Journal of Luminescence 131 (2011) 2697–2702

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A white light emitting phosphor Sr1.5Ca0.5SiO4:Eu3 þ , Tb3 þ , Eu2 þ for LED-based near-UV chip: Preparation, characterization and luminescent mechanism
Xi Chen, Junfeng Zhao, Liping Yu, Chunying Rong, Chengzhi Li, Shixun Lian n
Key Laboratory of Chemical Biology and Traditional Chinese Medicine Research (Ministry of Education), Key Laboratory of Sustainable Resources Processing and Advanced Materials of Hunan Province, College of Chemistry and Chemical Engineering, Hunan Normal University, Changsha, Hunan 410081, China

a r t i c l e i n f o
Article history: Received 15 October 2010 Received in revised form 24 June 2011 Accepted 27 June 2011 Available online 7 July 2011 Keywords: Sr1.5Ca0.5SiO4:Eu3 þ Tb3 þ Eu2 þ White-light emitting phosphor Near-UV chip excitation

In this work, we report preparation, characterization and luminescent mechanism of a phosphor Sr1.5Ca0.5SiO4:Eu3 þ ,Tb3 þ ,Eu2 þ (SCS:ETE) for white-light emitting diode (W-LED)-based near-UV chip. Co-doped rare earth cations Eu3 þ , Tb3 þ and Eu2 þ as aggregated luminescent centers within the orthosilicate host in a controlled manner resulted in the white-light phosphors with tunable emission properties. Under the excitation of near-UV light (394 nm), the emission spectra of these phosphors exhibited three emission bands: one broad band in the blue area, a second band with sharp lines peaked in green (about 548 nm) and the third band in the orange–red region (588–720 nm). These bands originated from Eu2 þ 5d-4f, Tb3 þ 5D4-7FJ and Eu3 þ 5D0-7FJ transitions, respectively, with comparable intensities, which in return resulted in white light emission. With anincrease of Tb3 þ content, both broad Eu2 þ emission and sharp Eu3 þ emission increase. The former may be understood by the reduction mechanism due to the charge transfer process from Eu3 þ to Tb3 þ , whereas the latter is attributed to the energy transfer process from Eu2 þ to Tb3 þ . Tunable white-light emission resulted from the system of SCS:ETE as a result of the competition between these two processes when the Tb3 þ concentration varies. It was found that the nominal composition Sr1.5Ca0.5SiO4:1.0%Eu3 þ , 0.07%Tb3 þ is the optimal composition for single-phased white-light phosphor. The CIE chromaticity calculation demonstrated its potential as white LED-based near-UV chip. & 2011 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

1. Introduction Recently, much attention has been paid to the development of white-light emitting diodes (W-LED) [1–3] because of their wide application in consumer electronics as well as in solid lighting. A stable white light has been obtained through a blue LED (GaN chip) precoated with a yellow phosphor (Y1 À aGda)3(Al1 À bGab)5 O12:Ce3 þ (YAG:Ce) [4] and has been widely used in various applications such as full-color displays, liquid crystal display back lighting and traffic signals [5]. However, this kind of white light has a low color rendering index (Rao80) because the yellow light emission from the phosphor YAG:Ce lacks sufficient red emission. So, white light generation has been proposed to combine LED chip with three-phased [6] (red [7–9], green [10] and blue [11]) phosphors, but in this three-color-converter system, the blue emission efficiency is poor because of the strong re-absorption problem of the blue light by the red and green emitting phosphors.


Corresponding author. Tel./fax: þ 86 731 8865345. E-mail address: (S. Lian).

