N 178

EUROPEAN STANDARD prEN 1999-1-4 : 2004
NORME EUROPÉENNE
EUROPÄISCHE NORM May 2004


UDC

Descriptors:

English version

Eurocode 9 : Design of aluminium structures

Part 1-4 : Supplementary rules for cold-formed sheeting


Eurocode 9: Calcul des structures en aluminium –
Partie 1-4: Règles supplémentaires pour les plaques
formés à froid
Eurocode 9: Bemessung und Konstruktion von
Aluminiumtragwerken –
Teil 1-4: Ergänzende Regeln für kaltgeformte Bleche

















Stage 34




CEN

European Committee for Standardisation
Comité Européen de Normalisation
Europäisches Komitee für Normung

Central Secretariat: rue de Stassart 36, B-1050 Brussels


© 2004 Copyright reserved to all CEN members Ref. No. EN 1999-1-4 : 2004. E
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Contents Page

National Annex for EN 1999-1-4 ......................................................................................................................... 4
1 Introduction................................................................................................................................................... 5
1.1 Scope ........................................................................................................................................................ 5
1.2 Normative references ............................................................................................................................... 5
1.3 Definitions................................................................................................................................................ 6
1.4 Symbols.................................................................................................................................................... 6
1.5 Terminology and conventions for dimensions ........................................................................................ 7
1.5.1 Form of sections ............................................................................................................................... 7
1.5.2 Form of stiffeners ............................................................................................................................. 7
1.5.3 Cross-section dimensions ................................................................................................................. 7
1.5.4 Convention for member axis ............................................................................................................ 8
2 Basis of design ............................................................................................................................................... 9
3 Materials ...................................................................................................................................................... 10
3.1 General ................................................................................................................................................... 10
3.2 Structural aluminium alloys................................................................................................................... 10
3.2.1 Material properties.......................................................................................................................... 10
3.2.2 Thickness and geometrical tolerances............................................................................................ 11
3.3 Connecting devices ................................................................................................................................ 12
3.3.1 Mechanical fasteners ...................................................................................................................... 12
4 Durability..................................................................................................................................................... 12
5 Structural analysis...................................................................................................................................... 13
5.1 Influence of rounded corners ................................................................................................................. 13
5.2 Geometrical proportions ........................................................................................................................ 14
5.3 Structural modelling for analysis........................................................................................................... 14
5.4 Flange curling......................................................................................................................................... 15
5.5 Local and distortional buckling ............................................................................................................. 16
5.5.1 General............................................................................................................................................ 16
5.5.2 Plane cross-section parts without stiffeners ................................................................................... 16
5.5.3 Plane cross-section parts with intermediate stiffeners ................................................................... 17
5.5.4 Trapezoidal sheeting profiles with intermediate stiffeners............................................................ 21
6 Ultimate limit states.................................................................................................................................... 27
6.1 Resistance of cross-sections................................................................................................................... 27
6.1.1 General............................................................................................................................................ 27
6.1.2 Axial tension................................................................................................................................... 27
6.1.3 Axial compression.......................................................................................................................... 27
6.1.4 Bending moment............................................................................................................................. 28
6.1.5 Shear force...................................................................................................................................... 30
6.1.6 Torsion............................................................................................................................................ 31
6.1.7 Local transverse forces ................................................................................................................... 31
6.1.8 Combined tension and bending...................................................................................................... 34
6.1.9 Combined compression and bending............................................................................................. 35
6.1.10 Combined shear force, axial force and bending moment........................................................... 35
6.1.11 Combined bending moment and local load or support reaction................................................ 36
6.2 Buckling resistance ................................................................................................................................ 36
6.2.1 General............................................................................................................................................ 36
6.2.2 Axial compression.......................................................................................................................... 36
6.2.3 Bending and axial compression...................................................................................................... 37
6.3 Stressed skin design ............................................................................................................................... 38
6.3.1 General............................................................................................................................................ 38
6.3.2 Diaphragm action ........................................................................................................................... 38
6.3.3 Necessary conditions ...................................................................................................................... 39
6.3.4 Profiled aluminium sheet diaphragms............................................................................................ 39
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6.4 Perforated sheeting.................................................................................................................................40
7 Serviceability limit states............................................................................................................................42
7.1 General....................................................................................................................................................42
7.2 Plastic deformation.................................................................................................................................42
7.3 Deflections..............................................................................................................................................42
8 Connection with mechanical fasteners .....................................................................................................43
8.1 Genaral....................................................................................................................................................43
8.2 Blind rivets .............................................................................................................................................44
8.2.1 General ............................................................................................................................................44
8.2.2 Design resistances of riveted connection loaded in shear..............................................................44
8.2.3 Design resistances for riveted connection loaded in tension .........................................................44
8.3 Self-tapping / self-drilling screws ..........................................................................................................45
8.3.1 General ............................................................................................................................................45
8.3.2 Design resistance of screwed connections loaded in shear............................................................45
8.3.3 Design resistance of screwed connections loaded in tension.........................................................46
9 Design assisted by testing ...........................................................................................................................48
Annex A [normative] – Testing procedures .....................................................................................................49
A.1 General....................................................................................................................................................49
A.2 Tests on profiled sheets ..........................................................................................................................49
A.2.1 General ............................................................................................................................................49
A.2.2 Single span test ...............................................................................................................................50
A.2.3 Double span test..............................................................................................................................50
A.2.4 Internal support test.........................................................................................................................50
A.2.5 End support test...............................................................................................................................52
A.3 Evaluation of test results ........................................................................................................................53
A.3.1 General ............................................................................................................................................53
A.3.2 Adjustment of test results ...............................................................................................................53
A.3.3 Characteristic values .......................................................................................................................54
A.3.4 Design values..................................................................................................................................55
A.3.5 Serviceability ..................................................................................................................................55
Annex B [informative] – Durability of fasteners..............................................................................................56
Annex C [informative] – Bibliography .............................................................................................................58

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National Annex for EN 1999-1-4
This standard gives alternative procedures, values and recommendations for classes with notes indicating where
national choices may have to be made. Therefore the National Standard implementing EN 1999-1-4 should
have a National Annex containing all Nationally Determined Parameters to be used for the design of aluminium
structures to be constructed in the relevant country.

National choice is allowed in EN 1999-1-4 through clauses:
2.2(3)
2.2(4)
3.1(3)
7.3(3)
8.1(5)
A.1(1)
A.3.4(3)


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5
1 Introduction

1.1 Scope

(1) EN 1999-1-4 gives design requirements for cold-formed trapezoidal aluminium sheeting. It applies to
cold-formed aluminium products made from thin gauge hot or cold rolled sheet or strip that have been cold-
formed by such processes as cold-rolled forming or press-breaking. The execution of aluminium structures
made of cold-formed sheeting is covered in EN 1090-3.

NOTE The rules in this part complement the rules in other parts of EN 1999-1.

(2) Methods are also given for stressed-skin design using aluminium sheeting as a structural diaphragm.

(3) This part does not apply to cold-formed aluminium profiles like C-, Z- etc profiles nor cold-formed and
welded circular or rectangular hollow sections.

(4) EN 1999-1-4 gives methods for design by calculation and for design assisted by testing. The methods for
the design of calculation apply only within stated ranges of material properties and geometrical properties for
which sufficient experience and test evidence is available. These limitations do not apply to design by testing.

(5) EN 1999-1-4 does not cover load arrangement for testing for loads during execution and maintenance.

1.2 Normative references

(1) This European Standard incorporates, by dated or undated reference, provisions from other publications.
These normative references are cited at the appropriate places in the text and the publications are listed
hereafter. For dated references, subsequent amendments to or revisions of any of these publications apply to this
European Standard only when incorporated in it by amendment or revision. For undated references the latest
edition of the publication referred to applies.
EN 485-2:1994 Aluminium and aluminium alloys - Sheet, strip and plate - Part 2: Mechanical
properties
EN 508-2:2000 Roofing products from metal sheet - Specification for self-supporting products of steel,
aluminium or stainless steel sheet - Part 2: Aluminium
EN 1396:1996 Aluminium and aluminium alloys - Coil coated sheet and strip for general applications
- Specifications
prEN 1090-3 Technical requirements for the execution of aluminium structures
EN 1990:2002: Eurocode 0 - Basis of structural design
EN 1995-1-1:1993 Eurocode 5: Design of timber structures - Part 1-1 General rules and rules for buildings
EN 1999-1-1 Eurocode 9: Design of aluminium structures - Part 1-1 General structural rules
EN 10002-1:2001 Metallic materials - Tensile testing - Part 1: Method of test at ambient temperature
EN 10088:1995 Stainless steels - Part 1: List of stainless steels
EN ISO 1479:1994 Hexagon head tapping screws (ISO 1479:1983)
EN ISO 1481:1994 Slotted pan head tapping screws (ISO 1481:1983)
EN ISO 15480:1999 Hexagon washer head drilling screws with tapping screw thread (ISO 15480:1999)
EN ISO 15481: 1999 Cross recessed pan head drilling screws with tapping screw thread (ISO 15481:1999)
EN ISO 12944-2:1998 Paints and varnishes - Corrosion protection of steel structures by protective paint
systems - Part 2: Classification of environments (ISO 12944-2:1998)
EN ISO 15973:2000 Closed end blind rivets with break pull mandrel and protruding head - AIA/St (ISO
15973:2000
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EN ISO 15974:2000 Closed end blind rivets with break pull mandrel and countersunk head - AIA/St (ISO
15974:2000)
EN ISO 15977:2002 Open end blind rivets with break pull mandrel and protruding head - AIA/St (ISO
15977:2002)
EN ISO 15978:2002 Open end blind rivets with break pull mandrel and countersunk head - AIA/St (ISO
15978:2002)
EN ISO 15981:2002 Open end blind rivets with break pull mandrel and protruding head - AIA/AIA (ISO
15981:2002)
EN ISO 15982:2002 Open end blind rivets with break pull mandrel and countersunk head - AIA/AIA (ISO
15982:2002)
ISO 7049:1994 Cross recessed pan head tapping screws (ISO 7049:1983)

1.3 Definitions

Supplementary to EN 1999-1-1, for the purposes of EN 1999-1-4, the following definitions apply:
1. basic material: The flat sheet aluminium material out of which profiled sheets are made by cold forming.
2. basic proof strength: The 0,2 % proof strength f
o
of the basic material.
3. diaphragm action: Structural behaviour involving in-plane shear in the sheeting.
4. partial restraint: Restriction of the lateral or rotational movement, or the torsional or warping deformation,
of a member or plane cross-section part, that increases its buckling resistance in a similar way to a spring
support, but to a lesser extent than a rigid support.
5. relative slenderness: A normalised slenderness ratio.
6. restraint: Restriction of the lateral or rotational movement, or the torsional or warping deformation, of a
member or plane cross-section part, that increases its buckling resistance to the same extent as a rigid support.
7. stressed-skin design: A design method that allows for the contribution made by diaphragm action in the
sheeting to the stiffness and strength of a structure.
8. support: A location at which a member is able to transfer forces or moments to a foundation, or to another
member or other structural component.

1.4 Symbols

(1) In addition to those given in EN 1999-1-1, the following main symbols are used:
Section 1 to 6
C Rotational spring stiffness;
k Linear spring stiffness;
θ Rotation;
b
p
Notional flat width of plane cross-section part;
h
w
Web height, measured between system lines of flanges;
s
w
Slant height of web, measured between midpoints of corners;
χ
d
Reduction factor for distortional buckling (flexural buckling of stiffeners).
Section 8 Connection with mechanical fasteners
d
w
diameter of the washer or the head of the fastener;
f
u,min
minor ultimate tensile strength of both connected parts;
f
u,sup
ultimate tensile strength of the supporting member into which a screw is fixed;
f
y
basic yield strength of support;
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t
min
thickness of the thinner connected part or sheet;
t
sup
thickness of the supporting member in which the screw is fixed;

(2) Further symbols are defined where they first occur.
1.5 Terminology and conventions for dimensions

1.5.1 Form of sections

(1) Cold-formed sheets have within the permitted tolerances a constant thickness nominal over their entire
length and have a uniform cross-section along their length.

(2) The cross-sections of cold formed profiled sheets essentially comprise a number of plane cross-section
parts joined by curved parts.

(3) Typical forms of cross-sections for cold formed profiled sheets are shown in Figure 1.1.

(4) Cross-sections of cold formed sheets can either be unstiffened or incorporate longitudinal stiffeners in
their webs or flanges, or in both.

1.5.2 Form of stiffeners

(1) Typical forms of stiffeners for cold formed sheets are shown in Figure 1.2;

Figure 1.1: Examples of cold-formed sheeting



Figure 1.2: Typical intermediate longitudinal stiffeners

1.5.3 Cross-section dimensions

(1) Overall dimensions of cold-formed sheeting, including overall width b, overall height h, internal bend
radius r and other external dimensions denoted by symbols without subscripts, such as a, c or d, are measured to
the face of the material, unless stated otherwise.

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(2) Unless stated otherwise, the other cross-sectional dimensions of cold-formed sheeting, denoted by
symbols with subscripts, such as b
p
, h
w
or s
w
, are measured either to the midline of the material or the midpoint
of the corner.

(3) In the case of sloping webs of cold-formed profiled sheets, the slant height s is measured parallel to the
slope.

(4) The developed height of a web is measured along its midline, including any web stiffeners.

(5) The developed width of a flange is measured along its midline, including any intermediate stiffeners.

(6) The thickness t is an aluminium design thickness if not otherwise stated. See 3.2.2.

1.5.4 Convention for member axis

(1) For profiled sheets the following axis convention is used in EN 1999-1-4:
- y-y axis parallel to the plane of sheeting;
- z-z axis perpendicular to the plane of sheeting.
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9
2 Basis of design

(1) The design of cold-formed sheeting shall be in accordance with the general rules given in EN 1990 and
EN 1999-1-1.

(2) Appropriate partial factors shall be adopted for ultimate limit states and serviceability limit states.

(3) For verification by calculation at ultimate limit states the partial factors
M
γ shall be taken as follows:
resistance of cross-sections and members to instability assessed by member checks:
M1
γ
resistance of cross-sections in tension to fracture:
M2
γ
resistance of connections:
M3
γ

NOTE Numerical values for
Mi
γ may be defined in the National Annex. The following numerical
values are recommended for buildings:
γ
M1
= 1,10
γ
M2
= 1,25
γ
M3
= 1,25

(4) For verifications at serviceability limit states the partial factor γ
M,ser
shall be used.

NOTE Numerical values for
ser M,
γ may be defined in the National Annex. The following numerical
value is recommended for buildings:
γ
M,ser
= 1,0.

(5) For the design of structures made of cold-formed sheeting a distinction should be made between
“Structural Classes” associated with failure consequences according to EN 1990 – Annex B defined as follows:

Structural Class I: Construction where cold-formed sheeting is designed to contribute to the
overall strength and stability of the structure;

Structural Class II: Construction where cold-formed sheeting is designed to contribute to the
strength and stability of individual structural components;

Structural Class III: Construction where cold-formed sheeting is used as a component that only
transfers loads to the structure.

NOTE 1 During different construction stages different Structural Classes may be considered.

NOTE 2 Requirements for execution of sheeting in Structural Class I, II and III, see EN 1090-3.
(Editorial note: This is presently not the case)


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10
3 Materials

3.1 General

(1) All aluminium alloys for cold-formed profiled sheets shall be suitable for cold-forming.
(2) The nominal values of material properties in this section should be adopted as characteristic values in
design calculations.
(3) The methods for design by calculation given in EN 1999-1-4 may be used for structural alloys listed in
Table 3.1.

NOTE For other aluminium materials and products see National Annex.

3.2 Structural aluminium alloys

3.2.1 Material properties

(1) The characteristic values of 0,2 proof strength
o
f and tensile strength
u
f shall be obtained
a) either by adopting the values
p0,2 o
R f = and
m u
R f = direct from product standards, or
b) by using the values given in Table 3.1, or
c) by appropriate tests.

(2) Where the characteristic values are determined from tests, such tests shall be carried out in accordance
with EN 10002-1.

(3) The design methods given in EN 1999-1-4 may also be applied to other structural aluminium alloys with
similar strength and toughness properties, provided that all of the following conditions are satisfied:

a) the alloy satisfies the requirements for chemical analysis, mechanical tests and other control
procedures to the extent and in the manner prescribed in the standards that are listed in Table 3.1;
b) if partially plastic moment resistance is utilised, the ratio of the characteristic ultimate tensile
strength f
u
to the characteristic 0,2 proof strength f
o
should be not less than 1,2.
c) the alloy is supplied either:
- to another recognised standard for structural aluminium sheet;
- with mechanical properties and chemical composition at least equivalent to one of the alloy-grades
that are listed in Table 3.1.

(4) It may be assumed that the properties in compression are the same as those in tension.

(5) For design by calculation the 0,2 proof strength f
o
should be at least f
o
= 165 N/mm
2
.

(6) The design values for material coefficients shall be taken as given in EN 1999-1-1.

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11
Table 3.1: Characteristic values of 0,2% proof strength f
o
, ultimate tensile strength, f
u
, elongation
A
50
, for tempers with f
o
> 165 N/mm
2
and thickness between 0,5 and 6 mm
Designation
numerical
EN AW-
Designation
chemical
EN AW-
Dura-
bility
5)

Temper
1), 2), 3)

Thick-
ness up
to
f
u
R
m

f
o
R
p0,2

1)

A
50
%
4)

H18 3,0 190 170 2
3003 AlMn1Cu A
H48 3,0 180 165 2
H14 | H24/H34 6 | 3 220 180 | 170 2-3 | 4
H16 | H26/H36 4 | 3 240 200 | 190 1-2 | 3
H18 | H28/H38 3 | 1,5 260 230 | 220 1-2 | 3
H44 3 210 180 4
H46 3 230 200 3
3004 AlMn1Mg1 A
H48 3 260 220 3
H16 4 195 175 2
H18 | H28 3 220 200 | 190 2 | 2-3 3005 AlMn1Mg0,5 A
H48 3 210 180 2
3103 AlMn1 A H18 3 185 165 2
H18 | H28 3 | 1,5 195 180 | 170 1 | 2
3105 AlMn0,5Mg0,5 A
H48 3 195 170 2
5005 AlMg1(B) A H18 3 185 165 2
H14 6 230 180 3-4
H16 | H26/H36 6 250 210 | 180 3 | 4-6
H18 | H28/H38 3 270 240/210 2 | 3-4
H46 3 250 180 4-5
5052 AlMg2,5 A
H48 3 270 210 3-4
H14 6 210 170 2-4
H16 | H26/H36 4 230 200 | 170 2-3 | 4-7
5251 AlMg2 A H18 | H28/H38 3 255 230 | 200 2 | 3
H46 3 210 165 4-5
H48 3 250 215 3
1) The values for temper H1x, H2x, H3x according to EN 485-2:1994-11
2) The values for temper H4x (coil coated sheet and strip) according to EN 1396:1997-2
3) If two (three) tempers are specified in one line, tempers separated by “|” have different technological
values, but separated by “/” have same values. (The tempers show differences only for f
o
and A
50
.)
4) A
50
may be depending on the thickness of material in the listed range, therefore sometimes also a A
50
-
range is given.
5) Durability class, see EN 1999-1-1

3.2.2 Thickness and geometrical tolerances

(1) The provisions for design by calculation given in this EN 1999-1-4 may be used for alloy within the
following ranges of nominal thickness t
nom
of the sheeting exclusive of organic coatings:
t
nom
≥ 0,5 mm

(2) Thinner material may also be used, provided that the load bearing capacity is determined by design
assisted by testing.

(3) The nominal thickness t
nom
should be used as design thickness t if a negative deviation is less than 5 %.
Otherwise

95 / ) 100 (
nom
dev t t − = (3.1)

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12
where dev is the negative deviation in %.

(4) Tolerances for roofing products are given in EN 508-2.

3.3 Connecting devices

3.3.1 Mechanical fasteners

(1) The following types of mechanical fasteners may be used:
- self-tapping screws as thread-forming self-tapping screws or self-drilling self-tapping screws;
- blind rivets.

(2) The characteristic shear resistance
Rk v,
F and the characteristic tension resistance
Rk t,
F of the
mechanical fasteners may be taken from EN Product standard or ETAG or ETA or relevant tests.

(3) For details concerning suitable self-tapping screws and blind rivets, reference should be made to
EN 1090-3.



4 Durability

(1) For basic requirements, see Section 4 of EN 1999-1-1

(2) Special attention should be given to cases in which different materials are intended to act compositely, if
these materials are such that electrochemical phenomena might produce conditions leading to corrosion.

NOTE For corrosion resistance of fasteners for the environmental corrosivity categories following EN
ISO 12944-2 see Annex B.

(3) The environmental conditions prevailing from the time of manufacture, including those during transport
and storage on site, should be taken into account.

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13
5 Structural analysis

5.1 Influence of rounded corners

(1) In cross-sections with rounded corners, the notional flat widths b
p
of the plane cross-section parts shall be
measured from the midpoints of the adjacent corner cross-section parts, as indicated in Figure 5.1.

(2) In cross-sections with rounded corners, the calculation of section properties shall be based upon the
actual geometry of the cross-section.

