CHAPTER ONE BASIC OF UNIT PROTECTION

1.1 INTRODUCTION
Protection schemes are used for various applications. One of these schemes is unit protection. Unit protection operates on the principle of discrimination by comparing two quantities. These quantities can be current, voltage and/or phase angle and impedance. Unit protection protect only the unit with which they are connected to and do not provide the back-up protection which all other discrimination by time and /or current schemes provide. Disadvantage of discrimination by time and /or current schemes is that it cannot always be arranged to obtain satisfactory grading for a complex network, and secondly, the settings may lead to maximum tripping times closer to the source, which are not always desired. Unit protection resolve the disadvantage by dividing the circuits into discrete zones and each zone has its own relays and circuit breakers to allow detection and isolation of its own internal faults, Figure 1.1.

.1. repair cost at a point of a fault. then these zones have to maintain the main functions.1: Single line diagram of power system illustrating zones of protection 1.High-voltage switchgear protection Low-voltage switchgear protection Generator protection Circuit breaker Transmission line protection Motor protection M M Power transformer protection Medium-voltage switchgear protection Figure 1. The main functions of protection apparatus is to make sure that the entire system maintain continuity of supply.2 MAIN FUNCTION OF PROTECTION APPARATUS Once power system has being split in to zones as indicated in Figure1. reduce damage. and ensure safety to personnel.

as its principle is to sense the difference in currents between the incoming and outgoing terminals of the unit being protected as shown in Figure 1. . power should be maintained to healthy parts and isolate faulty parts. One of the common is known as Differential Protection.2. Secure . Speed .the ability to avoid incorrect operation during faults. Above these qualities.all healthy section should remain non-operative while a faulty section is being isolated. The relay should be connected within the centre point from both current transformers as indicated in Figure 1.to operate as quickly as possible when it is called upon to do so. Sensitivity . Three quantities will be discussed that are used in differential protection viz.to able to sense even the smallest fault current or system abnormalities and activate the correct operation of the protection scheme before further damage to the power system. when connected in a certain way. Most form of ‘Unit Protection’ is based on the Merz-Price principle. Selectivity . and bus bar. that is: • • 1. power lines. Unit protection can be used as the main protection depending on the equipment to be protected such as machines. voltage magnitude and phase angle between voltage and current comparison. can be made to operate as a differential relay. MAIN OR UNIT PROTECTION Main protection is the first defence if a fault occurs in its zone.These functions are carried out by adhering to certain qualities such as: • • • • Stability . else the fault is not in the unit being protected. If the difference of current is greater than the set value of the relay. backup protection should operate. protection must also be reliable. After differentiating.3 Dependable . Buck-up must be time delayed so that the main protection can operate and isolate the fault unit. then the fault is in the unit and protection should trip.2. current magnitude. Any type of relay. Buck-up protection referred to the additional protection to clear the fault. which the main protection failed to clear.to differentiate and select between the healthy parts and faulty parts of the power system when a fault occurs. Buck-up protection relay has a sensing element that may or may not be the same to that of the main protection.the certainty of a correct operation on the occurrence of a fault. If the main protection fails then.

If the is an in-zone fault-fault in the protected unit-then current I1 will not be the same .4 CIRCULATING CURRENT SCHEME The principle is shown in Figure 1.3: Balanced circulating current When current I1 flows in the primary of CT1. CB I1 CT 1 Unit to be protected CT 2 I2 I1 I1 Relay I2 I2 Figure 1. should have the same turn’s ratio. In addition.2: Current differential protection 1. The two current transformers. The current transformers are connected in series so that the secondary current can circulate between them. the secondary current will be the same and no current will flow through the relay and hence no operation of the circuit breaker (CB). CT1 and CT2. which is the same as I2 flowing through CT2.CT 1 Unit to be protected CT 2 Relay Figure 1. The relay is connected midpoint of the current transformers so that voltage across the relay is theoretically zero. the two connecting leads resistance between current transformers and relay should be identical.3. same magnetizing characteristics and same resistance. This condition can be the result of a through fault or normal full load.

