Project report

Secure data communication
Bachelor of Technology In Electronics and Communication Engineering

By Y.AJANTHA K.JHANSI A.REKHA 07D71A0433 07D71A0403 07D71A0414

ELECTRONICS CORPORATION OF INDIA LIMITED (ECIL) HYDERABAD

ACKNOWLEDGEMENT At the very outset, we sincerely acknowledge with gratitude the guidance and support rendered to us by various people without which this training and project would not have been materialised. We offer our greetings and thanks to Mr.P.B.Ramakrishna for offering us 30 days of industrial training and project at electronic corporation of India limited. We also thank Mr.Y.Visweswar Rao, Head (CED) for his immense help. We are thankful to Mr. Chaitanya and Ms. Sravanthi who gave us opportunities to sharpen our skills and translate the wisdom and creativity into actions, thus enabling us to shape up our career. We also offer heartiest thanks to our college for allowing us to undertake training and all the employees of ECIL who spared their precious time to answer our queries and thus helping us in our training.

Index
Chapter1 1.1Abstract 1.2 Introduction to embedded systems 1.3 Hardware description Chapter2 ATmega32 controller 2.1 Overview 2.2 Features 2.3 Pin configuration 2.4 AVR CPU core 2.5 Memories 2.6 Register description 2.7 Block diagram Chapter3 Max232 3.1Introduction 3.2 Voltage levels Chapter4 LCD display 4.1 Introduction 4.2 Overview 4.3 Illumination Chapter5 Touch screen 5.1 Introduction 5.2 History

9 Implementation Chapter7 RS232 7.1 Introduction 6.5.4 Connectors 7.6 Application 6.3Communication and Connection 6.5 Conventions 7.2 Limitations of standards 7.1 Introduction Chater9 Components .6 Development tools Chapter8 Power supply 8.8 Technical information 6.5 Development Chapter6 Bluetooth 6.7 Specifications and Features 6.3 Technologies 5.4 Construction 5.1 Introduction 7.2 Implementation 6.5 Profile 6.3 Voltage levels 7.4 Uses 6.

9.4 LED Chapter10 Source coding .1 Resistors 9.2 Capacitor 9.3 Voltage Regulator 9.

The 89C51 is a low cost Micro controller from either ATmega32. It uses microwave frequency of about 2. The Micro controller takes input from the external sources and routes them to the appropriate devices as programmed in it. . Read/Write(R/W) and Enable (E). Every Bluetooth device has its unique address. A Bluetooth connection can always be made from pair of master and slave devices. These 11-lines of the Micro controller display all messages and telephone numbers. A slave can be in two modes.4GHz. The power supply unit is used to provide a constant 5V supply to different IC’s this is a standard circuits using external 12VDC adapter and fixed 3-pin voltage regulator. Bluetooth technology uses FHSS as a way to deal with undesired interference.ABSTRACT This project deal with the communication with embedded application which will have a display device with Bluetooth module and on the other side personal computer with Bluetooth module. LCD display is a two line of total 32 characters unit used as an interface for the user. It is usually embedded as part of a complete device including hardware and mechanical parts. Inquiry scan mode is waiting for a packet of Inquiry from other Bluetooth device and Page scan mode is waiting for the packet of connection from other Bluetooth device. Inquiry scan or Page scan mode. often with real-time computing constraints. An embedded system is a special-purpose computer system designed to perform one or a few dedicated functions. Bluetooth is the international standard of wireless communication. called BD (Bluetooth Device) address. Interface with Micro controller is accomplished via 8-data lines D7 – D0 and three control lines. data transferred from system through Bluetooth module reach embedded application via Bluetooth module. Diode is added in series to avoid Reverse voltage. which is composed of twelve hexadecimal digits which is used frequently while establishing the link among the Bluetooth devices. The entire functionality of the CLIP device is under the control of Micro controller. It has a 40-pin configuration and other components are interfaced to its ports. Reset (RS). Master tries to connect itself to other devices and slave is waiting to be connected from other devices. Bluetooth technology is optimized for use with WPANs and mobile. Bluetooth device can play a role as a master or slave.

called real-time systems. the power consumption has to be very low. accounting. VCD player. video game consoles. As many embedded systems operate through a battery. The embedded system market is one of the highest growth areas as these systems are used in very market segment. software development and so on. Each of these appliances will have a processor and special hardware to meet the specific requirement of the application along with the embedded software that is executed by the processor for meeting that specific requirement. The embedded software is also called “firm ware”. digital diary.· Some embedded systems have to operate in extreme environmental conditions such as very high temperatures and humidity. mobile phone etc. printer.INTRODUCTION INTRODUCTION TO EMBEDDED SYSTEMS: An embedded system can be defined as a computing device that does a specific focused job. fax machine. In some embedded systems. military and so on. Appliances such as the air-conditioner. transportation. You can use it for a variety of applications such as playing games. office automation. biomedical engineering. The desktop/laptop computer is a general purpose computer. Missing a deadline may cause a catastrophe-loss of life or damage to property. they cannot be programmed to do different things. 2. Data communication. video .1 APPLICATION AREAS: Nearly 99 per cent of the processors manufactured end up in embedded systems. Generally. the deadlines are stringent. and microwave oven. VCO player. DVD player. Embedded systems have to work against some deadlines. industrial automation.consumer electronics. wireless communication. Consumer appliances :At home we use a number of embedded systems which include digital camera. Embedded systems do a very specific task. remote controls for TV and air-conditioner. they do not have secondary storage devices such as the CDROM or the floppy disk. Embedded systems are constrained for power. are examples of embedded systems. telecommunications. word processing. DVD player. A specific job has to be completed within a specific time. Embedded systems have very limited resources. electronic toys. particularly the memory.

engine spark control. blood pressure measuring devices. The robots are now becoming very powerful and carry out many interesting and complicated tasks such as hardware assembly. equipment used in blood analysis. Integrated Services Digital Networks (ISDN). 2.1.3 Industrial automation:Today a lot of industries use embedded systems for process control.1. cement. These equipments include diagnostic aids such as ECG. The two networks may be running different protocol stacks. 2. 2. are the latest embedded systems that provide very low-cost voice communication over the Internet. nuclear energy. colonscopy. modem. Most networking equipments. the embedded systems can be categorized as subscriber terminals and network equipment. The embedded systems for industrial use are designed to carry out specific tasks such as monitoring the temperature. X. IP gateway. radiation. sate11ite modems etc. multiple access systems. voltage. oil exploration.25 and frame relay switches are embedded systems which implement the necessary data communication protocols. EEG. analyze the packets and send them towards the Destination after doing necessary protocol conversion. which are programmed to do specific jobs.1. sugar. navigation etc. other than the end systems (desktop computers) we use to access the networks. Asynchronous Transfer Mode (ATM).. Even wristwatches are now becoming embedded systems. Packet Assemblers Dissemblers (PADs). These include pharmaceutical. IP gatekeeper etc. X-ray scanners.6 Telecommunications: In the field of telecommunications. printer. routers. Developments in medical electronics have paved way for more accurate diagnosis of diseases. The palmtops are powerful embedded systems using which we can carry out many general-purpose tasks such as playing games and word processin 2. web cameras are embedded systems. endoscopy etc. where human presence has to be avoided. For example. electricity generation and transmission. current etc. terminal adapters.Recorders etc. a router interconnects two networks. . IP phone. The network equipment includes multiplexers.2 Office automation: The office automation products using em embedded systems are copying machine. are embedded systems 2. humidity. fax machine. The router’s function is to obtain the data packets from incoming pores. In hazardous industrial environment. key telephone. The subscriber terminals such as key telephones.1. air-conditioning.4 Medical electronics:Almost every medical equipment in the hospital is an embedded system. ISDN phones.1. Today’s high-tech car has about 20 embedded systems for transmission control. scanner etc. and then take appropriate action based on the monitored levels to control other devices or to send information to a centralized monitoring station. robots are used. pressure.5 Computer networking: Computer networking products such as bridges.

and it interacts with the smart card reader! ATM machine and acts as an electronic wallet. Security devices at homes. We need to protect our homes and offices. transportation. process control and industrial Automation. 2. Developing embedded systems for security applications is one of the most lucrative businesses nowadays. biomedical engineering. every industrial segment. of the size of a credit card. Used to encrypt the data/voice being transmitted on communication links such as telephone lines.7 Wireless topologies: Advances in mobile communications are paving way for many interesting applications using embedded systems. data communication. the test and measuring equipment are now becoming portable facilitating easy testing and measurement in the field by fieldpersonnel. Smart card.8 Insemination: Testing and measurement are the fundamental requirements in all scientific and engineering activities. It is a very powerful embedded system that provides voice communication while we are on the move. spectrum analyzer. humidity.consumer electronics. This . 2.2. are embedded systems built around powerful processors. Thank to miniaturization. mobile switching centers are also powerful embedded systems.1. The mobile phone is one of the marvels of the last decade of the 20’h century. also expanded as Any Time Money) machines. The Personal Digital Assistants and the palmtops can now be used to access multimedia services over the Internet.1. manufacturing. radio communication test set etc. avionics. for authentication and verification are embedded systems.1. and also the information we transmit and store. Test equipment such as oscilloscope. The measuring equipment we use in laboratories to measure parameters such as weight. current etc. are all embedded systems.9 Security:Security of persons and information has always been a major issue. Smart card technology has the capability of ushering in a cashless society. 2. telecommunication. voltage.OVER VIEW OF EMBEDDED SYSTEM ARCHITECHER: Every embedded system consists of custom-built hardware built around a Central Processing Unit (CPU). Embedded systems find applications in. has a small micro-controller and memory. Biometric systems using fingerprint and face recognition are now being extensively used for user authentication in banking applications as well as for access control in high security buildings. Mobile communication infrastructure such as base station controllers. airports etc.1. defense. offices.10 Finance:Financial dealing through cash and cheques are now slowly paving way for transactions using smart cards and ATM (Automatic Teller Machine. Encryption devices are nearly 99 per cent of The processors that are manufactured end up in~ embedded systems. pressure. logic analyzer. temperature. protocol analyzer. security etc.

The software residing on the memory chip is also called the ‘firmware’. 2. A keypad may be used to input only the digits. D5P is used mainly for applications in which signal processing is involved such as audio and video processing Memory: The memory is categorized as Random Access 11emory (RAM) and Read Only Memory (ROM).4Communication interfaces: The embedded systems may need to. and the application software runs above the operating system. the program is program is executed. The same architecture is applicable to any computer including a desktop computer. they take inputs from sensors or transducers 1’fnd produce electrical signals that are in turn fed to other systems. the input devices to an embedded system have very limited capability. whereas ROM retains the contents even if the power is switched off. When power is switched on. The embedded system architecture can be represented as a layered the operating system runs above the hardware.. there i required will be very less.hardware also contains memory chips onto which the software is loaded. A small Liquid Crystal Display (LCD) may also be used to display some important parameters. there are significant differences.3. 2. So. air conditioners. toys etc.3. RS485. or for visual indication of alarms. The entire hardware has to be given power supply either . It is not compulsory to have an operating system in every embedded system.3 Output devices: The output devices of the embedded systems also have very limited capability. Many embedded systems will have a small keypad-you press one key to give a specific command. There will be no keyboard or a mouse. the firmware is stored in the ROM. To facilitate this. the processor reads the ROM. Universal Serial Bus (USB). Some embedded systems will have a few Light Emitting Diodes (LEDs) to indicate the health status of the system modules. and hence interacting with the embedded system is no easy task. Ethernet work. interact with other embedded systems at they may have to transmit data to a desktop.3.2 Input devices: Unlike the desktops. microprocessors are more powerful. However. IEEE 1394. Many embedded systems used in process control do not have any input device for user interaction. The contents of the RAM will be erased if power is switched off to the chip. RS422. 2. but you need to use many external components with them. For small appliances such as remote control units. On the other hand. the embedded systems are provided with one or a few communication interfaces such as RS232.

data transferred from system through embeddedapplication via Bluetooth module reach module. HARDWARE DISCRIPTION: This project deal with the communication with embedded application which will have a display device with Bluetooth module and on the other side personal computer with Bluetooth module.through the 230 volts main supply or through a battery. The hardware has to designed in such a way that the power consumption is minimized. Bluetooth Power Supply TOUCH PAD LCD Display ATmega32 Microcontr ollerre Controller Blue tooth Device Blue tooth Device Embedded Application  ATmega32  MAX232  LCD display .