To overcome problems like this for W-LED, single-phased whitelight (SPWL) phosphors [1,2,6,12–21] have been an active research area in the study of luminescent materials. Although singlecomposition white-light phosphors for near-UV or UV excitation have been reported in the literature, satisfactory solution are much harder and novel phosphor is still desirable. Alkaline earth orthosilicate M2SiO4 (M ¼Ca, Sr, Ba) phosphors for W-LED have been intensively studied due to their high chemical stability [1,16,22–30] since M2SiO4 doped with divalent europium (Eu2 þ ) was first investigated by Kim et al. [16]. Choi et al. [1] recently reported that (Ba,Ca)2SiO4:Eu2 þ , Mn2 þ phosphor emits warm white light under ultraviolet light excitation. In addition, an enhanced and tunable excitation and emission intensity of Sr2SiO4:Eu2 þ phosphor can be obtained by co-doped Ba2 þ /Mg2 þ to change the crystal field and covalence of the host [24]. Therefore, emission color and efficiency of orthosilicate phosphors can be fine-tuned either by the substitution of different cations in the host or by co-doped activators. Rare earth ions have been playing an important role in phosphor duo to the abundant emission colors based on their 4f-4f or 5d-4f transitions, such as the trivalent europium ion

0022-2313/$ - see front matter & 2011 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved. doi:10.1016/j.jlumin.2011.06.056

Crystal structure Fig.R. leading to the broad blue emission. 1200 1C.419 0. 400V photomultiplier tube voltage and UV390 nm filter. 771618) [34].2 transitions [31] and the terbium ion (Tb3 þ ) is a green-emitting activator due to its 5D4-7F0 transitions [32]. Samples Doped concentration Eu3 þ (a) A1 A2 A3 A4 A5 B1 B2 B3 B4 B5 B6 B7 C1 C2 C3 C4 C5 C6 1. 1200 1C. The formation of alkaline earth orthosilicate phosphors by the solid state reaction can be represented by the following equation with the assumption that complete conversion has occurred 1. 30 min 30 min 30 min 30 min 30 min 30 min .301 0.257 0. Air.R. c%Eu2 þ phosphor.05 0.449 0. After an appropriate selection of the host lattice. the tricolor emission bands of the phosphor co-doped with Eu3 þ . b%Tb3 þ .221 0. Three series of samples with varying rare earth metal ions were prepared.1. 4h 4h 4h 4h 4h 4h 4h 4h 4h 4h 4h 4h 4h 4h 4h 4h 4h 4h Step 2 / 95%N2 þ5%H2. Chen et al. Only a single phase belonging to Sr1.241 0. Air.). green and blue colors from the 4f-4f transitions of Eu3 þ . The luminescent mechanism for the co-doped Eu3 þ .423 0.0 1.331 0. such as bivalent europium ion (Eu2 þ ) 5d-4f transitions. in the nominal composition of SCS:aEu3 þ . / / / / / / / 95%N2 þ5%H2.0 1. no report of such work has been found in the previous literature. 1).225 0. 1200 1C.5Ca0. bTb3 þ .5Ca0. the obtained powder (A1) was divided into five parts.R. indicating that this single phase has been fully developed through our preparation procedures and the small amount of Eu3 þ .0 1. Tb3 þ and the 5d-4f transitions of Eu2 þ .359 0.410 0. Particle sizes and shapes were measured by scanning electron microscopy (SEM) (JSM-5600LV). Air. cEu2 þ . In the present work. the starting materials were mixed together in agate mortar with required molar ratio. bTb3 þ . 45 and 60 min (samples A2–A5 in Table 1). SrCO3 (A.0 1. the four parts were fired at the same temperature in reducing atmosphere (5% H2 and 95% N2) for 15. Air.0 1. 1200 1C. CaCO3 (A. Japan). We demonstrate that it is possible to obtain SPWL phosphor via chemical approaches with appropriate tuning of activator contents of Eu3 þ . Tb3 þ and Eu2 þ combine to give out white light.20 0.357 y 0.5Ca0. Air.251 0. cEu2 þ þ gaseous by-product The crystalline phase of the prepared samples was examined by the X-ray diffractometry with Cu Ka radiation at 40 kV and 300 mA (Rigaku D/MAX-2500 X-ray diffractometry.229 0.367 1200 1C. Tb3 þ and Eu2 þ in Sr1.40 0. respectively. Air. 2.5SiO4 that possesses an orthorhombic crystal structure with space group of Pmnb with its lattice para˚ ˚ ˚ meters a ¼5.5Ca0. 