rate of work performed by the surface stresses and body forces acting in the x direction. given by ρuet . The energy transferred 87 . The internal energy is obtained from thermodynamic consideration. KE. 7. 7. (7.2. The sum of these two quantities is called total energy and is denoted by et = e + KE in Fig. This energy balance can therefore be written as ˙ ˙ ˙ ˙ dEi = dW + dEc + dEM .1) The dot above the individual term represents that this equation is a rate equation.

88

CHAPTER 7. APPENDIX

˙ ˙ by the forces acting on the ﬂuid in the control volume is given by dW . dEc is the energy transported with the ﬂuid which crosses the control volume boundaries by the bulk ﬂuid motion. All other forms of energy transported across the boundary by ˙ molecular movements, for example heat conduction, is given by dEM . For our purpose, the work added to the ﬂuid will be considered positive (in Thermodynamics work done by the ﬂuid is +ve). The rate of work performed by the forces acting in the x direction on the volume element per unit area is shown in Fig. 7.1. This work is positive when the forces act in the ﬂow direction and negative when they act in opposite to the ﬂow direction. The energy transport by ˙ the molecular movement represented by dEM is denoted by i in Fig. 7.1. Taking the stock of the rate of energy entering and leaving and the work done on the control volume one can write the following ∂ρet ˙ dEi = dx dy dz ∂t ∂ρui et ˙ dEc = −dx dy dz ∂xi ∂ i ˙ dEM = −dx dy dz ∂xi ∂τij ui ∂pui ˙ dW = dx dy dz ρui gi + − . ∂xj ∂xi (7.2) (7.3) (7.4) (7.5)

Substituting Eqs.(7.2)-(7.5) into Eq. (7.1), one obtains a balance equation for total energy, et , as ∂ρet ∂ρui et ∂ i ∂pui ∂τij ui + =− − + + ρui gi . ∂t ∂xi ∂xi ∂xi ∂xj (7.6)

The two terms on the left–hand–side of the above equation are respectively the temporal and the convective changes in the total energy of the ﬂuid. The ﬁrst term on the right–hand–side is because of the energy transport by heat conduction and other molecular processes. In a single component ﬂuid, which is of interest here, i is totally given by the Fourier’s law of heat conduction: i = −κf (∂T /∂xi ), where κf and T are respectively thermal conductivity and temperature of the ﬂuid. The next two terms represent the work performed by the surface forces while the last term denotes the work performed by the body force. As noted above et is the total energy which includes the thermal and kinetic energy of the ﬂuid. We are interested in studying the heat transfer which directly depends on the temperature distribution in the ﬂuid as note in Eq. (1.1). Thus, it is instructive to obtain a balance equation for temperature variation which can be obtained from the internal energy, e, or enthalpy, h, equation. By subtracting ui times the momentum equation from Eq. (7.6), the transport equation for the internal energy can be obtained as ρ De ∂ i ∂ui ∂ui =− −p + τij . Dt ∂xi ∂xi ∂xj (7.7)

The momentum equation is ρ Dui ∂p ∂τij =− + + ρgi . Dt ∂xi ∂xj (7.8)

89 Using Eq. (7.7) and the thermodynamic relations: e = h−p/ρ and dh = cp dT + [1 + (∂ ln ρ/∂ ln T )p ]dp/ρ1 one can write ρcp DT ∂ 2T = κf − Dt ∂xi ∂xi ∂ ln ρ ∂ ln T ∂ui Dp + τij . Dt ∂xj (7.9)

p

after using the Fourier law of conduction for i . If one assumes the ﬂuid to be an ideal gas then the coefﬁcient for Dp/Dt term becomes unity. The last term in Eq. (7.9), which can be shown to be a positive deﬁnite quantity, is the viscous dissipation term representing the conversion of mechanical energy into heat by the action of ﬂuid viscosity. The magnitude of this term and Dp/Dt are signiﬁcant only if the ﬂuid is moving at a speed comparable to the speed of sound. However, the Dp/Dt term becomes important in some cases where there is a large variation of pressure in the ﬂow as in the internal combustion engines. Also, if the ﬂuid is very viscous, signiﬁcant heat can be produced even at relatively low speeds, for example as in oil lubricated journal bearings.