Timer/Counters. 2K byte SRAM. On-chip Debugging support and programming. The Idle mode stops the CPU while allowing the USART. SRAM. a programmable Watchdog Timer with Internal Oscillator. 1024 bytes EEPROM. a byte oriented Two-wire Serial Interface. A/D Converter. . 32 general purpose working registers. and six software selectable power saving modes. All the 32 registers are directly connected to the Arithmetic Logic Unit (ALU). a serial programmable USART. The resulting architecture is more code efficient while achieving throughputs up to ten times faster than conventional CISC microcontrollers. Touch screen  Bluetooth module  RS232  Power supply AT MEGA32 CONTROLLER Overview: The ATmega32 is a low-power CMOS 8-bit microcontroller based on the AVR enhanced RISC architecture. The AVR core combines a rich instruction set with 32 general purpose working registers. Two-wire interface. Internal and External Interrupts. By executing powerful instructions in a single clock cycle. 32 general purpose I/O lines. an SPI serial port. The ATmega32 provides the following features: 32K bytes of In-System Programmable Flash Program memory with Read-While-Write capabilities. an 8channel. SPI port. three flexible Timer/Counters with compare modes. allowing two independent registers to be accessed in one single instruction executed in one clock cycle. 10-bit ADC with optional differential input stage with programmable gain (TQFP package only). a JTAG interface for Boundary scan. the ATmega32 achieves throughputs approaching 1 MIPS per MHz allowing the system designer to optimize power consumption versus processing speed.

both the main Oscillator and the Asynchronous Timer continue to run. or by an On-chip Boot program running on the AVR core. providing true Read-While-Write operation. In Standby mode. In Extended Standby mode. The device is manufactured using Atmel’s high density nonvolatile memory technology. the Asynchronous Timer continues to run. By Combining an 8-bit RISC CPU with In-System Self-Programmable Flash on a monolithic chip. Software in the Boot Flash section will continue to run while the Application Flash section is updated. the crystal/resonator Oscillator is running while the rest of the device is sleeping. Features • High-performance. This allows very fast start-up combined with low-power consumption. the Atmel ATmega32 is a powerful microcontroller that provides a highly-flexible and cost-effective solution to many embedded control applications. Low-power AVR® 8-bit Microcontroller • Advanced RISC Architecture  131 Powerful Instructions – Most Single-clock Cycle Execution  32 x 8 General Purpose Working Registers  Fully Static Operation  Up to 16 MIPS Throughput at 16 MHz  On-chip 2-cycle Multiplier • High Endurance Non-volatile Memory segments  32K Bytes of In-System Self-programmable Flash program memory  1024 Bytes EEPROM  2K Byte Internal SRAM  Write/Erase Cycles: 10. The ADC Noise Reduction mode stops the CPU and all I/O modules except Asynchronous Timer and ADC. by a conventional nonvolatile memory programmer.000 Flash/100.000 EEPROM  Data retention: 20 years at 85°C/100 years at 25°C . The Power-down mode saves the register contents but freezes the Oscillator. to minimize switching noise during ADC conversions. The boot program can use any interface to download the application program in the Application Flash memory. The On chip ISP Flash allows the program memory to be reprogrammed insystem through an SPI serial interface.and interrupt system to continue functioning. In Power-save mode. disabling all other chip functions until the next External Interrupt or Hardware Reset. allowing the user to maintain a timer base while the rest of the device is sleeping.

and Capture Mode – Real Time Counter with Separate Oscillator – Four PWM Channels – 8-channel.1 Compliant) Interface – Boundary-scan Capabilities According to the JTAG Standard – Extensive On-chip Debug Support – Programming of Flash. Standby and --Extended Standby • I/O and Packages – 32 Programmable I/O Lines – 40-pin PDIP. and Lock Bits through the JTAG Interface • Peripheral Features – Two 8-bit Timer/Counters with Separate Prescaler and Compare Modes – One 16-bit Timer/Counter with Separate Prescaler. 1149. 44-lead TQFP. ADC Noise Reduction. 10x. 10-bit ADC -8 Single-ended Channels -7 Differential Channels in TQFP Package Only -2 Differential Channels with Programmable Gain at 1x. or 200x – Byte-oriented Two-wire Serial Interface – Programmable Serial USART – Master/Slave SPI Serial Interface – Programmable Watchdog Timer with Separate On-chip Oscillator – On-chip Analog Comparator • Special Microcontroller Features – Power-on Reset and Programmable Brown-out Detection – Internal Calibrated RC Oscillator – External and Internal Interrupt Sources – Six Sleep Modes: Idle. Fuses. Power-down. EEPROM. Power-save. and 44-pad QFN/MLF • Operating Voltages . Optional Boot Code Section with Independent Lock Bits  In-System Programming by On-chip Boot Program True Read-While-Write Operation  Programming Lock for Software Security • JTAG (IEEE std. Compare Mode.

25°C for ATmega32L – Active: 1. 3V.1 mA – Idle Mode: 0. .35 mA – Power-down Mode: < 1 μA Pin Configuration: Pin Descriptions VCC : Digital supply voltage.5.5V for ATmega32L – 4.16 MHz for ATmega32 • Power Consumption at 1 MHz.– 2.7 .5.5V for ATmega32 • Speed Grades – 0 .5 .8 MHz for ATmega32L – 0 .

Port C (PC7-PC0): Port C is an 8-bit bi-directional I/O port with internal pull-up resistors (selected for each bit). Port D (PD7-PD0): Port D is an 8-bit bi-directional I/O port with internal pull-up resistors (selected for each bit). Port B pins that are externally pulled low will source current if the pull-up resistors are activated. The Port B output buffers have symmetrical drive characteristics with both high sink and source capability. the pull-up resistors on pins PC5 (TDI). even if the ADC is not used. Port A also serves as an 8-bit bi-directional I/O port. The Port C output buffers have symmetrical drive characteristics with both high sink and source capability. they will source current if the internal pull-up resistors are activated. RESET: Reset Input. It should be externally connected to VCC. even if the clock is not running. A low level on this pin for longer than the minimum pulse length will generate a reset. AREF: AREF is the analog reference pin for the A/D Converter. even if the clock is not running.GND Port A (PA7. : Port A serves as the analog inputs to the A/D Converter. Port C pins that are externally pulled low will source current if the pull-up resistors are activated. The Port D output buffers have symmetrical drive characteristics with both high sink and source capability. The Port D pins are tri-stated when a reset condition becomes active. even if the clock is not running. it should be connected to VCC through a low-pass filter. As inputs. Port B (PB-PB0): Port B is an 8-bit bi-directional I/O port with internal pull-up resistors (selected for each bit). PC3 (TMS) and PC2 (TCK) will be activated even if a reset occurs. The TD0 pin is tri-stated unless TAP states that shift out data are entered. if the A/D Converter is not used. When pins PA0 to PA7 are used as inputs and are externally pulled low. XTAL2 Output from the inverting Oscillator amplifier. As inputs.PA0) : Ground. The Port C pins are tri-stated when a reset condition becomes active. As inputs. XTAL1 Input to the inverting Oscillator amplifier and input to the internal clock operating circuit. even if the clock is not running. . The Port A pins are tri-stated when a reset condition becomes active. Port pins can provide internal pull-up resistors (selected for each bit). Port D pins that are externally pulled low will source current if the pull-up resistors are activated.. If the JTAG interface is enabled. even if the clock is not running. If the ADC is used. The Port A output buffers have symmetrical drive characteristics with both high sink and source capability. AVCC: AVCC is the supply voltage pin for Port A and the A/D Converter. The Port B pins are tri-stated when a reset condition becomes active.

the AVR uses a Harvard architecture – with separate memories and buses for program and data. This concept enables instructions to be executed in every clock cycle. Instructions in the program memory are executed with a single level pipelining. the next instruction is pre-fetched from the program memory. Six of the 32 registers can be used as three 16-bit indirect addresses register pointers for Data Space addressing – enabling efficient address calculations. The program memory is In-System Reprogrammable Flash memory. One of these address pointers can . In order to maximize performance and parallelism.AVR CPU Core: This section discusses the AVR core architecture in general. In a typical ALU operation. perform calculations. and handle interrupts. two operands are output from the Register File. The fast-access Register File contains 32 x 8-bit general purpose working registers with a single clock cycle access time. control peripherals. The CPU must therefore be able to access memories. and the result is stored back in the Register File – in one clock cycle. The main function of the CPU core is to ensure correct program execution. While one instruction is being executed. the operation is executed. This allows single-cycle Arithmetic Logic Unit (ALU) operation.

the Status Register is updated to reflect information about the result of the operation. All user programs must initialize the SP in the reset routine (before subroutines or interrupts are executed). Y-. SPI. Most AVR instructions have a single 16-bit word format. and bit-functions. Some implementations of the architecture also provide a powerful multiplier supporting both signed/unsigned multiplication and fractional format. The memory spaces in the AVR architecture are all linear and regular memory maps. Program Flash memory space is divided in two sections. $20 . Within a single clock cycle. The Stack Pointer SP is read/write accessible in the I/O space. The lower the interrupt vector address. Every program memory address contains a 16. and other I/O functions. or as the Data Space locations following those of the Register File. The data SRAM can easily be accessed through the five different addressing modes supported in the AVR architecture. All interrupts have a separate interrupt vector in the interrupt vector table. and Z-register. able to directly address the whole address space.also be used as an address pointer for look up tables in Flash Program memory. The I/O Memory can be accessed directly. The interrupts have priority in accordance with their interrupt vector position. Program flow is provided by conditional and unconditional jump and call instructions. .$5F. A flexible interrupt module has its control registers in the I/O space with an additional global interrupt enable bit in the Status Register. During interrupts and subroutine calls. arithmetic operations between general purpose registers or between a register and an immediate are executed. After an arithmetic operation. The SPM instruction that writes into the Application Flash memory section must reside in the Boot Program section. logical.or 32-bit instruction. The Stack is effectively allocated in the general data SRAM. the higher the priority. the return address Program Counter (PC) is stored on the Stack. These added function registers are the 16-bit X-. Single register operations can also be executed in the ALU. The I/O memory space contains 64 addresses for CPU peripheral functions as Control Registers. the Boot program section and the Application Program section. Both sections have dedicated Lock bits for write and read/write protection. described later in this section. The ALU supports arithmetic and logic operations between registers or between a constant and a register. and consequently the Stack size is only limited by the total SRAM size and the usage of the SRAM. ALU – Arithmetic Logic Unit: The high-performance AVR ALU operates in direct connection with all the 32 general purpose working registers. The ALU operations are divided into three main categories – arithmetic.

Bit 5 – H: Half Carry Flag: The Half Carry Flag H indicates a half carry in some arithmetic operations. Half Carry is useful in BCD arithmetic. A bit from a register in the Register File can be copied into T by the BST instruction. as described in the instruction set reference. Bit 4 – S: Sign Bit. The individual interrupt enable control is then performed in separate control registers. Bit 6 – T: Bit Copy Storage: The Bit Copy instructions BLD (Bit Load) and BST (Bit Store) use the T-bit as source or destination for the operated bit. Bit 3 – V: Two’s Complement Overflow Flag: . This must be handled by software. The I-bit can also be set and cleared by the application with the SEI and CLI instructions. Note that the Status Register is updated after all ALU operations.Status Register: The Status Register contains information about the result of the most recently executed arithmetic instruction. resulting in faster and more compact code. The Status Register is not automatically stored when entering an interrupt routine and restored when returning from an interrupt. S = N ⊕V: The S-bit is always an exclusive or between the Negative Flag N and the Two’s Complement Overflow Flag V. If the Global Interrupt Enable Register is cleared. This will in many cases remove the need for using the dedicated compare instructions. This information can be used for altering program flow in order to perform conditional operations. as specified in the Instruction Set Reference. The AVR Status Register – SREG – is defined as: Bit 7 – I: Global Interrupt Enable: The Global Interrupt Enable bit must be set for the interrupts to be enabled. and is set by the RETI instruction to enable subsequent interrupts. The I-bit is cleared by hardware after an interrupt has occurred. and a bit in T can be copied into a bit in a register in the Register File by the BLD instruction. none of the interrupts are enabled independent of the individual interrupt enable settings.

AVR CPU General Purpose Working Registers Most of the instructions operating on the Register File have direct access to all registers. and most of them are single cycle instructions. Bit 2 – N: Negative Flag: The Negative Flag N indicates a negative result in an arithmetic or logic operation. Bit 1 – Z: Zero Flag: The Zero Flag Z indicates a zero result in an arithmetic or logic operation. General Purpose Register File: The Register File is optimized for the AVR Enhanced RISC instruction set. figure 4 each register is also assigned a data memory address.The Two’s Complement Overflow Flag V supports two’s complement arithmetic’s. Although not being physically . In order to achieve the required performance and flexibility. As shown in. mapping them directly into the first 32 locations of the user Data Space. Bit 0 – C: Carry Flag: The Carry Flag C indicates a carry in an arithmetic or logic operation. the following input/output schemes are supported by the Register File: • One 8-bit output operand and one 8-bit result input • Two 8-bit output operands and one 8-bit result input • Two 8-bit output operands and one 16-bit result input • One 16-bit output operand and one 16-bit result inpushows the structure of the 32 general purpose working registers in the CPU. Figure 4.

