1

Power System Components
In order to develop effective protective relay settings and protective relaying schemes, protection engineers need to develop an understanding of design and operational characteristics of power systems and power system components. They need to be able to identify normal operating conditions, probable failure modes, and expected system response when postulated failures occur. They also need to be aware of physical constraints that may impact protective relay setpoints. This chapter is intended to establish an understanding of power system components—transmission lines, distribution lines, transformers, circuit breakers, buses, reclosers, fuses, reactors, and generators from the perspective of a protection engineer. Complete descriptions are not provided. Discussions are limited to details that are relevant to protection engineers.

1.1 Transmission Lines
AC transmission lines, also called transmission feeders, are three-phase, conductive connections, at preselected voltage levels, between substations, switchyards, and generating stations. Transmission lines are used to transmit large amounts of power across power systems. Important characteristics are impedance, operating voltage, and ampacity. Transmissionline steady-state loading is a function of many variables, including sending end voltage, receiving end voltage, available generation, system load, and current distribution among parallel current paths. Transient loading is a function of the fault or abnormality that initiated the transient in addition to the preceding factors. Both normal and emergency power-transfer capability must be considered when setting transmission-line protective devices. Transmission lines are terminated at circuit breakers and connected to form networks as illustrated in Figure 1.1. The number of transmission lines in a network is a function of the transmission system design philosophy. When higher voltage and lower voltage transmission lines are built along the same right of way, lower voltage transmission lines may be operated as radial lines to prevent lower voltage lines from becoming overloaded when higher voltage lines are removed from service. 1
© 2009 by Taylor & Francis Group, LLC

2

Protective Relay Principles

Bus 1

Line 230–1 Bus 2 Line 230–2 Line 230–3

Bus 3

Figure 1.1 One-line diagram showing three buses, six circuit breakers, and three 230-KV transmission lines. Two Pole Structures with Cross Arms One Conductor per Phase Suspension Insulators

A Phase B Phase C Phase

Figure 1.2 Simplified illustration of several spans of three-phase transmission line.

Overhead transmission lines (several spans are illustrated in simplified fashion in Figure 1.2) have impedances of less than 1.0 Ω per mile, usually at a line angle between 75° and 90°. Actual impedances should be calculated for each transmission line as impedance varies with conductor type, spacing, length, height, number of conductors per phase, and number of ground conductors. Transmission-line impedance is influenced by the relative position of each phase with respect to the other phases (left-center-right, top-middle-bottom, etc.) and ground conductors, earth resistivity, and proximity of adjacent transmission lines. Therefore, the impedance of each transmission line should be calculated when the line is designed, and the line design should be verified after the line is built.
© 2009 by Taylor & Francis Group, LLC

or polymer assemblies. lower inductance. Transmission-line ampacities are a function of the desired power transfer capability at the time the line is designed. lattice aluminum towers.Power System Components 3 Underground transmission lines have lower impedance (per mile). do not limit line loading. and lower line angles. etc. Under normal conditions. shield wires may be omitted. or shield wires. stranded wire surrounded by solid (XLP [crosslinked polyethylene] or EPR [ethylene propylene rubber]) or oil-immersed (HPFF [high pressure fluid filled]) insulating material. Conductor spacing and height. Some structures may support several transmission lines. cable termination assemblies are provided to relieve voltage stress on cable insulation at the air/cable insulation interface. Support structures may be wood poles. that is. that is. oil-filled. and the number of circuits are important considerations when calculating line impedance. transmission system voltage should not vary more than ±5% from nominal. steel poles. Conductor type (size and composition) is needed to calculate line impedance and line ampacity. glass. Phase conductors of overhead transmission lines may be stranded copper wire. cable terminators. may be high-strength steel wire. aluminum conductor with hard drawn aluminum reinforcing (ACAR). etc. Transmission-line voltage ratings are matched to the transmission system nominal voltage. The increased power transfer capability at higher voltages is a function of both higher system voltage and larger conductor size. are used to terminate cables. very low inductance. When working with solid insulating material. the number of conductors. lattice steel towers. Ground conductors. In areas with little lightning activity. Phase conductors of underground transmission lines may be copper or aluminum cable. High-pressure. ACSR wire. threephase in one pipe. Ground wire type (size and composition) is needed to calculate transmission-line zero sequence impedance. etc. LLC . ACAR wire with optical fibers included within the conductor bundle. the power transfer capability of transmission lines is limited by the ampacity of the phase conductors. During emergency operation. and line angles of approximately 75°. aluminum conductor with steel reinforcing (ACSR). Insulators may be porcelain. The objective is to install protective relaying schemes that. The type of cable and the type of duct bank are needed to calculate line impedance. under any and all conditions. Usually transmission cables are placed in duct banks that provide physical protection and facilitate cable replacement. similar to transformer or circuitbreaker bushings. Transmission lines are current-limited components. ACAR wire. © 2009 by Taylor & Francis Group. The power transfer capability of an overhead 69-KV line may be 50 MVA to 250 MVA whereas the power transfer capability of an overhead 765-KV line may be 2000 MVA to 5000 MVA. When working with oil-immersed insulating material. transmission lines have very low impedance (per mile). transmission system voltage may vary as much as ±10% from nominal.