1200 1C. 1200 1C. Raw materials were added according to the ratio listed in Table 1 (suitable amount Li2CO3 was added as charge compensation).5SiO4 has also been discussed.0 1.309 0. 1200 1C.5SiO4: (a–c) Eu3 þ .347 0. 1 shows the scanning electron microscopy micrograph of Table 1 The doping concentration of Eu3 þ (a) and Tb3 þ (b) ions and optimized preparation conditions for designed composition Sr1. The numbers. 1200 1C. 1200 1C. 1200 1C.5Ca0. 1200 1C.559 0.30 0. are often observed depending on the host lattice [33] and the doping concentration of Eu2 þ .335 0. 1200 1C. The mixture was placed in the tube furnace and calcined at 1200 1C in air for 4 h to obtain the host of phosphor and make rare earth ions Eu3 þ and Tb3 þ into the host lattice to get SCS:aEu3 þ .225 0. Nevertheless. doping concentration of Eu3 þ . Stoichiometric Eu2O3 and Tb4O7 were dissolved in dilute HCl under vigorous stirring condition with the pH value of the solution kept between 2 and 3.037 A and c ¼9. The inset in Fig. whose design formula is Sr1.5CaCO3 þH2SiO3 þ aEuCl3 þbTbCl3-Sr1.5SiO4:aEu3 þ .5SiO4: (a–c)%Eu3 þ .35 0. 95%N2 þ5%H2. Experimental section Eu2O3 and Tb4O7 were 99.0 1. bTb3 þ .). Air. bTb3 þ . 95%N2 þ5%H2.R. Results and discussion 3. respectively. Excitation and emission spectra of the samples were measured using Hitachi F-4500 luminescence spectrofluorometer. A LED phosphor consists of alkaline earth orthosilicate co-activated by Eu3 þ and Tb3 þ . denoted as SCS:aEu3 þ . Air.214 0. Air. Air.0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 1. Air. 1200 1C. H2SiO3 (A. 95%N2 þ5%H2.246 0. equipped with 175 W xenon lamp as an excitation source. CIE x 0. 1200 1C.2698 X. Tb3 þ and preparation conditions. 95%N2 þ5%H2.5Ca0. 1200 1C. 1200 1C. 95%N2 þ5%H2. 1200 1C.380 0.288 0. 3. whether the dram rare earth ions had been added or not (Fig. 1200 1C.02 0. these transitions from higher 5d levels.07 0.299 0. Air. Then. 30.647 A. the complete burning process was achieved by a two-stage solid-state reaction: Firstly.5SiO4 was observed. In addition to the above sharp emission lines originating from 4f-4f transition.321 0.0 1. Tb3 þ and Eu2 þ cations in Sr1.) were used as raw materials.05 0.259 0.5SrCO3 þ 0. 1200 1C. we report the first realization of such an idea. 1200 1C. The polycrystalline phosphor was synthesized by a two-stage solid-state reaction.241 0. / Journal of Luminescence 131 (2011) 2697–2702 (Eu3 þ ) is a red-emitting activator due to its 5D0-7F1.0 1. it should be possible to achieve simultaneously emission of the red. with comparable intensities. 1200 1C. 1200 1C. All diffraction peaks can be indexed to the reported data of Sr1. Air.266 0.10 0.265 0. Tb3 þ and Eu2 þ rare earth cations successfully doped into the host did not change the lattice structure.03 0.15 Atmosphere and firing conditions Step 1 Air. 95%N2 þ5%H2.) and Li2CO3 (A. b¼7.247 0. Air. 95%N2 þ5%H2.5SiO4 host lattices.425 0.10 0. Air. 95%N2 þ5%H2. 1200 1C.0 Tb3 þ (b) 0 0 0 0 0 0. 15 min 30 min 45 min 60 min 1200 1C. In the preparation. 1 shows the representative X-ray diffraction pattern for the prepared samples. bTb3 þ . bTb3 þ indicate the concentration of different metal ions on a molar basis added before firing. Air.01 0. 1200 1C.5Ca0.322 0. Tokyo.293 0.99% in purity. 1200 1C. in order for the Eu3 þ ions in the host lattice to be partially reduced to Eu2 þ to obtain a final product of SCS:(a–c) Eu3 þ .301 0. Air. a and b. Hence.3698 0. 1200 1C.644 A (JCPDS card No.