These registers are 16-bit address pointers for indirect addressing of the Data Space.. and automatic decrement (see the Instruction Set Reference for details). automatic increment. as the X-. Figure shows the parallel instruction fetches and instruction executions enabled by the Harvard architecture and the fast-access Register file concept. Y-. and Z are defined as described in figure5. this memory organization provides great flexibility in access of the registers. . This is the basic pipelining concept to obtain up to 1 MIPS per MHz with the corresponding unique results for functions per cost. and functions per power-unit. and Z-pointer Registers can be set to index any register in the file. No internal clock division is used. In the different addressing modes these address registers have functions as fixed displacement. Instruction Execution Timing: This section describes the general access timing concepts for instruction execution.implemented as SRAM locations. directly generated from the selected clock source for the chip. The X-register. Y-register and Z-register: The registers R26.R31 have some added functions to their general purpose usage. The three indirect address registers X. The AVR CPU is driven by the CPU clock. Y. functions per clocks.

In addition. In a single clock cycle an ALU operation using two register operands is executed. Since all AVR instructions are 16 or 32 bits wide. The Flash memory has an endurance of at least 10. and the result is stored back to the destination register. the Flash Program memory space is divided into two sections.Single Cycle ALU Operation: AVR ATmega32 Memories: This section describes the different memories in the ATmega32.The Parallel Instruction Fetches and Instruction Executions Below figure shows the internal timing concept for the Register file. In-System Reprogrammable Flash Program Memory: The ATmega32 contains 32K bytes On-chip In-System Reprogrammable Flash memory for program storage. The AVR architecture has two main memory spaces.000 write/erase cycles. the Data Memory and the Program Memory space. the Flash is organized as 16K x 16. thus addressing the 16K program memory locations. the ATmega32 features an EEPROM Memory for data storage. Figure. All three memory spaces are linear and regular. Boot Program section and Application Program section. . For software security. The ATmega32 Program Counter (PC) is 14 bits wide.

and the internal data SRAM. Timing diagrams for instruction fetch and execution are presented in “Instruction Execution Timing” on above. The 32 general purpose working registers. The first 96 locations address the Register File and I/O Memory. and Z are decremented or incremented. The Indirect with Displacement mode reaches 63 address locations from the base address given by the Y. Constant tables can be allocated within the entire program memory address space (see the LPM – Load Program Memory Instruction Description). . JTAG. and Indirect with Post-increment. Indirect with Displacement. The direct addressing reaches the entire data space. Y. 64 I/O Registers. When using registers indirect addressing modes with automatic pre-decrement and post-increment. or Parallel Programming mode. Indirect with Pre-decrement. registers R26 to R31 feature the indirect Addressing Pointer Registers. SRAM Data Memory: The below figshows the ATmega32 SRAM Memory is organized. and the 2048 bytes of internal data SRAM in the ATmega32 are all accessible through all these addressing modes.or Z-register. The lower 2144 Data Memory locations address the Register File. the address registers X.The operation of Flash Programming in SPI. the I/O Memory. The five different addressing modes for the data memory cover: Direct. In the Register File. Indirect. and the next 2048 locations address the internal data SRAM.

Register Description for I/O Ports: Port A Data Register – PORTA: .Data Memory Access Times: This section describes the general access timing concepts for internal memory access. The internal data SRAM access is performed in two clkCPU cycles as described in below figure.

Port A Data Direction Register – DDRA: Port A Input Pins Address –PINA: Port B Data Register – PORTB: Port B Data Direction Register – DDRB: Port B Input Pins Address – PINB: .

The port pins assumes their initial value.Port C Data Register – PORTC: Port C Data Direction Register – DDRC: Port C Input Pins Address – PINC: In ATmega103 compatibility mode. Port D Data Register – PORTD: Port D Data Direction Register – DDRD: . DDRC and PINC Registers are initialized to being Push.Pull Zero Output. and should not be used for 100% back-ward compatibility. even if the clock is not running. Note that the DDRC and PINC Registers are available in ATmega103 compatibility mode.

Port D Input Pins Address – PIND: .

Block diagram of Atmega32: .

as power supply design does not need to be made more complicated just for driving the RS-232 in this case.5 V. The drivers provide RS-232 voltage level outputs (approx. The later MAX232A is backwards compatible with the original MAX232 but may operate at higher baud rates and can use smaller external capacitors – 0. to standard 5 V TTL levels.MAX232 Introduction: The MAX232 is integrated circuits that convert signals from an RS-232 serial port to signals suitable for use in TTL compatible digital logic circuits. TX. These receivers have a typical threshold of 1. ± 7. from 3 to 5. . The newer MAX3232 is also backwards compatible. The receivers reduce RS-232 inputs (which may be as high as ± 25 V). The MAX232 is a dual driver/receiver and typically converts the RX.1 μf in place of the 1.3 V.5 V. This makes it useful for implementing RS-232 in devices that otherwise do not need any voltages outside the 0 V to + 5 V range.0 μf capacitors used with the original device. and a typical hysteresis of 0.5 V) from a single + 5 V supply via on-chip charge pumps and external capacitors. but operates at a broader voltage range. CTS and RTS signals.

see the table below. and changes TTL Logic 1 to between -3 to -15 V.Voltage levels: It is helpful to understand what occurs to the voltage levels. This can be confusing when you realize that the RS232 Data Transmission voltages at a certain logic state are opposite from the RS232 Control Line voltages at the same logic state. and vice versa for converting from RS232 to TTL. RS232 Line Type & Logic Level RS232 Voltage TTL MAX232 Voltage to/from Data Transmission (Rx/Tx) Logic 0 Data Transmission (Rx/Tx) Logic 1 Control Signals(RTS/CTS/DTR/DSR) Logic 0 Control Signals (RTS/CTS/DTR/DSR) Logic 1 +3 V to +15 V 0 V -3 V to -15 V 5V -3 V to -15 V 5V +3 V to +15 V 0 V . When a MAX232 IC receives a TTL level to convert. it changes a TTL Logic 0 to between +3 and +15 V. To clarify the matter.

The earliest discovery leading to the development of LCD technology. television. more reliable. gaming devices. By 2008. watches. instrument panels. signage. the discovery of liquid crystals. LCDs are more energy efficient and offer safer disposal than CRTs. and telephones. They are common in consumer devices such as video players. aircraft cockpit display. LCs does not emit light directly. . flat electronic visual display that uses the light modulating properties of liquid crystal (LCs). and easier on the eyes. portable. They are usually more compact. worldwide sales of televisions with LCD screens had surpassed the sale of CRT units. They are available in a wider range of screen sizes than CRT and plasma displays. Its low electrical power consumption enables it to be used in battery-powered electronic equipment. and since they do not use phosphors. They are used in a wide range of applications including: computer monitors. calculators. clocks.LIQUID CRYSTAL DISPLAY Introduction: A liquid crystal display (LCD) is a thin. etc. less expensive. lightweight. LCDs have displaced cathode ray tube (CRT) displays in most applications. they cannot suffer image burn-in. dates from 1888. It is an electronically modulated optical device made up of any number of pixels filled with liquid crystals and arrayed in front of a light source (backlight) or reflector to produce images in color monochrome.

light can be allowed to pass through in varying amounts thus constituting different levels of gray. This treatment typically consists of a thin polymer layer that is unidirectional rubbed using.Overview: Each pixel of an LCD typically consists of a layer of molecules aligned between two transparent electrodes. for example. a cloth. the . Both the liquid crystal metered each group gets its own voltage source. and the device appears grey. Because of this. This light will then be mainly polarized perpendicular to the second filter. By controlling the voltage applied across the liquid crystal layer in each pixel. In a twisted nematic device (still the most common liquid crystal device). because of small variations of thickness across the device. in which case the bright and dark states are reversed. the axes of transmission of which are (in most of the cases) perpendicular to each other. This electric field also controls (reduces) the double refraction properties of the liquid crystal. the liquid crystal molecules in the center of the layer are almost completely untwisted and the polarization of the incident light is not rotated as it passes through the liquid crystal layer. On the other side. however. In most of the cases the liquid crystal has double refraction. light passing through the first filter would be blocked by the second (crossed) polarizer. these devices are usually operated between crossed polarizers such that they appear bright with no voltage (the eye is much more sensitive to variations in the dark state than the bright state). The direction of the liquid crystal alignment is then defined by the direction of rubbing. The surfaces of the electrodes that are in contact with the liquid crystal material are treated so as to align the liquid crystal molecules in a particular direction. With no actual liquid crystal between the polarizing filters. the surface alignment directions at the two electrodes are perpendicular to each other. This reduces the rotation of the polarization of the incident light. the orientation of the liquid crystal molecules is determined by the alignment at the surfaces of electrodes. Electrodes are made of a transparent conductor called Indium Tin Oxide (ITO). The optical effect of a twisted nematic device in the voltage-on state is far less dependent on variations in the device thickness than that in the voltage-off state. If the applied voltage is large enough. Before applying an electric field. or twist. The voltage-off dark state in this configuration appears blotchy. These devices can also be operated between parallel polarizers. and so the molecules arrange themselves in a helical structure. and thus be blocked and the pixel will appear black. and two polarizing filters.

this consists of a cold cathode fluorescent lamp that is situated behind the LCD panel. but active-matrix displays almost always are. and drives sources for the pixels of each sink. two types of LED backlit LCD display have appeared in some televisions as an alternative to conventional backlit LCDs. green and blue LEDs is used to illuminate a small cluster of pixels. In one scheme. a set of red.electrodes are also grouped (typically in rows). In another scheme. Recently. unshared combination of source and sink. the LEDs are used to backlight the entire LCD panel. which can improve contrast and black level in some situations. Both schemes also allows for a slimmer panel than on conventional displays. For example. . with a few exceptions such as the display in the original Gameboy advance. The electronics or the software driving the electronics then turns on sinks in sequence. Illumination: As LCD panels produce no light of their own. On most displays. with each group getting a voltage sink. the LEDs in one section of the screen can be dimmed to produce a dark section of the image while the LEDs in another section are kept bright. Passive-matrix displays are usually not backlit. they require an external lighting mechanism to be easily visible. The groups are designed so each pixel has a unique.

the first "Touch Sensor" was developed by Doctor Sam Hurst (founder of Elographics) while he was an instructor at the University of Kentucky. The "Elograph" was not transparent like modern touch screens. First. which came out in 1975 as part of the PLATO project. This was a further development of the self-capacitance screen (right). rather than indirectly with a cursor controlled by a mouse or touch pad.Touchscreen Introduction: A touch screen is an electronic visual display that can detect the presence and location of a touch within the display area. Touchscreens first gained some visibility with the invention of the computer-assisted learning terminal. In 1977. The term generally refers to touching the display of the device with a finger or hand. such as a stylus. and video games. The touchscreen has two main attributes. Such displays can be attached to computers. called the "Elograph. History: The prototype x-y mutual capacitance touchscreen (left) developed atcern in 1977 by Bent Stump+. This sensor. a Danish electronics engineer. They also play a prominent role in the design of digital appliances such as the personal digital assistant (PDA). or to networks as terminals. Touchscreens have . satellite navigation devices. In 1974. for the control room of CERN’s accelerator SPS(super croton synchronous)." was patented by The University of Kentucky Research Foundation. Touchscreens can also sense other passive objects. mobile phones. it was a significant milestone in touch screen technology. Elographics developed and patented five-wire resistive technology. however. it enables one to interact directly with what is displayed. Secondly. it lets one do so without requiring any intermediate device that would need to be held in the hand. In 1971. the most popular touch screen technology in use today. the first true touch screen incorporating a transparent surface was developed by Sam Hurst and Elographics. also developed by Stump at CERN in 1972.

which is registered as a touch event and sent to the controller for processing. This change in the ultrasonic waves registers the position of the touch event and sends this information to the controller for processing. . presses down on a point on the panel's outer surface the two metallic layers become connected at that point: the panel then behaves as a pair of voltage drivers with connected outputs. Resistive: A resistive touchscreen panel is composed of several layers. Technologies: There are a variety of touchscreen technologies. Surface acoustic wave: Surface acoustic wave (SAW) technology uses ultrasonic waves that pass over the touchscreen panel. such as a finger. The popularity of smart phones. The location is then sent to the controller for processing. of sale system systems. Companies use touch screens for kiosk systems in retail and tourist settings. portable game consoles and many types of information appliance is driving the demand for. This causes a change in the electrical current. the most important of which are two thin. ATMs. touchscreens. When the panel is touched. coated with a transparent conductor such as indium tin oxide (ITO).[6] Capacitive: A capacitive touchscreen panel is one which consists of an insulator such as glass. and acceptance of. Different technologies may be used to determine the location of the touch. touching the surface of the screen results in a distortion of the screen's electrostatic field. As the human body is also a conductor. When an object. and PDAs. Contaminants on the surface can also interfere with the functionality of the touchscreen. measurable as a change in capacitance.subsequently become familiar in everyday life. electrically conductive layers separated by a narrow gap. where a stylus is sometimes used to manipulate the GUI and to enter data. a portion of the wave is absorbed. Surface wave touch screen panels can be damaged by outside elements. PDAs.