The primary goals when setting protective relays used for transmissionline protection are to (1) isolate faults quickly and (2) ensure continued operation of the power system after faults are cleared. overhead equipment. Short circuits of underground transmission lines may be caused by lightning. icing. This includes summer normal. accidental contact (dig-ins). animal droppings. must be constructed of the same conductive material (with the same number of conductors per phase) in order to minimize the introduction of phase unbalances that adversely affect generators and motors. Transmission-line © 2009 by Taylor & Francis Group. line impedance. At line end. This allows coordination of transmission-line thermal ratings with generation load schedules and optimization of generation costs on a continuous basis. snow. During emergency operation. fallen trees. available short-circuit current may be hundreds of amperes. and severe overloads that result in conductors sagging into trees. Transmission lines have multiple power transfer capability ratings. and other ratings that facilitate bulk power sales. LLC . fatigue (broken bolts or hardware). Available short circuit current varies with fault type. fatigue (broken bolts or hardware). transformer winding connections.4 Protective Relay Principles Typically underground transmission lines are rated 69 KV through 500 KV with continuous current ratings from 300 amperes through 2000 amperes. Actual overload capability is utility specific as each utility determines the amount of overload that is acceptable. The reason for multiple ratings is that power flows on the transmission system can easily be changed as power system conditions change. summer 24 hour. winter normal. Conductor withstand needs be evaluated for maximum shortcircuit current and maximum clearing-time conditions. Overload capability is directly related to ambient temperature and wind velocity—higher overloads can be tolerated when ambient temperatures are low and air is moving. Each phase of each line. fault location. contamination (dust. chemical action (corrosion). cable defects. corrosion). winter emergency (15 minute). and overloads that result in cable insulation failure. chemical action (corrosion). wind (galloping conductors. light rain or fog. Short circuits of overhead transmission lines may be caused by lightning. Overhead and underground transmission lines may have more than one conductor per phase. downed towers and poles. Typical power transfer capabilities are 50 MVA to 250 MVA at 69 KV and 1000 MVA to 2000 MVA at 500 KV. available short-circuit current may be tens of thousands of amperes. animal droppings. corrosion). etc. broken or cracked insulation. winter 24 hour. number of lines. contamination at terminations (dust. cable installation deficiencies. however. broken or cracked insulators. permissible transmission-line load current may be significantly higher than normal. broken crossarms). Near substations. animals). accidental contact (cranes. summer emergency (15 minute). source impedance. proximity to generation. circuit construction. etc. distribution lines.

72 Ω/mi 0.63 Ω/mi 0.040 + j.(of three) phase.2 lists typical data for several underground transmission lines. Actual values need to be calculated for specific transmission-line applications.2 Typical Underground Transmission-Line Data Nominal Voltage 69 KV 69 KV 69 KV 69 KV 138 KV 138 KV 138 KV 345 KV Conductor Size and Type 1-500 Al 1-1000 Al 1-1500 Al 1-1500 Cu 1-1000 Al 1-1500 Al 1-1500 Cu 1-2500 Cu HPOF Summer Normal Ampacity 590 A 920 A 1180 A 1465 A 910 A 1160 A 1440 A 1550 A Winter Normal Ampacity 661 A 1030 A 1322 A 1641 A 1019 A 1299 A 1613 A 1685 A Winter Emergency Ampacity 760 A 1185 A 1520 A 1887 A 1172 A 1494 A 1855 A 4000 A Positive Sequence Impedance 0.02 + j.074 + j.13 + j.10 + j.208 + j.35 Ω/mi 0.78 Ω/mi 0.072 + j.61 Ω/mi Table 1.040 + j. or fast-start generators or load-shedding schemes need to be installed to maintain loading within transmission-line thermal ratings. © 2009 by Taylor & Francis Group.053 + j. or single(one of three) phase conductive connections.Power System Components 5 Table 1. Overload protection is not usually provided for transmission lines. Table 1.24 Ω/mi protective relays should not operate during any anticipated loading condition—both steady state and transient.71 Ω/mi 0. 1.31 Ω/mi 0. at a preselected voltage level.104 + j.30 + j.1 lists typical data for several overhead transmission lines.1 Typical Overhead Transmission-Line Data Nominal Voltage 69 KV 69 KV 138 KV 230 KV 230 KV 230 KV 500 KV Conductor Size and Type 2/0 Cu 336 ACSR 556 ACSR 795 ACSR 1033 ACSR 1590 ACSR 2-2493 ACSR Summer Normal Ampacity 286 A 612 A 861 A 948 A 1432 A 1731 A 3366 A Winter Normal Ampacity 325 A 659 A 926 A 1051 A 1523 A 1903 A 3705 A Winter Emergency Ampacity 503 A 881 A 1208 A 1402 A 1884 A 2305 A 4314 A Positive Sequence Impedance 0.40 Ω/mi 0. Table 1.104 + j.35 Ω/mi 0.31 Ω/mi 0.78 Ω/mi 0. If the possibility of transmission-line overloads exists.82 Ω/mi 0.74 Ω/mi 0.31 + j.2 Distribution Lines Distribution lines may be three-phase.19 + j. LLC . the network configuration or generation schedule needs to be altered. two.03 + j.33 Ω/mi 0.