4. However.c. The current transformers have errors arising from magnetizing current and the interconnections between them may have unequal impedances as shown in Figure1. Special current transformers may .4: Balanced circulating current with impedances If a low impedance relay is used. thus limiting the sensitivity that can be achieved. The use of a stabilizing resistor has the advantage for the relay current setting to be reduced to any practical value and the use of non-linear resistor is to limit the voltage across the relay circuit to a fix voltage. The relay is now a voltage-measuring device and calibration of the relay can be in terms of voltage. Another type uses an over voltage relay instead of an over current relay in the differential circuit. Current I2 can also change direction and feed into a protected unit increasing the magnitude of fault current. CB I1 CT 1 Unit to be protected CT 2 I2 CT Secondary Leads Rs1 Is RL1 Relay RL2 Is Rs2 Ze (exciting) ir Ze (exciting) RR (stabilizing) Figure 1. the relay will be exposed to the sum of two secondary currents. then a stabilizing resistor is connected in series with the relay to improve sensitivity as indicated in Figure1. In that case.as I2 and the difference of the secondary current will flow through the relay causing the circuit breaker to open. it is impossible to produce identical CT’s and to locate the relay at equidistance from the two end of CT’s. If the is frequent transient in a network and a high impedance relay is used. There are other several types of differential-relay arrangements that could be mentioned. component of the differential current. One of these uses a directional relay and another has additional restraint obtained from harmonics and the d. This can give rise to a ‘spill’ current through the relay even without a fault being present.4. then a stabilizing resistor is connected in series with the relay as well a non-linear resistor (Peterson coil) connected in parallel to the relay.

The voltage across the each relay A and relay B will be zero.c.1. If this voltage is greater than the set voltage. The impedance of the pilot circuit will be the governing factor in preventing the relay from operating.5: Balanced voltage systems The current transformers have errors arising from magnetizing current and the relays are connected with biasing coils in them to overcome the spill currents as shown in Figure 1. but should a short circuit occur on the protected section. will circulate in the pilot and operate the relays at both ends as indicated in Figure 1. Balanced voltage systems are mostly used on feeder protection.6. component to offset current waves. this current will not be sufficient to prevent relay operation. in a proper application. CB 1 I 1 I1 CT 1 Unit to be protected CT 2 I2 CB 2 I2 I1 A Relay I2 B Relay Figure 1. secondary current I1 and I2 will not be the same and the fault current.5.be used having little or no iron in their magnetic circuit to avoid errors in transformation caused by the d. Current will also flow through the restraining coils. IFlt .5 BALANCED VOLTAGE SCHEME The current transformers are connected in parallel so that the secondary induce voltage can oppose each other and cancel out.6. 1. The only reason for having a relay at each end is to avoid having to run a tripping circuit the full length of the pilot. if current I1 and current I2 are equal and opposite to each other so that they can cancel out as indicated in Figure 1. A comparison between the two systems of differential protection is shown in Table 1. then the relay will trip their respective circuit breakers. hence stable for through fault and full load condition. but. hence the voltage across the relays. The restraining coils function is to prevent relay operation owing to spill currents. In-zone/internal faults lead to the difference in the magnitude of I1 and I2. .

CB 1 I 1 I1 CT 1 I1 Unit to be protected Restrainin g Pilot IFlt V1 IFlt CT 2 I2 I2 CB 2 I2 Relay A Operating Relay B Figure 1. and this process is referred to as modulation of a carrier wave.7. Carrier channel is made by using a relaying quantity to vary the higher frequency associated with each medium. It transfers logic or on/off signal that switches . signalling equipment and communication channel.6: Balanced voltage with restraining and operating coils Effect of open circuited pilots Opposed Voltage Circulating Current Block tripping Cause tripping Effect of short circuited pilots Cause tripping Block tripping Fault current fed from one end Cause tripping Cause tripping Table 1.1: Effects of fault in the pilot wire protection used in differential protection 1. or the light intensity for fibre-optic systems. phase comparator and pulse length discriminator shown in Figure 1.6 PHASE COMPARISON SCHEME Phase comparison scheme used summation transformer-to add together three phase and produce single phase.