with the peaks at 591.5 h. then it does not change with further increase in Tb3 þ concentration. 3. In particular.5SiO4:Eu was very sensitive to the preparation conditions.5SiO4 is possible. 2(a)–(c) shows the excitation and emission spectra of phosphor A1–A5 (in Table 1). 2.5Ca0. the excitation and emission spectra of SCS:Eu3 þ and SCS:Eu2 þ can be used to evaluate the reduction extent of Eu3 þ ion in Sr1. For phosphor A4 and A5. Eu2 þ and co-doped Eu3 þ and Eu2 þ in Sr1. the emission intensity of Eu2 þ increase and wavelength position shifts insignificantly to the shorter-wavelength region from 525 to 482 nm. These results demonstrate that the phosphor emission wavelength and luminescent intensity can be fine tuned by adjusting the mole ratio of Eu3 þ to Eu2 þ through controlling the reducing atmosphere in the preparation procedure. 3.X. 6) of the 4f-4f transition of Tb3 þ ions [37]. XRD patterns of sample C4 in Table 1. reaching the maximum at b¼ 0. which is almost equal to Eu3 þ ion (Fig. when the reduction time exceeds 0.5SiO4:Eu3 þ . 5.5SiO4 and its luminescence behaviors. 1. Experimental results show that a partial reduction from Eu3 þ to Eu2 þ in Sr1.35%Tb3 þ phosphor is green emitting phosphor suitable for the near-UV chip. The lumininescent properties of Tb3 þ -doping Sr1. 3. sharp emission lines peaked from 380 to 650 nm were observed.5SiO4 phosphor doped with Tb3 þ were synthesized as listed in Table 1 (labeled by B1–B7). the emission intensity of Eu3 þ ion is very low. It can be seen that the emission intensity first increases with the increasing Tb3 þ concentration (b).5Ca0. such as heat-treatment time in reduction atmosphere. an additional broad emission band peaked at 525 nm is also observed if excited at 452 nm.2. the emission spectrum shows a broad band at the range of 400–700 nm centered about 480–484 nm excited by 394 nm. 3 shows the excitation and emission spectra of Sr1. which provides the freedom for us to adjust emissions of the SCS phosphors to accommodate different purposes. Experimental results show that SCS:0.40 mol).36]. which is believed to be associated with the electronic transition of 4f65d1-4f7 of the Eu2 þ ions [33. the optimum time (30 min) is more efficient to obtain emission for Eu2 þ ion. For the line emission bands of Tb3 þ .5SiO4 The luminescent properties from Sr1. Ba2 þ ) phosphors [37].5Ca0. In other words. 3. The luminescent properties of Sr1. The inset of Fig. which can be explained in terms of internal Eu3 þ 4f-4f transitions. the SCS:1.5Ca0.5Ca0. 615 and 700 nm assigned to 5D0-7FJ (J¼1. 2. respectively [35]. Sr2 þ . 4) of Eu3 þ ions.0%Eu3 þ . and the dependents of the emission intensities of Eu3 þ (5D0-7F2) and Eu2 þ (4f-5d) and Eu2 þ -emission peaks of phosphors A1–A5 on the reduction time. Chen et al. In this paper.5Ca0. In comparison with emission intensity of Eu3 þ . the Sr1. for Tb3 þ -doped Sr1. sharp peaks were observed. Fig. The luminescent properties of Eu3 þ /Eu2 þ -doped Sr1. 3 displays the impact of the concentration of Tb3 þ on the luminescent intensity of SCS:Tb3 þ . 2c). Tb3 þ .5Ca0.5SiO4.5Ca0. 4) by Eu3 þ ions.5Ca0.01–0.35%.10%Tb3 þ sample (C4 in Table 1). 0. exhibit that the emission of the phosphor SCS:Eu3 þ . 