depending on line construction. fused disconnect switches. During emergency operation. –10% of design voltage. Phase conductors of overhead distribution lines may be copper wire.47-KV distribution lines. –15% from nominal. The objective is to install protective relaying schemes that detect all faults without limiting the capability ampacity of the wire. Many distribution lines (several spans are illustrated in simplified fashion in Figure 1. three circuit breakers. between substations and transformers that supply power to customer utilization facilities. © 2009 by Taylor & Francis Group. aluminum wire. operating voltage may vary as much as +10%. air break switches.0 Ω per mile. are routinely attached to poles that support distribution lines. and three radial 12. permissible load current may be slightly more than the normal rating. Normal load current capability is usually between 300 amperes and 2000 amperes. for single-phase lines. Distribution lines are used to deliver power within small areas of power systems. three closed and two open airbreak switches. ACAR wire.3 One-line diagram showing one bus.O. etc. The type of wire is needed to calculate line impedance and ampacity. ACSR wire. Distribution lines do not have high short-time ratings.. Usually distribution lines are operated as radial lines. or copper-clad steel wire. The nominal design voltage may be the phase-to-phase or the phase-to-ground. Important characteristics are impedance. operating voltage. and ampacity. because alternate power sources that can relieve line loading are not usually available at the distribution system level. operating voltage is usually within +5%. Line 14–3 Line 14–2 Figure 1. When distribution lines are connected to form networks.6 Protective Relay Principles Substation Bus 1 Line 14–1 ABS ABS N. Under normal conditions. like transmission lines.) During emergency operation. ABS ABS ABS N. Distribution lines are terminated at circuit breakers as illustrated in Figure 1. (The nominal design voltage is the phase-to-phase voltage for threephase lines.3. The number of distribution lines served from each substation as well as the number and location of switching points is a function of distribution system design philosophy. LLC .O. transmission class relaying (and relaying philosophy) should be considered.4) have impedance of less than 1. Poletop transformers.

In areas with little lightning activity. concrete poles. Typically overhead distribution lines are rated from 4 KV through 46 KV with continuous current ratings of 200 amperes through 2000 amperes. The insulators may be porcelain. Ground conductors. This represents power transfer capabilities of 1. shield wires may not be included in the distribution-line design.4 to 14 MVA at 4 KV and 16 to 160 MVA at 46 KV. LLC . The ground conductors may be high-strength steel wire or ACSR wire. shield wires. Many overhead distribution lines are combinations of various size conductors because older. or polymer assemblies. The type of ground wire is needed to calculate line impedance. lower capability conductors are replaced only when and where load is projected to exceed conductor capability or where losses are found to be excessive. steel poles. Support structures may be wood poles. lattice steel towers. and/or neutral conductors may be included in the line design. glass. Conductor spacing and height are important considerations when calculating line impedance.Power System Components 7 Single Pole Structures with Cross Arms One Conductor per Phase Post Type Insulators A Phase B Phase C Phase Attachments on Poles Neutral Figure 1. etc. The major differences between overhead transmission lines and overhead distribution lines are (1) physical size—transmission lines are much larger than distribution lines—and (2) number of © 2009 by Taylor & Francis Group.4 Simplified illustration of several spans of three-phase distribution line with underhung neutral and various pole attachments. Each structure may support one or more distribution lines.

that is. The source impedance and the line impedance influence available fault current. Distribution lines usually have four current ratings—summer normal. customer outage considerations. The maximum capability of distribution-line conductors is used only during abnormal system configurations. etc.8 Protective Relay Principles pole attachments. are used to terminate cables.4 through 14 MVA at 4 KV and 8 MVA through 160 MVA at 46 KV. Typically underground distribution lines are rated 4 KV through 46 KV with continuous current ratings of 200 amperes through 2000 amperes. and winter 24 hour. the length of crossarms and insulator assemblies. Underground cables may be placed in duct banks or may be direct buried. Physical size differences include the height and diameter of poles. An important distribution-line feature. time-dependent. capacitors. Phase conductors of underground distribution lines may be copper or aluminum cable. Many distribution lines are a combination of overhead and underground conductors. cable termination assemblies are provided to relieve voltage stress on cable insulation at the air/cable insulation interface. from a protective relaying viewpoint. delta three phase transformers) can significantly alter fault current magnitude and fault current distribution. is calculated line end fault current. This represents power transfer capabilities of 1. The reason why distribution lines have fewer. the maximum capability of underground distribution-line conductors is used only during abnormal system configurations. winter normal. fuse switches. Note that the presence of ground banks (Wye-grounded. cable terminators. reclosers. stranded wire surrounded by solid (XLP [cross-linked polyethylene] or EPR [ethylene propylene rubber]) or oilimpregnated insulating material. The number of phases. phase spacing. size of phase conductors. When working with solid insulating material. summer 24 hour. the size of the conductors. Like overhead distribution lines. influence line impedance. etc. LLC . and alternate power source considerations. Underground distribution lines are usually composed of similar conductors for the length of the line. and other components. similar to transformer or circuitbreaker bushings. conductor length. size of ground conductors. sectionalizers. The power distribution capability of distribution lines is typically limited by voltage drop. Underground distribution lines may have more than one conductor per phase. Common practice is to treat a distribution line as an underground line if most of the line is placed underground and to treat the line as an overhead line if most of the line is routed overhead. current ratings is that power flows on the distribution system cannot be quickly changed when power system conditions change. When working with oil-impregnated insulating material. earth resistivity. Attachments to distribution lines include customer service transformers. © 2009 by Taylor & Francis Group.