Due to the top layer of a PCT being glass. This is common with point of sale devices that require signature capture. such as a human finger. by etching the conductive layer. The greater resolution of PCT allows operation without direct contact. it is moderately durable but has limited resolution. . An X-Y grid is formed either by etching a single layer to form a grid pattern of electrodes. There are two types of PCT: Self Capacitance and Mutual Capacitance. When a conductor. an active or passive stylus can be used instead of or in addition to a finger. Such conductive smudges come mostly from sticky or sweaty finger tips. Projected capacitance: Projected Capacitive Touch (PCT) technology is a capacitive technology which permits more accurate and flexible operation. which adheres to the screen due to the moisture from fingertips can also be a problem. such that the conducting layers can be coated with further protective insulating layers. depending on the implementation and gain settings. or by etching two separate. only one side of the insulator is coated with a conductive layer. and operates even under screen protectors. PCT is a more robust solution versus resistive touch technology. Gloved fingers may or may not be sensed. is prone to false signals from parasitic capacitive coupling. resulting in a uniform electrostatic field.Surface capacitance: In this basic technology. Depending on the implementation. and needs calibration during manufacture. a capacitor is dynamically formed. touches the uncoated surface. especially in high humidity environments. or behind weather and vandal-proof glass. Conductive smudges and similar interference on the panel surface can interfere with the performance. Collected dust. It is therefore most often used in simple applications such as industrial controls and kiosks. perpendicular layers of conductive material with parallel lines or tracks to form the grid (comparable to the pixel grid found in many LCD displays). A small voltage is applied to the layer. The sensor's controller can determine the location of the touch indirectly from the change in the capacitance as measured from the four corners of the panel. As it has no moving parts.

but it is unable to resolve accurately more than one finger. stylus or pen. This method produces a stronger signal than mutual capacitance. It is generally used in outdoor applications and point-of-sale systems which can't rely on a conductor (such as a bare finger) to activate the touchscreen. gloved finger. the capacitive load of a finger is measured on each column or row electrode by a current meter. These LED beams cross each other in vertical and horizontal patterns. infrared touchscreens do not require any patterning on the glass which increases durability and optical clarity of the overall system. This helps the sensors pick up the exact location of the touch. for example. or misplaced location sensing.capacitance sensors can have the same X-Y grid as mutual capacitance sensors. A voltage is applied to the rows or columns. A major benefit of such a system is that it can detect essentially any input including a finger. but the columns and rows operate independently. would have 192 independent capacitors. Mutual capacitance allows multi-touch operation where multiple fingers. The capacitance change at every individual point on the grid can be measured to accurately determine the touch location by measuring the voltage in the other axis.Capacitance: Self. A 12-by-16 array. . Infrared: An infrared touchscreen uses an array of X-Y infrared LED and photo detector pairs around the edges of the screen to detect a disruption in the pattern of LED beams. Self. With self capacitance. Bringing a finger or conductive stylus close to the surface of the sensor changes the local electrostatic field which reduces the mutual capacitance. which results in "ghosting".Mutual Capacitance: In mutual capacitive sensors. Unlike capacitive touch screen. palms or stylus can be accurately tracked at the same time. there is a capacitor at every intersection of each row and each column.

Construction: . including fingers and stylus. The technology is also well suited to displays that are physically larger. A touch shows up as a shadow and each pair of cameras can then be pinpointed to locate the touch or even measure the size of the touching object (see visual hull). any object can be used to generate these events. The technology claims to be unaffected by dust and other outside elements. versatility. especially for larger units. However. due to its scalability. for the same reason. introduced by Tyco international’s elo division in 2006. Dispersive signal technology: Introduced in 2002 by3M. Since there is no need for additional elements on screen. The screen hardware then uses an algorithm to determine the location of the touch based on the transducer signals. it also claims to provide excellent optical clarity. Also. uses piezoelectric transducers located at various positions around the screen to turn the mechanical energy of a touch (vibration) into an electronic signal. and affordability. after the initial touch. giving it good durability and optical clarity. since mechanical vibrations are used to detect a touch event. This technology is growing in popularity. A downside is that after the initial touch the system cannot detect a motionless finger.Optical imaging: This is a relatively modern development in touchscreen technology. including scratches. a motionless finger cannot be detected. It is usually able to function with scratches and dust on the screen with good accuracy. the touch recognition is not disrupted by any resting objects. Acoustic pulse recognition: This system. The touchscreen itself is made of ordinary glass. As with the Dispersive Signal Technology system. Infrared back lights are placed in the camera's field of view on the other side of the screen. in which two or more image sensors are placed around the edges (mostly the corners) of the screen. this system uses sensors to detect the mechanical energy in the glass that occurs due to a touch. Complex algorithms then interpret this information and provide the actual location of the touch.

there are typically four layers. Touchscreens now have proven reliability. measures the piezoelectric effect— the voltage generated when mechanical force is applied to a material — that occurs chemically when a strengthened glass substrate is touched. Touchscreen component manufacturing and product design are no longer encumbered by royalties or legalities with regard to patents and the use of touchscreenenabled displays is widespread. operations that require more than one finger are possible. the system determines the intended command based on the controls showing on the screen at the time and the location of the touch. touchscreen displays are found today in airplanes. The key goals are to recognize one or more fingers touching a display. . Dispersive-signal technology which 3M created in 2002. machine control systems. the capacitive or resistive approach. The development of multipoint touchscreens facilitated the tracking of more than one finger on the screen. and handheld display devices including the multi-touch enabled iPhones. thereby interrupting light beams projected over the screen. to interpret the command that this represents.With the growing use of touchscreens. In one. In the other. automobiles. thus.There are several principal ways to build a touchscreen. the marginal cash of touchscreen technology is routinely absorbed into the products that incorporate it and is nearly eliminated. 1. These devices also allow multiple users to interact with the touchscreen simultaneously. the system records the change in the electrical current that flows through the display. In the most popular techniques. In each case. an array of sensors detects a finger touching or almost touching the display. appliances. Adhesive spacer 3. There are two infrared-based approaches. Top polyester layer coated with a transparent metallic conductive coating on the bottom 2. Development: Most touchscreen technology patents were filed during the 1970s and 1980s and have expired. the touchscreen market for mobile devices is projected to produce US$5 billion in 2009. Thus. When a user touches the surface. gaming consoles. and to communicate the command to the appropriate application. bottom-mounted infrared cameras record screen touches. Glass layer coated with a transparent metallic conductive coating on the top 4. Adhesive layer on the backside of the glass for mounting.

from underneath. The thumb is optionally used to provide support for the finger or for a long fingernail. much less finger pressure is needed. This method does not work on capacitive touch screens.. Ergonomics and usage: Finger stress: An ergonomic problem of touchscreens is their stress on human fingers when used for more than a few minutes at a time. Fingernail as stylus: Pointed nail for easier typing. Therefore. much less skin oil is smeared onto the screen. and the fingernail can be silently moved across the screen with very little resistance]. because a finger is a rather broad and ambiguous point of contact with the screen itself. provided that the user's fingernails are either short or sufficiently long] Rather than pressing with the soft skin of an outstretched fingertip. This can be alleviated for some users with the use of a pen or other device to add leverage and more accurate pointing. which slip right onto the end of a finger. Alternately.M. since significant pressure can be required for certain types of touchscreen. moving windows.g. the finger is curled over. appeared in the 1950 science fiction short story scanners live in vain. to be specifically used as a stylus on a writing tablet for communication. this increases visibility of the contact point with the screen. allowing for selecting text. fine motor control is better achieved with a stylus. The fingernails hard.s). very short stylus tips are available. The human fingernail consists of keratin which has a hardness and smoothness similar to the tip of a stylus (and so will not typically scratch a touchscreen).T. so that the tip of a fingernail can be used instead. or drawing lines. curved surface contacts the touchscreen at one very small point. depending on the desired use (e. These ergonomic issues of direct touch can be bypassed by using a different technique. The concept of using a fingernail trimmed to form a point. with a little experience). . public kiosks such as A. much greater precision is possible (approaching that of a stylus.The ability to accurately point on the screen itself is also advancing with the emerging graphic tablet/screen hybrid. Also. The introduction of such items can sometimes be problematic.

Fingerprints: Touchscreens can suffer from the problem of fingerprints on the display. This can be mitigated by the use of materials with optical coating designed to reduce the visible effects of fingerprint oils, such as the oleo phobic coating used in the iPhone 3G’s, or by reducing skin contact by using a fingernail or stylus. Combined with haptics: The user experience with touchscreens without tactile feedback or haptics can be difficult due to latency or other factors. Research from the University of Glasgow Scotland [Brewster, Cohan, and Brown 2007] demonstrates that sample users reduce input errors (20%), increase input speed (20%), and lower their cognitive load (40%) when touchscreens are combined with haptics or tactile feedback, [vs. non-haptic touchscreens]. Gorilla arm: The jargon file dictionary of hacker slang defined Gorilla Arm as the failure to understand the ergonomics of vertically mounted touch screens for prolonged use. The proposition is that human arm held in an unsupported horizontal position rapidly becomes fatigued and painful, the so-called "gorilla arm". It is often cited as a prima facie example of what not to do in ergonomics. Vertical touchscreens still dominate in applications such as ATMs and data kiosks in which the usage is too brief to be an ergonomic problem.Discomfort might be caused by previous poor posture and atrophied muscular systems caused by limited physical exercise. Fine Art Painters are also often subject to neck and shoulder pains due to their posture and the repetitiveness of their movements while painting. Comparison of touchscreen technologies: The following information is supplied by Mass Multimedia Inc., a Colorado-based company selling touch screen technology. Technology 4-Wire Resistive Surface Acoustic Wave 5-Wire Resistive Infrared Capacitive

Durability Stability Transparency Installation Touch Intense

3 year High Bad Built-in/On

5 Year Higher Good Built-in/On wall Finger/Pen Good

5 Year High Bad Built-in/On wall Anything Good <15ms Good Big CRT LCD Good

5 Year High Good On wall Finger/Pen Bad

2 Year Ok Ok Built-in Conductive Bad

wall Anything light- Good <10ms Good No CRT LCD Good

resistant Response time Following Speed Excursion Monitor option Waterproof

10ms Low Small or CRT or LCD Ok

<20ms Good Big or CRT LCD Ok

<15ms Good Big or CRT or LCD or LED Good

Screen protectors: Some touchscreens, primarily those employed in smart phones, use transparent plastic protectors to prevent any scratches that might be caused by day to day use from becoming permanent.

Bluetooth

Introduction: Bluetooth is a proprietary open wireless technology standard for exchanging data over short distances (using short wavelength radio transmissions) from fixed and mobile devices, creating Personal Area Network(PANs) with high levels of security. Created by telecoms vendor Ericsson in 1994, it was originally conceived as a wireless alternative to RS-232data cables. It can connect several devices, overcoming problems of synchronization. Today Bluetooth is managed by the Bluetooth special interest group. Name and logo: The word Bluetooth is an Anglicized version of the Scandinavian Blåtand/Blåtann, the epithet of the tenth-century king Harald I of Denmark and parts of Norway who united dissonant Danish tribes into a single kingdom. The implication is that Bluetooth does the same with communications protocols, uniting them into one universal standard.The Bluetooth logo is a bind rune merging the Younger Futhak (Hagall) (ᚼ) and (Bjarkan) (ᛒ), Herald’s initials. Implementation: Bluetooth uses a radio technology called frequency hopping spread spectrum, which chops up the data being sent and transmits chunks of it on up to 79 bands (1 MHz each) in the range 2402-2480 MHz’s This range is in the globally unlicensed Industrial, Scientific and Medical (ISM) 2.4 GHz short-range radiofrequency band.Originally Gaussian frequency shift keying (GFSK) modulation was the only modulation scheme available; subsequently, since the introduction of Bluetooth 2.0+EDR, π/4-DQPSK and 8DPSK modulation may also be used between compatible devices. Devices functioning with GFSK are said to be operating in basic rate (BR) mode where a gross data rate of 1 Mbits/s is possible. The term enhanced data rate (EDR) is used to describe π/4-DPSK and 8DPSK schemes, each giving 2 and 3 Mbit/s respectively. The combination of these (BR and EDR) modes in Bluetooth radio technology is classified as a "BR/EDR radio".Bluetooth is a packet based protocol with a master-slave structure. One master may communicate with up to 7 slaves in apiconet; all devices share the master's clock. Packet exchange is based on the basic clock, defined by the master, which ticks at 312.5 µs intervals. Two clock ticks make up a slot of 625 µs; two slots make up a slot pair of 1250 µs. In the simple case of single-slot packets the master transmits in even slots

The devices can switch roles. mobile phones.The Bluetooth Core Specification provides for the connection of two or more piconets to form a scatter net. telephones.At any given time. networking. Such devices can link computers with Bluetooth with a distance of 100 meters. conversely. receives in even slots and transmits in odd slots. Communication and connection: A master Bluetooth device can communicate with up to seven devices in apiconet. Packets may be 1. Global positioning systems (GPS) receivers. data can be transferred between the master and one other device (except for the little-used broadcast mode). 3 or 5 slots long but in all cases the master transmits will begin in even slots and the slave transmits in odd slots. typically. printers. however. and the slave can become the master at any time. it switches rapidly from one device to another in a round-robin fashion. The master chooses which slave device to address. laptops. Bluetooth provides a secure way to connect and exchange information between devices such as faxes. and consumer electronics. Older (pre-2003) Bluetooth dongles. offering only the Bluetooth Enumerator and a less-powerful Bluetooth Radio incarnation. it must be qualified to standards defined by the SIG.000 companies in the areas of telecommunication.The Bluetooth specifications are developed and licensed by the Bluetooth special interest group (SIG). and videogame controls. computing. but they do not offer much in the way of services that modern adapters do. The Bluetooth SIG consists of more than 13. Many USB Bluetooth adapters or "dongles" are available. personal computers. simultaneously playing the master role in one piconet and the slave role in another. by agreement. some of which also include an IrDA adapter. digital cameras. in which certain devices serve as bridges. Uses: .and receives in odd slots. the slave. To be marketed as a Bluetooth device. have limited capabilities.