**Appendix - 2.1: Nondimensional Equations and Parameters
**

The governing equations obtained earlier in this chapter describes the ﬂow and thermal ﬁelds in viscous ﬂuid ﬂow. A complete analysis of these equations is a difﬁcult task even for computer simulation. Thus, it is highly desirable to simplify these equations. The simpliﬁcations can be made for very small and very large Reynolds numbers. The ﬂows which are of engineering interest are usually at high Reynolds number, Re. In high Re ﬂows involving heat transfer from or to the ﬂuid and the viscous effects occur over a thin region of size δ adjacent to the solid boundary. This observation was ﬁrst made by Ludwig Prandtl and he called this thin region as boundary layer. Figure 2.3 shows this situation for a ﬂow, at free stream velocity U∞ and temperature T∞ , over a ﬂat plate which is at temperature Tw . The thickness of the thin region can be different for ﬂow and thermal ﬁelds. Generally, this thickness is deﬁned as the thickness over which the quantity of interest attains 99% of its free stream value. We will introduce a more formal deﬁnition later. We take the ﬂow to be steady and two dimensional for simplicity purpose. We make the governing equations for mass, momentum and temperature dimensionless by using a reference length scale L, a reference velocity, uref , and ﬂuid density, ρo . The temperature is made dimensionless using a suitable temperature difference ∆T , so that the dimensionless temperature T + varies from zero, on the surface, to unity, in the free stream. The dimensionless governing equations are mass :

1

∂ρ+ u+ ∂ρ+ v + + = 0, ∂x+ ∂y +

(7.10)

From thermodynamics dh = cp dT +

1 ρ ∂ρ ∂T

**This relationship can be obtained as follows.
**

∂v ∂T p ∂ ln ρ ∂ ln T dp ρ .

−T

**+ v dp and v = 1/ρ. Using these two expressions, it is straight forward to write
**

p

dh = cp dT + 1 +

Also dh = cp dT + [1 − βT ] dp , where β = ρ

p

is the

coefﬁcient of volumetric thermal expansion. In some text books, the second form for dh may be used while deriving the energy conservation equation

90 momentum: x: y: ρ + u+ ρ+ u+ ∂u+ ∂p+ 1 ∂u+ +ρ+ v + + = − + + ∂x+ ∂y ∂x Re ∂v + ∂v + ∂p+ 1 +ρ+ v + + = − + + + ∂x ∂y ∂y Re

CHAPTER 7. APPENDIX

∂ 2 u+ ∂ 2 u+ 1 + + + + + + ρ gx , ∂x+ ∂x+ ∂y ∂y Fr (7.11) ∂ 2v+ ∂ 2v+ 1 + + + + ρ gy , ∂x+ ∂x+ ∂y + ∂y + Fr (7.12) ∂2T + ∂2T + + + + + Ec P r Φ+ ∂x+ ∂x+ ∂y ∂y ∂p+ ∂p+ +Ec u+ + + v + + (7.13) . ∂x ∂y

energy :

ρ+ u+

∂T + ∂T + 1 + ρ+ v + + = + ∂x ∂y P r Re

The dimensionless viscous dissipation is denoted by Φ+ in Eq. (7.13). There are four non-dimensional parameters in the above equations. They are Reynolds, Froude, Prandtl and Eckert numbers which are deﬁned respectively as ρo uref L Re ≡ ; µ u2 F r ≡ ref ; go L ν µcp Pr ≡ = ; α κf u2 Ec ≡ ref . cp ∆T

