Optimization Model for GPS Height Fitting Considering of AIC

Lingli Zhao,Shuai Liu , Junsheng Li, Haicheng Xu School of Engineering, Honghe University, Mengzi, P.R.China ,661100 e-mail:zll_csu@126.com Lingli Zhao, Shuai Liu School of Info-Physics and Geomatics Engineering, Central South University, Changsha , P.R.China,410083

Abstract—Polynomial fitting method is widely used in GPS height conversion into normal heights in survey engineering and whcih has become a hotspot. Different models used in different area of interpolation have different precisions, therefore, it is very important to optimize model before GPS height conversion in order to obtain high precision. Lots of engineering practice has proven that The conicoid model could satisfied forth degree demand, but there is no proof why the conicoid model is better. So, the paper introduce AIC to choose the better model for transforming GPS height, we separate the value of AIC into two parts, AICin and AICout, then add them up to obtain the total value, AICtotal, which could testify which model is the best model comparing with the relative information. The experiments show that the optimization model for GPS height fitting considering of AIC criterion is valid and something useful is concluded. Keywords- AIC; GPS height; optimization model; polynomial fitting

and N of these known points, N=f(X,Y) , using this model we could calculate the N of other GPS points ,namely, the points of interpolation by their plan coordinates X and Y. Then, we could get the H by the formula H=h-N. [2][3][4][5][6] There are many mathematical models in fitting methods, different models used in different area of interpolation have different precisions, therefore, it is very important to optimize model before GPS height conversion in order to obtain high precision. Lots of engineering practice has proven that The conicoid model could satisfied forth degree demand, but there is no proof why the conicoid model is better. Akaike's information criterion [7], developed by Hirotsugu Akaike under the name of "an information criterion" (AIC) in 1971 and proposed in Akaike (1974), is a measure of the goodness of fit of an estimated statistical model. So, the paper introduce AIC to choose the better model for transforming GPS height, we separate the value of AIC into two parts, AICin and AICout, then add them up to obtain the total value, AICtotal, which could testify which model is the best model comparing with the relative information. The experiments show that the optimization model for GPS height fitting considering of AIC criterion is valid and something useful is concluded.

I.

INTRODUCTION

Knowledge of the position of the geoid with respect to the WGS84 ellipsoid is required to transform GPS (Globe Position System)-derived ellipsoidal heights (h) to physically meaningful orthometric heights, in the application of survey engineering, regardless of the [small] curvature of the plumblines, adopting normal heights (H) to stand for orthometric heights while quasi-geoid (N) stand for geoid, we could get the formula H = h-N (1) However, the Quasi-geoid (N) could not be obtained directly, and we could not transfer GPS heights (h) to normal heights (H) accurately. Conventional geometry leveling is the main method to determine H, but this method has poor efficiency. GPS positioning has the quality of high precision in position, rapid speed, and simple manipulation etc. Therefore, how to utilize GPS positioning to deal with the heights problem has become a hotspot in survey engineering. GIS fitting method is adopted in GPS heights conversion in a small certain area. A solution is sought the points where colocated by GPS (getting h) and geometry leveling (getting H) in certain area, and we could get the values of Quasi-geoid of these points (N=h-H) [1]. We call these points GPS/leveling points, namely the known points. In this method, we consider the Quasi-geoid in a certain area of interpolation to be a polynomial surface or other mathematical model, then we can construct the mathematical model by the plan coordinates X, Y

II.

POLYNOMIAL FITTING MODELS

Supposed that one point A(x, y) in an area of interpolation, its Quasi-geoid value is N, they relationship could be expressed:

N = f ( x, y ) + ε f ( x, y ) is fitting function, ε is residual error.
f (x, y) = a0 + a1x + a2 y + a3xy+ a4x2 + a5 y2 + a6x2 y + a7 y2x + a8x3 + a9 y3 +
If there are n points, we could get the below matrix

(2)

(3)

N = AX + ε

4