7) are displaced in time. for the internal fault between G and H.8.7. The study of the relations between the network output voltages at both ends of the line and the carrier-current signals that are transmitted during external and internal fault conditions are shown in Figure 1.7) are 1800 out of phase in Figure 1.8 at point B and point D in Figure 1. and the resultant burst of carrier is coupled to and propagates along the power line which is being protected to a receiver at the other end. This technique uses the 'squarer' logic directly to turn a transmitter 'on' or 'off' at one end.at the zero crossing points of the power frequency waveform. the carrier-current signals (signal at B and D in FIGURE 1.c. carrier current is transmitted only during the half cycles of the voltage wave when the polarity is positive. Phase comparison scheme can be improved by using the power line carrier technique. This is because the current-transformer connections at the two stations are reversed. tripping will occur wherever there is enough short-circuit current flowing. When the carrier-current signals are approximately in phase. However. current flowing from end G to end H. CT’s at G Protected Line CT’s at H Summation Transform A Squar er B Signalling Equipment and Communication Channel Transmitt er D Squar er C Summation Transform D’ Receiver Phase Phase Comparator Pulse Length Discriminati on E Comparator Pulse Length Discriminati on F . The carrier-current signals transmitted from G and H (signal in Figure 1. and there is no signal from either station every other half cycle. Comparison of a local logic signal with the corresponding signal from the remote end provides phase comparator the basis for the measurement of phase shift between power system currents at the two ends as indicted in Figure 1.8.8 ) are in phase. the network output voltages at stations G and H (output voltage waves at point A and point C in Figure 1. During full load and an external fault at H. due to the reversal of the network output voltage at station B caused by the reversal of the power-line currents there. Since an a. voltage is used to control the transmitter. so that there is always a carrier-current signal being sent from one end or the other.

exceed the stability angle and /or the setting as indicated .Figure 1.8: Phase comparison waves and digital outputs Stability setting The time span of the logic '0' provides the basis for discrimination between internal and external faults.7: Components of phase comparison scheme. in degrees. G IG IH H G IG IH H Load or through fault Internal fault A: Summation voltage from CT at G 1 0 1 0 B: Squarer output from A C: Summation voltage from CT’s at H D: Squarer output from C (Received at end G via ideal carrier system as D’) 1 0 1 0 E: Comparator output at end G E= 1 0 1 0 1 0 F: Discriminator output at end G 1 0 Figure 1. tripping being permitted only when a time delays.

9. simple time delay circuits can be used. and low-loss interconnection between the relaying points and b) dedicated 'on/off' signalling is particularly suited for use in phase comparison blocking mode schemes because signal attenuation does not cause a problem. This error cause a ‘spill current’ to flow through the relay. This time delay is usually expressed in terms of the corresponding phase shift in degrees as in Figure 1. If there is wide range of fault current magnitudes. Since both the local and remote signals are logic pulses.in Figure 1. The advantages of using the power line as the communication medium are: a) power line provides a robust. The system stability limit for a heavily loaded line prior to a fault can be displaced by up to about 50°. This error has to be taken into consideration when setting the differential relay else mal-operation may result. This problem is overcome by changing the operating level of the relay according to the fault current. Biasing is small at .7 ERRORS IN CURRENT TRANSFORMER Magnetization of current transformer causes error on the secondary of the current transformer. reliable.9. setting of differential relay to be more than or proportional to the worst spill current that may occur under through fault condition is not satisfactory. A gap in the composite carrier signal is produced by any phase shift relative to the through fault condition and hence a corresponding '0' logic level from the detector.9: Phase angle stability 1. φ = 90° φ = 180° − Tripping φ φ s s Stability φ = 0° R φ = 270° Figure 1.

Biasing value: K2(I1+I2) I1 Restrain I2 I1 Restrain I2 Operate Operate Idiff = Idiff = Percentage bias k2 Operate Idiff Percentage bias k1 Is1 Restrain Is2 Ibias = Figure 1. thus enabling the relay to be made sensitive and at higher currents. Operating values: K1(I1+I2). the bias used is higher.10: Bias characteristics of a relay . the spill current required to cause operation is higher and therefore less likely to mal-operation as shown in Figure 1. additive if flowing in opposite direction into the protected zone or K1(I1-I2).10.10. subtractive if flowing in the same direction but differ in magnitude shown in Figure 1. and as a result.low currents. which can because by inrush currents or through fault conditions.