10 m and 1 m. This is accomplished by the higher sensitivity and transmission power of Class 1 devices.0 + EDR Version 3. The respective announcements were not accomplished as forecasted.4 Mbit/s 24 Mbit/s While the Bluetooth Core Specification does mandate minimums for range. a device must be able to interpret certain Bluetooth profiles. see table below) based on low-cost transceiver microdchipsmin each device. which are definitions of possible applications and specify general behaviors that Bluetooth enabled devices use to communicate with other Bluetooth devices. Version Version 1. they do not have to be in line of sight of each other. There are a wide range of Bluetooth profiles that describe many different types of applications or use cases for devices. Insofar in the ninth year after first adoption with the Wibree(R) concepts in 2002 the promises again could not be served by the developing industry and the leading Bluetooth SIG.2 Version 2. compared to a pure class 2 network. List of applications: .5 Class 3 1 In most cases the effective range of class 2 devices is extended if they connect to a class 1 transceiver. the range of the technology is application specific and is not limited. but ranges vary in practice. Bluetooth profiles: Bluetooth wireless technology.0 + HS Data Rate Maximum Application Throughput 1 Mbit/s 0. Class Maximum Permitted Range (approximate) dBm 20 4 0 ~100 meters ~10 meters ~1 meters Power mW Class 1 100 Class 2 2. For the new protocol architecture low energy massive interests obviously hamper the publicating of additional profiles and thus the sales of respective chips.Bluetooth is a standard wire-replacement communications protocol primarily designed for low power consumption. Manufacturers may tune their implementations to the range needed to support individual use cases. with a short range (power-class-dependent: 100 m. Because the devices use a radio (broadcast) communications system.7 Mbit/s 3 Mbit/s 1.

the most common being the mouse. are used to track and identify the location of objects in real-time using “Nodes” or “tags” attached to. Bluetooth devices. and reminders between devices with OBEX. Wireless communication with PC input and output devices. keyboard and printer. use Bluetooth for their respective wireless controllers. Dial-up internet access on personal computers or PDAs using a data-capable mobile phone as a wireless modem likeNovatelmifi. Transfer of files. Allowing a DECT phone to ring and answer calls on behalf of a nearby cell phone Real-time location systems (RTLS). Nintendo's Wii and Sony's play station andPSP go. or embedded in the objects • • • • • • • • • • • • • . and traffic control devices. medical equipment.PROFINET) networks. Wireless bridge between two Industrial Ethernet (e.A typical Bluetooth mobile phone headset. Sending small advertisements from Bluetooth-enabled advertising hoardings to other. Three seventh-generation game consoles. This was one of the earliest applications to become popular.. GPS receiver. calendar appointments. • Wireless control of and communication between a mobile phone and a hands free headset. Short range transmission of health sensor data from medical devices to mobile phone. discoverable. For low bandwidth applications where higher USB bandwidth is not required and cable-free connection desired. bar code scanners. set top box or dedicated tele health devices. contact details.g. Replacement of traditional wired serial communications in test equipment. For controls where infrared was traditionally used. Wireless networking between PCs in a confined space and where little bandwidth is required.

which allows devices to act as modem interfaces. and to set up audio links (for example. transmit files. the wireless local area networks. printing. Wi-Fi is a wireless version of a traditional Ethernet network. The protected item has a Bluetooth marker (e. Wi-Fi IEEE 802. Bluetooth vs. Bluetooth is a replacement for cabling in a variety of personally carried applications in any ambiance and can also support fixed location applications such as smart energy functionality in the home (thermostats. which allows for ad-hoc networking. This was done with horses and falcons.tracked. headsets and hands-free devices). The category of applications is outlined as WLAN. Wi-Fi is intended as a replacement for cabling for general local area network access in work areas. a headset) that is monitored continuously by the security application. etc.g. The category of applications is outlined as the wireless personal area network (WPAN)." • Personal security application on mobile phones for theft prevention. Bluetooth is intended for non-resident equipment and its applications.11 in networking Bluetooth and Wi-Fi have many applications: setting up networks. The first known implementation of this security application of Bluetooth is BluCop.). King Abdullah of Saudi Arabia suggested "implanting detainees with an electronic chip containing information about them and allowing their movements to be tracked with Bluetooth. Wi-Fi uses the same radio frequencies as Bluetooth. The nearest equivalents in Bluetooth are the DUN profile. According to a leaked diplomatic cable. Wi-Fi is intended for resident equipment and its applications.] Bluetooth devices . If connection is lost (the marker is out of range) then an alarm is raised. resulting in a faster connection and better range from the base station. and requires configuration to set up shared resources. and the PAN profile. or transferring files. the King said. but with higher power. which is published in December 2010. and “Readers” that receive and process the wireless signals from these tags to determine their locations • Tracking livestock and detainees.

Bluetooth protocols simplify the discovery and setup of services between devices. IrDA. Windows XP Service pack2 and SP3 releases have native support for Bluetooth 1. Bluetooth allows multiple devices to communicate with a computer over a single adapter.1. Microsoft's own Bluetooth dongles (packaged with their Bluetooth computer devices) have no external drivers and thus require at least Windows XP Service Pack 2. which were not directly supported by Microsoft. also has a built in Bluetooth adaptor. network address and permission configuration can be automated than with many other network types.] Computer requirements: A personal computer that does not have embedded Bluetooth can be used with a Bluetooth adapter that will enable the PC to communicate with other Bluetooth devices (such as mobile phones. . Windows Vista RTM/SP1 with the Feature Pack for Wireless or Windows Vista SP2 support Bluetooth 2. Previous versions required users to install their Bluetooth adapter's own drivers. Windows 7 supports Bluetooth 2. While some desktop computer sand most recent laptops come with a built-in Bluetooth radio.Unlike its predecessor. This makes using services easier because more of the security. others will require an external one in the form of a dongle. The MacBook Pro. 2. shown.0+EDR.1+EDR and Extended Inquiry Response (EIR).A Bluetooth USB dongle with a 100 m range.0 and 2. mice and keyboards). For Microsoft platforms.1+EDR.2 which was released in 2002. Operating system support: Apple has supported Bluetooth since Mak OS X V10.] Bluetooth devices can advertise all of the services they provide. which requires a separate adapter for each device.

The Windows Vista/Windows 7 Bluetooth stack supports vendor-supplied additional profiles without requiring the Microsoft stack to be replaced. It was established by Ericsson. Toshiba and Nokia.0B had many problems. FreeBSD features Bluetooth support since its 5. Added support for non-encrypted channels.0B: Versions 1. Many errors found in the 1. The SIG was formally announced on May 20.The specifications were formalized by the Bluetooth special interest group(SGP). who were working for Ericson in Lund. features Bluetooth support since its 4. Versions 1. The Windows XP stack can be replaced by a third party stack which may support more profiles or newer versions of Bluetooth. Specifications and features: The Bluetooth specification was developed in 1994 by jaapharstenand Sven Mattisson. and manufacturers had difficulty making their products interoperable. BlueZand Affix.0 release.15. The BlueZ stack is included with most Linux kernels and was originally developed by Qualcomm. The specification is based on frequency hopping spread spectrum technology. Linux has two popular Bluetooth stack. DUN. IBM. Intel. Bluetooth v1. .0B specifications were fixed. and later joined by many other companies. 1998.0B also included mandatory Bluetooth hardware device address (BD_ADDR) transmission in the connecting process (rendering anonymity impossible at the protocol level). Received Signal Strength Indicator (RSSI). Its Bluetooth stack has been ported to openBSDas well. which was a major setback for certain services planned for use in Bluetooth environments. HCRP. SPP.0 and v1. The Affix stack was developed by Nokia.1: • • • • Ratified as IEEE Standard 802.The Windows XP and Windows Vista/Windows 7 Bluetooth stacks support the following Bluetooth profiles natively: PAN.0 release.0 and 1.000 companies worldwide. Today it has a membership of over 13. HID.1-2002.0 and 1. Sweden. Bluetooth v1.

1 + EDR: Bluetooth Core Specification Version 2. Bluetooth v2. although the practical data transfer rate is 2.0 specification. Bluetooth v2.2. and was adopted by the Bluetooth SIG on July 26. up to 721 kbit/s than in 1. and products may claim compliance to "Bluetooth v2.The specification is published as "Bluetooth v2. 2007.1 + EDR is fully backward compatible with 1.1-2005 Introduced Flow Control and Retransmission Modes for L2CAP.0" without supporting the higher data rate. The main difference is the introduction of an Enhanced Data Rate (EDR) for faster data transfer.2. there are other minor improvements to the 2. • • Higher transmission speeds in practice.The headline feature of 2. . and may optionally increase audio latency to provide better support for concurrent data transfer. Aside from EDR.1 Mbit/s. which improves resistance to radio frequency interference by avoiding the use of crowded frequencies in the hopping sequence. which improve voice quality of audio links by allowing retransmissions of corrupted packets.0 + EDR: This version of the Bluetooth Core Specification was released in 2004 and is backward compatible with the previous version 1.0 without EDR" on its data sheet.0 + EDR" which implies that EDR is an optional feature.1.15. At least one commercial device states "Bluetooth v2. Extended Synchronous Connections (eSCO). The nominal rate of EDR is about 3 Mbit/s. Ratified as IEEE Standard 802.Bluetooth v1.1 is securing simple pairing (SSP): this improves the pairing experience for Bluetooth devices. π/4-DQPSK and 8DPSK EDR can provide a lower power consumption through a reduced duty cycle. EDR uses a combination of GFSK and phase shift Keying modulation (PSK) with two variants.1 and the major enhancements include the following: • • Faster Connection and Discovery Adaptive frequency hopping spread spectrum (AFH).2: This version is backward compatible with 1. • • • Host controller Interface (HCI) support for three-wire UART.

the addition of 802.0 device without the HS suffix will not support High Speed. including "Extended inquiry response" (EIR). Unicast connectionless data Permits service data to be sent without establishing an explicit L2CAP channel. It is intended for use by applications that require low latency between user action and reconnection/transmission of data.0 +HS specification.11 as a high speed transport. Two technologies had been anticipated for AMP: 802. Alternate MAC/PHY Enables the use of alternative MAC and PHYs for transporting Bluetooth profile data.0+HS supports theoretical data transfer speeds of up to 24 Mbit/s.0 + HS of the Bluetooth Core Specification were adopted by the BluetoothSIG on April 21.11 and UWB. the Bluetooth link is used for negotiation and establishment. The Bluetooth radio is still used for device discovery. Bluetooth 3. however when large quantities of data need to be sent. Instead. which reduces the power consumption in lowpower mode. Bluetooth v3.while increasing the use and strength of security. the high speed alternate MAC PHY 802. A Bluetooth 3. The High-Speed part of the specification is not mandatory.11 link. This is only appropriate for small amounts of data. 2009. This means that the proven low power connection models of Bluetooth are used when the system is idle. 2.1 allows various other improvements. initial connection and profile configuration. Enhanced Power Control . which provides more information during the inquiry procedure to allow better filtering of devices before connection. though not over the Bluetooth link itself. sniff subrating. and the faster radio is used when large quantities of data need to be sent.0 + HS: Version 3.11 (typically associated with Wi-Fi) will be used to transport the data. but UWB is missing from the specification. and hence only devices sporting the "+HS" will actually support the Bluetooth over Wifi high-speed data transfer. section 4. and needs to only support Unicast Connectionless Data (UCD). Vol0. and the high data rate traffic is carried over a colocated 802. See the section on pairing below for more details. as shown in the Bluetooth 3.1 Specification Naming Conventions. Its main new feature is AMP (Alternate MAC/PHY).