The Froude number is the ratio of inertial force to body force. In forced convection problems, Froude number is usually large and thus the body force term (due to gravitational effect) can be neglected. However, we will retain it to make the equation general. The Prandtl number of ﬂuids varies in a wide range from a value of order 0.01 for liquid metals to a value of order 1000 or more for viscous oils. The Eckert number is the ratio of ﬂuid kinetic energy to its thermal energy. This number is of appreciable magnitude only if the ﬂuid moves at speed comparable to the speed of sound. One should note that in some applications such as hydrodynamic bearings involving liquids with high Prandtl number, the viscous dissipation can not be neglected even the ﬂuid velocities and velocity gradients are moderate. The product of P r and Ec is called Brinkman number Br which signiﬁes the ratio of viscous dissipation to thermal conduction, ie., µ(∂u/∂y)2 /κf (∂T /∂y).

**Appendix - 2.2: Functional form of solution
**

A close examination of dimensionless boundary layer equations will allow us to expect the solution to momentum and temperature equations of the form u+ = F x+ , y + , Re, dp+ ,Fr dx+ dp+ ,Fr dx+ (7.14)

and

T + = G x+ , y + , Re, P r, Ec,

(7.15)

respectively. The appearance of the pressure gradient in the above solution form represents the inﬂuence of geometry of the surface on the velocity and temperature distributions. The above solution forms apply to laminar as well as turbulent ﬂows and are also known as similarity solutions. The speciﬁc forms of these solutions

Cf = F1 (x+ . Re. . The analysis of self similar boundary layers are treated in detail in many ﬂuid mechanics text books. (1.17) For a prescribed geometry. Re. N u. the objective of convective heat transfer analysis is to ﬁnd the heat transfer coefﬁcient. P r. dp+ . h. As remarked in chapter 1. to ﬁnd these solutions. This functional form implies that the Nusselt number must be a universal function of the ﬁve parameters. F r). κf (7. we can get a direct relationship between N u and Cf . it could be used to compute the values of local heat transfer coefﬁcient.16) to deﬁne a dimensionless parameter called Nusselt number. Ec. This parameter physically signiﬁes the ratio of heat transferred by convection to the amount of heat transferred by conduction in the ﬂuid. h.91 are very much dependent on the problem. Under some circumstances. This information will then enable us to compute the local heat transfer using the Newton’s law of cooling. If this function was known. We will borrow these results as we require for analysis. n+ =0 (7. The Nusselt number can be expressed as N u = G1 x+ . P r. the average Nusselt number is Nu = hL = G2 (Re. Another important parameter in the boundary layer is the shear stress at the wall. this is given by Cf = τw 2 = 2 ρuref /2 Re ∂u+ ∂n+ . the average heat transfer between the solid body and the ﬂuid can be computed by integrating over the surface of the body. Thus. In the dimensionless form.Fr . (7. Nusselt number will not depend on the pressure gradient. Ec. We shall explore these relations in the next chapter and understand why it occurs. we require the ﬂow ﬁeld as well. one can write hL = κf ∂T + ∂n+ ≡ Nu n+ =0 (7. dx+ (7. F r) .19) From Eq. From Eq.1). Also. dp+ /dx+ . However.18) Now our task is reduced to ﬁnding the functional forms G1 and G2 for the problems of our interest.14). The interest of heat transfer analysis is to ﬁnd these solutions. This average value must be independent of the spatial position x+ . for different ﬂuids and different ﬂow conditions.