(3) Unless more appropriate methods are used to determine the section properties the following approximate
procedure may be used. The influence of rounded corners on section properties may be neglected if the internal
radius r ≤ 10t and r ≤ 0,15b
p
and the cross-section may be assumed to consist of plane cross-section parts with
sharp corners.

(4) The influence of rounded corners on section properties may be taken into account by reducing the
properties calculated for an otherwise similar cross-section with sharp corners, using the following approxi-
mations:

( ) δ − ≈ 1
sh g, g
A A (5.1a)
( ) δ 2 1
sh g, g
− ≈ I I (5.1b)
with:

∑ ∑
= =
⋅ =
m
1
, p
n
1
) 90 / ( 43 , 0
i
i
j
j j
b r φ δ (5.1c)
where:


g
A is the area of the gross cross-section;

sh g,
A

is the value of
g
A for a cross-section with sharp corners;

,i
b
p
is the notional flat width of plane cross-section part i for a cross-section with sharp corners;

g
I is the second moment of area of the gross cross-section;

sh g,
I

is the value of
g
I for a cross-section with sharp corners;
φ is the angle between two plane elements;
m is the number of plane cross-section parts;
n is the number of curved cross-section parts;

j
r is the internal radius of curved cross-section part j , without consideration of the curvature of
stiffeners in webs and flanges.

(5) The reductions given by expression (5.1) may also be applied in calculating the effective section
properties
eff
A and
eff y,
I provided that the notional flat widths of the plane cross-section parts are measured to
the points of intersection of their midlines.

(6) Where the internal radius
o
/ 04 , 0 f E t r ≥ , then the resistance of the cross-section should be determined
by tests.

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14
X
P
φ
2
φ
2
r
t
b
p
g
r

(a) midpoint of corner or bend

X is intersection of midlines
P is midpoint of corner
2 /
m
t r r + =
|
.
|

\
|
− = )
2
sin( )
2
tan(
m r
φ φ
r g
h h
w
φ
b
p
= s
w
s
w

(b) notional flat width b
p
for a web
(b
p
= slant height s
w
)
b
p
b
p

(c) notional flat width b
p
of plane parts
adjacent to web stiffener

b
p
b
p


(d) notional flat width b
p
of flat parts
adjacent to flange stiffener
Figure 5.1: Notional widths of plane cross-section parts b
p
allowing for corner radii

5.2 Geometrical proportions

(1) The provisions for design by calculation given in EN 1999-1-4 shall not be applied to cross-sections
outside the range of width-to-thickness ratios t b/ and t s
w
/ given in (2).

(2) The maximum width-to-thickness ratios are:
• for compressed flanges 300 / ≤ t b
• for webs
o w
/ 5 , 0 / f E t s ≤



NOTE These limits t b/ and t s /
w
given in (2) may be assumed to represent the field for which sufficient
experience and verification by testing is available. Cross-sections with larger width-to-thickness ratios may
also be used, provided that their resistance at ultimate limit states and their behaviour at serviceability limit
states are verified by testing and/or by calculations, where the results are confirmed by an appropriate
number of tests.

5.3 Structural modelling for analysis

(1) The parts of a cross-section may be modelled for analysis as indicated in Table 5.1

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15
(2) The mutual influence of multiple stiffeners should be taken into account.

Table 5.1 Modelling of parts of a cross-section
Type of cross-section part Model Type of cross-section part Model













5.4 Flange curling

(1) The effect on the load bearing resistance of curling (i.e. inward curvature towards the neutral plane) of a
very wide flange in a profile subject to flexure, or of an arched profile subject to flexure in which the concave
side is in compression, should be taken into account unless such curling is less than 5 % of the depth of the
profile cross-section. If curling is larger, then the reduction in load bearing resistance, for instance due to
decrease in length of the lever arm for part of the wide flange, and to the possible effect of bending should be
taken into account.
2b
s
z
u

Figure 5.2: Flange curling

(2) Calculation of the curling may be carried out as follows. The formulae apply to both compression and
tensile flanges, both with and without stiffeners, but without closely spaced transverse stiffeners in flanges.
- For a profile, which is straight prior to application of loading, see Figure 5.2:
z t E
b
u
2 2
4
s
2
a

= (5.1e)
- For an arched profile
r t E
b
u
2
4
s a

= (5.1f)
where:
u is bending of the flange towards the neutral axis (curling), see Figure 5.2;
b
s
is half the distance between the webs;
z is distance of flange under consideration from neutral axis;
r is radius of curvature of arched beam;
σ
a
is mean stress in the flange calculated with the gross area. If the stress is calculated for the effective
cross-section, the mean stress is obtained by multiplying the stress for the effective cross-section by
the ratio of the effective flange area to the gross flange area.
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16
5.5 Local and distortional buckling

5.5.1 General

(1) The effects of local and distortional buckling shall be taken into account in determining the resistance and
stiffness of cold-formed sheeting.

(2) Local buckling effects may be considered by using effective cross-sectional properties, calculated on the
basis of the effective thickness, see EN 1999-1-1.

(3) In determining resistance to local buckling, the 0,2 proof strength f
o
should be used.

(4) For effective cross-section properties for serviceability verifications, see 7.1(3)

(5) The distortional buckling of cross-section parts with intermediate stiffeners is considered in 5.5.3.

5.5.2 Plane cross-section parts without stiffeners

(1) The effective thickness t
eff
of compression cross-section parts should be obtained as t
eff
= ρ ⋅ t , where ρ
is a reduction factor allowing for local buckling.

(2) The notional flat width b
p
of a plane cross-section part shall be determined as specified in 5.1. In the case
of plane cross-section parts in a sloping web, the appropriate slant height should be used.

(3) The reduction factor ρ to determine t
eff
shall be based on the largest compressive stress σ
com,Ed
in the
relevant cross-section part (calculated on the basis of the effective cross-section), when the resistance of the
cross-section is reached.

(4) If σ
com,Ed
= f
0

M1
the reduction factor ρ should be obtained from the following:

- if
lim p
λ λ ≤ : 1,0 = ρ (5.2a)
- if
lim p
λ λ > : ( )
p p
/ / 0,22 λ λ α ρ − = (5.2b)

in which the plate slenderness
p
λ is given by:

( )
σ
σ
π
ν
σ
λ
k E
f
t
b
k E
f -
t
b f
2
o
p
2
o
p
cr
o
p
1,052
1 12
≅ ⋅ ≡ = (5.3)

k
σ
is the relevant buckling factor from Table 5.3. The parameters
lim
λ and α may be taken from Table
5.2.
Table 5.2: Parameters λ
lim
and α

lim
λ α
0,565 0,90

If σ
com,Ed
< f
o
/ γ
M1
the reduction factor ρ should be determined as follows:

Use expressions (5.2a) and (5.2b) but replace the plate slenderness
p
λ by the reduced plate slenderness
red p,
λ given by:
prEN 1999-1-4: 05-2004

17

1 M o
Ed com,
p red p,
γ
σ
λ λ
f
= (5.4)
(5) For calculation of effective stiffness at serviceability limit states, see 7.1(3)

(6) In determining the effective thickness of a flange cross-section part subject to stress gradient, the stress
ratio ψ used in Table 5.3 may be based on the properties of the gross cross-section.

(7) In determining the effective thickness of a web cross-section part the stress ratio ψ used in Table 5.3 may
be obtained using the effective area of the compression flange but the gross area of the web.

(8) Optionally the effective section properties may be refined by repeating (6) and (7) iteratively, but using
the effective cross-section already found in place of the gross cross-section. The minimum steps in the iteration
dealing with stress gradient are two.

Table 5.3: Cross-section parts in compression
Cross-section part (+ = compression)
1 2
/ σ σ ψ = Buckling factor
σ
k

t
e
f
f
t
σ
1
σ
2 +
b
p

1 + = ψ 0 , 4 =
σ
k

t
e
f
f
t
σ
1
σ
2
+

0 1 ≥ > + ψ
ψ
σ
+
=
05 , 1
2 , 8
k

t
e
f
f
t
σ
1
σ
2
+

1 0 − ≥ >ψ
2
78 , 9 26 , 6 81 , 7 ψ ψ
σ
+ − = k

t
e
f
f
t
σ
1
σ
2
+

3 1 − ≥ > − ψ
2
) 1 ( 98 , 5 ψ
σ
− = k

5.5.3 Plane cross-section parts with intermediate stiffeners

5.5.3.1 General

(1) The design of compression cross-section parts with intermediate stiffeners should be based on the
assumption that the stiffener behaves as a compression member with continuous partial restraint, with a spring
stiffness that depends on the boundary conditions and the flexural stiffness of the adjacent plane cross-section
parts.
(2) The spring stiffness of a stiffener should be determined by applying a unit load per unit length u as
illustrated in Figure 5.3. The spring stiffness k per unit length may be determined from:
k = u/δ (5.5)
where δ is the deflection of a transverse plate strip due to the unit load u acting at the centroid (
1
b ) of the
effective part of the stiffener.
prEN 1999-1-4: 05-2004

18

C
θ,1
u
b
1
b
2
δ
k
C
θ,2

Figure 5.3: Determination of spring stiffness
(3) In determining the values of the rotational spring stiffness C
θ,1
and C
θ,2
from the geometry of the cross-
section, account should be taken of the possible effects of other stiffeners that exist on the same cross-section
part, or on any other parts of the cross-section that is subject to compression.

(4) For an intermediate stiffener, as a conservative alternative, the values of the rotational spring stiffnesses
C
θ,1
and C
θ,2
may be taken as equal to zero, and the deflection δ may be obtained from:


3
2
2 1
2
2
2
1
) 1 ( 12
) ( 3
Et
b b
b ub ν
δ

+
= (5.6)

(5) The reduction factor χ
d
for the distortional buckling resistance of a stiffener (flexural buckling of an
intermediate stiffener) should be obtained from Table 5.4 for the relative slenderness given in (5.7)


σ
λ
s cr,
o
s
/ f = (5.7)
where: σ
cr,s
is the elastic critical stress for the stiffener from 5.5.3.3 or 5.5.4.2.

Table 5.4 Reduction factor χ
d
for distortional buckling of stiffeners
λ
s
χ
d

λ
s
≤ 0,25
1,00
0,25 <λ
s
< 1,04
s
62 , 0 155 , 1 λ −
1,04 ≤ λ
s

s
/ 53 , 0 λ

5.5.3.2 Condition for use of the design procedure

(1) The following procedure is applicable to one or two equal intermediate stiffeners formed by grooves or
bends provided that all plane parts are calculated according to 5.5.2.

(2) The stiffeners should be equally shaped and not more than two in number. For more stiffeners not more
than two shall be taken into account.

(3) If the criteria in (1) and (2) are met the effectiveness of the stiffener may be determined from the design
procedure given in 5.5.3.3.

prEN 1999-1-4: 05-2004

19
5.5.3.3 Design procedure

(1) The cross-section of an intermediate stiffener should be taken as comprising the stiffener itself plus the
adjacent effective portions of the adjacent plane cross-section parts b
p,1
and b
p,2
shown in Figure 5.4.

b
p,1
b
p,1
/2
t
e
f
f
,
1
b
s
b
p,2
b
p,2
/2
t
e
f
f
,
2
b
1
b
2
(a)
a a
b
p,1
b
p,1
/2
t
e
f
f
,
1
b
s
b
p,2
b
p,2
/2
t
e
f
f
,
2
b
1
b
2
(b)
a
a

(a) and (b) Initial effective cross-section, A
s

Figure 5.4: Intermediate stiffeners

(2) The procedure, which is illustrated in Figure 5.5, should be carried out in steps as follows:

- Step 1: Obtain an initial effective cross-section for the stiffener to calculate the cross-section area
A
s
using effective thickness determined by assuming that the stiffener gives full restraint and that
σ
com,Ed
= f
o.

M1
, see (3) and (4);

- Step 2: Use another effective cross-section of the stiffener to calculate the effective second moment
of inertia in order to determine the reduction factor for distortional buckling, allowing for the effects
of the continuous spring restraint, see (5) and (6);

- Step 3: Optionally iterate to refine the value of the reduction factor for buckling of the stiffener, see
(7) and (8).

prEN 1999-1-4: 05-2004

20
Iteration n
b
p,1
/2
b
p,1
/2
b
p,2
/2 b
p,2
/2
t
e
f
f
,
1
t
e
f
f
,
1
t
e
f
f
,
2
f
o

M1
k
b
p,1 b
p,2
t
b
1
b
2
b
s
t
e
f
f
,
2
t
e
f
f
,
1
σ
cr,s
k
a a
t
e
f
f
,
2
t
e
f
f
,
1
f
o

M1
k
t
e
f
f
,
2
χ
d
f
yb

M1
t
e
f
f
,
1
f
o

M1
k
t
e
f
f
,
2
χ
d
f
o

M1
t
e
f
f
,
1
f
o

M1
t
red,2
= χ
d
t
eff,2
t
e
f
f
,
2
t
red,1
= χ
d
t
eff,1
t
red
= χ
d
t
Iteration 1
12t
12t
t t
A
s,red



a) Gross cross-section and boundary
conditions





b) Step 1: Effective cross-section for k = ∞
based on
M1 o Ed com,
/ γ σ f =






c) Step 2: Elastic critical stress
s cr,
σ for
effective cross-section based on effective
width 12t and spring stiffness k



d) Reduced strength
M1 o d
/ γ χ f for
effective area of stiffener A
s
, with reduction
factor χ
d
based on
s cr,
σ



e) Step 3: Optionally repeat step 1 by
calculating the effective thickness with a
reduced compressive stress
M1 o d i Ed, com,
/ γ χ σ f = with χ
d
from
previous iteration, continuing until
1 n d, n d, −
≈ χ χ but
1 n d, n d, −
≤ χ χ .


f) Adopt an effective cross-section A
s,red
with
reduced thickness
red
t corresponding to χ
d,n


Figure 5.5: Compression resistance of a flange with an intermediate stiffener

(3) Initial values of the effective thickness t
eff,1
and t
eff,2
shown in Figure 5.4 should be determined from
5.5.2 by assuming that the plane cross-section parts b
p,1
and b
p,2
are doubly supported, see Table 5.1.

(4) The effective cross-sectional area of an intermediate stiffener A
s
should be obtained from:

A
s
= t
eff,1
b
p,1
/ 2 + t b
s
+ t
eff,2
b
p,2
/ 2 (5.8)

prEN 1999-1-4: 05-2004

21
in which the stiffener width b
s
is as shown in Figure 5.4.

(5) The critical buckling stress σ
cr,s
for an intermediate stiffener should be obtained from:

A
kEI
s
s
s cr,
2
= σ (5.9)
where:
k is the spring stiffness per unit length, see 5.5.3.1(2);
I
s
is the effective second moment of area of the stiffener, using the thickness t and effective width 12t
of adjacent plane cross-section parts about the centroidal axis a - a of its effective cross-section, see
Figure 5.6(a).

(6) The reduction factor χ
d
for the distortional buckling resistance of an intermediate stiffener should be
obtained from the value of σ
cr,s
using the method given in 5.5.3.1(5).

(7) If χ
d
< 1 it may optionally be refined iteratively, starting the iteration with modified values of ρ obtained
using 5.5.2(4) with σ
com,Ed
equal to χ
d
f
o

M1
, so that:


λ
p,red
= λ
p d
χ (5.10)

(8) If iteration is carried out, it should be continued until the current value of χ
d
is approximately equal to,
but not more than, the previous value.

(9) The reduced effective area of the stiffener A
s,red
allowing for distortional buckling should be taken as:

A
s,red
= χ
d
A
s
Ed com,
M1 o
/
σ
γ f
but
s red s,
A A ≤ (5.11)

where
Ed com,
σ is compression stress at the centreline of the stiffener calculated on the basis of the effective
cross-section.

(10) In determining effective section properties, the reduced effective area A
s,red
should be represented by
using a reduced thickness t
red
= χ
d
t
eff
for all the cross-section parts included in A
s


5.5.4 Trapezoidal sheeting profiles with intermediate stiffeners

5.5.4.1 General

(1) This sub-clause should be used for cold-formed trapezoidal profiled sheets, in association with 5.5.3.3 for
flanges with intermediate flange stiffeners and for webs with intermediate stiffeners.

(2) Interaction between distortional buckling of intermediate flange stiffeners and intermediate web stiffeners
should also be taken into account using the method given in 5.5.4.4.

5.5.4.2 Flanges with intermediate stiffeners

(1) If it is subject to uniform compression, the effective cross-section of a flange with intermediate stiffeners
should be assumed to consist of the reduced effective areas A
s,red
of up to two intermediate stiffeners and two
strips of width 0,5b
p
and thickness t
eff
adjacent to the edges supported by webs, see Figure 5.5f).

(2) For one central flange stiffener, the elastic critical buckling stress σ
cr,s
should be obtained from:
prEN 1999-1-4: 05-2004

22
σ
cr,s
=
( )
b
+
b b
t I
A
E
s p p
2
3
s
s
w
3 2 4
2 , 4 κ
(5.12)
where:
b
p
is the notional flat width of plane cross-section part shown in Figure 5.6;
b
s
is the stiffener width, measured around the perimeter of the stiffener, see Figure 5.6(c);
κ
w
is a coefficient that allows for partial rotational restraint of the stiffened flange by the webs, see (5)
and (6);
and A
s
and I
s
are as defined in 5.5.3.3 and Figure 5.6.
(a) Cross-section for I
s

12t
t t
12t
a a
12t 12t
t t
a a


(b) Cross-section for A
s

0,5b
p,1
0,5b
p,2
t
e
f
f
,
1
t
e
f
f
,
2
0,5b
p,1
0,5b
p,1
t
e
f
f
,
1
t
e
f
f
,
1

b
s

(c) Stiffener width

b
p,1
b
p,2
b
r
b
p,1
b
r

b
p,1
b
p,1
b
r


Figure 5.6: Compression flange with one or two stiffeners

(3) For two symmetrically placed flange stiffeners, the elastic critical buckling stress σ
cr,s
should be obtained
from:
σ
cr,s
=
( )
b b
b
t I
A
E
1 e
2
1
3
s
s
w
4 3 8
2 , 4

κ
(5.13)
with:
b
e
= 2b
p,1
+ b
p,2
+ 2b
s

b
1
= b
p,1
+ 0,5b
r

where:
b
p,1
is the notional flat width of an outer plane cross-section part, as shown in Figure 5.6;
b
p,2
is the notional flat width of the central plane cross-section part, as shown in Figure 5.6;
b
s
is the stiffener width, measured around the perimeter of the stiffener, see Figure 5.6(c).

(4) If there are three stiffeners, the one in the middle should be assumed to be ineffective.

(5) The value of κ
w
may be calculated from the compression flange buckling wavelength l
b
as follows:

- if l
b
/s
w
≥ 2: κ
w
= κ
wo
(5.14a)
- if l
b
/s
w
< 2: κ
w
= κ
wo
− (κ
wo
− 1)[2l
b
/s
w
− (l
b
/s
w
)
2
] (5.14b)

where:
s
w
is the slant height of the web, see Figure 5.7(a).
(6) Alternatively, the rotational restraint coefficient κ
w
may conservatively be taken as equal to 1,0 corre-
sponding to a pin-jointed condition.
prEN 1999-1-4: 05-2004

23

(7) The values of l
b
and κ
wo
may be determined from the following:

- for a compression flange with one intermediate stiffener:

l
b
= ( )
4 3
s p p
2
s
3 2 07 , 3
t
/ b b b I
+ (5.15)

κ
wo
=
d w
d w
5 , 0
2
b +
s
b +
s
(5.16)
with:

b
d
= 2b
p
+ b
s


- for a compression flange with two or three intermediate stiffeners:

l
b
= ( )
4 3
1 1
2
s
4 3 65 , 3
t
/ b b
b I
e
− (5.17)

κ
wo
=
( )( )
( ) ( )
1 e w 1 e 1
1 e w e
4 3 6 4
4 3 2
b b s + b b b
b b s b
− −
− +
(5.18)

(8) The reduced effective area of the stiffener A
s,red
allowing for distortional buckling (flexural buckling of
an intermediate stiffener) should be taken as:
A
s,red
= χ
d
A
s
Ed com,
M1 o
/
σ
γ f
but
s red s,
A A ≤ (5.19)
(9) If the webs are unstiffened, the reduction factor χ
d
should be obtained directly from σ
cr,s
using the
method given in 5.5.3.1(5).

(10) If the webs are also stiffened, the reduction factor χ
d
should be obtained using the method given in
5.5.3.1(5), but with the modified elastic critical stress σ
cr,mod
given in 5.5.4.4.

(11) In determining effective section properties, the reduced effective area A
s,red
should be represented by
using a reduced thickness t
red
= χ
d
t
eff
for all the cross-section parts included in A
s.


5.5.4.3 Webs with up to two intermediate stiffeners under stress gradient

(1) The effective cross-section of the compressed zone of a web should be assumed to consist of the reduced
effective areas, A
s,red
of up to two intermediate stiffeners, a strip adjacent to the compression flange and a strip
adjacent to the centroidal axis of the cross-section, see Figure 5.7. Webs under uniform compression stress
should be treated analogously to stiffened flanges.