lightning. fatigue.70 Ω/mi 1.16 KV 4. broken poles.63 Ω/mi © 2009 by Taylor & Francis Group. fatigue. chemical action. Distribution-line thermal protection should not be an issue.47 KV Conductor Size and Type #2 Cu 1/0 ACSR 1/0 Cu 2/0 Cu 4/0 ACSR 4/0 Cu 336 ACSR Summer Normal Ampacity 275 A 307 A 368 A 446 A 467 A 620 A 752 A Winter Normal Ampacity 302 A 338 A 405 A 490 A 514 A 682 A 827 A Winter Emergency Ampacity 336 A 375 A 450 A 545 A 571 A 758 A 919 A Positive Sequence Impedance 0.95 + j. cable defects.68 Ω/mi 0.12 + j. source impedance. line impedance. severe overloads that result in conductor sagging into trees or other objects.59 + j. transformer winding connections. accidental contact. These typical values are then used where the as-built configuration nearly matches the typical configuration. typical values (per mile of wire) are calculated for typical conductor sizes and phase spacing. proximity to generation. light rain or fog.16 KV 4. Instead. Available short-circuit current varies with fault type. available short-circuit current can be less than a thousand amperes.71 Ω/mi 0. cable installation deficiencies.Power System Components 9 Usually the impedance of individual distribution lines is not calculated. etc. accidental contact. number of lines.47 KV 12. At line end. Short circuits of overhead distribution lines are caused by wind. available short-circuit current will be tens of thousands of amperes. fault location.16-KV and 12.31 + j.3 Typical Overhead Distribution-Line Data Nominal Voltage 4. vehicles. Near substations.67 Ω/mi 0.30 + j. icing.3 and Table 1. severe overloads that result in cable insulation failure.16 KV 12.4 list typical data for several 4.61 + j. broken or damaged insulation. If the possibility of distribution-line overloads exists. additional facilities need to be installed in order to maintain loading within distribution-line thermal ratings.47 KV 12.78 Ω/mi 0.47 KV 12. animal contacts. etc. Short circuits of underground distribution lines may be caused by lightning.48 + j.76 Ω/mi 0. contamination. Table 1. chemical action. The primary goal when setting protective relays used for distributionline protection is to isolate short circuits from the power system before additional components are impacted.47-KV overhead and underground distribution lines. broken crossarms. broken or cracked insulators. Table 1. LLC . etc. circuit construction.

substation transformers have impedances 25 MVA 69/12.403 Ω/mi 0. © 2009 by Taylor & Francis Group. Important transformer characteristics are load rating (of each winding). (b) transformer.47 KV Z = 7% (b) Figure 1.6.404 Ω/mi 0. general.446 Ω/mi 0. from one voltage level (the primary winding) to a second voltage level (the secondary winding). and inrush current.121 + j.131 + j.16 KV 4.404 Ω/mi 1.188 + j.16 KV 4. nominal turns ratio. Typically generator step-up transformers have impedances of 10–20%.16 KV 4.084 + j. The basic theory of operation is the same for all transformers.47 KV Conductor Size and Type 1-500 Al 1-500 Cu 1-1000 Al 1-1000 Cu 1-500 Al 1-500 Cu 1-1000 Cu 1-1000 Cu Summer Normal Ampacity 605 A 775 A 950 A 1200 A 600 A 765 A 940 A 1185 A Winter Normal Ampacity 678 A 868 A 1064 A 1344 A 672 A 857 A 1053 A 1327 A Winter Emergency Ampacity 779 A 998 A 1224 A 1546 A 773 A 985 A 1211 A 1526 A Positive Sequence Impedance 0.404 Ω/mi 0. Industrial transformers are “manufacturer standard” products. LLC .446 Ω/mi 0. tap changer type and capability. The secondary voltage may be higher or lower than the primary voltage level. single line. substation transformers. Utility transformers are custom-designed products.183 + j.404 Ω/mi 0.47 KV 12.4 Typical Underground Distribution-Line Data Nominal Voltage 4. are shown in Figure 1. Power transformers are sized to carry “projected” load and classified as generator step-up transformers.10 Protective Relay Principles Table 1. or distribution transformers. Designation for transformer polarity.16 KV 12. impedance.127 + j.47 KV 12.121 + j. Symbols used to represent transformers are shown in Figure 1. nominal voltage ratings.403 Ω/mi 0.6. connection (of each winding). by electromagnetic induction. polarity (of each winding). marked with dots (•) or plus signs (+).5 (a) Transformer.47 KV 12.47 KV Z = 7% (a) 25 MVA 69/12.3 Transformers Transformers are used to transfer power.5 and Figure 1. Generally larger transformers have more leakage flux and larger impedance than smaller transformers.084 + j. overload capability.

For unbalanced faults. When estimating inrush current for transformers. etc. LLC . ±15%. +2. nominal voltage rating.6 (a) Additive polarity. three-phase faults. (b) of 7–15%. etc. delta. For balanced. conceptual. and distribution transformers have impedances of 1–4%. and –5%.8b. ±10%. the transformer turns ratio can vary ±20% or more from the nominal turns ratio. 10/16%. then the transformer is connected wye-grounded. oil-filled transformer is included as Figure 1.8a. © 2009 by Taylor & Francis Group. or wye-grounded.5%. –2. the transformer is said to be “delta connected. If the windings are connected line to neutral. transformer winding connections and turns ratio must be reviewed when unbalanced faults (phase-to-phase or phase-to-ground faults) are considered. the transformer is said to be “wye connected. If a transformer is equipped with both a de-energized tap changer and an under load tap changer.Power System Components 11 + + + + (a) Figure 1.” as illustrated in Figure 1.7. Typically transformers are equipped with deenergized tap changers that can vary the voltage +5%. delta.5%. steps. the under load tap changer can have a range of ±5%. When transformers are equipped with under load tap changers. cutaway view of a hypothetical.” as illustrated in Figure 1. Because the primary winding can be connected independently of the secondary winding.8c. (Inrush will be limited by the system impedance as well as by the transformer impedance. (b) subtractive polarity. in 5/16%. 15/16%. as illustrated in Figure 1. When transformer windings are connected line to line.) Each transformer winding has a preselected. The primary windings of three-phase transformers may be connected in wye. or wye-grounded. One or more of the windings can also be equipped with an under load tap changer that is used to provide voltage regulation during normal system operation. The connection of the primary windings is independent of the connection of the secondary windings and vice versa. The secondary windings may also be connected in wye. Transformer impedances can be outside of these ranges.. If the neutral connection is connected to ground. it is usually safe to assume that inrush current will be less than the maximum through-fault current. the transformer turns ratio is the same as the nominal voltage ratio. One or more of the windings may be equipped with a de-energized tap changer that can increase or decrease secondary voltage by varying the transformer turns ratio. A simplified.