This phase shift is corrected by connection the CT`s on star side of the power transformer in delta and the CT`s on the delta side of the power transformer are in star. • 1. but only a simple method of differential protection will be discussed. Selectivity. the protection will operate and trip all associated circuit breakers.1 TRANSFORMER Power transformers are equipment used to transform power from high level to lower manageable level.2 BUS BAR Bus bars are critical points in the power system as they contain all feeders and incomers. However.8. and high-speed operation are required. All the phazor summation of the measured currents entering and leaving the bus bar must be zero. 1. and generator so that sensitivity. high currents will flow and the can be a huge loss of power to consumers.bars. If a fault occurs in them. and short lines follows. These factors can be: • • Different voltage level and tap changer Mismatch of current transformer ratio A 300 phase-angle shift caused by power transformer star-delta connection. Differential protection is the most sensitive and reliable method for protection bus. Transformer differential relay are less sensitive as compared to the generator relay. Short lines and cables can use voltage differential protection. bus bars. A brief discussion of application of differential protection in power transformer.3 FEEDERS’ PROTECTION . generator.7.8 APPLICATION OF DIFFERENTIAL PROTECTION There are many configuration of differential protection.7. Current differential protection can be used to protect power transformer. selective and speed can be archived. if the measured current exceed a pre-determine setting. bus bars. Differential protection is used mostly for transformer rated 10 MVA and above. sensitivity. 1. Several factors have to be taken into consideration when applying differential protection to transformers in order to prevent mal-operation.1.

These pilot wires are used to provide the communication channel for conveying the information. • It must be sensitive to detect damage in the windings of the generator stator and be stable for faults outside the generator. 1. Unit protection can be used to protect the line or cable. Each relay trips only its associated circuit breaker. . either solidly or via a resistor or a reactor. Pilot wire protection is used in protection of power cables and short transmission lines. In order to obtain the most effective form of generator differential protection. These relays use the information provided by pilot wire to compare between the local and remote condition and make a decision for an in-zone “internal fault” or not. to and from.4 GENERATOR Generators are the source of power to the network and require the best protection. then the method of differential protection that in preferred is voltagebalanced system using pilot wires. then differential protection will protect only earth faults. most of the generator manufacturers recommend differential protection for generators rated 1MVA or higher.7. • Should be designed so that the main breaker is opened as well as the neutral breaker and the field circuit breaker during an in-zone/internal fault. If the neutral of the generator is taken out as shown in Figure 1.Feeders can be cables or transmission lines depending on the type of application required. Differential protection should satisfy the following requirements: • It must operate as quickly as possible so that the generator is disconnected before any serious damage can occur. In practice. the neutral of the generator should be well earth. to the ends of the feeders to protective relays. Other forms of CT connection for delta and star connection will be discussed under generator protection. Since the distance between the two ends of the line or cable can be very long. Percentagedifferential relaying is the best for this function base on economical reasons.11.

a b c Circuit breaker Restraining coils Generator windings Operating coil Differential relay .

Figure 1. The ideal scheme of protecting the line is _______ protection. 1.2 1.7 1. Pilot wires are used for _____ between two stations.11: Differential protection for a star connected generator with neutral brought out EXERCISE 1 1. A three phase balanced differential earth fault protection for a generator consists of ______ current transformer. It is limited to protect earth faults between the ______ and the ______ current transformer. A stabilizing resistor is connected in _____ with the relay and a non-linear resistor is connected in _____ to the relay.9 .3 1. Stabilizing resistor limits relay _____.8 1.5 1. the principle is to ______ the difference in currents between the incoming and outgoing terminals of the unit being protected.4 1. while a non-linear resistor limits the ______. 1. which they protect.1 1. Pilot wire protection is used in protection of _____ and ____. In _______ protection. A summation transformer is device that reproduces the poly-phase line currents as a ______ phase.6 Fill in the blanks by inserting appropriate words or Figures: Unit protection protects only the ______ .

3. 6. Mention main disadvantages of other discrimination protection schemes as compared to unit protection. b) transformer protection. c) feeder protection and d) bus bar protection? 9. Draw and explain the unit protective circuit for a circulating current system. Explain what is meant by phase angle stability. 10. What are the advantage and disadvantage of this type of system? Explain why it is called balanced voltage system. Mention five quality of a protection system. Differentiate between factors for differential protection used to protect a transformer and a generator. 4. Draw and explain the unit protective circuit for phase comparison system. 8. A transmission line with two terminals is protected by a unit protective system. the may be error’s on the secondary current.1. The two most common schemes used to protect the bus bar are ______ and ______ protection. When connecting current transformer in differential protection. . A transmission line with two terminals is protected by a unit protective system. 7. 11. What causes error’s in current transformer and how can these error’s be overcome? Which type of unit protection can be used for a) generator protection. A transmission line with two terminals is protected by a unit protective system. Draw the unit protective circuit for the line where the current transformers are connected with their secondary windings opposed.10 2. 5. Why would unit protection be used in some protection schemes? Explain two methods of unit protection.