(2) The effective cross-section of a web as shown in Figure 5.7 should be taken to include:
a) a strip of width s
a
/2 and effective thickness t
eff,a
adjacent to the compression flange;
b) the reduced effective area A
s,red
of each web stiffener up to a maximum of two;
c) a strip of width 2s
n
/3 adjacent to the effective centroidal axis;
d) the part of the web in tension.

prEN 1999-1-4: 05-2004

24
s s
a h
a
h
s
a
s s
b
h
b
h
s
b
e
c
e
t
t
e
ff,a
t
e
ff,b
t
e
ff,n
s
a
s
b
s
c
t
s s
a h
a
h
s
a
e
c
e
t
t
e
ff,a
t
e
ff,n
s
a
s
n
t
e
t
e
c t
e
ff,n
t
s
w
φ φ
s
c
s
n
s
n
(a) (c) (b)
1
2
t
s s
a
1
2
t
a
a
t
t
I
s
(e)
φ
s s
b
s
b
2
s
n
3
t
e
ff,b
t
e
ff,n
A
sb
(d3)
s s
a
s
a
2
s
b
2
t
e
ff,a
t
e
ff,b
A
sa
(d2)
s s
a
s
a
2
s
n
3
t
e
ff,a
t
e
ff,n
A
sa
(d1)
h
w
Figure 5.7: Effective cross-sections of webs of cold-formed profiled sheets

The initial effective areas should be obtained from the following:
- for a single stiffener:
)
3 2
(
n
n eff, sa
a
a eff, sa
s
t s t
s
t A + + = , Figure 5.7(d1) (5.20a)
- for the stiffener closer to the compression flange in webs with two stiffeners:
)
2 2
(
b
b eff, sa
a
a eff, sa
s
t s t
s
t A + + = , Figure 5.7(d2) (5.20b)
- for a second stiffener
)
3 2
(
n
n eff, sb b eff, sb
s
t s t
s
t A
b
+ + = , Figure 5.7(d3) (5.21)
in which the dimensions s
a
, s
sa
, s
b
, s
sb
, and s
n
are as shown in Figure 5.7 and t
eff,a
, t
eff,b
and t
eff,n
are given in
(5).
(4) Initially the location of the effective centroidal axis should be based on the effective cross-section of the
flanges but with the gross cross-sections of the webs.
(5) If the web under compression is not fully effective, the effective thickness t
teff,a
, t
teff,b
and t
teff,n
should
be determined as follows:
t
eff
= ρ t (5.22)
where ρ is calculated using expression (5.2) with slenderness λ
p
and stress relation factor ψ according to Table
5.5, where e
c
and e
t
are the distances from the effective centroidal axis to the system line of the compression and
tension flange, see Figure 5.7, and the dimensions h
a
, h
b
, h
sa
, h
sb
, s
n
and φ are as shown in Figure 5.7.
prEN 1999-1-4: 05-2004

25
(6) To calculate the initial effective area A
sa
and A
sb
of web stiffeners, s
a
and s
b
are divided into two equal
parts s
a
/2 and s
b
/2. The web part s
n
over the centroidal axis is divided into one part s
n
/3 adjacent to the stiffener,
Figure 5.7 (d1) and (d3), and one part 2s
n
/3 adjacent to the centroidal axis.

Table 5.5: Slenderness
p
λ and stress relation factor ψ for a web with stiffeners
Web part location Web part Slenderness
p
λ Stress relation factor ψ
Adjacent to compression
flange
s
a

σ
λ
k E
f
t
s
o a
p
=
c
a c
e
h e −
= ψ
Between stiffeners
s
b

( )
c
sa a c o b
p
e
h h e
k E
f
t
s − −
⋅ =
σ
λ
sa a c
b c
h h e
h e
− −

= ψ
Adjacent to centroidal
axes
s
n

( )
c
sb b c o c
p
e
h h e
k E
f
t
s − −
⋅ =
σ
λ
φ
ψ
sin
n
c

− =
s
e


(7) For a single stiffener, or for the stiffener closer to the compression flange in webs with two stiffeners, the
elastic buckling stress s
cr,sa
should be determined using:

) (
05 , 1
2 1 2 sa
1
3
sa f
sa cr,
s s s A
s t I E

=
κ
σ (5.23)
in which s
1
and s
2
are given by the following:
- for a single stiffener:
) ( 9 , 0
c sa a 1
s s s s + + = ,
sa a 1 2
5 , 0 s s s s − − = (5.24)
- for the stiffener closer to the compression flange, in webs with two stiffeners where the other stiffener is
in tension or close to the centroidal axis:
) ( 5 , 0
c sb b sa a 1
s s s s s s + + + + = ,
sa a 1 2
5 , 0 s s s s − − = (5.25)
κ
f
is a coefficient that allows for partial rotation restraint of the stiffened web by the flanges;
I
sa
is the second moment of area of a stiffener cross-section comprising the fold, width s
sa
, and two
adjacent strips, each of width 12t, about its own centroidal axis parallel to the plane web cross-section
parts, see Figure 5.7(e). In calculating I
sa
the possible difference in slope between the plane cross-
section parts on either side of the stiffener may be neglected.
(8) In the absence of a more detailed investigation, the rotational restraint coefficient κ
f
may conservatively
be taken as equal to 1,0 corresponding to a pin-jointed condition.
(9) For a single stiffener in compression, or for the stiffener closer to the compression flange in a web with
two stiffeners, the reduced effective area A
sa,red
should be determined from:

sa red sa,
c
sa a
sa d
red sa,
but
5 , 0
1
A A
e
h h
A
A ≤
+

=
χ
(5.26)
(10) If the flanges are also stiffened, the reduction factor χ
d
should be obtained using the method given in
5.5.3.1(5), but with the modified elastic critical stress σ
cr,mod
given in 5.5.4.4.
(11) For a single stiffener in tension, the reduced effective area A
sa,red
should be taken as equal to A
sa
.
(12) For webs with two stiffeners, the reduced effective area A
sb,red
for the second stiffener, close to the
neutral axis, should be taken as equal to A
sb

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26
(13) In determining effective section properties, the reduced effective area A
sa,red
should be represented by
using a reduced thickness t
red
= χ
d
t
eff
for all the cross-section parts included in A
sa
.
(14) If χ
d
< 1 it may optionally be refined iteratively, see 5.5.3(7).
(15) For the effective section properties at serviceability limit states, see 7.1.

5.5.4.4 Sheeting with flange stiffeners and web stiffeners

(1) In the case of sheeting with intermediate stiffeners in the flanges and in the webs, see Figure 5.8,
interaction between the distortional buckling of the flange stiffeners and the web stiffeners should be allowed
for by using a modified elastic critical stress
mod cr,
σ for both types of stiffeners, obtained from:

4
4
sa cr,
s cr,
s
s cr,
mod cr,
1
(
(
¸
(

¸

+
=
σ
σ
β
σ
σ (5.27)
where:

s cr,
σ is the elastic critical stress for an intermediate flange stiffener, see 5.5.4.2(2) for a flange with a
single stiffener or 5.5.4.2(3) for a flange with two stiffeners;

sa cr,
σ is the elastic critical stress for a single web stiffener, or the stiffener closer to the compression
flange in webs with two stiffeners, see 5.5.4.3(7).

c ha s s
/ ) 5 , 0 ( 1 e h h + − = β for a profile in bending
1
s
= β for a profile in axial compression

h
a
h
s
a
e
c
t
e
ff,a
t
e
f
f
,
1
t
e
ff,n
t
h
w
A
sa
A
s
y
eff
y
eff

Figure 5.8: Dimensions of cold-formed profiled sheeting with flange stiffeners and web
stiffeners

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27
6 Ultimate limit states

6.1 Resistance of cross-sections

6.1.1 General

(1) The rules in this section apply to the design by calculation.

(2) Design assisted by testing may be used instead of design by calculation for any resistance, see Section 9
and Annex A.
NOTE: Design assisted by testing is particularly likely to be beneficial for cross sections with relatively
high b
p
/t ratios, e.g. in relation to inelastic behaviour, web crippling or shear lag.

(3) For design by calculation, the effects of local buckling and distortional buckling shall be taken into account
by using effective section properties determined as specified in 5.5.

(4) The buckling resistance of sheeting members in compression shall be verified as specified in 6.2.

6.1.2 Axial tension

(1) The design resistance of a cross-section for uniform tension N
t,Rd
should be determined from:

M1
g o
Rd t,
γ
A f
N = but N
t,Rd
≤ F
n,Rd
(6.1)
where:
A
g
is the gross area of the cross-section;
F
n,Rd
is the net-section resistance for the appropriate type of mechanical fastener.

6.1.3 Axial compression

(1) The design resistance of a cross-section for compression N
c,Rd
should be determined from:
- if the effective area
eff
A is less than the gross area
g
A (section with reduction due to local and/or
distortional buckling)

M1 o eff Rd c,
/ γ f A N = (6.2)
- if the effective area
eff
A is equal to the gross area
g
A (section with no reduction due to local or
distortional buckling)

M1 o g Rd c,
/ γ f A N = (6.3)
where

eff
A is the effective area of the cross-section, obtained from 5.5.2 by assuming a uniform compressive
stress equal to
M1 o
/ γ f ;
(2) The internal normal force in a member should be taken as acting at the centroid of its gross cross-section.
This is a conservative assumption, but can be used without further analysis. Further analysis may give a more
realistic situation of the internal forces for instance in case of uniformly building-up of normal force in the
compression cross-section part.
(2) The design compression resistance of a cross-section for uniform compression should be assumed to act at
the centroid of its effective cross-section. If this does not coincide with the centroid of its gross cross-section,
the shift e
N
of the centroidal axes (see Figure 6.1) shall be taken into account, using the method given in 6.1.9.
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28
When the shift of the neutral axis gives a favourable result in the stress/unity check, then that shift should be
neglected only if the shift has been calculated at yield strength and not with the actual compressive stresses.

t
e
f
f
,
1
t
e
f
f
,
3
t
ef f ,2
t
ef f ,4
N
Ed
N
Ed
e
N

(a) Gross cross-section (b) Effective cross-section
Figure 6.1: Effective cross-section under compression

6.1.4 Bending moment

6.1.4.1 Elastic and elastic-plastic resistance with yielding at the compressed flange
(1) The design moment resistance of a cross-section for bending M
c,Rd
should be determined as follows:
- if the effective section modulus
eff
W is less than the gross elastic section modulus
el
W :

M1 o eff Rd c,
/ γ f W M = (6.4)
- if the effective section modulus
eff
W is equal to the gross elastic section modulus
el
W :
( )
M1 el el pl el o Rd c,
/ ) / 1 ( 4 ) ( γ λ λ − − + = W W W f M but not more than
M1 o pl
/ γ f W (6.5)
where
λ is the slenderness of the cross-section part which correspond to the largest value of
el
/ λ λ ;
For double supported plane cross-section parts
p
λ λ = and
lim el
λ λ = where
lim
λ is found in Table 5.2;
For stiffened cross-section parts
s
λ λ = and 25 , 0
el
= λ , see 5.5.3.1.
NOTE The resulting bending moment resistance as a function of the slenderness of the most slender
cross-section part is illustrated in Figure 6.2.
λ λ
el
0
W
pl
f
o
W
el
f
o
0
M
c,Rd
W
eff
f
o

Figure 6.2: Bending moment resistance as a function of the slenderness
(2) Expression (6.5) is applicable provided that the angle φ between the web and the vertical (see Figure 6.5)
does not exceed 30
o
.
(3) If (2) is not fulfilled the following expression should be used:

M1 o el Rd c,
/ γ f W M = (6.6)
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29
(4) The effective section modulus W
eff
should be based on an effective cross-section that is subject only to
bending moment, with a maximum stress σ
max,Ed
equal to f
o
/

γ
M1
, allowing for the effects of local and
distortional buckling as specified in 5.5. Where shear lag is relevant (see EN 1999-1-1), allowance should also
be made for its effects.
(5) The stress ratio ψ = σ
2
/

σ
1
used to determine the effective portions of the web may be obtained by using the
effective area of the compression flange but the gross area of the web, see Figure 6.3.
(6) If yielding occurs first at the compression edge of the cross-section, unless the conditions given in 6.1.4.2
are met the value of W
eff
should be based on a linear distribution of stress across the cross-section.

t
e
f
f
,
f
s
c
σ
1
σ
2
= ψσ
1
t
e
f
f
,
f
t t
eff,w
t
f
o

M1
e
c

Figure 6.3: Effective cross-section for resistance to bending moments

(7) If redistribution of bending moments is assumed in the global analysis, it should be demonstrated from the
results of tests that the provisions given in 7.2 are satisfied.

6.1.4.2 Elastic and elastic-plastic resistance with yielding at the tension flange only
(1) Provided that yielding occurs first at the tension edge, plastic reserves in the tension zone may be utilised
without any strain limit until the maximum compressive stress σ
com,Ed
reaches f
o

M1
. In this clause only the
bending case is considered. For axial load and bending 6.1.8 or 6.1.9 should be applied.
(2) In this case, the effective partially plastic section modulus W
pp,eff
should be based on a stress distribution
that is bilinear in the tension zone but linear in the compression zone.
(3) In the absence of a more detailed analysis, the effective thickness t
eff
of the webs may be obtained using
5.5.2 by basing e
c
on the bilinear stress distribution (see Figure 6.4), but ignoring the shape of the stress
distribution in determining ψ, which results in ψ = −2 + 2e
c
/h
w
.
e
c
h
w

Figure 6.4: Measure e
c
for determination of effective thickness

(4) If redistribution of bending moments is assumed in the global analysis, it should be demonstrated from the
results of tests that the provisions given in 7.2 are satisfied.

6.1.4.3 Effects of shear lag
(1) The effects of shear lag shall be taken into account according to EN 1999-1-1.

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30
6.1.5 Shear force

(1) The shear resistance V
b,Rd
should be determined from:

V
b,Rd
= (h
w
/sin φ) t

f
bv

M1
(6.7)

where:
f
bv
is the shear strength considering buckling according to Table 6.1;
h
w
is the web height between the midlines of the flanges, see Figure 6.5;
φ is the slope of the web relative to the flanges.

Table 6.1: Shear buckling strength f
bv
Relative web slenderness Web without stiffening at the support
Web with stiffening at the support
1)

83 , 0
w
≥ λ 0,58 f
o
0,58 f
o

40 , 1 83 , 0
w
≤ < λ 0,48 f
o
/
w
λ 0,48 f
o
/
w
λ
w
λ ≥ 1,40
0,67 f
o
/
2
w
λ
0,48 f
o
/
w
λ
1) Stiffening at the support, such as cleats, arranged to prevent distortion of the web and designed to resist
the support reaction.

(2) The relative web slenderness
w
λ shall be obtained from the following:


- for webs without longitudinal stiffeners:

λ
w
= 0,346
t
s
w
E
f
o
(6.8a)
- for webs with longitudinal stiffeners, see Figure 6.5:

w
λ =
E
f
k
t
s
o d
34 , 5
346 , 0
τ
but
w
λ ≥
E
f
t
s
o
p
346 , 0 (6.8b)
with:
k
τ
= 3
d
s
10 , 2
34 , 5
s
I
t
+

(6.9)
where:
I
s
is the second moment of area of the individual longitudinal stiffener, about the axis a - a as
indicated in Figure 6.5;
s
d
is the total developed slant height of the web, as indicated in Figure 6.5;
s
p
is the slant height of the largest plane part in the web, see Figure 6.5;
s
w
is the slant height of the web, as shown in Figure 6.5, between the midpoints of the corners, see
Figure 6.5.

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31
s
p
s
w
φ
a
a
s
d
h
w
1
2
t
1
2
t
t

Figure 6.5: Longitudinally stiffened web

6.1.6 Torsion

(1) Torsion stiffness and resistance is negligible in profiled sheeting.

6.1.7 Local transverse forces

6.1.7.1 General

(1) To avoid crushing, crippling or buckling in a web subject to a support reaction or other local transverse
force applied through the flange, the transverse force F
Ed
shall satisfy:

F
Ed
≤ R
w,Rd
(6.10)

where R
w,Rd
is the local transverse resistance of the web.

(2) The local transverse resistance of a web R
w,Rd
shall be obtained as follows:

a) for unstiffened webs: from 6.1.7.2
b) for stiffened webs: from 6.1.7.3

(3) Where the local load or support reaction is applied through a cleat that is arranged to prevent distortion of
the web and is designed to resist the local transverse force, the local resistance of the web to the transverse force
need not be considered.

6.1.7.2 Cross-sections with unstiffened webs

(1) The local transverse resistance of an unstiffened web, see Figure 6.6, should be determined as specified in
(2), provided that both of the following conditions are satisfied:

- the clear distance c from the actual bearing length for the support reaction or local load to a free end,
see Figure 6.7, is at least 40 mm;
- the cross-section satisfies the following criteria:
r/t ≤ 10 (6.11a)
h
w
/t ≤ 200sin φ (6.11b)
45 ≤ φ ≤ 90° (6.11c)
where:
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32
h
w
is the web height between the midlines of the flanges;
r is the internal radius of the corners;
φ is the slope of the web relative to the flanges [degrees].


R
w,Rd
R
w,Rd
R
w,Rd
R
w,Rd
R
w,Rd
R
w,Rd
h
w
φ
r

Figure 6.6: Examples of cross-section with two or more webs

(2) Where both conditions specified in (1) are satisfied, the local transverse resistance R
w,Rd
per web of the
sheeting profile should be determined from:

( )| |( ) γ φ α
Ml
2
a
o
2
Rd w,
) 90 / ( 4 , 2 02 , 0 5 , 0 1 , 0 1 / + t / l + r/t E f t R − = (6.12)

where:
l
a
is the effective bearing length for the relevant category, see (4);
α is the coefficient for the relevant category, see (3);
s
w
is the slant length of the web (= h
w
/ sinφ);
r is the inner bending radius (r < 10 t).

(3) The value of the coefficient α should be obtained from Figure 6.7.

(4) The values of l
a
should be obtained from (5). The maximum design value for l
a
is 200 mm. When the
support is a cold-formed section with one web or round tube, for s
s
should be taken a value of 10 mm. The
relevant category (1 or 2) should be based on the clear distance e between the local load and the nearest support,
or the clear distance c from the support reaction or local load to a free end, see Figure 6.7.

(5) The value of the effective bearing length l
a
for sheeting profiles should be obtained from the following:

a) for Category 1: l
a
= 10 mm (6.13a)
b) for Category 2:
- if β
v
≤ 0,2: l
a
= s
s
(6.13b)
- if β
v
≥ 0,3: l
a
= 10 mm (6.13c)
- if 0,2 < β
v
< 0,3: interpolate linearly between the values of l
a
for 0,2 and 0,3 with:

| | | |
| | | |
Ed,2 1 Ed,
2 Ed, 1 Ed,
V V
V V
v
+

= β (6.14)
in which |V
Ed,1
| and |V
Ed,2
| are the absolute values of the transverse shear force on each side of the local load or
support reaction, and |V
Ed,1
| ≥ |V
Ed,2
| and s
s
is the actual length of stiff bearing.

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33
s
s
s
s
e

Category 1: α = 0,026
- local load applied with e ≤ 1,5 h
w
/ t clear from nearest support;
s
s
c

Category 1: α = 0,026
- local load applied with c ≤ 1,5 h
w
/ t clear from a free end;
s
s
c
h
w

Category 1: α = 0,026
- reaction at end support with c ≤ 1,5 h
w
/ t clear from a free end;
s
s
s
s
e

Category 2; α = 0,051
- local load applied with e > 1,5 h
w
/ t clear from nearest support;
s
s
c

Category 2; α = 0,051
- local load applied with c > 1,5 h
w
/ t clear from a free end;
s
s
c
h
w

Category 2; α = 0,051
- reaction at end support with c > 1,5 h
w
/ t clear from a free end;
s
s

Category 2;, α = 0,051
- reaction at internal support;
Figure 6.7: Local loads and support-categories for cross-sections with two or more webs

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34
6.1.7.3 Stiffened webs

(1) The local transverse resistance of a stiffened web may be determined as specified in (2) for cross-sections
with longitudinal web stiffeners folded in such a way that the two folds in the web are on opposite sides of the
system line of the web joining the points of intersection of the midline of the web with the midlines of the
flanges, see Figure 6.8, that satisfy the condition:

2 < e
max
/t < 12 (6.15)

where:
e
max
is the larger eccentricity of the folds relative to the system line of the web.

(2) For cross-sections with stiffened webs satisfying the conditions specified in (1), the local transverse
resistance of a stiffened web may be determined by multiplying the corresponding value for a similar
unstiffened web, obtained from 6.1.7.2, by the factor κ
a,s
given by:

κ
a,s
= 1,45 − 0,05 e
max
/t but κ
a,s
≤ 0,95 + 35 000t
2
e
min
/(b
d
2
s
p
) (6.16)

where:
b
d
is the developed width of the loaded flange, see Figure 6.8;
e
min
is the smaller eccentricity of the folds relative to the system line of the web, see Figure 6.8;
s
p
is the slant height of the plane web cross-section part nearest to the loaded flange, see Figure 6.8.

s
p
e
m
in
R
w,Ed R
w,Ed
φ
e
m
a
x
b
d

Figure 6.8: Support loads and geometry of stiffened webs

6.1.8 Combined tension and bending

(1) Cross-sections subject to combined axial tension N
Ed
and bending moment M
y,Ed
shall satisfy the
criterion:

1
ten Rd, cy,
d E y,
Rd t,
d E

M
M
+
N
N
≤ (6.17a)

where:
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35
N
t,Rd
is the design resistance of a cross-section for uniform tension (6.1.2);
M
cy,Rd,ten
is the design moment resistance of a cross-section for maximum tensile stress if subject only
to moment about the y - y axes (6.1.4).