2009.0. The provisional names Wibree and Bluetooth ULP (Ultra Low Power) are abandoned.1 + EDR or Bluetooth v3. and Classic Bluetooth consists of legacy Bluetooth protocols. On April 21. manufacturers can use current Classic Bluetooth (Bluetooth v2. the Bluetooth SIG completed the Bluetooth Core Specification version 4. Enhanced power control removes the ambiguities by specifying the behaviour that is expected.0: On June 12. Bluetooth high speed and Bluetooth low energy protocols. 2010. . Bluetooth high speed is based on Wi-Fi. the Bluetooth SIG adopted Bluetooth low energy technology as the hallmark feature of the version 4. The feature also adds closed loop power control. On December 17. a "go straight to maximum power" request has been introduced.Updates the power control feature to remove the open loop power control. 2007. It allows two types of implementation. Additionally. dual-mode and single-mode. Bluetooth low energy: Bluetooth low energy is an alternative to the Bluetooth standard that was introduced in Bluetooth v4. as an ultra-low power Bluetooth technology. Nokia and Bluetooth SIG had announced that Wibree will be a part of the Bluetooth specification. which includes Classic Bluetooth. enhancing the development of Classic Bluetooth enabled devices with new capabilities.0. and also to clarify ambiguities in power control introduced by the new modulation schemes added for EDR.0. This is expected to deal with the headset link loss issue typically observed when a user puts their phone into a pocket on the opposite side to the headset. Bluetooth low energy functionality is integrated into an existing Classic Bluetooth controller. meaning RSSI filtering can start as the response is received. Additionally. Bluetooth v4.0 + HS) chips with the new low energy stack. and is aimed at very low power applications running off a coin cell. In a dual-mode implementation. The resulting architecture shares much of Classic Bluetooth’s existing radio and functionality resulting in a negligible cost increase compared to Classic Bluetooth.

and 48 bytes as the minimum mandatory supported MTU.  In Basic mode. cable replacement protocols.  In Retransmission & Flow Control modes. This mode provides a reliable L2CAP channel. The Link Layer in these controllers will enable Internet connected sensors to schedule Bluetooth low energy traffic between Bluetooth transmissions." Mandatory protocols for all Bluetooth stacks are: LMP. and adopted protocols. These modes effectively deprecate original Retransmission and Flow Control modes: • Enhanced Retransmission Mode (ERTM): This mode is an improved version of the original retransmission mode.  Bluetooth Core Specification Addendum 1 adds two additional L2CAP modes to the core specification. telephony control protocols. . L2CAP and SDP. L2CAP (Logical Link Control & Adaptation Protocol)  Used to multiplex multiple logical connections between two devices using different higher level protocols.Currently (2010-12) the definition of respective application profiles still are not fulfilled work-items of the standardisation bodies. and reliable point-to-multipoint data transfer with advanced powersave and secure encrypted connections at the lowest possible cost. LMP (Link Management Protocol): Used for control of the radio link between two devices.Cost-reduced single-mode chips. L2CAP provides packets with a payload configurable up to 64kB. with 672 bytes as the default MTU. which will enable highly integrated and compact devices. Implemented on the controller. these protocols are almost universally supported: HCI and RFCOMM. simple device discovery. Technical information Bluetooth protocol stacks: "Bluetooth is defined as a layer protocol architecture consisting of core protocols. will feature a lightweight Link Layer providing ultra-low power idle mode operation. L2CAP can be configured for reliable or isochronous data per channel by performing retransmissions and CRC checks. Additionally. Provides segmentation and reassembly of on-air packets.

Each service is identified by a Universally Unique Identifier (UUID). Advanced Audio Distribution Profile(A2DP) and the protocol multiplexer settings needed to connect to each of them. although often implemented as an internal software interface. with no retransmission or flow control.g. SDP will be used for determining which Bluetooth profile are supported by the headset (Headset Profile. The most commonly used are USB (in PCs) and UART (in mobile phones and PDAs).. and their associated parameters. In-order sequencing is guaranteed by the lower layer.Only L2CAP channels configured in ERTM or SM may be operated over AMP logical links. Reliability in any of these modes is optionally and/or additionally guaranteed by the lower layer Bluetooth BDR/EDR air interface by configuring the number of retransmissions and flush timeout (time after which the radio will flush packets). event and data packets..There are several HCI transport layer standards. This mode provides an unreliable L2CAP channel. each using a different hardware interface to transfer the same command. a PC or mobile phone OS) and the controller (the Bluetooth IC). headsets) the host stack and controller can be implemented on the same microprocessor. In Bluetooth devices with simple functionality (e. SDP (Service Discovery Protocol): Service Discovery Protocol (SDP) allows a device to discover services supported by other devices. RFCOMM provides for binary data transport and emulatesEIA-232 (formerly RS-232) control signals over the Bluetooth baseband layer. For example.g. RFCOMM (Serial Port Emulation): Radio frequency communications (RFCOMM) is a cable replacement protocol used to create a virtual serial data stream. This standard allows the host stack or controller IC to be swapped with minimal adaptation. with official services (Bluetooth profiles) assigned a short form UUID (16 bits rather than the full 128) HCI (Host/Controller Interface): Standardised communication between the host stack (e. . In this case the HCI is optional. Hands Free Profile. when connecting a mobile phone to a Bluetooth headset.• Streaming Mode (SM): This is a very simple mode.

"TCS-BIN is only used by the cordless telephony profile. applications that used a serial port to communicate can be quickly ported to use RFCOMM. It is used directly by many telephony related profiles as a carrier for AT commands. As such it is only of historical interest. Additionally. Additionally. "TCS BIN defines mobility management procedures for handling groups of Bluetooth TCS devices. Intended to be use by video distribution profile. similar to TCP. Telephony control protocol: Telephony control protocol-binary (TCS BIN) is the bit-oriented protocol that defines the call control signaling for the establishment of voice and data calls between Bluetooth devices. The music control buttons on a stereo headset use this protocol to control the music player. Adopted protocols: . which failed to attract implementers. Its main purpose is the transmission of IP packets in the Personal Area Networking Profile. AVDTP (Audio/Video Distribution Transport Protocol): Used by the advanced audio distribution profile to stream music to stereo headsets over an L2CAP channel. BNEP (Bluetooth Network Encapsulation Protocol): BNEP is used for transferring another protocol stack's data via an L2CAP channel. as well as being a transport layer for OBEX over Bluetooth. BNEP performs a similar function toSNA in Wireless LAN. Many Bluetooth applications use RFCOMM because of its widespread support and publicly available API on most operating systems.RFCOMM provides a simple reliable data stream to the user. AVCTP (Audio/Video Control Transport Protocol): Used by the remote control profile to transfer AV/C commands over an L2CAP channel.

The adopted protocols include: Point-to-Point Protocol (PPP): Internet standard protocol for transporting IP datagrams over a point-to-point link. However.Adopted protocols are defined by other standards-making organizations and incorporated into Bluetooth’s protocol stack. TCP/IP/UDP: Foundation Protocols for TCP/IP protocol suite Object Exchange Protocol (OBEX) :Session-layer protocol for the exchange of objects. Bluetooth specification used.request (ARQ) Setting up connections: Any Bluetooth device in discoverable mode will transmit the following information on demand: • • • • Device name Device class List of services Technical information (for example: device features. providing a model for object and operation representation Wireless Application Environment/Wireless Application Protocol (WAE/WAP) WAE specifies an application framework for wireless devices and WAP is an open standard to provide mobile users access to telephony and information services. • • • 1/3 rate forward error correction (FEC) 2/3 rate FEC Automatic repeat. if the device trying to connect knows the address of the device. allowing Bluetooth to create protocols only when necessary. Use of a device's services may . manufacturer. and any device can be configured to respond to such inquiries. clock offset) Any device may perform an inquiry to find other devices to connect to. Baseband Error Correction: Three types of error correction are implemented in Bluetooth systems. it always responds to direct connection requests and transmits the information shown in the list above if requested.

To resolve this conflict. When desired. Some devices can be connected to only one device at a time. Implementation: During the pairing process. Once a pairing has been established it is remembered by the devices. which is generally manually started by a device user—making that device's Bluetooth link visible to other devices. friendly Bluetooth names are used. If a link key is stored by both devices they are said to be paired or bonded.require pairing or acceptance by its owner. This name appears when another user scans for devices and in lists of paired devices. these addresses are generally not shown in inquiries. the pairing process is typically triggered automatically the first time a device receives a connection request from a device with which it is not yet paired. Every device has a unique 48-bit address. for example. the two devices involved establish a relationship by creating a shared secret known as a link key. which can then connect to each without user intervention. Bluetooth uses a process called pairing. but the connection itself can be initiated by any device and held until it goes out of range. the pairing relationship can later be removed by the user. Pairing: Motivation: Many of the services offered over Bluetooth can expose private data or allow the connecting party to control the Bluetooth device. A device that wants to communicate only with a bonded device . which can be set by the user. there could be several phones in range named T610.Most phones have the Bluetooth name set to the manufacturer and model of the phone by default. This can be confusing as. Two devices need to be paired to communicate with each other. Instead. However. For security reasons it is therefore necessary to control which devices are allowed to connect to a given Bluetooth device. and connecting to them prevents them from connecting to other devices and appearing in inquiries until they disconnect from the other device. Most phones and laptops show only the Bluetooth names and special programs are required to get additional information about remote devices. it is useful for Bluetooth devices to automatically establish a connection without user intervention as soon as they are in range. At the same time.

there is no mechanism available for a capable device to determine how it should limit the available input a user may use. however not all devices may be capable of entering all possible PIN codes. They allow a user to enter a numeric value up to 16 digits in length. and so be sure that it is the same device it previously paired with. Some services. such as the Object Push Profile. Alpha-numeric input devices: PCs and smartphones are examples of these devices. The following summarizes the pairing mechanisms: • Legacy pairing: This is the only method available in Bluetooth v2. Each device must enter a PIN code. an authenticated ACL link between the devices may be encrypted so that the data that they exchange over the airwaves is protected against eavesdropping.0 and before. Bluetooth services generally require either encryption or authentication. If pairing with a less capable device the user needs to be aware of the input limitations on the other device. Any 16-byte UTF-8 string may be used as a PIN code. so it is possible for one of the devices to have a link key stored but not be aware that it is no longer bonded to the device associated with the given link key. that are hard-coded into the device.can cryptographically authenticate the identity of the other device. elect not to explicitly require authentication or encryption so that pairing does not interfere with the user experience associated with the service use-cases. which generally have few inputs. Once a link key has been generated. o o . If done by either device this will implicitly remove the bonding between the devices. They allow a user to enter full UTF-8 text as a PIN code. These devices usually have a fixed PIN. o Limited input devices: The obvious example of this class of device is a Bluetooth Hands-free headset. and as such require pairing before they allow a remote device to use the given service. Pairing mechanisms: Pairing mechanisms have changed significantly with the introduction of Secure Simple Pairing in Bluetooth v2. pairing is only successful if both devices enter the same PIN code.1. Numeric input devices: Mobile phones are classic examples of these devices. for example "0000" or "1234". Link keys can be deleted at any time by either device.

This method is typically used by headsets with very limited IO capabilities. This method provides no man in the middle (MITM) protection. the user(s) should confirm pairing on the device(s) that can accept an input. This method displays a 6-digit numeric code on each device. this method just works. the display is used to show a 6digit numeric code to the user. o o o SSP is considered simple for the following reasons: • • In most cases. such as Near Field Communication (NFC) to exchange some information used in the pairing process. This method provides MITM protection. For use-cases not requiring MITM protection. Out of band (OOB): This method uses an external means of communication. If the comparison succeeds. user interaction has been eliminated. Both cases provide MITM protection.1 device may only use legacy pairing to interoperate with a v2. Pairing is completed using the Bluetooth radio.0 or earlier device. and has the following modes of operation: o Just works: As implied by the name. In the first case. they may use Numeric Comparison. Secure Simple Pairing uses a form of public cryptography. assuming the user confirms on both devices and actually performs the comparison properly. the user of each device enters the same 6-digit number. or two devices with numeric keypad entry. .1. A Bluetooth v2.• Secure Simple Pairing (SSP): This is required by Bluetooth v2. The user should compare the numbers to ensure they are identical. No user interaction is required. but requires information from the OOB mechanism. and is more secure than the fixed PIN mechanism which is typically used for legacy pairing by this set of limited devices. Numeric comparison: If both devices have a display and at least one can accept a binary Yes/No user input. it does not require a user to generate a passkey. This provides only the level of MITM protection that is present in the OOB mechanism. however. who then enters the code on the keypad. In the second case. Passkey Entry: This method may be used between a device with a display and a device with numeric keypad entry (such as a keyboard). a device may prompt the user to confirm the pairing process.