7 Simplified cutaway view of an oil-filled transformer with a 2:1 ratio. and oil coolers. lowvoltage. the primary and secondary current relationships are as follows: Current Relationships.866 I3φ © 2009 by Taylor & Francis Group.9). B-to-C Phase Fault Primary A-Phase Lead: IA = . Balanced Conditions.5 I3φ Secondary a-Phase Lead: Ia = 0 b-Phase Lead: Ib = . high-voltage. and neutral bushings.12 Protective Relay Principles Figure 1. LLC . For a transformer with primary windings connected in delta and secondary windings connected wye-grounded with a 1:1 voltage ratio (Figure 1. 1:1 Voltage Ratio Primary A-Phase Lead: IA = I3φ B-Phase Lead: IB = I3φ C-Phase Lead: IC = I3φ Secondary a-Phase Lead: Ia = I3φ b-Phase Lead: Ib = I3φ c-Phase Lead: Ic = I3φ Current Relationships.5 I3φ B-Phase Lead: IB = I3φ C-Phase Lead: IC = . Three-Phase Fault.866 I3φ c-Phase Lead: Ic = . the apparent transformer turns ratio may be different from the nominal voltage ratio.

But for a phase-to-phase fault on © 2009 by Taylor & Francis Group. Phase X1 Phase H1 Phase H2 Phase X2 Phase H3 Phase X3 Figure 1. wye-grounded. (c) transformer windings connected phase-to-neutral. LLC . secondary windings connected wyegrounded.577 Iφ-g Secondary a-Phase Lead: Ia = Iφ-g b-Phase Lead: Ib = 0 c-Phase Lead: Ic = 0 The significance of these relationships is that for a three-phase secondary fault. all windings are equally stressed.8 (a) Transformer windings connected phase-to-phase. Current Relationships. delta.9 Transformer primary windings connected in delta.577 Iφ-g C-Phase Lead: IC = . A Phase-to-Ground Fault Primary A-Phase Lead: IA = 0 B-Phase Lead: IB = .Power System Components 13 Phase 1 Phase 2 Phase 3 (a) Phase 1 Phase 2 Phase 1 Phase 2 Neutral Neutral Phase 3 (b) Phase 3 (c) Figure 1. (b) transformer windings connected phase-to-neutral. wye.

external to the transformer. core. Typically three-phase generator step-up and substation power transformers are rated from 10 MVA through 1000 MVA and single-phase generator step-up and substation power transformers are rated from 5 MVA through 500 MVA. LLC . dry type units. oil-filled units. and (3) for transformers with three or more windings. such as 120/240 volts or 240/480 volts. the apparent transformer turns ratio may be different from the transformer voltage ratio. is limited by the need to consider tap changers and inrush current. one secondary winding is stressed more than other parts of the transformer. insulating material. the goal is to set relays sensitively enough so that faults. Many smaller power transformers are selfcooled. one primary lead is stressed more than other parts of the transformer.or three-phase banks to supply multiphase loads. single-phase units contained in separate tanks or one. the KVA ratings of the individual transformers may be different. Most large power transformers are oil-filled units with forced cooling systems. (Autotransformers utilize a common winding as part of the primary and secondary winding.14 Protective Relay Principles the transformer secondary. And for a single phase-to-ground on the transformer secondary. autotransformers are usually less expensive than two winding transformers. Most outdoor distribution transformers are selfcooled. Sensitivity. When overcurrent relaying is utilized. When single-phase transformers are connected to create two. The assumption is that a transformer may fail and that relaying to detect the failure must be installed. Typically three-phase distribution transformers are rated from 100 KVA through 5000 KVA and single-phase transformers are rated 5 KVA through 167 KVA. The primary goal when setting protective relays used for transformer protection is a function of the type of protective device being used. When the transformer turns ratio is 3:1 or less. distribution transformers are equipped with dual-rated secondary windings. When transformer differential relaying is utilized. oil-filled units. the goal is to set relays sensitively enough so that internal transformer faults are detected and isolated quickly. Large generator step-up and substation transformers may be three.. Some smaller power transformers are air-cooled. three-phase unit contained in one tank. This is complicated by the fact that (1) transformers may carry as much as 250% of their full load rating for one or two hours during abnormal operating conditions. The type of winding. © 2009 by Taylor & Francis Group. however. is unimportant from a protective relaying viewpoint.or three-phase banks.) Distribution system transformers may be single-phase transformers that supply single-phase loads. one winding may be overloaded while the remaining windings are not overloaded. In many applications. (2) for unbalanced faults. or three-phase transformers. etc. single-phase transformers connected in two. are detected and isolated before the transformer’s short time rating is exceeded.