(2) If
ten Rd, cy, com Rd, cy,
M M ≤ , where
com Rd, cy,
M is the moment resistance for the maximum compressive
stress in a cross-section that is subject to moment only, the following criterion shall also be satisfied:
1
Rd t,
Ed
com Rd, cy,
Ed y,
≤ −
N
N

M

M
(6.17b)

6.1.9 Combined compression and bending

(1) Cross-sections subject to combined axial compression N
Ed
and bending moment M
y,Ed
shall satisfy the
criterion:

1
com Rd, cy,
Ed y, Ed y,
Rd c,
Ed



M
M
+
M
+
N
N
(6.18)

in which N
c,Rd
is as defined in 6.1.3 and M
cy,Rd,com
is as defined in 6.1.8.

(2) The additional moment ∆M
y,Ed
due to shift of the centroidal axis should be taken as:

∆M
y,Ed
= N
Ed
e
N


in which e
N
is the shift of the y - y centroidal axes due to axial forces, see 6.1.3 (3).

(3) If
com Rd, cy, ten Rd, cy,
M M ≤ the following criterion shall also be satisfied:
1
Rd c,
Ed
ten Rd, cy,
Ed y, Ed y,
≤ −


N
N

M
M
+
M
(6.19)
in which M
cy,Rd,ten
is as defined in 6.1.8.

6.1.10 Combined shear force, axial force and bending moment

(1) Cross-sections subject to the combined action of an axial force N
Ed
, a bending moment M
Ed
and a shear
force V
Ed
shall satisfy:

1 1
2
1
2
Rd w,
Ed
Rd pl,
Rd f,
Rd y,
y,Sd
Rd
Ed

V
V
M
M
M
M
+
N
N

|
|
.
|

\
|

|
|
.
|

\
|
− + (6.20)

where:
N
Rd
is the design resistance of the cross-section for tension or compression given in 6.1.2 or 6.1.3;
M
y,Rd
is the design moment resistance of the cross-section given in 6.1.4;
V
w,Rd
is the design shear resistance of the web given in 6.1.5. For members with more than one web
V
w,Rd
is the sum of the resistances of the webs;
M
f,Rd
is the design plastic moment resistance of the cross-section consisting of flanges only;
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36
M
pl,Rd
is the plastic moment resistance of the cross-section.

6.1.11 Combined bending moment and local load or support reaction

(1) Cross-sections subject to the combined action of a bending moment M
Ed
and a transverse force due to a
local load or support reaction F
Ed
shall satisfy the following:

1
Rd c,
Ed

M
M
(6.21a)
1
Rd w,
Ed

R
F
(6.21b)
1 94 , 0
2
Rd w,
Ed
2
Rd c,
Ed

(
(
¸
(

¸

+
(
(
¸
(

¸


R
F
M
M
(6.22)

where:

M
c,Rd
is the moment resistance of the cross-section given in 6.1.4.1;
R
w,Rd
is the appropriate value of the sum of the local transverse resistances of the individual webs
from 6.1.7.

(2) In expression (6.22) the bending moment M
Ed
may be calculated at the edge of the support.

6.2 Buckling resistance

6.2.1 General

(1) The effects of local and distortional buckling shall be taken into account as specified in 5.5.

(2) The internal axial force in a sheeting shall be taken as acting at the centroid of its gross cross-section.

(3) The resistance of sheeting to axial compression should be assumed to act at the centroid of its effective
cross-section. If this does not coincide with the centroid of its gross cross-section, moments corresponding to
the shift of the centroidal axes (see Figure 6.9) should be taken into account, using the method given in 6.2.3.

t
e
f
f
,
1
t
e
f
f
,
3
N
Ed
N
Ed
e
N
t
e
ff,2
y y
y
eff
y
eff
∆M
y,Ed
y y

(a) Gross cross-section, (b) effective cross-section
Figure 6.9: Shift of centroidal axis of effective cross-section

6.2.2 Axial compression
6.2.2.1 Design flexural buckling resistance
(1) The design buckling resistance for axial compression N
b,Rd
shall be obtained from:
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37
N
b,Rd
= χA
eff
f
o.

M1
(6.23)
where:
A
eff
is the effective area of the cross-section, obtained from Section 5 by assuming a uniform
compressive stress σ
com,Ed
equal to f
o

M1
;
χ is the appropriate value of the reduction factor for buckling resistance.

(2) The reduction factor χ for buckling resistance shall be determined from:
χ =
5 , 0 2 2
) (
1
λ
φ φ + −
but χ ≤ 1,0 (6.24a)
with:
( )
2
0
) ( 1 5 , 0 λ λ λ α φ + − + = (6.24b)
where:
α is an imperfection factor;

0
λ is the limit of the horizontal plateau;
λ is the relative slenderness for the relevant buckling mode.

(3) The imperfection factor for sheeting is α = 0,13 and the limit of the horizontal plateau is 2 , 0
0
= λ .

(4) The relative slenderness for flexural buckling should be determined from the following:

E
o
f
i
l
π
λ = (6.25)
where:
l is the buckling length for flexural buckling about the y – y axes (l
y
);
i is the radius of gyration about the corresponding axes ( i
y
), based on the properties of the gross
cross-section.

6.2.3 Bending and axial compression

(1) All members subject to combined bending and axial compression shall satisfy the criterion:
1
1 M
com y, eff, o
d E y, d E y,
1 M
eff x o
d E



/
W
f
M
+
M
+
/
A
f
N
y
γ γ ω χ
(6.26)
where:
A
eff
is the effective area of an effective cross-section that is subject only to axial compression;
see Figure 6.10(a);
W
eff,y,com
is the effective section modulus for the maximum compressive stress in an effective cross-
section that is subject only to moment about the y - y axis, see Figure 6.10 (b);
∆M
y,Ed
is the additional moment due to possible shift of the centroidal axis in the y direction, see
6.1.9(2);
χ
y
is the reduction factor from 6.2.2 for buckling about the y - y axis;
ω
x
is an interaction expression , see (2).
prEN 1999-1-4: 05-2004

38
t
e
f
f
,
1
t
t
eff,a
y
y
y
eff
y
eff
y
eff
y
eff
e
N
t
eff,2
t
e
f
f
,
3
t
e
f
f
,
1
t
eff,n
c
t
c
c c c
c
t

(a) Axial compression (b) moment about y – y axis.
Figure 6.10: Calculation of effective section properties

(2) For sheeting subjected to combined axial force and unequal end moments and/or transverse loads,
different sections along the span should be checked. The actual bending moment in the studied section is used in
the interaction expression and


) / sin( ) 1 (
1
c s y y
x
l x π χ χ
ω
− +
= (6.27)
where:
x
s
is the distance from the studied section to a hinged support or a point of contra-flexure of the
deflection curve for elastic buckling of an axial force only, see Figure 5.9 of EN1999-1-1.
l
c
= KL is the buckling length, see Table 5.7 of EN1999-1-1.
NOTE For simplification ω
x
= 1 may be used.


6.3 Stressed skin design

6.3.1 General

(1) The interaction between structural members and sheeting panels that are designed to act together as parts
of a combined structural system, may be allowed for as described in this chapter 6.3

(2) Diaphragms may be formed from profiled sheeting of aluminium used as roof or wall cladding.
NOTE: Information on the verification of such diaphragms can be obtained from:
ECCS Publication No. 88 (1995): European recommendations for the application of metal sheeting
acting as a diaphragm.

6.3.2 Diaphragm action

(1) In stressed skin design, advantage may be taken of the contribution that diaphragms of sheeting used as
roofing, flooring or wall cladding make to the overall stiffness and strength of the structural frame, by means of
their stiffness and strength in shear.

(2) Roofs and floors may be treated as deep plate girders extending throughout the length of a building,
resisting transverse in-plane loads and transmitting them to end gables, or to intermediate stiffened frames. The
panel of sheeting may be treated as a web that resists in-plane transverse loads in shear, with the edge members
acting as flanges that resist axial tension and compression forces, see Figures 6.11 and 6.12.

(3) Similarly, rectangular wall panels may be treated as bracing systems that act as shear diaphragms to resist
in-plane forces.
prEN 1999-1-4: 05-2004

39
(c)
(a)
(b)


(a) Sheeting
(b) Shear field in sheeting
(c) Flange forces in edge
members

Figure 6.11: Stressed skin action in a flat-roof building

6.3.3 Necessary conditions

(1) Methods of stressed skin design that utilize sheeting as an integral part of a structure, may be used only
under the following conditions:
- the use made of the sheeting, in addition to its primary purpose, is limited to the formation of shear
diaphragms to resist structural displacement in the plane of that sheeting;
- the diaphragms have longitudinal edge members to carry flange forces arising from diaphragm action;
- the diaphragm forces in the plane of a roof or floor are transmitted to the foundations by means of
braced frames, further stressed-skin diaphragms, or other methods of sway resistance;
- suitable structural connections are used to transmit diaphragm forces to the main framework and to
join the edge members acting as flanges;
- the sheeting is treated as a structural component that cannot be removed without proper consideration;
- the project specification, including the calculations and drawings, draws attention to the fact that the
building is designed to utilize stressed skin action.
(2) Stressed skin design shall be used predominantly in low-rise buildings, or in the floors and facades of
high-rise buildings.

(3) Stressed skin diaphragms shall be used predominantly to resist wind loads, snow loads and other loads
that are applied through the sheeting itself. They may also be used to resist small transient loads, such as surge
from light overhead cranes or hoists on runway beams, but may not be used to resist permanent external loads,
such as those from plant.
(c)
(b)
(a)
(d)
(b)
(a) Sheeting
(b) Flange forces in edge
members
(c) Shear field in sheeting
(d) Gable tie required to
resist forces in roof sheeting
Figure 6.12: Stressed skin action in a pitched roof building
6.3.4 Profiled aluminium sheet diaphragms

(1) In a profiled aluminium sheet diaphragm, see Figure 6.13, both ends of the sheets shall be attached to the
supporting members by means of self-tapping screws, cartridge fired pins, welding, bolts or other fasteners of a
prEN 1999-1-4: 05-2004

40
type that will not work loose in service, pull out, or fail in shear before causing tearing of the sheeting. All such
fasteners shall be fixed directly through the sheeting into the supporting member, for example through the
troughs of profiled sheets, unless special measures are taken to ensure that the connections effectively transmit
the forces assumed in the design.

(2) The seams between adjacent sheets shall be fastened by rivets, self-drilling screws, welds, or other
fasteners of a type that will not work loose in service, pull out, or fail in shear before causing tearing of the
sheeting. The spacing of such fasteners shall not exceed 500 mm.

(3) The distances from all fasteners to the edges and ends of the sheets shall be adequate to prevent
premature tearing of the sheets.

(4) Small randomly arranged openings, up to 3% of the relevant area, may be introduced without special
calculation, provided that the total number of fasteners is not reduced. Openings up to 15% of the relevant area
may be introduced if justified by detailed calculations. Areas that contain larger openings should be split into
smaller areas, each with full diaphragm action.

(5) All sheeting that also forms part of a stressed-skin diaphragm shall first be designed for its primary
purpose in bending. To ensure that any deterioration of the sheeting would be apparent in bending before the
resistance to stressed skin action is affected, it shall then be verified that the shear stress due to diaphragm action
does not exceed 0,25f
o

M1


(6) The shear resistance of a stressed-skin diaphragm shall be based on the least tearing strength of the seam
fasteners or the sheet-to-member fasteners parallel to the corrugations or, for diaphragms fastened only to
longitudinal edge members, the end sheet-to-member fasteners. The calculated shear resistance for any other
type of failure shall exceed this minimum value by at least the following:
- for failure of the sheet-to-purlin fasteners under combined shear and wind uplift, by at least 40%;
- for any other type of failure, by at least 25%.

(a)
(b)
(c)
(d)
(e)
(f)
(g)

(a) Rafter
(b) Purlin
(c) Shear connector
(d) Sheet-to-shear
connector fastener
(e) Purlin
(f) Sheet-to-purlin
fastener
(g) Seam fastener

Figure 6.13: Arrangement of an individual panel

6.4 Perforated sheeting

(1) Perforated sheeting may be designed by calculation, provided that the rules for non-perforated sheeting
are modified by introducing the effective thicknesses given below.

prEN 1999-1-4: 05-2004

41
NOTE: These calculation rules tend to give rather conservative values. More economical solutions
might be obtained from design assisted by testing.

(2) Provided that 0,2 ≤ d/a ≤ 0,8 gross section properties may be calculated using 5.1, but replacing t by t
a,eff

obtained from:
t
a,eff
= ( ) d/a t 9 , 0 1 18 , 1 − (6.28)
where:
d is the diameter of the perforations;
a is the spacing between the centres of the perforations.

(3) Provided that 0,2 ≤ d/a ≤ 1,0 effective section properties may be calculated using 5.5, but replacing t by
t
b,eff
obtained from:

t
b,eff
= ( )
3
1 18 , 1 d/a t − (6.29)

(4) The resistance of a single unstiffened web to local transverse forces may be calculated using 6.1.7, but
replacing t by t
c,eff
obtained from:
t
c,eff
= ( ) | |
s
/
s
d/a
t
w per
2
2 / 3
1− (6.30)
where:
s
per
is the slant height of the perforated portion of the web;
s
w
is the total slant height of the web.
prEN 1999-1-4: 05-2004

42
7 Serviceability limit states

7.1 General

(1) The rules for serviceability limit states given in EN 1999-1-1 shall also be applied to cold-formed
sheeting.

(2) The properties of the effective cross-section for serviceability limit states obtained from (3) should be
used in all serviceability limit state calculations for cold-formed sheeting.

(3) The second moment of area may be calculated by interpolation of gross cross-section and effective cross-
section using the expression:

I
eff,ser
= I
gr
- σ
gr
(I
gr
- I
eff
) / f
o
(7.1)

where:
I
gr
is the second moment of area of gross section;
I
eff
is the second moment of area of the effective cross-section in the ultimate limit state, with
allowance for local buckling;
σ
gr
is the maximum compressive bending stress in the serviceability limit state, based on the gross
cross-section (positive in the formula).

(4) The effective second moment of area I
eff,ser
may be taken as variable along the span. Alternatively a
uniform value may be used, based on the maximum span moment due to serviceability loading.

7.2 Plastic deformation

(1) In case of plastic global analysis, the combination of support moment and support reaction at an internal
support should not exceed 0,9 times the combined design resistance, determined using γ
M,ser
and I
eff,ser

according to 7.1(3).

(2) The combined design resistance may be determined from 6.1.11, but using the effective cross-section for
serviceability limit states and γ
M,ser
.

7.3 Deflections

(1) The deflections may be calculated assuming elastic behaviour.

(2) The influence of slip in the connections (for example in the case of continuous sheeting with overlaps)
should be considered in the calculation of deflections, forces and moments.

(3) With reference to EN 1990 – Annex A1.4 limits for deflections should be specified for each project and
agreed with the client.

NOTE The National Annex may specify the limits.


prEN 1999-1-4: 05-2004

43
8 Connection with mechanical fasteners

8.1 Genaral

(1) Connections with mechanical fasteners shall be compact in shape. The positions of the fasteners shall be
arranged to provide sufficient room for satisfactory assembly and maintenance.

(2) The shear forces on individual mechanical fasteners in a connection may be assumed to be equal,
provided that:
- the fasteners have sufficient ductility;
- shear of the fastener is not the critical failure mode.

(3) For design by calculation, the resistance of mechanical fasteners subject to predominantly static loads
should be determined from 8.2 for blind rivets and 8.3 for self-tapping screws.

(4) The meanings of the symbols, used in the above named clauses are found in EN 1999-1-1 with additions
in 1.4 of EN 1999-1-4.

(5) The partial factor for calculating the design resistances of mechanical fasteners shall be taken as γ
M3

according to 2(3).
p
1
e
1
e
2
p
2
d
(a)
(a) Direction of load transfer


p
1


p
2


e
1


e
2


30 mm
4 d
20 mm
2 d
20 mm
2 d
10 mm
1,5 d
Figure 8.1: End distance, edge distance and spacing for fasteners

(6) The pull-through resistances given in 8.2.3.1 for blind rivets or in 8.3.3.1 for self-tapping screws are
depending on the location of the fasteners and should be reduced if the fasteners are not located centrally in the
troughs of the sheeting. If attachment is at a quarter point, the design resistance should be reduced to 0,9F
p,Rd

and if there are fasteners at both quarter points, the resistance should be taken as 0,7F
p,Rd
per fastener, see Table
8.3.

(7) For a fastener loaded in combined shear and tension, provided that F
p,Rd
, F
o,Rd
, F
b,Rd
and F
n,Rd
are
determined by calculation on the basis of 8.2 for blind rivets or 8.3 for self-tapping screws, the resistance of the
fastener to combined shear and tension may be verified using:

1
) , min( ) , min(
Rd n, Rd b,
Ed v,
Rd o, Rd p,
Ed t,
≤ +
F F
F
F F
F
(8.1)

(8) The gross section distortion may be neglected if the design resistance is obtained from 8.2.3 and 8.3.3
provided that the fastening is through a flange not more than 150 mm wide.

(9) The diameter of holes for screws should be in accordance with the manufacturer's guidelines. These
guidelines should be based on following criteria:
- the applied torque should be just higher than the threading torque;
prEN 1999-1-4: 05-2004

44
- the applied torque should be lower than the thread stripping torque or head-shearing torque;
- the threading torque should be smaller than 2/3 of the head-shearing torque.

(10) The design rules for blind rivets are valid only if the diameter of the hole is not more than 0,1 mm larger
than the diameter if the rivet.


8.2 Blind rivets

8.2.1 General
(1) The resistance of blind rivets loaded in shear is the minor value of the bearing resistance F
b,Rd
,

the net-
section resistance F
n,Rd
and the shear resistance of the fastener F
v,Rd
.
(2) The shank of the blind rivet shall be of EN AW- 5019.
(3) Blind rivets according to EN ISO 15973, EN ISO 15974, EN ISO 15977, EN ISO 15978, EN ISO 15981
or EN ISO 15982 shall be used

8.2.2 Design resistances of riveted connection loaded in shear

8.2.2.1 Bearing resistance
F
b,Rd
= 31 d
2

M3
[N] with d in mm (8.2a)
F
b,Rd
≤ 1,5 f
u,min
3
min
t d

M3
(8.2b)

8.2.2.2 Net section resistance
F
n,Rd
= A
net
f
u

M3
(8.4)

8.2.2.3 Shear resistance
F
v,Rd
= 38 d
2

M3
[N] with d in mm (8.4)

Conditions for bearing and shear resistance:
- f
u,min
> 260 N/mm
2

shall not be taken into account
- 2,6 mm ≤ d ≤ 6,4 mm

8.2.3 Design resistances for riveted connection loaded in tension

8.2.3.1 Pull-through resistance
F
p,Rd
= 2,35 α
E
t f
o

M3
[N] with t in mm and f
o
in N/mm
3
; α
E
according to Table 8.3 (8.5)

Conditions:
- t ≤ 1,5 mm; d
w
≥ 9,5 mm;
- f
o
> 220 N/mm
2
shall not be taken into account

8.2.3.2 Pull-out resistance
- Supporting member of steel: F
o,Rd
= 0,47 t
sup
d f
y

M3
(8.6)
- Supporting member of aluminium: F
o,Rd
= 0,20 t
sup
d f
o

M3
(8.7)

prEN 1999-1-4: 05-2004

45
Conditions:
- t
sup
> 6 mm, f
y
> 350 N/mm
2

, f
o
> 220 N/mm
2
shall not be taken into account (everyone to be
fulfilled)
- the diameter of the drilling hole shall be performed in accordance with the recommendations of the
manufacturer

8.2.3.3 Tension resistance
F
t,Rd
= 47 d
2


M3

|Ν| , where d to be taken in mm. (8.8)

8.3 Self-tapping / self-drilling screws

8.3.1 General
(1) The resistance of screws loaded in shear is the minor value of the bearing resistance F
b,Rd
, the

net-
section resistance F
n,Rd
and the shear resistance of the fastener F
v,Rd
.
(2) The limits for diameters of screws given in the following clauses shall be valid, unless other limits can be
obtained and verified by adequate tests.
(3) The limits for strength values of supporting materials shall be valid, unless other limits can be obtained
and verified by adequate tests.
(4) Self-tapping screws according to EN ISO 1479, EN ISO 1481 or ISO 7049 shall be used.
(5) Self-drilling screws according to EN ISO 15480 or EN ISO 15481 shall be used.

8.3.2 Design resistance of screwed connections loaded in shear

8.3.2.1 Bearing resistance
(1) Bearing resistance if supporting members are of steel or aluminium is given by:
F
b,Rd
= 2,5 f
u,min
d t
3

M3
for t
sup
/ t = 1,0, but F
b,Rd
≤ 1,5 f
u,min
t d /γ
M3
(8.9a)
F
b,Rd
= 1,5 f
u,min
t d /γ
M3
for t
sup
/ t ≥ 2,5 (8.9b)
For thicknesses 1,0 < t
sup
/ t < 2,5 the bearing resistance F
b,Rd
may be obtained by linear interpolation.