Alternatively.025 Thus. 14P r o =⇒ r= δT 1 xo = P r−1/3 1 − δ 1. For this condition. for unity Prandtl number δT ≈ δ as shown in Fig. dx 14 ν 14 P r (7. the energy thickness.2.20) Using Eqs.1.0: Solution to laminar thermal boundary layer on a ﬂat plate To ﬁnd a solution to Eq. Substituting the above expressions into Eq. 3. let us follow the proﬁle method used for momentum transfer problem. and the Stanton number. (7. 2.21). where the thermal and velocity boundary layers start to grown from the same location then evaluating C1 is not possible. 1 P r−1/3 .025 x r= 3/4 1/3 . Stx . (3. (3. the above equation can be simply written as dξ 3 + ξ= dx 4x which has a general solution: ξ = r3 = C1 x−3/4 + 13 14P r 3 4x 13 . one get C1 = − 13 3/4 x .92 CHAPTER 7.21) 4 dr 3 x dx 3 for r 1. APPENDIX Appendix . Now r = 0 at x = xo since the thermal boundary layer starts to grow from xo .22) The value of C1 is obtained by imposing the boundary condition on r. 14P r 1. 2δT U∞ where r = δT /δ. (3. and Stx = 3α .18) and carrying out the required algebra one gets r3 + 4xr2 13 α dr 13 1 = = .1.3. respectively become δe = 3δ r2 r4 − 20 280 . From Eq.18).21) Θ= 3 2 y δT − 1 2 y δT 3 . 3. This condition implies δT δ which also means P r 3 r = ξ. . Also when xo = 0. let us consider the situation shown in Fig. δe .13) and (3.3 or 3. where the plate is initially unheated upto a distance xo . Substituting (7. If one considers the situation shown in Fig. 1. (3.

05 Thermal boundary layer The thermal boundary layer in turbulent ﬂows has many similarities to the momentum boundary layer. dU + dy 2.93 Appendix .). Deﬁne : ˙ ∂y T + = (Tw − T ) ρ c p uτ . Experiments give U + = 5. in the near wall region then Eq.0 ln y + − 3.45). a number of observations can be made: 1. uτ uτ = yτ = If one makes an assumption τ ≈ τw . 7. The velocity variation shown in Fig. both molecular and turbulence viscosity plays equally important role. K (B is a const. uτ and τw ρ y+ = and y . yτ ν .30 < y + < 400. In the buffer layer (5 < y + < 30).5 ln y + + 5.5 3.1: Structure of turbulent boundary layer Hydrodynamic boundary layer To emphasis the structure of turbulent boundary layer over a smooth ﬂat plate is considered in Fig. one gets ν 1 νt 1 + P r P rt ν ∂T ≈ −qw . The mixing length model gives νt = νK 2 y + ν dy + =⇒ U+ ≈ 1 ln y + + B. (3. For ν dU + ≈1 =⇒ U + ≈ y + .3. qw ˙ .2b is normalised using the wall variable uτ and δτ as U+ = where U . (3. Experimental measurements give U + = 2.45) can be written as 1+ νt ν dU + ≈ 1. The relative roles played by molecular and turbulent viscosity in different layer are also noted in that ﬁgure. which is observed to be reasonable. dy + The velocity varies linearly with the distance inside the viscous sublayer. (7. see Eq. 7. dy + with U + = 0 at y + = 0. which is typically lies in the region 0 < y + < 5 νt νt νt dU + 2 ≈ 1. Similar to τ ≈ τw .23) From this simple equation. For ν There is logarithemic variation in the turbulent (outer) layer .2a. let us say q ≈ qw and ˙ ˙ using the Prandtl number (P r = ν/α).

1 1 νt .94 U∞ CHAPTER 7.2: Structure of turbulent boundary layer over a ﬂat plate. + 1 1 νt dT + ≈1 (7. APPENDIX outer layer U inner layer turbulent layer (ν buffer layer (ν ≈ νt ) viscous sub-layer (ν νt ) a) 30 νt ) 25 20 viscous wall layer Outer layer Wake region u + 15 10 Viscous sub-layer 5 Buffer layer 0 1. 3.molecular conduction mechanism plays important role.24) =⇒ P r P rt ν dy + From this equation. 1. where P rt is the turbulence Prandlt number and its typical value range from 0.7 to 1.turbulence transport dominates molecular conduction P rt ν 2. . the following observations can be made. This Pr P rt ν region is called thermal sublayer or molecular diffusion layer.E+03 1. 1 Pr 1 νt . a buffer layer will exsists between the sublayer and the turbulent layer.E+01 1.E+02 1.E+00 1.E+04 y + b) Figure 7.