6) and lines between 475 and 650 nm originate from 5D4-7FJ (J¼3. With the increase of reduction time. Eu2 þ (SCS:ETE) The above experimental results. 4. For phosphor A1. Fig.5SiO4 were systematically investigated. Besides the sharp lines from the transition of 5D0-7FJ (J¼1. it is generally accepted that weak sharp lines between 380 and 475 nm originate from 5D3-7FJ (J¼4.5SiO4.4.3.5SiO4 There have already been many studies in the literature on the photoluminescence of Tb3 þ in M2SiO4 (where M¼Ca2 þ . As shown in Fig. Eu2 þ is peaked at red and blue area but . Photoluminescence (PL) properties of singly doped Eu3 þ . both sharp lines and a broad band are clearly observed.5SiO4:bTb3 þ (b¼0. leading to Eu3 þ and Eu2 þ ions co-excitation in the system of Sr1. the highest sharp line peaked at 544 nm is characteristic of 5D4-7F5 of Tb3 þ 4f-4f transitions [38]. upon excitation by the characteristic wavelength 284 nm. However. Therefore. 5. which consists of aggregated particles with size smaller than 20 mm.5Ca0. / Journal of Luminescence 131 (2011) 2697–2702 2699 Fig. This result is due to the fact that part of the doped Eu3 þ ions in the host crystal were reduced to Eu2 þ ions.5Ca0. for phosphor A2 and A3.

leading to the white light emitting. significantly overlapping with the excitation of Eu2 þ ion. Eu2 þ and Tb3 þ are co-excited in the single-phase Sr1. suggest that tricolor (red. the phosphors were prepared by two steps as listed in Table 1 (labeled by C1–C7). To this end. Excitation and emission spectra of B7 sample in Table 1. The inset of Fig.5Ca0.5Ca0. The excitation (a) and emission (b) spectra of sample A1–A5 in Table 1.5SiO4 phosphor is that its emission wavelength and luminescent intensity can be fine tuned by adjusting the mole ratio among Eu3 þ . that of the phosphor SCS:Tb3 þ is peaked at green area. Chen et al. 5a shows one broad excitation band in the ultraviolet region and emission peaks at red. Fig. Fig. Fig. 3(b) shows the Tb3 þ concentration (b) dependence of the PL intensities of Tb3 þ (5D4-7F5) in Sr1. and the dominant absorption peaks shift insignificantly to the longer-wavelength region from 315 to 400 nm for SCS:ETE. Eu2 þ and Tb3 þ through controlling the atmosphere and the doping concentration of Tb3 þ in the preparation process. which provides the freedom in adjusting emissions of the Sr1.2700 X. Therefore. suggesting that the phosphor is suitable for near-UV excitation [39] and undergoes multicolor emission.5SiO4 phosphor to . 3.5 Ca0. 2.5SiO4: bTb3 þ under excitation at 284 nm. 4. One remarkable feature of the above Sr1. The high-energy absorptions of Tb3 þ at wavelength shorter than 300 nm become very weak in the absorption spectra. the excitation at 397 nm is not the best for Tb3 þ and Eu2 þ . but it is the most effective to enhance the red emission of Eu3 þ . Excitation spectra of phosphor sample C6 in Table 1.5Ca0. almost the Eu3 þ excitation is independent. green and blue) emitting bands may be obtained when Eu3 þ . 4. As shown in Fig. and the dependents of the emission intensities of Eu3 þ (5D0-7F2) and Eu2 þ (4f-5d) and Eu2 þ -emitting peaks of phosphors A1–A6 on the reduction time (c).5SiO4. / Journal of Luminescence 131 (2011) 2697–2702 Fig. The excitation band locates at wavelengths between 300 and 400 nm. blue and green areas are found.