Conditions:
- self- tapping and self- drilling screws shall be of steel or stainless steel with diameter d ≥ 5,5 mm,
- f
u,min
> 260 N/mm
2

shall not be taken into account;
- for t > t
sup
take t = t
sup
;

- the drilling holes have to be performed according to the recommendations of the manufacturer.

(2) Bearing resistance of aluminium sheeting if supporting members are of timber is given by:
F
b,Rd
≤ 1,5 t d f
u,min

M3
[N] (8.10)
(3) For resistance of supporting member of timber, see EN 1995-1-1, Section 8, steel-to-timber connection.
Conditions:
- self-tapping and self- drilling screws of steel, stainless steel or aluminium with 5,5 mm ≤ d ≤ 8 mm;
- edge distances and spacing in the member of timber, see EN 1995-1-1, Section 8.

prEN 1999-1-4: 05-2004

46
8.3.2.2 Net section resistance
F
n,Rd
= A
net
f
u

M3
(8.11)

8.3.2.3 Shear resistance
Design shear resistance of screws of steel or stainless steel is given by:
F
v, Rd
= 380 A
s

M3
[N], with A
s
in mm
2
(8.12)

8.3.3 Design resistance of screwed connections loaded in tension

8.3.3.1 Pull-through resistance
(1) The pull-through resistance of screwed connections loaded in tension is given by:
F
p,Rd
= 6,1 α
L
α
E
α
M
t f
u /22
w
d

M3
[N] (8.13)
with: t and d
w
in mm and f
u
in N/ mm
2

and
- α
L
correction factor with respect to tension in bending (Table 8.1);
- α
M
correction factor with respect to the type of washer (Table 8.2);
- α
E
correction factor with respect to the location of fasteners (Table 8.3).

Conditions:
- t ≤ 1,5 mm;
- d
w
≥ 14 mm and thickness of the washer ≥ 1 mm;
- width of the adjacent flange of the sheet cross-section part ≤ 200 mm;
- d
w
> 30 mm and f
u
> 260 N/mm shall not be taken into account;
- at a depth of the sheeting smaller than 25 mm, the pull-through- resistance shall be reduced by 30 %.

Table 8.1: Correction factor α
L
, to take account of tensile bending stresses
at support fastenings
Ultimate strength [N/mm
2
]
Span L < 1,5 m Span 1,5 ≤ L ≤ 4,5 m Span L > 4,5 m
< 215 1 1 1
≥ 215 1 1,25 - L/6 0,5
NOTE At end supports without bending stresses and at connections at the upper flange always α
L
= 1

Table 8.2: Correction factor α
M
to take account of the material
of the washer
Material of the washer
α
M

Carbon steel, stainless steel 1,0
Aluminium 0,8

prEN 1999-1-4: 05-2004

47
Table 8.3: Correction factor α
E
to take account of the location of the fasteners
For the flange in contact with the support without contact

Connection

α
E

1,0
b
u
≤ 150:0,9
b
u
> 150:0,7
0,7 0,9 0,7 0,7 1,0 0,9
NOTE The combination of correction factors is not necessary.
8.3.3.2 Pull-out resistance

(1) The pull-out resistance for self- tapping screws of steel or stainless steel where supporting members are of
steel or aluminium is given by:

F
o,Rd
= 0,95 f
u,sup
d t ⋅
3
sup

M3
(8.14)
Conditions:
- self-tapping screws of steel- or stainless steel;
- diameter of the screws 6,25 mm ≤ d ≤ 6,5 mm;
- t
sup
≥ 0,9 mm (aluminium); ≥ 0,75 mm (steel);
- t
sup
> 6 mm and f
u,sup
> 250 N/ mm
2

for aluminium or
- t
sup
> 5 mm and f
u,sup
> 400 N/ mm
2

for steel shall not be taken into account;
- the diameter of the drilling hole shall be in accordance with the recommendations of the manufacturer.

(2) For supporting members of timber, see EN 1995-1-1, Section 8.

8.3.3.3 Tension resistance

(1) The design tension resistance of screws of steel or stainless steel is given by:

F
t,Rd
= 560 A
s

M3
|Ν| with A
s
in mm
2
(8.15)


prEN 1999-1-4: 05-2004

48
9 Design assisted by testing

(1) This Section 9 may be used to apply the principles for design assisted by testing given in EN 1990 with
the additional specific requirements of cold-formed sheeting.

(2) Testing of profile sheeting should apply the principles given in Annex A.

(3) Tensile testing of aluminium alloys should be carried out in accordance with EN 10002-1. Testing of
other aluminium properties should be carried out in accordance with the relevant European Standards.

(4) Testing of fasteners and connections should be carried out in accordance with the relevant European
Standard or International Standard.
NOTE: Pending availability of an appropriate European or International Standard, information on testing
procedures for fasteners can be obtained from:
ECCS Publication No. 21 (1983): European recommendations for steel construction: the design and
testing of connections in steel sheeting and sections;
ECCS Publication No. 42 (1983): European recommendations for steel construction: mechanical
fasteners for use in steel sheeting and sections.
prEN 1999-1-4: 05-2004

49
Annex A [normative] – Testing procedures
A.1 General

(1) This Annex A gives appropriate standardized testing and evaluation procedures for a number of tests that
are commonly required in practice, as a basis for harmonization of future testing.
NOTE 1 In the field of cold-formed sheeting, many standard products are commonly used for which
design by calculation might not lead to economical solutions, so it is frequently desirable to use design
assisted by testing.
NOTE 2 The National Annex may give further information on testing
NOTE 3 The National Annex may give conversion factors for existing test results to be equivalent to the
outcome of standardised tests according to this annex.
(2) This annex covers:
- tests on profiled sheets, see A.2;
- valuation of test results to determine design values, see A.3.

A.2 Tests on profiled sheets

A.2.1 General

(1) Loading may be applied through air bags or in a vacuum chamber or by metal or timber cross beams
arranged to simulate uniformly distributed loading.
(2) To prevent spreading of corrugations, transverse ties or other appropriate test accessories such as timber
blocks may be applied to the test specimen. Some examples are given in Figure A.1.
(3) Test specimens for sheet profiles should normally comprise at least two complete corrugations, but a test
specimen may comprise just one complete corrugation, provided that the stiffness of the corrugations is
sufficient. Free longitudinal edges shall be during test procedure in the tension zone.

(b)
(c)
(a)




(a) Rivet or screw
(b) Transverse tie
(metal strip)
(c) Timber blocks
Figure A.1: Examples of appropriate test accessories

(4) For uplift tests, the test set-up should realistically simulate the behaviour of the sheeting under practical
conditions. The type of connections between the sheet and the supports should be the same as in the connections
to be used in practice.
(5) To give the results a wide range of applicability, hinged and roller supports should preferably be used, to
avoid any influence of torsional or longitudinal restraint at the supports on the test results.
prEN 1999-1-4: 05-2004

50
(6) It should be ensured that the direction of the loading remains perpendicular to the initial plane of the
sheet throughout the test procedure.
(7) To eliminate the deformations of the supports, the deflections at both ends of the test specimen should
also be measured.
(8) The test result should be taken as the maximum value of the loading applied to the specimen either
coincident with failure or immediately prior to failure as appropriate.
A.2.2 Single span test
(1) A test set-up equivalent to that shown in Figure A.2 may be used to determine the midspan moment
resistance (in the absence of shear force) and the effective flexural stiffness.
(2) The span should be chosen such that the test results represent the moment resistance of the sheet.
(3) The moment resistance should be determined from the test result.
(4) The flexural stiffness should be determined from a plot of the load-deflection behaviour.
A.2.3 Double span test
(1) The test set-up shown in Figure A.3 may be used to determine the resistance of a sheet that is continuous
over two or more spans to combinations of moment and shear at internal supports, and its resistance to
combined moment and support reaction for a given support width.

(2) The loading should preferably be uniformly distributed (applied using an air bag or a vacuum chamber,
for example).

(3) Alternatively any number of line loads (transverse to the span) may be used, arranged to produce internal
moments and forces that are appropriate to represent the effects of uniformly distributed loading. Some
examples of suitable arrangements are shown in Figure A.4.
A.2.4 Internal support test
(1) As an alternative to A.2.3, the test set-up shown in Figure A.5 may be used to determine the resistance of
a sheet that is continuous over two or more spans to combinations of moment and shear at internal supports, and
its resistance to combined moment and support reaction for a given support width.
(2) The test span s used to represent the portion of the sheet between the points of contraflexure each side of
the internal support, in a sheet continuous over two equal spans L may be obtained from:
s = 0,4L (A.1)
(3) If plastic redistribution of the support moment is expected, the test span s should be reduced to represent
the appropriate ratio of support moment to shear force.
(4) The width b
B
of the beam used to apply the test load should be selected to represent the actual support
width to be used in practice.
(5) Each test result may be used to represent the resistance to combined bending moment and support
reaction (or shear force) for a given span and a given support width. To obtain information about the interaction
of bending moment and support reaction, tests should be carried out for several different spans.
prEN 1999-1-4: 05-2004

51
L/8 L/4 L/4 L/4 L/8
F/2 F/2 F/2 F/2
L
1

a) Uniformly distributed loading and an
example of alternative equivalent line loads
b) Distributed loading applied by an airbag
(alternatively by a vacuum test rig)
1 = transverse tie

>h
˜
h
L
h

c) Example of support arrangements for preventing distortion
˜
1,4h
h
F
F

d) Example of method of applying a line load
Figure A.2: Test set-up for single span tests

L L

Figure A.3: Test setup for double span tests

L L
L L
F F F
L/8 L/4 L/4 L/4 L/4 L/4 L/4 L/4 L/8
F F F F F
F F F F
0,125L 0,525L 0,35L 0,35L 0,525L 0,125L

Figure A.4: Examples of suitable arrangements of alternative line loads
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52

F
b
B h
F F

a) Internal support under gravity loading
b
B
h
F F
F

b) Internal support under uplift loading
b
B
h
F F
<
1
0

m
m
F

c) Internal support with loading applied to tension flange
Figure A.5: Test set-up for internal support test

F
≈2L/3
h
≥ 3h b
A
≥ h 300 mm ≥ 3h
L
≈L/3 u
1:20
R
A

Key:
b
A
= support length
u = length from internal edge of end support to end of sheet
Figure A.6: Test set-up for end support tests

A.2.5 End support test

(1) The test set-up shown in Figure A.6 may be used to determine the resistance of a sheet at an end support.

(2) Separate tests should be carried out to determine the shear resistance of the sheet for different lengths u
from the contact point at the inner edge of the end support, to the actual end of the sheet, see Figure A.6.
prEN 1999-1-4: 05-2004

53

A.3 Evaluation of test results

A.3.1 General

(1) A specimen under test should be regarded as having failed if the applied test loads reach their maximum
values, or if the gross deformations exceed specified limits.

(2) In the testing of connections, or of components in which the examination of large deformations is
necessary for accurate assessment (for example, in evaluating the moment-rotation characteristics of sleeves),
no limit need be placed on the gross deformation during the test.

(4) An appropriate margin of safety should be available between a ductile failure mode and possible brittle
failure modes. As brittle failure modes do not usually appear in large scale tests, additional detail tests should be
carried out where necessary.

NOTE: This is often the case for connections.

A.3.2 Adjustment of test results
(1) Test results should be appropriately adjusted to allow for variations between the actual measured
properties of the test specimens and their nominal values.
(2) The actual measured 0,2 % proof strength f
0,2,obs
should not deviate by more than ± 25% from the
nominal 0,2 % proof strength f
0,2
.
(3) The actual measured material thickness t
obs
should not exceed the design thickness t based on the
nominal material thickness t
nom
by more than 12%.
(4) Adjustments should be made in respect of the actual measured values of the material thickness t
obs
and
the 0,2 % proof strength f
0,2,obs
for all tests, except where the design expression that uses the test results also
uses the actual measured value of the thickness or 0,2 % proof strength of the material, as appropriate.
(5) The adjusted value R
adj,i
of the test result for test i should be determined from the actual measured test
result R
obs,i
using:
R
adj,i
= R
obs,i

R
(A.1)
in which µ
R
is the resistance adjustment coefficient given by:
µ
R
=
β
α
|
.
|

\
|
|
|
.
|

\
|
t
t
f
f
obs
0,2
obs 0,2,
(A.2)

(6) The exponent α for use in expression (A.2) should be obtained as follows:
- if f
0,2,obs
≤ f
0,2
: α = 0
- if f
0,2,obs
> f
0,2
generally: α = 1
- for profiled sheets in which compression parts have such large b
p
/ t ratios that local buckling is clearly
the failure mode: α = 0,5

(7) The exponent β for use in expression (A.2) should be obtained as follows:
- if t
obs
≤ t: β = 1
- if t
obs
> t: β = 2
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54
A.3.3 Characteristic values

A.3.3.1 General
(1) Characteristic values may be determined statistically, provided that there are at least 4 test results.
NOTE: A larger number is generally preferable, particularly if the scatter is relatively wide.
(2) The characteristic minimum value should be determined using the following provisions. If the
characteristic maximum value or the characteristic mean value is required, it should be determined by using
appropriate adaptations of the provisions given for the characteristic minimum value.
3) The characteristic value of a resistance R
k
determined on the basis of at least 4 tests may be obtained
from:
R
k
= R
m
– k s (A.3)
where:
s is the standard deviation;
k is the appropriate coefficient from Table A.1;
R
m
is the mean value of the adjusted test results R
adj.


(4) The standard deviation s may be determined using:


1 1
1
2
m
2
adj,
1
2
m
1
2
adj,

⋅ −
=


=
∑ ∑ ∑
= = =
n
R n R
n
R R
s
n
i
i
n
i
n
i
i
(A4)

where:

R
adj,i
is the adjusted test result for test i;
n is the number of tests.

Table A.1: Values of the coefficient k
n 4 5 6 8 10 20 30 ∞
k 2,63 2,33 2,18 2,00 1,92 1,76 1,73 1,64

A.3.3.2 Characteristic values for families of tests
(1) A series of tests carried out on a number of otherwise similar sheets, in which one or more parameters is
varied, may be treated as a single family of tests, provided that they all have the same failure mode. The
parameters that are varied may include cross-sectional dimensions, spans, thicknesses and material strengths.
(2) The characteristic resistances of the members of a family may be determined on the basis of a suitable
design expression that relates the test results to all the relevant parameters. This design expression may either be
based on the appropriate equations of structural mechanics, or determined on an empirical basis.
(3) The design expression should be modified to predict the mean measured resistance as accurately as
practicable, by adjusting the coefficients to optimize the correlation.
NOTE: Information on this process is given in Annex D of EN 1990.
(4) In order to calculate the standard deviation s, each test result should first be normalized by dividing it by
the corresponding value predicted by the design expression. If the design expression has been modified as
specified in (3), the mean value of the normalized test results will be unity. The number of tests n should be
taken as equal to the total number of tests in the family.
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55
(5) For a family of at least four tests, the characteristic resistance R
k
should then be obtained from expression
(A.3) by taking R
m
as equal to the value predicted by the design expression, and using the value of k from Table
A.1 corresponding to a value of n equal to the total number of tests in the family.

A.3.4 Design values
(1) The design value of a resistance R
d
should be derived from the corresponding characteristic value R
k

determined by testing, using:

R
d
= R
k
/ (γ
M
γ
sys
) (A.5)

where:
γ
M
is the partial factor for resistance;
γ
sys
is a partial factor for differences in behaviour under test conditions and service conditions.

(2) For a family of at least four tests, the value of γ
M
may be determined using statistical methods.
NOTE: Information on an appropriate method is given in Annex D of EN 1990.
(3) Alternatively γ
M
may be taken as equal to the appropriate value of γ
M
for design by calculation given in
Section 2.
NOTE The National Annex may give values for γ
M
and γ
sys
. A recommended value for γ
sys
is 1,0 in
case of sheeting.
(4) For other types of tests in which possible instability phenomena, or modes of behaviour, of structures or
structural components might not be covered sufficiently by the tests, the value of γ
sys
should be assessed taking
into account the actual testing conditions, in order to achieve the necessary reliability.

A.3.5 Serviceability

(1) The provisions given in Section 7 should be satisfied.
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56
Annex B [informative] – Durability of fasteners
(1) In Structural Classes I, II and III Table B.1 may be applied

Table B.1 Fastener material with regard to corrosion environment (and sheeting material
only for information). Only risk of corrosion is considered. Environmental corrosivety
categories according to EN ISO 12944-2

Material of fastener
Corro-
sivety
category
Sheet
material
Alumi-
nium
Electro
galvanized
steel. Coat
thickness
≥ 7µm
Hot-dip zinc
coated steel
b
.
Coat thick-
ness
≥45µm
Stainless
steel, case
hardened.
1.4006
d, e

Stainless
steel,
1.4301
d

1.4436
d

Monel
a

A, B, C X X X X X X C1
D, E, S X X X X X X
A X - X X X X
C, D, E X - X X X X
C2
S X - X X X X
C3 A X - X - X X
C, E X - X (X)
C
(X)
C
-
D X - X - (X)
C
X
S - - X X X X
C4 A X - (X)
C
- (X)
C
-
D - - X - (X)
C
-
E X - X - (X)
C
-
S - - X - X X
C5-I A X - - - (X)
C
-

D
f
- - X - (X)
C
-
S - - - - X -
C5-M A X - - - (X)
C
-

D
f
- - X - (X)
C
-
S - - - - X -
NOTE Fastener of steel without coating may be used in corrosivety category C1.
A =
B =
C =

D =

E =
S =
X =

(X) =
aluminium irrespective of surface finish
un-coated steel sheet
hot-dip zinc coated (Z275) or aluzinc coated
(AZ150) steel sheet
hot-dip zinc coated + coating of paint or
plastic
aluzinc coated (AZ185) steel sheet
stainless steel
type of material recommended from corrosion
standpoint
type of material recommended from corrosion
standpoint under the specified condition only

- =

a
b
c

d
e
f
type of material not recommended from
corrosion standpoint
refers to rivets only
refers to screws and nuts only
insulation washer of material resistant to
aging between sheeting and fastener
stainless steel EN 10 088
risk of discoloration
always check with sheet supplier

(2) The environmental corrosivety categories following EN ISO 12944-2 are presented in Table B.2.