number of trip coils. or each phase may be in a separate tank (enclosure). For closing. Some © 2009 by Taylor & Francis Group. Open or close commands can be the result of manual operation of a control switch. In order to open or close a circuit breaker. the circuit breaker conducts power system current until the contacts open. circuit breakers are used as switching devices as well as fault-interrupting devices. number of auxiliary switches that mimic the main power contacts. are important to power system protection engineers if a circuit breaker can be compromised by a failure specific to the circuit breaker’s design.4 Circuit Breakers Circuit breakers are fault-interrupting devices that enable or interrupt the flow of current to power system components. a supervisory control command. load current rating. etc. the external power source must be independent of the AC power system. When the main contacts open. a vacuum circuit breaker will lose its interrupting capability if vacuum is lost. Power system circuit breakers open or close only when a trip or close command is received. Numerous circuit breaker auxiliary devices are important to power system protection engineers. Ground bank action is the physical property that causes single phase-to-ground fault current to exceed three-phase fault current. maximum fault current interrupting rating. Since circuit breakers are designed to carry and interrupt both load current and fault (short-circuit) current. These include number. For opening. Ground bank action occurs whether or not a power source is connected to the delta winding of the transformer. the external power source does not need to be independent of the AC power system. an external power source is required.. LLC . number of enclosures. Therefore. For example. and polarity of current transformers.Power System Components 15 When a transformer includes a delta winding and a wye-grounded winding. This is referred to as ground bank action. Circuit breakers may have all three-phase assemblies in one tank (enclosure). When the main contacts of a circuit breaker close. ratio. Important characteristics of circuit breakers are nominal voltage rating. location. Power system circuit breakers are not self-actuating devices. etc. 1. such as interrupting medium. voltage and current rating of each trip and close coil. and fault current interrupting time. the power circuit is opened and the flow of current is interrupted until the contacts are closed. or operation of a protective relay that has detected an abnormal power system condition. Circuit breaker details. power system protection engineers need to develop a strategy that considers loss of vacuum. the transformer acts a source of ground current to faults on any lines to which the wye-grounded winding is connected.

16 Protective Relay Principles circuit breakers have independent pole design. They are further classified by voltage rating. 550 KV. Trip and close coils are usually solenoid-type devices that release a spring or unlatch an actuator. etc. SF6 Circuit-breaker opening and closing mechanisms utilize stored energy devices. auxiliary switches. Buses are used to interconnect circuit breakers that serve as the termination for lines.11. A three-phase bus that supplies four lines is illustrated in simplified fashion in Figure 1. vacuum. stored-energy devices.000 ampere (interrupting capability). but most circuit breakers are gang operated. © 2009 by Taylor & Francis Group. conceptual sketch for an SF6 circuit breaker is shown in Figure 1. 500 MVA (interrupting capability). 1. 3 cycle.000 ampere (interrupting capability). LLC . maximum (design value) short-circuit current capability. interrupting ratings. 2 cycle. transformers. Typical examples are as follows: 1. and SF6 (sulfur hexafluoride). Important characteristics are bus nominal voltage. Circuit breakers are classified by the medium in which circuit interruption is performed—oil. and maximum load current capability.5 KV. etc. bus configuration. current ratings. at preselected voltage levels. that serve as a common connection for electrical circuits. etc.12. fractional-horsepower motors. circuit breakers are not custom designed. terminal blocks. 50. Unlike transformers.5 Buses Buses are conductor assemblies. high current performance tests for a wide variety of slightly different circuit breakers. Trip and close coils. maximum current-interruption capability. 1200 ampere. Manufacturers provide circuit breakers with standard voltage ratings. A simplified. Springs and actuators are usually charged by small. vacuum 2. 3 cycle. and interrupting time. This practice was established to avoid the expense of developing high voltage.10. 2000 ampere. 242 KV. 3000 ampere. SF6 3. are located in a cabinet that is an integral part of the circuit breaker. generators. 15. 63. Symbols used to show circuit breakers and auxiliary switches are illustrated in Figure 1. air. such as springs or hydraulic actuators that work through push rods and levers. continuous current capability..

A B C A B C Line 1 A B C Line 2 A B C Line 3 A B C Line 4 Figure 1.12 Three-phase bus with four three-phase lines. © 2009 by Taylor & Francis Group.O. Tank Containing SF6 and Interrupters Supports N. LLC .Power System Components 17 Bushing CTs (in Weather Shields) CB Mechanism Cabinet CB Foundation Figure 1. Circuit Breaker “b” fingers Open Circuit Breaker Closed “a” fingers Figure 1.11 Symbols used to show circuit breakers and auxiliary switches.10 Conceptual physical sketch of a 138-KV SF6 circuit breaker.

Buses made from flexible conductors that are pulled taut are referred to as strain buses. Bus short-circuit current ratings may be 50. and copper or aluminum angle. Bus short-circuit capability needs to be matched to the interrupting capability of the circuit breakers that are connected to the bus.18 Protective Relay Principles The primary goal when setting protective relays used for bus protection is to ensure that protective relays do not operate for close-in line faults. or generator that is connected to the bus. Bus insulators may be porcelain. Outdoor.6 Switchyards Switchyards are assemblies. or ACAR cable. Flexible conductors are suspended between dead-end structures and pulled taut with minimal sag so as to minimize movement during fault conditions. circuit breakers. at a preselected voltage level. © 2009 by Taylor & Francis Group. When working with outdoor equipment. transformers. Usual continuous current ratings are 2000 amps. At distribution voltage levels. At transmission voltage levels. or they may be composed of flexible conductors. enclosed buses are usually housed in air-insulated compartments. 1. during bus testing conditions.000 amps. Bus support structures may be wood poles. Usually minimum fault current. open-air buses may be composed of rigid conductors. such as copper or aluminum tube. is large enough to ensure that bus faults are detected and isolated. copper or aluminum bar. and power system subcomponents where lines. etc. 75. wide flange beams. 4000 amps.000 amps. of buses. When working with enclosed equipment. or polymer assemblies. each circuit breaker and related components are referred to as being in a compartment. Buses are designed to withstand magnetic forces caused by maximum (design value) shortcircuit currents. steel poles. 3000 amps.000 amps. and generators are terminated. At transmission voltage levels. 5000 amps. box frames. etc. Rigid conductors are supported by standoff insulators. ACSR. A-frames. Buses are designed with a maximum continuous current capability that exceeds the capability of the highest ampacity line. 100. Enclosed buses are usually built with rigid conductors that are separated from the enclosure by standoff insulators. transformer. buses are usually designed to minimize the possibility of a common mode failure. glass. each circuit breaker and related components are referred to as being in a bay. such as copper. lattice towers. LLC . At distribution voltage levels. more than one bus may be mounted on a bus support structure. enclosed buses utilize oil or SF6 as the insulating medium. etc.