Bluetooth v2.• For numeric comparison. Moreover.1Mbits/s.45 GHz band. Technically. This enables easy identification of normal operation from security attacks. Version 2. Using OOB with NFC will enable pairing when devices simply get close.0 devices have a higher power consumption.1 and 1. but the three times faster .480 GHz To avoid interfering with other protocols that use the 2. Implementations with versions 1. so it is problematic to detect if encryption is disabled for a valid reason or for a security attack. Many Bluetooth chip manufacturers allow link keys to be stored on the device. however. The encryption key is required to be refreshed before it expires.402-2.5 hours. rather than requiring a lengthy discovery process.0 implementations feature Bluetooth Enhanced Data Rate (EDR) and reach 2. • Security Concerns: Prior to Bluetooth v2.1kbit/s. encryption is not required and can be turned off at any time. version 2. the encryption key is only good for approximately 23. • Turning off encryption is required for several normal operations. o o Link keys may be stored on the device file system. the Bluetooth protocol divides the band into 79 channels (each 1 MHz wide) and changes channels up to 1600 times per second. Air interface: The protocol operates in the license-free ISM band at 2.2 reach speeds of 723. if the device is removable this means that the link key will move with the device. MITM protection can be achieved with a simple equality comparison by the user.1 addresses this in the following ways: o • Encryption is required for all non-SDP (Service Discovery Protocol) connections A new Encryption Pause and Resume feature is used for all normal operations requiring encryption to be disabled.1. not on the Bluetooth chip itself. using a single encryption key longer than this time allows simple XOR attacks to retrieve the encryption key.

Bluetooth v2. message modification.1 . and smart card readers.makes significant changes to Bluetooth's security. Bluejacking: .rate reduces the transmission times. it is susceptible to denial of service attacks. An overview of Bluetooth vulnerabilities exploits was published in 2007 by Andreas Becker.. man-in-the-middle attacks. rely on the Bluetooth PIN. namely a previously generated link key or master key. While Bluetooth has its benefits. using the E22 algorithm. the National Institute of Standards and Technology (NIST) published a Guide to Bluetooth Security that will serve as reference to organizations on the security capabilities of Bluetooth and steps for securing Bluetooth technologies effectively. headsets. Users/organizations must evaluate their acceptable level of risk and incorporate security into the lifecycle of Bluetooth devices. authentication and key derivation with custom algorithms based on the SAFER+block cipher. an initialization key or master key is generated. and resource misappropriation. During pairing.g.x devices (assuming equal traffic load). Those keys. used for subsequent encryption of data sent via the air interface.finalized in 2007 with consumer devices first appearing in 2009 . This procedure might be modified if one of the devices has a fixed PIN (e. To help mitigate risks. which has been entered into one or both devices. In September 2008. which must be entered into both devices. The EO stream cipher is used for encrypting packets. effectively reducing power consumption to half that of 1. eavesdropping. for headsets or similar devices with a restricted user interface). Bluetooth key generation is generally based on a Bluetooth PIN. granting confidentiality and is based on a shared cryptographic secret. including pairing. included in the NIST document are security checklists with guidelines and recommendations for creating and maintaining secure Bluetooth piconets. Security: Overview Bluetooth implements confidentially.

and the other two classes much lower. Blue jacking does not involve the removal or alteration of any data from the device. Maximum power output from a Bluetooth radio is 100 mW. Bluejacking can also involve taking control of a mobile wirelessly and phoning a premium rate line. which puts Class 1 at roughly the same level as mobile phones.Bluejacking is the sending of either a picture or a message from one user to an unsuspecting user through Bluetooth wireless technology. Common applications include short messages (e. Accordingly.5 mW. Class 2. and 1 mW for Class 1.480 GHz range. "You’ve just been bluejacked!"). RS-232 Introduction: .402 GHz to 2.. Class 2 and Class 3 Bluetooth devices are considered less of a potential hazard than mobile phones. and Class 1 may be comparable to that of mobile phones. Health concerns: Bluetooth uses the microwave radio frequency spectrum in the 2.g. and Class 3 devices respectively. owned by the bluejacker. 2.

and so supported RS-232. The C revision of the standard was issued in 1969 in part to accommodate the electrical characteristics of these devices. and the physical size and pin out of connectors. Standard subsets of interface circuits for selected telecom applications. the meaning of signals. books. When electronic terminals (smart and dumb) began to be used. and other aids for the connection of disparate equipment. The standard defines the electrical characteristics and timing of signals. A common deviation from the standard was to drive the signals at a reduced .In telecommunications. voltage withstand level. issued in 1997. Functions of each circuit in the interface connector. Since application to devices such as computers. The original DTEs were electromechanical teletypewriters and the original DCEs were (usually) modems. printers. The lack of adherence to the standards produced a thriving industry of breakout boxes. timing and slewrate of signals. History: RS-232 was first introduced in 1962. • • • Interface mechanical characteristics. and maximum load capacitance. and so on was not considered by the standard. RS-232 (Recommended Standard 232) is the traditional name for a series of standards for serial binary single ended -data and control signals connecting between a DTE (Data Terminal Equipment) and a DCE (Data Circuit Terminating-ENT). patch boxes. test equipment. Common problems were non-standard pin assignment of circuits on connectors. designers implementing an RS-232 compatible interface on their equipment often interpreted the requirements idiosyncratically. The current version of the standard is TIA-232-F interface between data Terminal Equipment and Data Circuit-Terminating Equipment Employing Serial Binary Data Interchange. Scope of the standard: The Electronic Industries Associassion (EIA) standard RS-232-C as of 1969 defines: • Electrical signal characteristics such as voltage levels. It is commonly used in computer serial port. pluggable connectors and pin identification. and incorrect or missing control signals. they were often designed to be interchangeable with teletypes. short circuit behavior. signaling rate. test instruments.

this is only suitable for low power devices such as mice. in particular. user data is sent as a time-series of bits. the use of handshake lines for flow controlled is not reliably implemented in many devices. successor standards have been developed to address the limitations.voltage: the standard requires the transmitter to use +12 V and −12 V. • The 25-way connector recommended in the standard is large compared to current p Standard details: In RS-232. While a small amount of current can be extracted from the DTR and RTS lines. • Single-ended signaling referred to a common signal ground limits the noise immunity and transmission distance. Multi-drop connection among more than two devices is not defined. In addition to the data circuits. Some manufacturers therefore built transmitters that supplied +5 V and -5 V and labeled them as "RS-232 compatible. • No method is specified for sending power to a device. the designer must decide on either a DTElike or DCE-like interface and which connector pin assignments to use. Both synchronous and asynchronous transmissions are supported by the standard." Limitations of the standard: Because the application of RS-232 has extended far beyond the original purpose of interconnecting a terminal with a modem. they have limitations in speed and compatibility. While multi-drop "work-around" has been devised. the . • • • The handshaking and control lines of the interface are intended for the setup and takedown of a dial-up communication circuit. but requires the receiver to distinguish voltages as low as +3 V and -3 V. Issues with the RS-232 standard include • The large voltage swings and requirement for positive and negative supplies increases power consumption of the interface and complicates power supply design. The voltage swing requirement also limits the upper speed of a compatible interface. Asymmetrical definitions of the two ends of the link make the assignment of the role of a newly developed device problematic.

For data transmission lines (TxD. The inactive state for these signals is the opposite voltage condition. These also protect the device's internal circuitry from short circuits or transients that may appear on the RS-232 interface. 8 data bits. Logic zero is positive and the signal condition is termed spacing. Control signals are logically inverted with respect to what one sees on the data transmission lines. is also controlled. Because the voltage levels are higher than logic levels typically used by integrated circuits. the ±3 V range near zero volts is not a valid RS-232 level. The standard does not define character framing within the data stream. 1 stop bit. or character encoding. the voltage on the line will be between +3 to +15 volts. RxD) and their secondary channel equivalents) logic one is defined as a negative voltage. the interface can operate in a full duplex manner. The RS-232 standard defines the voltage levels that correspond to logical one and logical zero levels for the data transmission and the control signal lines. The slew rate. supporting concurrent data flow in both directions. the signal condition is called marking.standard defines a number of control circuits used to manage the connection between the DTE and DCE. or how fast the signal changes between levels. Data terminal ready (DTR). ±12 V. and ±15 V are all commonly seen depending on the power supplies available within a device. Voltage levels: Diagrammatic oscilloscope trace of voltage levels for an uppercase ASCII "K" character (0x4b) with 1 start bit. Examples of control lines include request to send (RTS). When one of these signals is active. ±10 V. special intervening driver circuits are required to translate logic levels. . and has the functional significance. and provide sufficient current to comply with the slew rate requirements for data transmission. The standard specifies a maximum open-circuit voltage of 25 volts: signal levels of ±5 V. and data set ready (DSR). between −3 and −15 volts. clear to send (CTS). Since transmit data and receive data are separate circuits. Valid signals are plus or minus 3 to 15 volts. signaling from a DTE to the attached DCE or the reverse. RS-232 drivers and receivers must be able to withstand indefinite short circuit to ground or to any voltage level up to ±25 volts. Each data or control circuit only operates in one direction that is.

terminals and computers have male connectors with DTE pin functions. Balanced. Many terminals were manufactured with female terminals but were sold with a cable with male connectors at each end. the terminal with its cable satisfied the recommendations in the standard. Presence of a 25 pin D-sub connector does not necessarily indicate an RS-232-C compliant interface. problems will occur when connecting machinery and computers where the voltage between the ground pin on one end and the ground pin on the other is not zero.Because both ends of the RS-232 circuit depend on the ground pin being zero volts. For example. The standard recommended but did not make mandatory the Dsubminiature 25 pin connector. the local ground connections at either end of the cable will have differing voltages. Some personal computer put non-standard voltages or signals on some pins of their serial ports. Other devices may have any combination of connector gender and pin definitions. it must be connected to a voltage source that asserts the logic 1 or logic 0 level. Unused interface signals terminated to ground will have an undefined logic state. Some devices provide test voltages on their interface connectors for this purpose. If the two devices are far enough apart or on separate power systems. . differential. In general and according to the standard. Use of a common ground limits RS-232 to applications with relatively short cables. but the female D-sub connector was used for a parallel centronics printer port. Where it is necessary to permanently set a control signal to a defined state. RS-422 and RS-485 can tolerate larger ground voltage differences because of the differential signaling. this difference will reduce the noise margin of the signals. this defines at each device which wires will be sending and receiving each signal. a male D-sub was an RS-232-C DTE port (with a non-standard current loop interface on reserved pins). Connectors: RS-232 devices may be classified as Data Terminal Equipment (DTE) or Data Communication Equipment (DCE). serial connections such as USB. on the original IBM PC. Pin outs: The following table lists commonly-used RS-232 signals and pin assignments. This may also cause a hazardous ground loop. and modems have female connectors with DCE pin functions. For variations see serial port.

ready Data carrier OOB control signal: Tells DTE that DCE DCD detect Data Ready Ring indicator is connected to telephone line. Set OOB control signal: Tells DTE that DCE DSR is ready to receive commands or data. which is equivalent to the primary channel.Signal Name Data terminal Typical purpose Origin DBAbbreviation DTE DCE 25 ● pin 20 OOB control signal: Tells DCE that DTE DTR is ready to be connected. The ground signal is common return for the other connections. The DB-25 connector includes a second "protective ground" on pin 1. Request To OOB control signal: Tells DCE to RTS Send Clear prepare to accept data from DTE. OOB control signal: Tells DTE that DCE RI has detected a ring signal on the ● ● ● ● 8 6 22 telephone line. Data can be sent over a secondary channel (when implemented by the DTE and DCE devices). To OOB control signal: Acknowledges RTS CTS 4 ● 5 2 ● 3 7 1 Send and allows DTE to transmit. GND PG ● Common Common The signals are named from the standpoint of the DTE. Pin assignments are described in following table: Signal Common Ground Secondary Transmitted Data (STD) Secondary Received Data (SRD) Secondary Request To Send (SRTS) Secondary Clear To Send (SCTS) Secondary Carrier Detect (SDCD) Pin 7 (same as primary) 14 16 19 13 12 . Transmitted Data signal: Carries data from DTE to TxD Data Received Data Common Ground Protective Ground DCE. Data signal: Carries data from DCE to RxD DTE. Connecting this to pin 7 (signal reference ground) is a common practice but not essential.