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57
Table B.2: Atmospheric-corrosivity categories according to EN ISO 12944-2 and example of
typical environment
Example of typical environments in temperature climate (informative) Corro-
sivety
category
Corrosivity
level
Exterior Interior
C1 very low - Heated buildings with clean atmos-
pheres, e.g. offices, shops, schools,
hotels.
C2 low Atmospheres with low level of pollution.
Mostly rural areas.
Unheated buildings where condensation
may occur, e.g. depots, sport halls.
C3 medium Urban and industrial atmospheres,
moderate sulphur dioxide pollution.
Coastel areas with low salinity.
Production rooms with high humidity
and some air pollution, e.g. food-
processing, plants, laundries, breweries
and dairies.
C4 high Industrial areas and coastal areas with
moderate salinity.
Chemical plants, swimming pools,
coastal ship- and boatyards.
C5-I very high
(industrial)
Industrial areas with high humidity and
aggressive atmospheres.
Buildings and areas with almost
permanent condensation and with high
pollution.
C5-M very high
(marine)
Coastal and offshore areas with high
salinity.
Buildings and areas with almost
permanent condensation and with high
pollution



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58
Annex C [informative] – Bibliography
1. Weber, H.: Dach und Wand - Panen und Bauen mit Aluminium-Profiltafeln; Aluminium-Verlag-
Düsseldorf 1982 (in German)

2. Richtlinie für die Verlegung von Aluminium-Profiltafeln; Aluminium-Merkblatt A7; Gesamtverband der
Aluminiumindustrie, Düsseldorf 1995 (in German)

3. Verbindungen Profiltafeln und dünnwandigen Bauteilen aus Aluminium; Aluminium-Merkblatt A9;
Gesamtverband der Aluminiumindustrie, Düsseldorf 1995 (in German)

4. SFHF-Richtlinien für hinterlüftete Fassaden - Grundsätze für Planung, Bemessung, Konstruktion und
Ausführung; Schweizerischer Fachverband für hinterlüftete Fassaden; Zürich 1992 (in German and
French)

5. Directives APSFV pour façades ventilées; Principes et remarques pour l'étude, le dimensionnement, la
construction et l'exécution; Association professionnelle suisse pour des façades ventilées (in French and
German)

prEN 1999-1-4: 05-2004

Contents

Page

National Annex for EN 1999-1-4 ......................................................................................................................... 4 1 Introduction................................................................................................................................................... 5 1.1 Scope ........................................................................................................................................................ 5 1.2 Normative references ............................................................................................................................... 5 1.3 Definitions ................................................................................................................................................ 6 1.4 Symbols .................................................................................................................................................... 6 1.5 Terminology and conventions for dimensions ........................................................................................ 7 1.5.1 Form of sections ............................................................................................................................... 7 1.5.2 Form of stiffeners ............................................................................................................................. 7 1.5.3 Cross-section dimensions ................................................................................................................. 7 1.5.4 Convention for member axis ............................................................................................................ 8 2 Basis of design ............................................................................................................................................... 9 3 Materials ...................................................................................................................................................... 10 3.1 General ................................................................................................................................................... 10 3.2 Structural aluminium alloys ................................................................................................................... 10 3.2.1 Material properties.......................................................................................................................... 10 3.2.2 Thickness and geometrical tolerances............................................................................................ 11 3.3 Connecting devices ................................................................................................................................ 12 3.3.1 Mechanical fasteners ...................................................................................................................... 12 4 Durability..................................................................................................................................................... 12 5 Structural analysis ...................................................................................................................................... 13 5.1 Influence of rounded corners ................................................................................................................. 13 5.2 Geometrical proportions ........................................................................................................................ 14 5.3 Structural modelling for analysis ........................................................................................................... 14 5.4 Flange curling......................................................................................................................................... 15 5.5 Local and distortional buckling ............................................................................................................. 16 5.5.1 General............................................................................................................................................ 16 5.5.2 Plane cross-section parts without stiffeners ................................................................................... 16 5.5.3 Plane cross-section parts with intermediate stiffeners ................................................................... 17 5.5.4 Trapezoidal sheeting profiles with intermediate stiffeners............................................................ 21 6 Ultimate limit states.................................................................................................................................... 27 6.1 Resistance of cross-sections................................................................................................................... 27 6.1.1 General............................................................................................................................................ 27 6.1.2 Axial tension................................................................................................................................... 27 6.1.3 Axial compression .......................................................................................................................... 27 6.1.4 Bending moment............................................................................................................................. 28 6.1.5 Shear force ...................................................................................................................................... 30 6.1.6 Torsion ............................................................................................................................................ 31 6.1.7 Local transverse forces ................................................................................................................... 31 6.1.8 Combined tension and bending...................................................................................................... 34 6.1.9 Combined compression and bending ............................................................................................. 35 6.1.10 Combined shear force, axial force and bending moment........................................................... 35 6.1.11 Combined bending moment and local load or support reaction ................................................ 36 6.2 Buckling resistance ................................................................................................................................ 36 6.2.1 General............................................................................................................................................ 36 6.2.2 Axial compression .......................................................................................................................... 36 6.2.3 Bending and axial compression...................................................................................................... 37 6.3 Stressed skin design ............................................................................................................................... 38 6.3.1 General............................................................................................................................................ 38 6.3.2 Diaphragm action ........................................................................................................................... 38 6.3.3 Necessary conditions ...................................................................................................................... 39 6.3.4 Profiled aluminium sheet diaphragms............................................................................................ 39
2

prEN 1999-1-4: 05-2004

6.4 Perforated sheeting .................................................................................................................................40 7 Serviceability limit states............................................................................................................................42 7.1 General....................................................................................................................................................42 7.2 Plastic deformation.................................................................................................................................42 7.3 Deflections..............................................................................................................................................42 8 Connection with mechanical fasteners .....................................................................................................43 8.1 Genaral....................................................................................................................................................43 8.2 Blind rivets .............................................................................................................................................44 8.2.1 General ............................................................................................................................................44 8.2.2 Design resistances of riveted connection loaded in shear..............................................................44 8.2.3 Design resistances for riveted connection loaded in tension .........................................................44 8.3 Self-tapping / self-drilling screws ..........................................................................................................45 8.3.1 General ............................................................................................................................................45 8.3.2 Design resistance of screwed connections loaded in shear............................................................45 8.3.3 Design resistance of screwed connections loaded in tension.........................................................46 9 Design assisted by testing ...........................................................................................................................48 Annex A [normative] – Testing procedures .....................................................................................................49 A.1 General....................................................................................................................................................49 A.2 Tests on profiled sheets ..........................................................................................................................49 A.2.1 General ............................................................................................................................................49 A.2.2 Single span test ...............................................................................................................................50 A.2.3 Double span test..............................................................................................................................50 A.2.4 Internal support test.........................................................................................................................50 A.2.5 End support test...............................................................................................................................52 A.3 Evaluation of test results ........................................................................................................................53 A.3.1 General ............................................................................................................................................53 A.3.2 Adjustment of test results ...............................................................................................................53 A.3.3 Characteristic values .......................................................................................................................54 A.3.4 Design values ..................................................................................................................................55 A.3.5 Serviceability ..................................................................................................................................55 Annex B [informative] – Durability of fasteners..............................................................................................56 Annex C [informative] – Bibliography .............................................................................................................58

3

prEN 1999-1-4: 05-2004

National Annex for EN 1999-1-4
This standard gives alternative procedures, values and recommendations for classes with notes indicating where national choices may have to be made. Therefore the National Standard implementing EN 1999-1-4 should have a National Annex containing all Nationally Determined Parameters to be used for the design of aluminium structures to be constructed in the relevant country. National choice is allowed in EN 1999-1-4 through clauses: 2.2(3) 2.2(4) 3.1(3) 7.3(3) 8.1(5) A.1(1) A.3.4(3)

4

prEN 1999-1-4: 05-2004

1 Introduction
1.1 Scope
(1) EN 1999-1-4 gives design requirements for cold-formed trapezoidal aluminium sheeting. It applies to cold-formed aluminium products made from thin gauge hot or cold rolled sheet or strip that have been coldformed by such processes as cold-rolled forming or press-breaking. The execution of aluminium structures made of cold-formed sheeting is covered in EN 1090-3. NOTE The rules in this part complement the rules in other parts of EN 1999-1. (2) Methods are also given for stressed-skin design using aluminium sheeting as a structural diaphragm.

(3) This part does not apply to cold-formed aluminium profiles like C-, Z- etc profiles nor cold-formed and welded circular or rectangular hollow sections. (4) EN 1999-1-4 gives methods for design by calculation and for design assisted by testing. The methods for the design of calculation apply only within stated ranges of material properties and geometrical properties for which sufficient experience and test evidence is available. These limitations do not apply to design by testing. (5) EN 1999-1-4 does not cover load arrangement for testing for loads during execution and maintenance.

1.2 Normative references
(1) This European Standard incorporates, by dated or undated reference, provisions from other publications. These normative references are cited at the appropriate places in the text and the publications are listed hereafter. For dated references, subsequent amendments to or revisions of any of these publications apply to this European Standard only when incorporated in it by amendment or revision. For undated references the latest edition of the publication referred to applies. EN 485-2:1994 EN 508-2:2000 EN 1396:1996 prEN 1090-3 EN 1990:2002: EN 1995-1-1:1993 EN 1999-1-1 EN 10002-1:2001 EN 10088:1995 EN ISO 1479:1994 EN ISO 1481:1994 EN ISO 15480:1999 EN ISO 15481: 1999 Aluminium and aluminium alloys - Sheet, strip and plate - Part 2: Mechanical properties Roofing products from metal sheet - Specification for self-supporting products of steel, aluminium or stainless steel sheet - Part 2: Aluminium Aluminium and aluminium alloys - Coil coated sheet and strip for general applications - Specifications Technical requirements for the execution of aluminium structures Eurocode 0 - Basis of structural design Eurocode 5: Design of timber structures - Part 1-1 General rules and rules for buildings Eurocode 9: Design of aluminium structures - Part 1-1 General structural rules Metallic materials - Tensile testing - Part 1: Method of test at ambient temperature Stainless steels - Part 1: List of stainless steels Hexagon head tapping screws (ISO 1479:1983) Slotted pan head tapping screws (ISO 1481:1983) Hexagon washer head drilling screws with tapping screw thread (ISO 15480:1999) Cross recessed pan head drilling screws with tapping screw thread (ISO 15481:1999)

EN ISO 12944-2:1998 Paints and varnishes - Corrosion protection of steel structures by protective paint systems - Part 2: Classification of environments (ISO 12944-2:1998) EN ISO 15973:2000 Closed end blind rivets with break pull mandrel and protruding head - AIA/St (ISO 15973:2000
5

of a member or plane cross-section part.prEN 1999-1-4: 05-2004 EN ISO 15974:2000 EN ISO 15977:2002 EN ISO 15978:2002 EN ISO 15981:2002 EN ISO 15982:2002 ISO 7049:1994 Closed end blind rivets with break pull mandrel and countersunk head .AIA/St (ISO 15977:2002) Open end blind rivets with break pull mandrel and countersunk head . or the torsional or warping deformation. 3. the following definitions apply: 1. partial restraint: Restriction of the lateral or rotational movement. the following main symbols are used: Section 1 to 6 C k θ bp hw sw χd dw fu. diameter of the washer or the head of the fastener.2 % proof strength fo of the basic material. basic material: The flat sheet aluminium material out of which profiled sheets are made by cold forming. minor ultimate tensile strength of both connected parts. relative slenderness: A normalised slenderness ratio. 2. or the torsional or warping deformation. Rotation.min fu.AIA/St (ISO 15978:2002) Open end blind rivets with break pull mandrel and protruding head .sup fy 6 Rotational spring stiffness. Reduction factor for distortional buckling (flexural buckling of stiffeners). diaphragm action: Structural behaviour involving in-plane shear in the sheeting. support: A location at which a member is able to transfer forces or moments to a foundation.AIA/St (ISO 15974:2000) Open end blind rivets with break pull mandrel and protruding head . 6. for the purposes of EN 1999-1-4. measured between midpoints of corners. that increases its buckling resistance to the same extent as a rigid support. Linear spring stiffness.AIA/AIA (ISO 15982:2002) Cross recessed pan head tapping screws (ISO 7049:1983) 1. stressed-skin design: A design method that allows for the contribution made by diaphragm action in the sheeting to the stiffness and strength of a structure. or to another member or other structural component. 1.AIA/AIA (ISO 15981:2002) Open end blind rivets with break pull mandrel and countersunk head .3 Definitions Supplementary to EN 1999-1-1. ultimate tensile strength of the supporting member into which a screw is fixed. basic yield strength of support. measured between system lines of flanges. Section 8 Connection with mechanical fasteners .4 Symbols (1) In addition to those given in EN 1999-1-1. that increases its buckling resistance in a similar way to a spring support. Slant height of web. but to a lesser extent than a rigid support. 8. restraint: Restriction of the lateral or rotational movement. 4. 7. Notional flat width of plane cross-section part. of a member or plane cross-section part. 5. basic proof strength: The 0. Web height.

1: Examples of cold-formed sheeting Figure 1. unless stated otherwise. Figure 1.1 Form of sections (1) Cold-formed sheets have within the permitted tolerances a constant thickness nominal over their entire length and have a uniform cross-section along their length.prEN 1999-1-4: 05-2004 tmin tsup (2) thickness of the thinner connected part or sheet.3 Cross-section dimensions (1) Overall dimensions of cold-formed sheeting. thickness of the supporting member in which the screw is fixed. overall height h. (4) Cross-sections of cold formed sheets can either be unstiffened or incorporate longitudinal stiffeners in their webs or flanges.5 Terminology and conventions for dimensions 1.1. are measured to the face of the material.2 (1) Form of stiffeners Typical forms of stiffeners for cold formed sheets are shown in Figure 1.2: Typical intermediate longitudinal stiffeners 1. internal bend radius r and other external dimensions denoted by symbols without subscripts. 7 . such as a. Further symbols are defined where they first occur. (2) The cross-sections of cold formed profiled sheets essentially comprise a number of plane cross-section parts joined by curved parts.2. 1. 1. including overall width b.5.5. (3) Typical forms of cross-sections for cold formed profiled sheets are shown in Figure 1. c or d.5. or in both.

The developed width of a flange is measured along its midline.z-z axis perpendicular to the plane of sheeting. hw or sw. See 3. 1. (4) (5) (6) The developed height of a web is measured along its midline.prEN 1999-1-4: 05-2004 (2) Unless stated otherwise. including any intermediate stiffeners. including any web stiffeners. The thickness t is an aluminium design thickness if not otherwise stated. such as bp. are measured either to the midline of the material or the midpoint of the corner.2. .2. (3) In the case of sloping webs of cold-formed profiled sheets.4 (1) Convention for member axis For profiled sheets the following axis convention is used in EN 1999-1-4: . the other cross-sectional dimensions of cold-formed sheeting. 8 . the slant height s is measured parallel to the slope.y-y axis parallel to the plane of sheeting.5. denoted by symbols with subscripts.

25 (4) For verifications at serviceability limit states the partial factor γM.prEN 1999-1-4: 05-2004 2 Basis of design (1) The design of cold-formed sheeting shall be in accordance with the general rules given in EN 1990 and EN 1999-1-1.25 γM3 = 1. Construction where cold-formed sheeting is designed to contribute to the strength and stability of individual structural components.10 γM2 = 1. (2) (3) Appropriate partial factors shall be adopted for ultimate limit states and serviceability limit states. NOTE 2 Requirements for execution of sheeting in Structural Class I. For verification by calculation at ultimate limit states the partial factors γ M shall be taken as follows: resistance of cross-sections and members to instability assessed by member checks: γ M1 resistance of cross-sections in tension to fracture: resistance of connections: γ M2 γ M3 NOTE Numerical values for γ Mi may be defined in the National Annex. see EN 1090-3. NOTE Numerical values for γ M.0. The following numerical values are recommended for buildings: γM1 = 1. The following numerical value is recommended for buildings: γM. Construction where cold-formed sheeting is used as a component that only transfers loads to the structure.ser may be defined in the National Annex.ser = 1.ser shall be used. (Editorial note: This is presently not the case) 9 . (5) For the design of structures made of cold-formed sheeting a distinction should be made between “Structural Classes” associated with failure consequences according to EN 1990 – Annex B defined as follows: Structural Class I: Structural Class II: Structural Class III: Construction where cold-formed sheeting is designed to contribute to the overall strength and stability of the structure. II and III. NOTE 1 During different construction stages different Structural Classes may be considered.

provided that all of the following conditions are satisfied: a) b) c) the alloy satisfies the requirements for chemical analysis. The design values for material coefficients shall be taken as given in EN 1999-1-1. the ratio of the characteristic ultimate tensile strength fu to the characteristic 0. if partially plastic moment resistance is utilised.2 and f u = Rm direct from product standards. 10 . such tests shall be carried out in accordance with EN 10002-1. . (3) The design methods given in EN 1999-1-4 may also be applied to other structural aluminium alloys with similar strength and toughness properties. (2) The nominal values of material properties in this section should be adopted as characteristic values in design calculations.1 (1) Material properties The characteristic values of 0.1.2.prEN 1999-1-4: 05-2004 3 Materials 3. the alloy is supplied either: .to another recognised standard for structural aluminium sheet.1 General (1) All aluminium alloys for cold-formed profiled sheets shall be suitable for cold-forming. (3) The methods for design by calculation given in EN 1999-1-4 may be used for structural alloys listed in Table 3. (2) Where the characteristic values are determined from tests.2.2 proof strength f o and tensile strength f u shall be obtained a) either by adopting the values f o = Rp0.2 Structural aluminium alloys 3. or b) by using the values given in Table 3. (4) (5) (6) It may be assumed that the properties in compression are the same as those in tension.1.2 proof strength fo should be at least fo = 165 N/mm2.1.2 proof strength fo should be not less than 1. mechanical tests and other control procedures to the extent and in the manner prescribed in the standards that are listed in Table 3. For design by calculation the 0.1. 3.with mechanical properties and chemical composition at least equivalent to one of the alloy-grades that are listed in Table 3. or c) by appropriate tests. NOTE For other aluminium materials and products see National Annex.

2). provided that the load bearing capacity is determined by design assisted by testing. but separated by “/” have same values.5 A A A A AlMg1(B) 5052 AlMg2.0 3. for tempers with fo > 165 N/mm and thickness between 0.5 AlMn1 AlMn0. H2x. elongation 2 A50.5 3 3 6 6 3 3 3 6 4 3 3 3 fu Rm 190 180 220 240 260 210 230 260 195 220 210 185 195 195 185 230 250 270 250 270 210 230 255 210 250 fo Rp0. Otherwise t = t nom (100 − dev) / 95 (3.5 A 5251 AlMg2 A H18 H48 H14 | H24/H34 H16 | H26/H36 H18 | H28/H38 H44 H46 H48 H16 H18 | H28 H48 H18 H18 | H28 H48 H18 H14 H16 | H26/H36 H18 | H28/H38 H46 H48 H14 H16 | H26/H36 H18 | H28/H38 H46 H48 Thickness up to 3.prEN 1999-1-4: 05-2004 Table 3. tempers separated by “|” have different technological values.1) 11 . 5) Durability class. see EN 1999-1-1 3.2 Thickness and geometrical tolerances (1) The provisions for design by calculation given in this EN 1999-1-4 may be used for alloy within the following ranges of nominal thickness tnom of the sheeting exclusive of organic coatings: tnom ≥ 0.2% proof strength fo.5 and 6 mm Designation Designation numerical chemical EN AWEN AW3003 AlMn1Cu Dura5) bility A Temper 1).) 4) A50 may be depending on the thickness of material in the listed range. 3) 3004 AlMn1Mg1 A 3005 3103 3105 5005 AlMn1Mg0. ultimate tensile strength.5 mm (2) Thinner material may also be used. (3) The nominal thickness tnom should be used as design thickness t if a negative deviation is less than 5 %. therefore sometimes also a A50range is given.0 6|3 4|3 3 | 1.1: Characteristic values of 0. (The tempers show differences only for fo and A50.5Mg0.2 1) A50 4) % 2 2 2-3 | 4 1-2 | 3 1-2 | 3 4 3 3 2 2 | 2-3 2 2 1|2 2 2 3-4 3 | 4-6 2 | 3-4 4-5 3-4 2-4 2-3 | 4-7 170 165 180 | 170 200 | 190 230 | 220 180 200 220 175 200 | 190 180 165 180 | 170 170 165 180 210 | 180 240/210 180 210 170 200 | 170 230 | 200 165 215 2|3 4-5 3 1) The values for temper H1x.2. fu.5 3 3 3 4 3 3 3 3 | 1. H3x according to EN 485-2:1994-11 2) The values for temper H4x (coil coated sheet and strip) according to EN 1396:1997-2 3) If two (three) tempers are specified in one line.

Rk and the characteristic tension resistance Ft. (4) Tolerances for roofing products are given in EN 508-2.blind rivets.Rk of the mechanical fasteners may be taken from EN Product standard or ETAG or ETA or relevant tests.3 Connecting devices 3. (3) For details concerning suitable self-tapping screws and blind rivets. including those during transport and storage on site. (2) 4 (1) Durability For basic requirements. 12 . reference should be made to EN 1090-3.1 (1) Mechanical fasteners The following types of mechanical fasteners may be used: . .prEN 1999-1-4: 05-2004 where dev is the negative deviation in %.3. (3) The environmental conditions prevailing from the time of manufacture. if these materials are such that electrochemical phenomena might produce conditions leading to corrosion.self-tapping screws as thread-forming self-tapping screws or self-drilling self-tapping screws. should be taken into account. NOTE For corrosion resistance of fasteners for the environmental corrosivity categories following EN ISO 12944-2 see Annex B. The characteristic shear resistance Fv. see Section 4 of EN 1999-1-1 (2) Special attention should be given to cases in which different materials are intended to act compositely. 3.

sh bp.prEN 1999-1-4: 05-2004 5 Structural analysis 5.sh (1 − 2δ ) with: Ag ≈ Ag.1.sh is the area of the gross cross-section. (6) Where the internal radius r ≥ 0. is the value of I g for a cross-section with sharp corners. (2) In cross-sections with rounded corners.1a) (5.1 Influence of rounded corners (1) In cross-sections with rounded corners. (4) The influence of rounded corners on section properties may be taken into account by reducing the properties calculated for an otherwise similar cross-section with sharp corners. is the number of curved cross-section parts. 13 .15bp and the cross-section may be assumed to consist of plane cross-section parts with sharp corners. the calculation of section properties shall be based upon the actual geometry of the cross-section. is the internal radius of curved cross-section part j .1c) where: Ag Ag. the notional flat widths bp of the plane cross-section parts shall be measured from the midpoints of the adjacent corner cross-section parts. is the number of plane cross-section parts. is the second moment of area of the gross cross-section. φ m n rj (5) The reductions given by expression (5. as indicated in Figure 5.sh (1 − δ ) (5. is the angle between two plane elements.i Ig I g. is the notional flat width of plane cross-section part i for a cross-section with sharp corners.1b) δ = 0.i m (5.eff provided that the notional flat widths of the plane cross-section parts are measured to the points of intersection of their midlines. is the value of Ag for a cross-section with sharp corners.43 ⋅ ∑ (r j φ j / 90) j =1 n i =1 ∑ bp.04t E / f o . The influence of rounded corners on section properties may be neglected if the internal radius r ≤ 10t and r ≤ 0. then the resistance of the cross-section should be determined by tests. using the following approximations: I g ≈ I g. (3) Unless more appropriate methods are used to determine the section properties the following approximate procedure may be used. without consideration of the curvature of stiffeners in webs and flanges.1) may also be applied in calculating the effective section properties Aeff and I y.