it can be seen that the luminescence of Ca0. On the other hand.X.5SiO4:1%Eu3 þ . As shown in Fig.02–0. / Journal of Luminescence 131 (2011) 2697–2702 2701 white emission (black dot d: x¼ 0.07 mol. when b¼0. 5a suggests that the luminescence intensities of the blue band (l ¼480 nm). The white emission can be further confirmed by the CIE (Commission International de I’Eclairage 1931 chromaticity) coordinates for the emission spectra of Sr1.5SiO4:1%Eu3 þ .33. 5a). green band (l ¼545 nm) and red band (l ¼ 612 nm) vary in accordance with the Tb3 þ concentration. y ¼0. Chen et al. which is very close to the standard white (x¼ 0.5SiO4 co-doped with Eu2 þ . 5b. but the change of red emission band is not significant (Fig. Fig. b% Tb3 þ phosphors at different Tb3 þ concentration (dot a-f is agreement with b¼ 0. 5a displays the dependence of the emission wavelength and relative intensity of one series of phosphors (C1–C7) on the nominal composition of two doping cations. 5D4-7F5 (544 nm).02–0. Hence.5Sr1. y¼0. (b) The corresponding CIE chromaticity diagram. As the Tb3 þ concentration increases. based on the observed significant overlap between the excitation spectrum of Tb3 þ and emission spectrum of Eu2 þ . 0. The energy transfer efficiency (ZT) from Eu2 þ to Tb3 þ has been discussed by Fig.321.5Ca0.. which consists of all the emission sharp lines from the 5D0 excited state to the 7FJ ground state of Eu3 þ . 5D0-7F1 (587 nm). 5 D0-7F0 (578 nm).5SiO4:1%Eu3 þ . This indicates that the quantity of energy can transfer from Eu2 þ to Tb3 þ with increasing Tb3 þ concentration. accommodate different purposes in applications. The luminescent mechanism of SCS:Eu3 þ . Fig. CIE chromaticity coordinates (in Table 1) of phosphors C1–C7 vary from cold white (x¼ 0. As shown in Fig. Ba)2SiO4 phosphor [40].05.15) phosphors can be tuned in the white region by changing the doping concentration of Tb3 þ . the intensity of the blue emission band significantly decreases. 5D0-7F4 (700 nm) from the 5D4 excited state to the 7FJ ground state of Tb3 þ . 6). (a) Photoluminescence spectra of Sr1. blue emission band from Eu2 þ 5d-4f transition appeared as Eu3 þ ions were partly reduced. Tb3 þ . 5a. enhancing 5D4-7F5 emitting. Tb3 þ . the effective resonance type energy transfer is expected to take place from Eu2 þ to Tb3 þ . Eu2 þ The luminescent mechanism of Sr1. b%Tb3 þ (b¼0.e. Eu3 þ and Tb3 þ . upon excitation by 394 nm. 3. 0. 6.15) excited by lex ¼ 394 nm and dependence of the energy transfer efficiency ZT on Tb3 þ content.5SiO4:1. 5 D0-7F3 (650 nm).5Ca0. resulting in the emission color varying from cold white to warm white. which is the same as Tb3 þ and Eu2 þ co-doping with (Sr.293. The excited electrons from the 7 F0-5L6 transition of Eu3 þ at 394 nm yields the emission spectrum (Fig.5.33) leading to a novel single-phased white-light emitting phosphor for LED-based nearUV chip. Tb3 þ and Eu3 þ can be illustrated by the energy levels (Fig. These spectra show that Tb3 þ does not noticeably change the peak wavelength but significantly affect the emission intensity of Eu2 þ after optimizing the preparation process. From Fig. 3a and 2b. It is clearly seen that in Eu3 þ and Tb3 þ co-doped materials. The above emissions have convincingly shown that white light emission of SCS:ETE originated from the combination of Eu3 þ . 