cf deﬁnes F . two–pass tube side. 4.o Th.26) with B. As one can observe that the ﬁnal result for F will depend on the number of passes on the shell and tube sides. The method involves obtaining an expression for an appropriate mean temperature difference between hot and cold ﬂuids. after some algebra. The steps involved hot Th. Equating this expression to F times the LMTD for counterﬂow arrangement yields the required result. (7.m . Solution to the above second order ODE gives an expression for 2(U A∗ L) which can be used in Eq.25) 2.o ) = mc cc (Tc. The over all energy balance is mh ch (Th.3: Parallel ﬂow heat exchanger: one–pass shell side. via energy balance analysis.cf F & Figure 7. The energy balance across the differential length.i at x = 0 and Th = Th.o − Tc.1: A method to obtain the correction factor F Let us consider a simple case of one-pass shell side and two-pass tube side heat exchanger shown in Fig. (7.i ) = 2(U A∗ L)θm ˙ ˙ mh ch (Th. 4.1 L Tc.i − Th.i Tc. θm (7. Equating θm to F ∆Tlm. A typical result is shown in Fig. 7.i − Th.i − Th ) = 0.1 + dTc 0 x dx Tc.3. d2 Th −2 dx2 U A∗ mh ch ˙ dT + dx U A∗ mc cc ˙ 2 (Th. θm = Th. are: 1.95 Appendix 4. .o at x = L. yields.2 – dTc Th + dTh Tc.4 which show that the heat transfer rate decreases as the heat capacity of the cold stream increases for given inlet temperatures of hot and cold streams. dx. 3.i q = (UA*L)θm = (UA*L)∆Tlm.C: Th = Th.o cold Tc.m − Tc.2 Th Tc.o ) ˙ ⇒ 2(U A∗ L) = . The laborious analyses have been performed in the past for a number of cases and the results are summarised in graphical form in many heat transfer text books and hand books.25) to obtain θm .

Solving this equation with the above two ODEs after noting that δ ∼ y 1/4 and V ∼ y 1/2 yields an expression for N u = y/δT .Proﬁle method for natural convection boundary layers Since the veloctiy and temperature variation inside the boundary layer depends on P r.2(a): v = V (y) exp − and x δ 1 − exp − x δT x δT . δ and q ≡ (δ/δT ). . we consider P r 1 and P r 1 cases individually. Integrating this equation from zero to δT yields an algebraic equation. Following the procedure given above for P r 1 after noting that δT ∼ y 1/4 . Pr 1 case: From Fig.27) with V ∗ . δv x (T − T∞ ) = (Ts − T∞ ) exp − .28) .783Ra1/4 y Pr 1 case: According to Fig.689Ra1/4 P r1/4 y for P r → 0. The third appropriate equation to consider is the balance between the friction and buoyancy in the region adjacent to the wall. δv ∼ y 1/4 and V ∗ ∼ y 1/2 from the scale analysis. δT 1 − exp − x δT for P r → ∞. (7. δT and δv as unknown functions of y which are to be found. one obtains N u = 0. (7. (1 + q)(1 + 2q) δ involving three unknowns. V. 5.96 CHAPTER 7.13) and (5. APPENDIX Appendix 5. (5.1 . The algebra involved is lengthy and thus only the ﬁnal result for N u is given below as N u = 0.14) and letting the upper limit. 5. (T − T∞ ) = (Ts − T∞ ) exp − Substituting these form into Eqs. δ −→ ∞: d dy and V 2 δq 2 2(1 + q)(2 + q) =− d dy νV q δ + gβ(Ts − T∞ ) δ q Vδ α = .2(b) v = V ∗ (y) exp − and x .

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