5E / f o NOTE These limits b / t and s w / t given in (2) may be assumed to represent the field for which sufficient experience and verification by testing is available. (2) The maximum width-to-thickness ratios are: • for compressed flanges b / t ≤ 300 • for webs sw / t ≤ 0. where the results are confirmed by an appropriate number of tests. provided that their resistance at ultimate limit states and their behaviour at serviceability limit states are verified by testing and/or by calculations. 5.3 Structural modelling for analysis (1) 14 The parts of a cross-section may be modelled for analysis as indicated in Table 5.1 .1: Notional widths of plane cross-section parts bp allowing for corner radii 5.2 Geometrical proportions (1) The provisions for design by calculation given in EN 1999-1-4 shall not be applied to cross-sections outside the range of width-to-thickness ratios b / t and sw / t given in (2). Cross-sections with larger width-to-thickness ratios may also be used.prEN 1999-1-4: 05-2004 gr X bp (a) midpoint of corner or bend X is intersection of midlines P is midpoint of corner P r t φ 2 rm = r + t / 2 φ 2 φ φ   g r = rm  tan( ) − sin( )  2 2   sw φ bp = sw hw h (b) notional flat width bp for a web (bp = slant height sw) bp (c) notional flat width bp of plane parts adjacent to web stiffener bp bp bp (d) notional flat width bp of flat parts adjacent to flange stiffener Figure 5.

1 Modelling of parts of a cross-section Type of cross-section part Model Type of cross-section part Model 5. is half the distance between the webs.For a profile.2. is distance of flange under consideration from neutral axis. If the stress is calculated for the effective cross-section. The formulae apply to both compression and tensile flanges. 15 . see Figure 5. 2bs z Figure 5. is radius of curvature of arched beam.For an arched profile u= where: u bs z r E t 2r (5.2: Flange curling (2) Calculation of the curling may be carried out as follows. see Figure 5. or of an arched profile subject to flexure in which the concave side is in compression. inward curvature towards the neutral plane) of a very wide flange in a profile subject to flexure. . then the reduction in load bearing resistance. which is straight prior to application of loading.1f) is bending of the flange towards the neutral axis (curling). Table 5.4 Flange curling (1) The effect on the load bearing resistance of curling (i. should be taken into account unless such curling is less than 5 % of the depth of the profile cross-section. If curling is larger. and to the possible effect of bending should be taken into account. both with and without stiffeners. for instance due to decrease in length of the lever arm for part of the wide flange.e. σa is mean stress in the flange calculated with the gross area. the mean stress is obtained by multiplying the stress for the effective cross-section by the ratio of the effective flange area to the gross flange area.2: u= 2 4 2σ a bs u E 2t 2 z 4 2σ a bs (5. but without closely spaced transverse stiffeners in flanges.1e) .prEN 1999-1-4: 05-2004 (2) The mutual influence of multiple stiffeners should be taken into account.

90 If σcom.red given by: 16 .if λp > λlim : ρ = 1. the appropriate slant height should be used.22 / λ p / λ p ( ) (5. where ρ is a reduction factor allowing for local buckling.2: Parameters λlim and α λlim 0.5.2b) in which the plate slenderness λp is given by: 12 1 . calculated on the basis of the effective thickness.2a) (5.5.1(3) The distortional buckling of cross-section parts with intermediate stiffeners is considered in 5. (4) If σcom.ν 2 f o bp ≡ ⋅ ≅ 1.1. The parameters λlim and α may be taken from Table 5.3. (3) (4) (5) In determining resistance to local buckling.2 Plane cross-section parts without stiffeners (1) The effective thickness teff of compression cross-section parts should be obtained as teff = ρ ⋅ t . (2) Local buckling effects may be considered by using effective cross-sectional properties.2. see EN 1999-1-1.3) kσ is the relevant buckling factor from Table 5.Ed = f0 /γM1 the reduction factor ρ should be obtained from the following: .565 α 0.1 General (1) The effects of local and distortional buckling shall be taken into account in determining the resistance and stiffness of cold-formed sheeting. In the case of plane cross-section parts in a sloping web. Table 5.prEN 1999-1-4: 05-2004 5. see 7. (3) The reduction factor ρ to determine teff shall be based on the largest compressive stress σcom. 5. the 0.if λ p ≤ λlim : .Ed < fo / γM1 the reduction factor ρ should be determined as follows: Use expressions (5.3. when the resistance of the cross-section is reached.5.Ed in the relevant cross-section part (calculated on the basis of the effective cross-section).2a) and (5.2 proof strength fo should be used. (2) The notional flat width bp of a plane cross-section part shall be determined as specified in 5.0 ρ = α − 0.2b) but replace the plate slenderness λp by the reduced plate slenderness λ p.5 Local and distortional buckling 5.052 λp = 2 t σ cr t π E kσ fo bp ( ) fo E kσ (5. For effective cross-section properties for serviceability verifications.

98(1 − ψ ) 2 5.5.3: Cross-section parts in compression Cross-section part (+ = compression) σ1 + ψ = σ 2 /σ1 Buckling factor kσ σ2 ψ = +1 teff bp t kσ = 4.5. but using the effective cross-section already found in place of the gross cross-section.0 σ1 + σ2 + 1 >ψ ≥ 0 teff t kσ = 8.1 Plane cross-section parts with intermediate stiffeners General (1) The design of compression cross-section parts with intermediate stiffeners should be based on the assumption that the stiffener behaves as a compression member with continuous partial restraint.78ψ 2 σ1 + σ2 teff t − 1 > ψ ≥ −3 kσ = 5. 17 .05 + ψ σ1 + σ2 teff t 0 > ψ ≥ −1 kσ = 7.Ed f o γ M1 (5.3. The spring stiffness k per unit length may be determined from: k = u /δ (5.3 may be based on the properties of the gross cross-section.1(3) (6) In determining the effective thickness of a flange cross-section part subject to stress gradient.4) For calculation of effective stiffness at serviceability limit states. with a spring stiffness that depends on the boundary conditions and the flexural stiffness of the adjacent plane cross-section parts. the stress ratio ψ used in Table 5.3 may be obtained using the effective area of the compression flange but the gross area of the web.5) where δ is the deflection of a transverse plate strip due to the unit load u acting at the centroid ( b1 ) of the effective part of the stiffener. The minimum steps in the iteration dealing with stress gradient are two.prEN 1999-1-4: 05-2004 λp. (7) In determining the effective thickness of a web cross-section part the stress ratio ψ used in Table 5.81 − 6.2 1. see 7.3 5.26ψ + 9. (8) Optionally the effective section properties may be refined by repeating (6) and (7) iteratively. Table 5.3. red = λp (5) σ com. (2) The spring stiffness of a stiffener should be determined by applying a unit load per unit length u as illustrated in Figure 5.

5.3 or 5.5.155 − 0. 18 .s is the elastic critical stress for the stiffener from 5. (2) The stiffeners should be equally shaped and not more than two in number.7) where: σcr.2 δ k Figure 5. and the deflection δ may be obtained from: δ= 2 2 ub1 b2 12(1 − ν 2 ) 3(b1 + b2 ) Et 3 (5. or on any other parts of the cross-section that is subject to compression.1 and Cθ.4.6) (5) The reduction factor χd for the distortional buckling resistance of a stiffener (flexural buckling of an intermediate stiffener) should be obtained from Table 5.04 1. Table 5.5.04 ≤ λs χd 1.2.2. (3) If the criteria in (1) and (2) are met the effectiveness of the stiffener may be determined from the design procedure given in 5.2 from the geometry of the crosssection. (4) For an intermediate stiffener.00 1.1 b1 u b2 Cθ. account should be taken of the possible effects of other stiffeners that exist on the same cross-section part.62λs 0. as a conservative alternative.4 for the relative slenderness given in (5.25 <λs < 1. For more stiffeners not more than two shall be taken into account.5.4 Reduction factor χd for distortional buckling of stiffeners λs λs ≤ 0.2 may be taken as equal to zero.3.s (5.25 0.53 / λs 5.5.3.prEN 1999-1-4: 05-2004 Cθ.1 and Cθ.3: Determination of spring stiffness (3) In determining the values of the rotational spring stiffness Cθ. the values of the rotational spring stiffnesses Cθ.7) λs = f o / σ cr.2 Condition for use of the design procedure (1) The following procedure is applicable to one or two equal intermediate stiffeners formed by grooves or bends provided that all plane parts are calculated according to 5.3.3.

1 /2 a b2 bp.Step 1: Obtain an initial effective cross-section for the stiffener to calculate the cross-section area As using effective thickness determined by assuming that the stiffener gives full restraint and that σcom.4.2 /2 a teff. should be carried out in steps as follows: .1 teff.5.Step 2: Use another effective cross-section of the stiffener to calculate the effective second moment of inertia in order to determine the reduction factor for distortional buckling. see (5) and (6).3 Design procedure (1) The cross-section of an intermediate stiffener should be taken as comprising the stiffener itself plus the adjacent effective portions of the adjacent plane cross-section parts bp. .4: Intermediate stiffeners (2) The procedure.1 /2 bp. ./γM1 .1 bp.3.1 bp.Step 3: Optionally iterate to refine the value of the reduction factor for buckling of the stiffener.1 bs teff.2 (b) b2 bp.2 shown in Figure 5. allowing for the effects of the continuous spring restraint. b1 bp.5.Ed = fo. see (7) and (8).2 /2 a bs teff.2 (a) a (a) and (b) Initial effective cross-section. As Figure 5.1 and bp. 19 . see (3) and (4).2 bp.prEN 1999-1-4: 05-2004 5.2 b1 bp. which is illustrated in Figure 5.

see Table 5. with reduction factor χd based on σ cr.n teff.5: Compression resistance of a flange with an intermediate stiffener (3) Initial values of the effective thickness teff.1= χd teff.1 χd fyb/γM1 fo/γM1 teff.8) .1 and bp.2= χd teff.1 bp. (4) The effective cross-sectional area of an intermediate stiffener As should be obtained from: As = teff.4 should be determined from 5.5.2/2 σcr.2 bp.1 and teff. continuing until χ d.2 are doubly supported.1.1 tred.2 e) Step 3: Optionally repeat step 1 by calculating the effective thickness with a reduced compressive stress σ com.2/2 bp.2 by assuming that the plane cross-section parts bp.red Figure 5.i = χ d f o / γ M1 with χd from previous iteration.s for effective cross-section based on effective width 12t and spring stiffness k teff.1 fo/γM1 teff.n −1 but χ d.Ed.1 As.2 fo/γM1 teff.2 b) Step 1: Effective cross-section for k = ∞ based on σ com.redwith reduced thickness t red corresponding to χd.2 / 2 20 (5.2 shown in Figure 5.2 a t 12t k 12t t a c) Step 2: Elastic critical stress σ cr.2 teff.2 f) Adopt an effective cross-section As.n −1 .prEN 1999-1-4: 05-2004 b1 t b2 bp.1 teff.1 teff.1 d) Reduced strength χ d f o / γ M1 for effective area of stiffener As .1/2 k bp.s Iteration 1 k χd fo/γM1 teff.2 a) Gross cross-section and boundary conditions teff.1/2 bp.Ed = f o / γ M1 bp.n ≤ χ d.s teff.n ≈ χ d. Iteration n k fo/γM1 tred.1 / 2 + t bs + teff.2 tred= χd t teff.1 bs bp.

(2) For one central flange stiffener.5. in association with 5.prEN 1999-1-4: 05-2004 in which the stiffener width bs is as shown in Figure 5.s should be obtained from: 21 . (6) The reduction factor χd for the distortional buckling resistance of an intermediate stiffener should be obtained from the value of σcr. starting the iteration with modified values of ρ obtained using 5.5bp and thickness teff adjacent to the edges supported by webs.5.4.a of its effective cross-section. so that: λp.red = λp χ d (5. is the effective second moment of area of the stiffener.4.1 Trapezoidal sheeting profiles with intermediate stiffeners General (1) This sub-clause should be used for cold-formed trapezoidal profiled sheets.Ed is compression stress at the centreline of the stiffener calculated on the basis of the effective cross-section. see Figure 5.5.3.Ed equal to χd fo/γM1 . 5. the reduced effective area As.4 5. (7) If χd < 1 it may optionally be refined iteratively.s using the method given in 5.1(5).4.5f). red ≤ As (5. see 5.3.4.2(4) with σcom.5.red allowing for distortional buckling should be taken as: f /γ As. the effective cross-section of a flange with intermediate stiffeners should be assumed to consist of the reduced effective areas As.5. it should be continued until the current value of χd is approximately equal to.2 Flanges with intermediate stiffeners (1) If it is subject to uniform compression.s = where: 2 kEI s As (5.s for an intermediate stiffener should be obtained from: σ cr.1(2). the elastic critical buckling stress σcr. (10) In determining effective section properties.5.11) where σ com. see Figure 5. using the thickness t and effective width 12t of adjacent plane cross-section parts about the centroidal axis a .3.red = χd As o M1 σ com. (2) Interaction between distortional buckling of intermediate flange stiffeners and intermediate web stiffeners should also be taken into account using the method given in 5.red should be represented by using a reduced thickness tred = χd teff for all the cross-section parts included in As 5. (5) The critical buckling stress σcr. the previous value.Ed but As.5.4.red of up to two intermediate stiffeners and two strips of width 0. but not more than.6(a).9) k Is is the spring stiffness per unit length. (9) The reduced effective area of the stiffener As.5.10) (8) If iteration is carried out.3 for flanges with intermediate flange stiffeners and for webs with intermediate stiffeners.

5 br where: bp.7(a). (6) Alternatively.1 teff. 12t 12t a a 12t 12t a (a) Cross-section for Is a t t t 0.1 is the notional flat width of an outer plane cross-section part.6: Compression flange with one or two stiffeners (3) For two symmetrically placed flange stiffeners. the elastic critical buckling stress σcr. see (5) and (6).13) with: be = 2bp.1 bs (b) Cross-section for As t (c) Stiffener width bp.2 0.prEN 1999-1-4: 05-2004 σcr.1 br bp.3.1 teff. is the notional flat width of the central plane cross-section part.2 + 2bs b1 = bp.1 Figure 5.6. as shown in Figure 5.14a) (5.6.2κ w E As 2 8 b1 (3 be − 4 b1) I s t3 (5.s = 4.5bp.6. The value of κw may be calculated from the compression flange buckling wavelength lb as follows: .5bp.1 teff. see Figure 5.5bp.1 0.2 br bp. see Figure 5. measured around the perimeter of the stiffener.if lb / sw ≥ 2: κw = κwo 2 .s = 4.if lb / sw < 2: κw = κwo − (κwo − 1)[2lb /sw − (lb / sw ) ] where: sw (5.2 is the stiffener width.1 + 0.1 bp. 22 . bs is the stiffener width. the one in the middle should be assumed to be ineffective. as shown in Figure 5. see Figure 5. and As and Is are as defined in 5. measured around the perimeter of the stiffener. κw is a coefficient that allows for partial rotational restraint of the stiffened flange by the webs.6(c).6.12) where: bp is the notional flat width of plane cross-section part shown in Figure 5.1 0.6(c). bp.2 teff.1 + bp.14b) is the slant height of the web.2κ w E As 4 b p 2 b p + 3 bs 2 ( I s t3 ) (5.0 corresponding to a pin-jointed condition.3 and Figure 5.5. the rotational restraint coefficient κw may conservatively be taken as equal to 1. bs (4) (5) If there are three stiffeners.1 br bp.5bp.s should be obtained from: σcr.

red of up to two intermediate stiffeners.16) bd = 2bp + bs . (11) In determining effective section properties.3. c) a strip of width 2sn/3 adjacent to the effective centroidal axis. red ≤ As (5.15) κwo = with: s w + 2bd s w + 0.5. (10) If the webs are also stiffened.red of each web stiffener up to a maximum of two. the reduction factor χd should be obtained directly from σcr. b) the reduced effective area As.4.red should be represented by using a reduced thickness tred = χd teff for all the cross-section parts included in As. see Figure 5.4. the reduction factor χd should be obtained using the method given in 5.65 4 I s b12 (3be − 4b1 ) / t 3 (5.Ed but As. 23 .for a compression flange with one intermediate stiffener: lb = 3.red = χd As o M1 σ com. a strip adjacent to the compression flange and a strip adjacent to the centroidal axis of the cross-section.s using the method given in 5. the reduced effective area As.a adjacent to the compression flange.mod given in 5.red allowing for distortional buckling (flexural buckling of an intermediate stiffener) should be taken as: f /γ As.19) (9) If the webs are unstiffened.1(5).5.5.1(5).07 4 I s b p 2bp + 3bs / t 3 2 ( ) (5. As.7 should be taken to include: a) a strip of width sa/2 and effective thickness teff.5.3.prEN 1999-1-4: 05-2004 (7) The values of lb and κwo may be determined from the following: .5bd (5. but with the modified elastic critical stress σcr.7.3 Webs with up to two intermediate stiffeners under stress gradient (1) The effective cross-section of the compressed zone of a web should be assumed to consist of the reduced effective areas.18) κwo = (2be + sw )(3be − 4b1 ) b1 (4be − 6b1 ) + sw (3be − 4b1 ) (8) The reduced effective area of the stiffener As. 5.17) (5. d) the part of the web in tension. Webs under uniform compression stress should be treated analogously to stiffened flanges. (2) The effective cross-section of a web as shown in Figure 5.for a compression flange with two or three intermediate stiffeners: lb = 3.4.

for the stiffener closer to the compression flange in webs with two stiffeners: Figure 5.n are given in (5).21) a ff.n sb 2 sn 3 (d1) (d2) (d3) a (e) Figure 5. ssa.n ec s sb te b ff.prEN 1999-1-4: 05-2004 hsa h a s sa hsa h a te a hb s hsb te s n ff. where ec and et are the distances from the effective centroidal axis to the system line of the compression and tension flange.b and tteff.n n ) . 2 3 Figure 5. sn and φ are as shown in Figure 5.b and teff.7.a .7.a a + t ssa + teff.for a second stiffener s s Asb = (teff.n φ (b) te ff. and sn are as shown in Figure 5.20b) Figure 5.b sa 2 te s sb te ff.a.n n a 12 t sa 2 te s sa ff. 24 s (5. sb.7(d2) (5.a a + t ssa + teff. hb. hsb.2) with slenderness λp and stress relation factor ψ according to Table 5.22) where ρ is calculated using expression (5. the effective thickness tteff.b b + t ssb + teff.7(d3) in which the dimensions sa. and the dimensions ha. teff.7(d1) 12 t Asa sb 2 Asa sn 3 Asb Is s te ec ec ff.5.a. see Figure 5.7 and teff.b b ) .b s sa t t ff.7: Effective cross-sections of webs of cold-formed profiled sheets The initial effective areas should be obtained from the following: .n hw s n s w s c et et t t et t φ (a) s sa te ff.a φ (c) te ff.20a) (5. (5) If the web under compression is not fully effective. ssb.b . 2 2 .n should be determined as follows: teff = ρ t (5.a s sa te ff.n n ) . hsa.a s c s te ff.for a single stiffener: s s Asa = (teff. (4) Initially the location of the effective centroidal axis should be based on the effective cross-section of the flanges but with the gross cross-sections of the webs. tteff. 2 3 s s Asa = (teff.

the elastic buckling stress scr. the rotational restraint coefficient κf may conservatively be taken as equal to 1.1(5). about its own centroidal axis parallel to the plane web cross-section parts.5: Slenderness λ p and stress relation factor ψ for a web with stiffeners Web part location Adjacent to compression flange Between stiffeners Adjacent to centroidal axes Web part sa sb sn Slenderness λ p Stress relation factor ψ λp = λp = λp = sa t sb t sc t fo E kσ f o (ec − ha − hsa ) ⋅ E kσ ec f o (ec − hb − hsb ) ⋅ E kσ ec ψ= ψ= ec − ha ec ec − hb ec − ha − hsa ec sn ⋅ sinφ ψ =− (7) For a single stiffener. or for the stiffener closer to the compression flange in webs with two stiffeners.26) (10) If the flanges are also stiffened.4. but with the modified elastic critical stress σcr.7 (d1) and (d3).4.for the stiffener closer to the compression flange. the reduced effective area Asa. (9) For a single stiffener in compression. the reduced effective area Asa.red should be determined from: Asa.5 hsa 1− ec but Asa.3. (11) For a single stiffener in tension. each of width 12t.sa = 1.mod given in 5.5.24) . red = χ d Asa ha + 0. see Figure 5.5 ssa (5.prEN 1999-1-4: 05-2004 (6) To calculate the initial effective area Asa and Asb of web stiffeners. should be taken as equal to Asb 25 . In calculating Isa the possible difference in slope between the plane crosssection parts on either side of the stiffener may be neglected. and two adjacent strips.red for the second stiffener. Table 5.5. s2 = s1 − sa − 0.for a single stiffener: s1 = 0. close to the neutral axis.sa should be determined using: σ cr.red ≤ Asa (5. the reduced effective area Asb. Figure 5.9( sa + ssa + sc ) .5 ssa (5. the reduction factor χd should be obtained using the method given in 5.23) in which s1 and s2 are given by the following: .7(e).red should be taken as equal to Asa .05 κ f E I sa t 3 s1 Asa s 2 ( s1 − s 2 ) (5. width ssa. sa and sb are divided into two equal parts sa/2 and sb/2. and one part 2sn/3 adjacent to the centroidal axis. (12) For webs with two stiffeners. or for the stiffener closer to the compression flange in a web with two stiffeners. in webs with two stiffeners where the other stiffener is in tension or close to the centroidal axis: s1 = sa + ssa + sb + 0.25) κf is a coefficient that allows for partial rotation restraint of the stiffened web by the flanges. s2 = s1 − sa − 0.5( ssb + sc ) .0 corresponding to a pin-jointed condition. (8) In the absence of a more detailed investigation. Isa is the second moment of area of a stiffener cross-section comprising the fold. The web part sn over the centroidal axis is divided into one part sn/3 adjacent to the stiffener.

