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The effects of Media on Politics, IR and foreign policy If media is the fourth pillar of state, should it have absolute independence? The independence of Pakistan media, its role and responsibility. o The role of media in the modern world o Effect of media on foreign policy and politics

Introduction (also use it for Journalism) Definition: Communication channels through which news, entertainment, education, data, or promotional messages are disseminated. Media includes every broadcasting and narrowcasting medium such as newspapers, magazines, TV, radio, billboards, direct mail, telephone, fax, and internet. Media is the plural of medium and can take a plural or singular verb, depending on the sense intended. Regulation y y PEMRA formed in 2002 (formerly RAMBO) to "facilitate and promote a free, fair and independent electronic media" By the end of 2009 PEMRA had: issued 78 satellite TV licenses; issued "landing rights" to 28 TV channels operating from abroad, with more under consideration; o issued licenses for 129 FM radio stations, including 18 non-commercial licenses to leading universities offering courses mass communication and six licenses in Azad Jammu and Kashmir; o registered 2,346 cable TV systems serving an estimated 8 million households; and o issued six MMDS (Multichannel Multipoint Distribution Service), two Internet protocol TV (IPTV), and two mobile TV licenses, with more under consideration. Media censorship On November 2011, Pakistani cable television operators block BBC World News TV channel after broadcast a documentary, entitled Secret Pakistan. Publication or broadcast of anything which defames or brings into ridicule the head of state, or members of the armed forces, or executive, legislative or judicial organs of the state, as well as any broadcasts deemed to be false or baseless can bring jail terms of up to three years, fines of up to 10 million rupees (US$165,000), and license cancellation. o o

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Television The first television station began broadcasting from Lahore in 26 November 1964. Television in Pakistan remained the government's exclusive control until 1990 when Shalimar Television Network (STN) and Network Television Marketing (NTM) launched Pakistan s first private TV channel. Foreign satellite TV channels were added during the 1990s.[2] Traditionally, the government-owned Pakistan Television Corporation (PTV) has been the dominant media player in Pakistan. The PTV channels are controlled by the government and opposition views are not given much time. The past decade has seen the emergence of several private TV channels showing news and entertainment, such as GEO TV, AAJ TV, ARY Digital, HUM, MTV Pakistan, and others.

Lahore. a second station at Rawalpindi (1960). the day of Pakistani independence. Quetta (1956). The government-owned Pakistan Broadcasting Corporation (PBC) was formed on 14 August 1947. 1467 in 2006. today it s one-fifth of what it used to be. monthly. However. this number has dwindled to less than 170 by 2005. Zamindar. The Federal Bureau of Statistics shows that once the country boasted at least 700 cinemas. no longer publishes daily newspapers. as in the rest of the world. A major programme of expansion saw new stations open at Karachi and Rawalpindi in 1948.Traditionally the bulk of TV shows have been plays or soap operas. the number of print outlets in Pakistan declined precipitously. During the 1980s and 1990s the corporation expanded its network to many cities and towns of Pakistan to provide greater service to the local people. 1.2 million). particularly for dailies (3 million to 6. From 1964 into the early 1990s. Radio y y y Today. By the early 2000s. there are over a hundred public and private radio stations due to more liberal media regulations. Various American. And after the low point in 2003 the number of publications grew to 1279 in 2004. From 1994 to 1997.[citation needed] Most print media are privately owned. and movies are available to a majority of the population via Cable TV. The state. and other publications increased from 3. and 1199 in 2008. In the early 21st century. some of them critically acclaimed. At independence. Asian TV channels. and Peshawar. also the Morning News. and a new broadcasting house at Karachi in 1950. Cinema y In the golden days of Pakistani cinema. to 1997 in 2005. but had dropped to just 945 by 2003 with most of the decline occurring in the Punjab Province. and a receiving centre at Peshawar (1960). 1820 in 2007. the National Press Trust acted as the government's front to control the press. In October 1998. European.242 to 4. but total circulation numbers increased. from 1994 to 2003 total print circulation increased substantially. but Englishlanguage publications are numerous. but the government controls the Associated Press of Pakistan.455.500 newspapers and journals existed in Pakistan. y Newspapers and Magazines y y y y Pakistan Times. Radio Pakistan started its first FM transmission. y . DAWN started publishing in Karachi in 1947. and Civil and Military Gazette at the time of independence. Nawa-i-Waqt. In 2008 the Pakistani government partially lifted its 42-year ban on screening Indian movies in Pakistan. This was followed by new radio stations at Hyderabad (1951). the former Press Trust sold or liquidated its newspapers and magazines in the early 1990s. the film industry churned out more than 200 films annually. Newspapers and magazines are published in 11 languages. the total number of daily. most in Urdu and Sindhi. however. and the Urdu-language dailies Jang and Anjam. one of the major news agencies. Pakistan had radio stations in Dhaka.

and o National News Agency (NNA). where publications need special permission from the regional government to operate and pro-independence publications are generally prohibited News Agencies y Pakistan's major news agencies include: o the government controlled Associated Press of Pakistan (APP). o International Press Of Pakistan (IPP). Pakistan News Network International (PNNI). Online International News Network (OINN). where no newspapers are published. o Pakistan Press International (PPI). The press is much more restricted in the Federally Administered Tribal Areas (FATA). o the United Press of Pakistan (UPP). y Independence of Media y Important for strong and stable democracy . South Asian News Agency (SANA). Sharp Eye. A number of smaller news agencies have come into existence. originally the Pakistan Press Association. and Worldwide News agency (WNA).y The press is generally free and has played an active role in national elections. and in Pakistaniadministered Kashmir. including Independent News Pakistan (INP). but journalists often exercise self-censorship as a result of arrests and intimidation by government and societal actors.

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In a press conference John McCain said that Drone attacks is their legitimate weapon to Defeat Terrorism. Although. which is again thanks to Media that it has created awareness to the people to express their opinion to save their sovereignty. No other county has suffered so much as PAKISTAN and no other country can sacrifice as much as Pakistan.Media Role in Pakistan Is Pakistani Media is playing its positive role in strengthening a democratic institutions in Pakistan? It is true that media in Pakistan has got freedom in recent years. American Senators visit to Pakistan was not a good news for Pakistani. President Asif Ali Zardari himself said that Pakistan suffered a loss of more than 300 million losses in this war. Although Media was banned to gavel coverage to judiciary yet for the sake of their business and mass interest forced them to give it media coverage. There is a strong public opinion against Drone attacks in Pakistan. . Thanks to Musharraf that he gave an important place to media. he had also curb the media yet it goes to his credit that during his regime many Private channels were opened and they got so much popularity among the masses that all restrictions and ban on media were failed to prove any positive result for the government. It shows Pakistan seriousness to Defeat Terrorist. Every Government has tried their level best to curb media but now it is out of control and now Media is in a good position to defend itself. The success of Long March to restore the Chief Justice Iftikhar Chaudhry was also made possible due to media role. The Restoration of judiciary was the Hall Mark for media in Particular and people in General. In the eye of WAR on TERROR media has also played an effective role to make a public opinion against the style of War on Terror which has caused a great loss of Pakistan in men and material.