four circuits. single-breaker switchyard. © 2009 by Taylor & Francis Group. namely. When open phase protection is provided for downstream motors.7 Fuses Fuses are single-phase overcurrent protective devices with a circuitopening element that is heated and opened by the passage of current through it. single-breaker configuration. 1.13 shows a single-line diagram for a distribution switchyard that includes one bus. four circuits. Figure 1. and 24 sets of disconnect switches operating in a double bus. double-breaker configuration. eight circuit breakers.15 shows a single-line diagram for a transmission switchyard that includes two bus sections. Presently fuses are available through 69 KV. LLC .13 Single-line diagram for single-bus. four circuit breakers. and eight sets of disconnect switches operating in a single-bus.Power System Components 19 Bus Bus Side Disconnect Switches Circuit Breaker Line Side Disconnect Switches 2 3 4 Circuit Number: 1 Figure 1. Figure 1.14 shows a single-line diagram for a transmission switchyard that includes two buses. Figure 1. Switchyards are classified by voltage level and by circuit breaker and bus arrangement. to provide a location for switching equipment. and 16 sets of disconnect switches operating in a double-bus. The purpose of switchyards is to provide a central location for power transfers between power system components. on single-phase taps off three-phase distribution lines. eight transmission lines. breaker and one-half configuration (two lines are terminated using three circuit breakers in each bay). Fuses are used to detect and isolate short circuits in transformers. in capacitors. fuses can also be used to protect three-phase distribution lines. Switchyards are designed to allow manual switching for routine maintenance and automatic switching for isolation of short circuits and other abnormal conditions. 12 circuit breakers. The name switchyard is derived from its function. on cables. etc.

14 Single-line diagram for double-bus. expulsion type. LLC . major considerations are voltage rating. Minimum melt time is the time it takes the fusible element to melt when a large overload or short-circuit current occurs. there is no assurance that the fuse will interrupt the flow of current when an overload or short circuit occurs. etc. Strain wires may be included in low-amperage fuses to protect against premature fuse operation caused by temporary overloads. This is an important consideration because if an overcurrent persists long enough for the © 2009 by Taylor & Francis Group. K. preloading factors. This includes push rods to lengthen arc distance and boric acid or sand to assimilate arc energy. total clearing time. T. When working with power fuses. double breaker switchyard. fuses are available. time lag. The nominal voltage of a circuit in which a fuse is installed must be less than the fuse voltage rating. Otherwise. etc. Fuse time-current characteristics are further described by letter designations—E.and expulsion-type fuses. load-current rating. slow speed.20 Protective Relay Principles Bus 1 Bus Side Disconnect Switches Circuit Breaker Line Side Disconnect Switches 4 2 3 Line Side Disconnect Switches Bus Side Disconnect Switches Circuit Number 1 Circuit Breaker Bus 2 Figure 1. minimum melt time. There are many different types of fuses—cartridge type. current limiting. Standard speed. High-voltage fuses include design features to enhance current interruption. and interrupting rating. Figure 1. Strain wires have very little current-carrying capability. Strain wires are high-strength wires placed in parallel with the current carrying element.16 shows symbols for cartridge. etc. but excellent mechanical strength.

16 (a) Symbol for cartridge-type fuse. Figure 1. © 2009 by Taylor & Francis Group.Power System Components 21 Bus 1 Bus Side Disconnect Switches Circuit Breaker Line Side Disconnect Switches 4 Line Side Disconnect Switches Line Side Disconnect Switches 8 Line Side Disconnect Switches Bus Side Disconnect Switches Circuit Number 1 2 3 Circuit Breaker Circuit Number 5 6 7 Circuit Breaker Bus 2 Figure 1. breaker and one-half switchyard. but not long enough for the fuse to open.15 Single-line diagram for double bus. the fuse characteristic will change and the fuse will open prematurely at some later date. LLC . fuse element to begin to melt. (b) symbol for expulsion-type fuse.