By using low-capacitance cables. A widely-used rule-ofthumb indicates that cables more than 50 feet (15 meters) long will have too much capacitance. full speed communication can be maintained over larger distances up to about 1. or use trial and error to find a cable that works when interconnecting two devices. "Gender changes" are available to solve gender mismatches between cables and connectors. unless special cables are used. a Null modem may be necessary. Connecting a fully-standard-compliant DCE device and DTE device would use a cable that connects identical pin numbers in each connector (a so-called "straight cable"). test connections with a break out box. Manufacturers of equipment with 8P8C connectors usually provide a cable with either a DB-25 or DE-9 connector (or sometimes interchangeable connectors so they can work with multiple devices). and error detection. character encoding. data compression. Conventions: For functional communication through a serial port interface.200 bits per second. it is often necessary to consult documentation. Poor-quality cables can cause false signals by crosstalk between data and control lines (such as Ring indicator). If a given cable will not allow a data connection. other signal standards are better suited to maintain high speed. usually ASCII character coding. not defined in RS 232. For example.000 bits per second are out of the . Cables with 9 pins on one end and 25 on the other are common. Since the standard definitions are not always correctly applied. communications protocol. Connecting devices with different types of connectors requires a cable that connects the corresponding pins according to the table above. For longer distances.000 feet. conventions of bit rate. This implementation used an 8250 UART using asynchronous start-stop character formatting with 7 or 8 data bits per frame. consider the serial ports of the original IBMPC.Cables: The standard does not define a maximum cable length but instead defines the maximum capacitance that a compliant drive circuit must tolerate. especially if a gender change in use is in use. Data rates above 20. character framing. must be agreed to by both sending and receiving equipment. and data rates programmable between 75 bits per second and 115.

Note that equipment using this protocol must be prepared to buffer some extra data.250 bits per second) or other devices not using the rates typically used with modems. and that when 133 is in use.24 circuit 133. one can think of RTS asserted (positive voltage. with this alternative usage. This scheme is also employed on present-day RS-232 to RS-485 converters. so that a PC could be connected to. and RTS indicates permission from the DTE for the DCE to send data to the DTE. RTS is assumed by the DCE to be ON at all times.a concept that doesn't otherwise exist in RS-232. when implemented. A non-standard symmetric alternative. This was eventually codified in version RS-232-E (actually TIA-232-E by that time) by defining a new signal. since a transmission may have begun just before the control line state change. There is no way for the DTE to indicate that it is unable to accept data from the DCE. commonly called "RTS/CTS handshaking. shares the same pin as RTS (Request to Send)." which is CCITT V." was developed by various equipment manufacturers: CTS indicates permission from the DCE for the DTE to send data to the DCE (and is controlled by the DCE independent of RTS). RS-232's use of the RTS and CTS lines is asymmetric: The DTE asserts RTS to indicate a desire to transmit to the DCE. RTS/CTS handshaking: In older versions of the specification. "RTR (Ready to Receive). MIDI music controllers (31. Thus. although higher data rates are sometimes used by commercially manufactured equipment. In the particular case of the IBM PC. 3-wire and 5-wire RS-232: . where the RS-232's RTS signal is used to ask the converter to take control of the RS-485 bus . and the DCE asserts CTS in response to grant permission. users must manually set the baud rate (and all other parameters) at both ends of the RS-232 connection. TIA-232-E and the corresponding international standards were updated to show that circuit 133. for example. logic 0) meaning that the DTE is indicating it is "ready to receive" from the DCE.scope of the standard. rather than requesting permission from the DCE to send characters to the DCE. Since most devices do not have automatic baud rate detection. and must transmit a synchronization preamble to the receiver when they are re-enabled. baud rates were programmable with arbitrary values. This allows for half-duplex modems that disable their transmitters when not required.

Loopback testing: Many DCE devices have a loopback capability used for testing. receives data. a digital postal scale that periodically sends a weight reading. and of course both the DTE and DCE must support them. is commonly used when the full facilities of RS-232 are not required. if no configuration via RS-232 is necessary). The rates as well as which device will select the rate must be configured in both the DTE and DCE. If supported. Seldom used features: The EIA-232 standard specifies connections for several features that are not used in most implementations. Signal rate selection The DTE or DCE can specify use of a "high" or "low" signaling rate. or the remote DCE (the one the local DCE is connected to) to enter . signals are echoed back to the sender rather than being sent on to the receiver. the DTE can signal the local DCE (the one it is connected to) to enter loopback mode by setting pin 18 to ON. Even a two-wire connection (data and ground) can be used if the data flow is one way (for example.A minimal “3-wire” RS-232 connection consisting only of transmits data. and ground. When enabled. Their use requires the 25-pin connectors and cables. the RTS and CTS lines are added in a 5-wire version. The prearranged device selects the high rate by setting pin 23 to ON. When only hardware flow control is required in addition to two-way data. or a GPS receiver that periodically sends position.

or send timing (ST). A serial line analyzer is a device similar to a logic analyzer but specialized for RS-232's voltage levels. and return it to the DCE over the same unknown cable delay. especially at higher data rates.Loopback testing is often performed with a specialized DTE called a bit error rate tester(or BERT). ST loop back to TT lets the DTE use the DCE as the frequency reference. clock signals. . close examination of hardware signals can be very important to find problems. Pin 17 is the receiver clock. the DTE can provide a clock signal. store. the DTE reads the next bit from the data line (pin 3) when this clock transitions from ON to OFF. where used. Alternatively. connectors. Two timing signals are provided by the DCE on pins 15 and 17.loopback mode by setting pin 21 to ON. The serial line analyzer can collect. called transmitter timing (TT). and display the data and control signals. Again. A hardware loopback is simply a wire connecting complementary pins together in the same connector (see loopback). the DTE puts the next bit on the data line (pin 2) when this clock transitions from OFF to ON (so it is stable during the ON to OFF transition when the DCE registers the bit). When the DCE is in test mode it signals the DTE by setting pin 25 to ON. clock a bit out of the DTE after another unknown delay. TT can be used to overcome the issue where ST must traverse a cable of unknown length and delay. Timing signals: Some synchronous devices provide a clock signals to synchronize data transmission. on pin 24 for transmitted data. TT may be generated by looping ST back with an appropriate phase change to align it with the transmitted data. data is changed when the clock transitions from OFF to ON and read during the ON to OFF transition. The latter tests the communications link as well as both DCE's. or receive timing (RT). and. Development tools: When developing and/or troubleshooting RS-232. and correct the clock to data timing. using TT eliminates the issue. Since the relation between the transmitted bit and TT can be fixed in the DTE design. A commonly used version of loopback testing doesn't involve any special capability of either end. and since both signals traverse the same cable length. Pin 15 is the transmitter clock.

25. Some simply display the signals as waveforms. and as programs that run in common personnel computers. Power supply Introduction: A power supply is a device that supplies electrical energy to one or more electric loads. solar) to electrical energy. DDCMPS.. mechanical. chemical. HDLC. more elaborate versions include the ability to decode characters in ASCII or other common codes and to interpret common protocols used over RS-232 such as SDLC. Serial line analyzers are available as standalone units. The term is most commonly applied to devices that convert one form of electrical energy to another. and X.g. A regulated power supply is one that . as software and interface cables for general-purpose logic analyzers.allowing developers to view them in detail. though it may also refer to devices that convert another form of energy (e.

a power supply may obtain energy from:  Electrical energy transmission systems. How long they can supply energy without needing some kind of refueling or How stable their output voltage or current is under varying load conditions.    A power supply may be implemented as a discrete. Resistance. Common examples of this include power Energy storage devices such as batteries and fuel cells. Constraints that commonly affect power supplies include:   The amount of voltage and current they can supply. Depending on its design. the controlled value is held nearly constant despite variations in either load current or the voltage supplied by the power supply's energy source. voltage and current are connected in an electrical circuit by Ohm’s law. In the latter case. as well as any energy it consumes while performing that task. . from an energy source. stand-alone device or as an integral device that is hard wired to its load.  Whether they provide continuous or pulsed energy COMPONENTS Resistors: Resistors determine the flow of current in an electrical circuit. recharging (applies to power supplies that employ portable energy sources).controls the output voltage or current to a specific value. low voltage DC power supplies are commonly integrated with their loads in devices such as computers and household electronics. Electromechanical systems such as generators and alternators. Solar power. Every power supply must obtain the energy it supplies to its load. Where there is high resistance in a circuit the flow of current is small. for example. supplies that convert AC line voltage to DC voltage. where the resistance is low the flow of current is large.

using a percentage. Capacitor: A capacitor (condenser) is a passive electronic component consisting of a pair of conductors separated by a dielectric (insulator). Resistors can never be made to a precise value and the tolerance band (the fourth band) tells us. Resistors are too small to have numbers printed on them and so they are marked with a number of coloured bands. The resistor on the left is 4700 ohms. Resistors are found in almost every electronic circuit.Resistors are used for regulating current and they resist the current flow and the extent to which they do this is measured in ohms (O). a static electric field develops in the dielectric that stores energy and produces a mechanical force between the conductors. An ideal capacitor is . When there is a potential difference (voltage) across the conductors. The most common type of resistor consists of a small ceramic (clay) tube covered partially by a conducting carbon film. The composition of the carbon determines how much current can pass through. how close the resistor is to its coded value. Each colour stands for a number. Three colour bands shows the resistors value in ohms and the fourth shows tolerance.

Electronic voltage regulators are found in devices such as computer power supply where they stabilize the DC voltages used by the processor and other elements. the regulation element is commanded. in filter networks.characterized by a single constant value. for smoothing the output of power supplies. Increasing the open loop gain tends to increase regulation accuracy but reduce stability (avoidance of oscillation. capacitance. many regulators have over-current protection. or ringing during step changes). Electronic voltage regulators: Electronic voltage regulators operate by comparing the actual output voltage to some internal fixed reference voltage. voltage regulators may be installed at a substation or along distribution lines so that all customers receive steady voltage independent of how much power is drawn from the line. so that they will entirely stop sourcing current (or limit the current in some way) if the output current is too . This forms a negative feedback control loop. Depending on the design. In an electric power distribution system. A voltage regulator is an example of a negative feedback control loop. the regulation element will normally be commanded to produce a lower voltage. up to a point. It may use an electromechanical mechanism. Capacitors are widely used in electronic circuits for blocking direct current while allowing alternating current to pass. measured in farads. in the resonant circuit that tune radios to particular frequencies and for many other purp Regulator: A voltage regulator is an electrical regulator designed to automatically maintain a constant voltage level. it may be used to regulate one or more AC or DC voltages. or to draw input current for longer periods (boosttype switching regulator). If the output voltage is too low (perhaps due to input voltage reducing or load current increasing). to produce a higher output voltage–by dropping less of the input voltage (for linear series regulators and buck switching regulator). This is the ratio of the electric change on each conductor to the potential difference between them. or electronic components. if the output voltage is too high. However. voltage regulators control the output of the plant. Any difference is amplified and used to control the regulation element in such a way as to reduce the voltage error. There will also be a trade-off between stability and the speed of the response to changes. In automobile alternators and central power station generator plants.

Introduced as a practical electronic component in 1962. Early LEDs emitted low-intensity red light. A voltage regulator is an example of a negative feedback control loop. The compact size. but modern versions are available across the visible. It may use an electromechanical mechanism.high. ultraviolet and infrared wavelengths. electrons are able to recombine with electron holes within the device. voltage regulators may be installed at a substation or along distribution lines so that all customers receive steady voltage independent of how much power is drawn from the line. automatic lightning (particularly brake lamps. turn signals and indicators) as well as in traffic signals. and extreme reliability of LEDs has allowed new text and video displays and sensors to be developed. and integrated optical components may be used to shape its radiation pattern. the possibility of narrow bandwidth. and some regulators may also shut down if the input voltage is outside a given range. or electronic components. When a light-emitting diode is forward biased (switched on). Regulator: A voltage regulator is an electrical regulator designed to automatically maintain a constant voltage level. and greater durability and reliability. improved robustness. LEDs powerful enough for room lighting are relatively expensive and require more precise current and heat management than compact fluorescent screen sources of comparable output. with very high brightness. voltage regulators control the output of the plant. Light-emitting diodes are used in applications as diverse as replacements for aviation. light-emitting diode (LED): Led is a semiconductor light source. This effect is called ectroluminescence and the colour of the light (corresponding to the energy of the photon) is determined by the energy gap of the semiconductor. it may be used to regulate one or more AC or DC voltages. Electronic voltage regulators are found in devices such as computer power supply where they stabilize the DC voltages used by the processor and other elements. faster switching. smaller size. LEDs are used as indicator lamps in many devices. while their high switching rates are also useful in advanced communications . In automobile alternators and central power station generator plants. Depending on the design. In an electric power distribution system. An LED is often small in area (less than 1 mm2). releasing energy in the form of photons. longer lifetime. and are increasingly used for lighting. LEDs present many advantages over incandescent light sources including lower energy. switching speed.

Infrared LEDs are also used in the remote control units of many commercial products including televisions.technology. and other domestic appliances. DVD players. .