0.15 mol. the energy transfer occur from 5d level of excited Eu2 þ ions to 5D4 level of Tb3 þ ion.322). 0. i.10.357.241) to warm white (x ¼0. 5. phosphor C4 (nominal composition Sr1. y¼0. This prominent feature is useful in practice because one can adjust the phosphor to obtain different color emissions.0% Eu3 þ .02. a weak green band and a series of red bands.e. . under excitation by a 394 nm source. and a broad band range of 400–540 nm centered at 462 nm from the 5d excited state to the 8S7/2 ground state (4f-5d) of Eu2 þ . y¼0. i.367) (black dots a-f ) with changing of Tb3 þ concentration (b) from 0. the ca.. we can be sure about the efficient energy transfer from Eu2 þ to Tb3 þ in SCS:ETE phosphor. 6. 0. bTb3 þ .07%Tb3 þ ) gives the pure Fig.5Ca0. All spectra consist of a relatively broad blue emission band. Schematic energy levels of the Eu3 þ –Tb3 þ –Eu2 þ system showing possible energy transfer mechanisms (pathways). 5a).03. 5D0-7F2 (612 nm). 0.5Ca0. As also shown in Figs.07. Eu2 þ multicolor emitting.

H.33). J. Thomas. [35] G. Ye. Phys. Park. B. S.S. Cui. Thomas. [9] S.L. He. G.L. J. S.Y. Lett. Hu.M. Lumin. Soc. Acknowledgments This work is partially supported by the National Natural Science Foundation of China (Grant nos. Henning. 133 (2005) 187. 0. 88 (2006) 101903.S.33. The blue emission of Eu2 þ and the green-emission of Tb3 þ decreased and the yellow and red emission of Eu3 þ increased as the concentration of Tb3 þ increased in the Tb3 þ –Eu3 þ co-doped phosphors. Phys. Weng. 84 (2004) 2931. 18 (2006) 5578. J. 133 (2005) 445. Gong. H. Michael. Murra. [42] H. L.M. Liu. X.K. Lett. Choi. Soc. Solid State Commun. Tb3 þ 5D4-7FJ and Eu3 þ 5D0-7FJ transitions. Electrochem. Qiao. Chem. X. J. K. H. D.C. S. K. Chen et al. Choi. [37] P. K.A. [16] J. [17] H.H. K. Solid State Commun.H. Xu.C. J. 28 (2007) 1024.S. Chem. C 114 (2010) 18698.M. J. Phys. Kim. Jiao. Zhang. X. X.S.M. Jeon. Chem. Sun. Am. [41] and can be expressed in the following equation: I ZT ¼ 1À s Iso where Is and Iso are the luminescence intensity of the sensitizer (Eu2 þ ) with and without activator (Tb3 þ ). Blasse.5SiO4) through the preparation condition in the firing process.: Condens. Appl.S. J. An appropriate amount of Eu3 þ ions in nominal composition Sr1. Regina. Suehiro. Phys. Lee. Matsuda. Appl. H.P. Under the excitation of near-UV light (394 nm). which correspond to Eu2 þ 5d-4f transitions. Tian. 130 (2010) 560.S. Phys. Phys. Park. K. Tb . Solid State Commun. Matter 15 (2003) 575. respectively. Park. Choi.O. J. J. 106 (2009) 093513. Kim. J. F. [3] J. Xie. Luo. Phys. Zhang. J. Electrochem. y¼0.W. S. Kim. [32] D.L. Soc. J. Wang. Phys. 128 (2008) 489. Zhang. Warrier. P. Y. Aiga. 4. Shen. Electrochem. J. Kung. / Journal of Luminescence 131 (2011) 2697–2702 Paulose et al. K. X. X. Hiramatsu.C. Soc. Solids 64 (2003) 841. The result of CIE calculations shows that the SCS:1. [23] J. 84 (2004) 1647. 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