69-KV circuit breaker. and power system subcomponents where transmission lines. single-phase 13. © 2009 by Taylor & Francis Group. the minimum melt characteristic can be changed by the current passing through the fuse. at two or more voltage levels. At high fault currents. Fuse total clearing time is the fuse minimum melting time plus the time it takes to extinguish the arc that results as the fusible element is destroyed. Preloading curves. Substations are designed to facilitate manual switching for routine maintenance and automatic switching for isolation of short circuits and other abnormal conditions. distribution lines. Transmission lines can be thought of as links in the chain.8-KV switchyard.8-KV (transformer) air-break switches. which show the reduction in fuse minimum melt time for various preloading conditions.8-KV three-phase substation with a 13. Fuse interrupting rating is a very important consideration. and one or more highvoltage switchyards. two 69-13. LLC . one or more low-voltage switchyards. arcing time becomes a significant factor. Smaller substations usually include one or more transformers and a low-voltage switchyard. Substations can be thought of as the hubs of the transmission and distribution system. air-break switches. one 13. Larger substations usually include two or more transformers. two sets of 69-KV gang-operated. are available for most fuses and should be considered when fuses are selected for use. Arcing time is usually less than one cycle. 1. single-phase 13. Distribution lines can be thought of as spokes supporting customers. and generator circuits are brought together for the purpose of transforming power from one voltage level to another.8 Substations Substations are assemblies. of transformers. 69-13. If actual fault current exceeds the fuse interrupting rating. three-phase bus section. Figure 1. the fuse will fail to interrupt the short-circuit current. three-phase. switchyards.8-KV disconnect switches. This means that the fuse will be destroyed and a second fault will be imposed on the power system at the location of the fuse. eight sets of three. The result is that a fuse can open faster if a high level of current passes through the fuse when the fuse is preloaded. four 13.17 shows a single-line diagram for a distribution class. when the fusible element melts very quickly. and two sets of three.8-KV three-phase feeder circuit breakers.22 Protective Relay Principles When fuses carry load current that approaches their ampere rating.8-KV.8-KV three-phase transformers.

8 KV Distribution Lines Figure 1. Depending on system design. Each overhead distribution line usually includes several reclosers.9 Reclosers Reclosers are self-contained. © 2009 by Taylor & Francis Group. Reclosers may be threephase or single-phase units.8 KV Bus Side Disconnect Switches 13. The name recloser is based on its ability to automatically reclose and thereby test the downstream circuit for sustained faults in a predetermined reclosing sequence.8 KV Transformers 13. reclosers may also be used at the terminals of distribution lines in lieu of circuit breakers. LLC .8 KV Circuit Breakers 13.8 KV Bus Side Air Break Switches 13.8 KV Line Side Disconnect Switches Outgoing 13. 1. mechanical switching devices used throughout overhead distribution systems to detect and automatically isolate overcurrent conditions.17 Single-line diagram for a distribution-class substation.Power System Components 23 Incoming 69 KV Transmission Line 69 KV Circuit Breaker 69 KV Gang Operated Air Break Switches 69–13.

larger diameters result in greater centrifugal forces. The differences between reclosers and circuit breakers include the following: 1. 3. Reclosers are available in a wider range of interrupting capabilities and continuous current ratings. Generator output voltages are limited to 23 KV or less. combustion turbine. steam turbine. Generator protection will not be included in this book. that convert mechanical power into electrical power. The operate currents of the original oil-circuit reclosers were not adjustable. 2. Recloser trip coils are powered by fault current flowing through the coil.). 1.10 Generators Generators are machines. are available in a range of continuous current capabilities and a range of interrupting capabilities. such as trip and close coils. With these technological advances. KW. moving contacts (which open to interrupt or close to complete the power circuit). (Higher voltage means more insulation. Generator output voltage and KVAR (Kilo © 2009 by Taylor & Francis Group. insulating assemblies. and auxiliary devices. etc. Generator output power. Large power generators are complex machines with exciters. large generators utilize dedicated step-up transformers. an interrupting medium. etc. Reclosers. diesel engine. more mass means larger machine diameters. Generators with power output ratings up to approximately 10 MVA may be connected to distribution systems. originally oil-circuit reclosers. is controlled by the throttle position of the prime mover (gasoline engine.24 Protective Relay Principles Reclosers consist of a tank or enclosure. Presently electronic reclosers are available in which the pickup current can be adjusted. coolers. hydraulic turbine. Presently electronic reclosers with vacuum interrupters are available with high interrupting capabilities and field adjustable trip (current) levels. reclosers are used in distribution substation switchyards as a lower cost alternative to circuit breakers. Recloser close coils are powered by a small transformer installed on the source side of the recloser. LLC . usually three-phase. and other auxiliary equipment that needs to be considered when protective relay setpoints are being developed. more insulation means more mass.) Therefore. Generators that are connected to the transmission system can have power output ratings as high as 1500 MVA. operating transformers.

faults during line or transformer-out of-service conditions. and faults during line or transformer out-of-service conditions when a generator is off-line. It’s important to recognize the subtle. Only two of these three generator variables (KW. but the prime mover will attempt to transfer its mechanical power to the electrical system whether or not generator excitation is available. The location of generators throughout the power system and the number and type of generators at each location are important protective relaying considerations. two or more generators are located at the same location—in order to take advantage of cost savings accrued by using common ancillary equipment.Power System Components 25 VOH Ampere. Loss of a single base-load generator is not usually considered a contingency. LLC . Voltage control will be lost and steady-state synchronism with the power system may be lost. Many generators are located at multiunit generating stations—that is. Setpoints at locations near generating stations need to be developed for faults during system normal conditions. Available short-circuit current and duration are dictated by machine design parameters and time constants that include considerations for fault type. and fault duration. Similarly it is important to recognize that output power will not change if field excitation is lost. KVAR. Reactive) loading is controlled by the amount of excitation applied to the generator field. or output voltage) can be independently controlled. fault location. If the exciter responds. but important. voltage will remain unchanged until the generator is tripped in response to the loss of power from the prime mover. © 2009 by Taylor & Francis Group. distinction between output KW and output KVAR because loss of power to the prime mover does not mean that system voltage will change. faults during generator off-line conditions.