s σ cr.3(7).4.5.5.1. is the elastic critical stress for a single web stiffener. 5.a As te ec yeff hw Asa ff. see 5. the reduced effective area Asa.prEN 1999-1-4: 05-2004 (13) In determining effective section properties.27) where: σ cr.1 te β s = 1 − (hs + 0. interaction between the distortional buckling of the flange stiffeners and the web stiffeners should be allowed for by using a modified elastic critical stress σ cr.8.s   σ cr. see 5.8: Dimensions of cold-formed profiled sheeting with flange stiffeners and web stiffeners 26 hsa ha .mod = σ cr.5. see Figure 5. see 7.sa is the elastic critical stress for an intermediate flange stiffener.5hha ) / ec βs = 1 ff.3(7).2(3) for a flange with two stiffeners.4.5.sa   4 (5. (14) If χd < 1 it may optionally be refined iteratively.red should be represented by using a reduced thickness tred = χd teff for all the cross-section parts included in Asa.5. obtained from: σ cr. see 5.4 Sheeting with flange stiffeners and web stiffeners (1) In the case of sheeting with intermediate stiffeners in the flanges and in the webs.4.s 4 1 + β    s σ cr. or the stiffener closer to the compression flange in webs with two stiffeners.4.2(2) for a flange with a single stiffener or 5. for a profile in bending for a profile in axial compression teff.mod for both types of stiffeners. (15) For the effective section properties at serviceability limit states.n yeff t Figure 5.

in relation to inelastic behaviour. web crippling or shear lag. using the method given in 6. (2) Design assisted by testing may be used instead of design by calculation for any resistance.Rd ≤ Fn.Rd = where: Ag Fn. If this does not coincide with the centroid of its gross cross-section. e.Rd should be determined from: N t.if the effective area Aeff is equal to the gross area Ag (section with no reduction due to local or N c. 6. NOTE: Design assisted by testing is particularly likely to be beneficial for cross sections with relatively high bp/t ratios.1.Rd (6.1.1) shall be taken into account.5. This is a conservative assumption. the shift eN of the centroidal axes (see Figure 6.2 Axial tension (1) The design resistance of a cross-section for uniform tension Nt.if the effective area Aeff is less than the gross area Ag (section with reduction due to local and/or distortional buckling) N c. 6.9.g.1.Rd should be determined from: . Rd = Ag f o / γ M1 where (6. (4) The buckling resistance of sheeting members in compression shall be verified as specified in 6.5. Rd = Aeff f o / γ M1 distortional buckling) (6.3) Aeff is the effective area of the cross-section.1. Further analysis may give a more realistic situation of the internal forces for instance in case of uniformly building-up of normal force in the compression cross-section part. but can be used without further analysis. (2) The design compression resistance of a cross-section for uniform compression should be assumed to act at the centroid of its effective cross-section. (3) For design by calculation. (2) The internal normal force in a member should be taken as acting at the centroid of its gross cross-section.1 General (1) The rules in this section apply to the design by calculation. see Section 9 and Annex A. is the net-section resistance for the appropriate type of mechanical fastener.3 Axial compression (1) The design resistance of a cross-section for compression Nc. 27 .2) .1 Resistance of cross-sections 6.2 by assuming a uniform compressive stress equal to f o / γ M1 . the effects of local buckling and distortional buckling shall be taken into account by using effective section properties determined as specified in 5.prEN 1999-1-4: 05-2004 6 Ultimate limit states 6.Rd f o Ag γ M1 but Nt.1) is the gross area of the cross-section.2. obtained from 5.

1.5.4.2. Mc. see 5.2: Bending moment resistance as a function of the slenderness (2) Expression (6.25 . (3) If (2) is not fulfilled the following expression should be used: M c.1.Rd = f o Wel + (Wpl − Wel ) 4(1 − λ / λel ) / γ M1 but not more than Wpl f o / γ M1 where ( ) (6.5) does not exceed 30o. For stiffened cross-section parts λ = λs and λel = 0.if the effective section modulus Weff is less than the gross elastic section modulus Wel : M c.4 N Ed (a) Gross cross-section (b) Effective cross-section Figure 6.Rd Wpl fo Wel fo Weff fo 0 0 λel λ Figure 6. then that shift should be neglected only if the shift has been calculated at yield strength and not with the actual compressive stresses.4 6.3 N Ed t eff.4) M c.1 eN t eff.2 teff.5) λ is the slenderness of the cross-section part which correspond to the largest value of λ / λel . teff.Rd = Wel f o / γ M1 28 (6.1.3. For double supported plane cross-section parts λ = λ p and λel = λlim where λlim is found in Table 5.5) is applicable provided that the angle φ between the web and the vertical (see Figure 6. NOTE The resulting bending moment resistance as a function of the slenderness of the most slender cross-section part is illustrated in Figure 6.prEN 1999-1-4: 05-2004 When the shift of the neutral axis gives a favourable result in the stress/unity check.if the effective section modulus Weff is equal to the gross elastic section modulus Wel : (6.6) .1 Bending moment Elastic and elastic-plastic resistance with yielding at the compressed flange (1) The design moment resistance of a cross-section for bending Mc.2.Rd = Weff f o / γ M1 .1: Effective cross-section under compression 6.Rd should be determined as follows: .

1.1. (5) The stress ratio ψ = σ2 / σ1 used to determine the effective portions of the web may be obtained by using the effective area of the compression flange but the gross area of the web.w σ2 = ψσ1 Figure 6.9 should be applied. plastic reserves in the tension zone may be utilised without any strain limit until the maximum compressive stress σcom.prEN 1999-1-4: 05-2004 (4) The effective section modulus Weff should be based on an effective cross-section that is subject only to bending moment.3.3: Effective cross-section for resistance to bending moments (7) If redistribution of bending moments is assumed in the global analysis.1.4. ec Figure 6. allowing for the effects of local and distortional buckling as specified in 5. allowance should also be made for its effects. 6. it should be demonstrated from the results of tests that the provisions given in 7. teff.4. For axial load and bending 6. In this clause only the bending case is considered.2 are satisfied. 6.5.2 are satisfied.f σ1 sc fo/γM1 teff t t .2 Elastic and elastic-plastic resistance with yielding at the tension flange only (1) Provided that yielding occurs first at the tension edge. unless the conditions given in 6. it should be demonstrated from the results of tests that the provisions given in 7.1.4.f teff. which results in ψ = −2 + 2ec/hw.Ed reaches fo /γM1 . the effective partially plastic section modulus Wpp.Ed equal to fo / γM1. hw ec 29 . but ignoring the shape of the stress distribution in determining ψ.eff should be based on a stress distribution that is bilinear in the tension zone but linear in the compression zone.8 or 6. the effective thickness teff of the webs may be obtained using 5.2 are met the value of Weff should be based on a linear distribution of stress across the cross-section. (2) In this case.1. with a maximum stress σmax. (3) In the absence of a more detailed analysis. see Figure 6.4). (6) If yielding occurs first at the compression edge of the cross-section.5. Where shear lag is relevant (see EN 1999-1-1).2 by basing ec on the bilinear stress distribution (see Figure 6.4: Measure ec for determination of effective thickness (4) If redistribution of bending moments is assumed in the global analysis.3 Effects of shear lag (1) The effects of shear lag shall be taken into account according to EN 1999-1-1.

for webs with longitudinal stiffeners.48 fo / λ w 0. such as cleats. 30 .Rd = (hw / sin φ) t fbv / γM1 where: fbv is the shear strength considering buckling according to Table 6.48 fo / λ w 1) λ w ≥ 0. see Figure 6.8a) .5. see Figure 6.346 sp t fo E (6. as indicated in Figure 6.346 s d t with: 5.83 0. about the axis a .5: λ w = 0.48 fo / λ w 0.58 fo 0. sd is the total developed slant height of the web.40 1) Stiffening at the support. hw is the web height between the midlines of the flanges. see Figure 6. arranged to prevent distortion of the web and designed to resist the support reaction.5.1.5.34 f o kτ E but λ w ≥ 0.34 + 2.9) where: Is is the second moment of area of the individual longitudinal stiffener.8b) kτ = 5.1.10 ∑ I s 3 t sd (6.346 w t fo E (6.7) Relative web slenderness Web without stiffening at the support 0. sp is the slant height of the largest plane part in the web. see Figure 6.83 < λ w ≤ 1.5.67 fo / λ w 2 Web with stiffening at the support 0.a as indicated in Figure 6. φ is the slope of the web relative to the flanges.40 λ w ≥ 1.5.prEN 1999-1-4: 05-2004 6.5. between the midpoints of the corners.Rd should be determined from: Vb.58 fo 0. sw is the slant height of the web. as shown in Figure 6.for webs without longitudinal stiffeners: s λw = 0. Table 6.5 (1) Shear force The shear resistance Vb. (2) The relative web slenderness λ w shall be obtained from the following: .1: Shear buckling strength fbv (6.

11b) (6.1.2 Cross-sections with unstiffened webs (1) The local transverse resistance of an unstiffened web.1.the clear distance c from the actual bearing length for the support reaction or local load to a free end. 6.7.7.6.Rd shall be obtained as follows: a) for unstiffened webs: from 6.the cross-section satisfies the following criteria: r/t ≤ 10 (6.1.7 6.prEN 1999-1-4: 05-2004 a t sd sp sw a φ Figure 6. 6.Rd where Rw. should be determined as specified in (2).1.1.7.6 Torsion (1) Torsion stiffness and resistance is negligible in profiled sheeting.1.10) (3) Where the local load or support reaction is applied through a cleat that is arranged to prevent distortion of the web and is designed to resist the local transverse force.7.1 Local transverse forces General (1) To avoid crushing.5: Longitudinally stiffened web 6. is at least 40 mm.7.11c) 31 hw/t ≤ 200 sin φ 45 ≤ φ ≤ 90° where: . see Figure 6. see Figure 6.3 12t hw 12t (6. provided that both of the following conditions are satisfied: . the local resistance of the web to the transverse force need not be considered.11a) (6.Rd is the local transverse resistance of the web. . the transverse force FEd shall satisfy: FEd ≤ Rw. crippling or buckling in a web subject to a support reaction or other local transverse force applied through the flange. (2) The local transverse resistance of a web Rw.2 b) for stiffened webs: from 6.

Rd Rw.Rd Rw. When the support is a cold-formed section with one web or round tube. (5) The value of the effective bearing length la for sheeting profiles should be obtained from the following: a) for Category 1: la = 10 mm b) for Category 2: .7. or the clear distance c from the support reaction or local load to a free end.if βv ≤ 0.Rd Figure 6. see (4).1 | + | VEd. The relevant category (1 or 2) should be based on the clear distance e between the local load and the nearest support.7.Rd Rw. is the internal radius of the corners.13c) (6.if 0. 32 . (3) The value of the coefficient α should be obtained from Figure 6.2| and ss is the actual length of stiff bearing.1| ≥ |VEd. r is the inner bending radius (r < 10 t).2 | | VEd. ( )[ ]( ) hw r (6.3 with: (6.if βv ≥ 0.6: Examples of cross-section with two or more webs (2) Where both conditions specified in (1) are satisfied. sw is the slant length of the web (= hw / sinφ).2 | (6.2| are the absolute values of the transverse shear force on each side of the local load or support reaction.2: la = ss .14) in which |VEd.3: la = 10 mm .4 + (φ / 90) 2 / γ Ml where: la is the effective bearing length for the relevant category.13b) (6.1 r/t 0.2 and 0.02la / t 2.13a) βv = | VEd. α is the coefficient for the relevant category.Rd Rw.3: interpolate linearly between the values of la for 0.1 | − | VEd. The maximum design value for la is 200 mm.5 + 0. for ss should be taken a value of 10 mm. see (3). Rd = α t 2 f o E 1 − 0. and |VEd.Rd per web of the sheeting profile should be determined from: Rw.Rd Rw.prEN 1999-1-4: 05-2004 hw r φ is the web height between the midlines of the flanges.1| and |VEd.12) (4) The values of la should be obtained from (5). φ Rw. see Figure 6.2 < βv < 0. is the slope of the web relative to the flanges [degrees]. the local transverse resistance Rw.

ss Category 2.7: Local loads and support-categories for cross-sections with two or more webs 33 .5 hw / t clear from nearest support. α = 0.026 . e ss ss Category 2.051 . α = 0.local load applied with c > 1. α = 0.reaction at end support with c > 1.051 ss .5 hw / t clear from a free end.. Figure 6.5 hw / t clear from nearest support. c Category 2.reaction at end support with c ≤ 1.local load applied with c ≤ 1.026 hw c .5 hw / t clear from a free end.prEN 1999-1-4: 05-2004 ss Category 1: α = 0. ss ss Category 2.local load applied with e ≤ 1.5 hw / t clear from a free end.reaction at internal support.local load applied with e > 1.051 hw c . e ss ss Category 1: α = 0. α = 0.051 . c Category 1: α = 0.5 hw / t clear from a free end.026 .

16) bd is the developed width of the loaded flange.8. Rd M cy.Ed shall satisfy the criterion: M y.Rd. that satisfy the condition: 2 < emax / t < 12 where: emax is the larger eccentricity of the folds relative to the system line of the web.1.2.3 Stiffened webs (1) The local transverse resistance of a stiffened web may be determined as specified in (2) for cross-sections with longitudinal web stiffeners folded in such a way that the two folds in the web are on opposite sides of the system line of the web joining the points of intersection of the midline of the web with the midlines of the flanges. by the factor κa.17a) .s given by: (6.8.45 − 0.15) κa.95 + 35 000 t emin / ( bd sp ) where: 2 2 (6.05 emax / t but κa. sp is the slant height of the plane web cross-section part nearest to the loaded flange. obtained from 6. φ em in sp em ax Rw.s ≤ 0. the local transverse resistance of a stiffened web may be determined by multiplying the corresponding value for a similar unstiffened web.prEN 1999-1-4: 05-2004 6.7.Ed Figure 6. see Figure 6.8.1. see Figure 6.7.Ed bd Rw. ten where: 34 (6.8 Combined tension and bending (1) Cross-sections subject to combined axial tension NEd and bending moment My.s = 1.8. see Figure 6. (2) For cross-sections with stiffened webs satisfying the conditions specified in (1). see Figure 6. emin is the smaller eccentricity of the folds relative to the system line of the web.1.8: Support loads and geometry of stiffened webs 6.E d N Ed + ≤1 N t.

y centroidal axes due to axial forces.Ed shall satisfy the criterion: N Ed M y.8. Rd  2VEd − 1 ≤ 1      N Rd M y.Rd.Rd. is the design plastic moment resistance of the cross-section consisting of flanges only. ten . com in which Nc.com is as defined in 6.Rd 2 (6.Ed + ∆M y. ten N c.9 Combined compression and bending (1) Cross-sections subject to combined axial compression NEd and bending moment My.Rd.5.3.8.1. axial force and bending moment (1) Cross-sections subject to the combined action of an axial force NEd.2 or 6.com − N Ed ≤1 N t. is the design moment resistance of a cross-section for maximum tensile stress if subject only to moment about the y .Rd.Sd + 1 − M f. where M cy.1.1. is the design shear resistance of the web given in 6.Rd Mcy.Rd.3 and Mcy.1.Rd (6.10 Combined shear force.1.Rd Vw.Rd.4).18) ∆My.Rd is the sum of the resistances of the webs.1. (6.Rd  M pl.com the following criterion shall also be satisfied: M y. For members with more than one web Vw.Ed due to shift of the centroidal axis should be taken as: (6. Rd    where: NRd My.prEN 1999-1-4: 05-2004 Nt.4.Ed N Ed − ≤1 M cy.1.ten is the design resistance of a cross-section for uniform tension (6.Rd.1.com is the moment resistance for the maximum compressive stress in a cross-section that is subject to moment only.Rd.Rd.Ed = NEd eN in which eN is the shift of the y .2).19) 6.Ed + ≤1 N c.com ≤ M cy.1.17b) 6.Ed + ∆M y.ten is as defined in 6. Rd M cy.1. Rd in which Mcy.3 (3).Rd  Vw. 35 . a bending moment MEd and a shear force VEd shall satisfy: N Ed + M y. is the design moment resistance of the cross-section given in 6.Ed M cy. (2) If M cy.Rd is as defined in 6.1. (2) The additional moment ∆My. see 6.20) Mf.1. ten ≤ M cy. (3) If M cy.Rd is the design resistance of the cross-section for tension or compression given in 6. the following criterion shall also be satisfied: M y.Rd.Rd.y axes (6.

9: Shift of centroidal axis of effective cross-section 6. Rd   M c. is the appropriate value of the sum of the local transverse resistances of the individual webs from 6.2 6.5.2.2.Ed eN t eff.1. The internal axial force in a sheeting shall be taken as acting at the centroid of its gross cross-section.2 Buckling resistance 6.1. If this does not coincide with the centroid of its gross cross-section. 6.2.3.7. Rd     where: 2 2 (6. teff.21b) (6. (b) effective cross-section Figure 6.Rd is the moment resistance of the cross-section given in 6.1 ∆My.Rd is the plastic moment resistance of the cross-section.21a) (6. moments corresponding to the shift of the centroidal axes (see Figure 6.2.3 y yeff y yeff .22) the bending moment MEd may be calculated at the edge of the support.Rd Rw. using the method given in 6.2 y NEd y NEd (a) Gross cross-section.1. Rd  M   F  0.11 Combined bending moment and local load or support reaction (1) Cross-sections subject to the combined action of a bending moment MEd and a transverse force due to a local load or support reaction FEd shall satisfy the following: M Ed ≤1 M c. Rd F Ed ≤1 R w.4.1 (1) 36 Axial compression Design flexural buckling resistance The design buckling resistance for axial compression Nb. 6.2.94 ⋅  Ed  +  Ed  ≤ 1   R w. (3) The resistance of sheeting to axial compression should be assumed to act at the centroid of its effective cross-section.9) should be taken into account.22) Mc.prEN 1999-1-4: 05-2004 Mpl.1 (1) (2) General The effects of local and distortional buckling shall be taken into account as specified in 5.Rd shall be obtained from: teff.1. (2) In expression (6.

9(2).2. y. is the effective section modulus for the maximum compressive stress in an effective crosssection that is subject only to moment about the y . see (2).prEN 1999-1-4: 05-2004 Nb. see 6. see Figure 6. The relative slenderness for flexural buckling should be determined from the following: λ = where: l i l iπ fo E (6.1./ γM1 where: (6.26) Weff.2. 6.E d N Ed + ≤1 χ y f oωx Aeff / γ M1 f o W eff.y axis.24a) with: φ = 0.2 . see Figure 6. based on the properties of the gross cross-section. is an interaction expression . is the additional moment due to possible shift of the centroidal axis in the y direction.25) is the buckling length for flexural buckling about the y – y axes ( ly ).E d + ∆M y.0 (6. obtained from Section 5 by assuming a uniform compressive stress σcom.y. 37 . is the radius of gyration about the corresponding axes ( iy ). is the limit of the horizontal plateau.13 and the limit of the horizontal plateau is λ0 = 0. The reduction factor χ for buckling resistance shall be determined from: χ= 1 φ + (φ − λ 2)0. is the reduction factor from 6.com / γ M1 where: Aeff (6. is the relative slenderness for the relevant buckling mode.Ed equal to fo/γM1 .3 (1) Bending and axial compression All members subject to combined bending and axial compression shall satisfy the criterion: M y.10 (b).10(a).2 for buckling about the y .24b) α λ0 λ (3) (4) is an imperfection factor.Ed χy ωx is the effective area of an effective cross-section that is subject only to axial compression.5 1 + α (λ − λ0 ) + λ 2 where: ( ) (6. is the appropriate value of the reduction factor for buckling resistance.5 2 but χ ≤ 1.y axis.Rd = χ Aeff fo. The imperfection factor for sheeting is α = 0.com ∆My.23) Aeff χ (2) is the effective area of the cross-section.

3 y c c (a) Axial compression (b) moment about y – y axis. flooring or wall cladding make to the overall stiffness and strength of the structural frame. see Figure 5.1 (6. 38 .2 Diaphragm action (1) In stressed skin design.3 (2) Diaphragms may be formed from profiled sheeting of aluminium used as roof or wall cladding. rectangular wall panels may be treated as bracing systems that act as shear diaphragms to resist in-plane forces. NOTE For simplification ωx = 1 may be used. different sections along the span should be checked.n yeff yeff t t t yeff teff. 6.3.9 of EN1999-1-1.3. see Table 5.3 Stressed skin design 6.a teff. resisting transverse in-plane loads and transmitting them to end gables. Figure 6.2 y yeff teff. may be allowed for as described in this chapter 6.10: Calculation of effective section properties (2) For sheeting subjected to combined axial force and unequal end moments and/or transverse loads. NOTE: Information on the verification of such diaphragms can be obtained from: ECCS Publication No. advantage may be taken of the contribution that diaphragms of sheeting used as roofing.11 and 6. (3) Similarly. by means of their stiffness and strength in shear.prEN 1999-1-4: 05-2004 teff. see Figures 6. or to intermediate stiffened frames.1 c c c c eN teff. The panel of sheeting may be treated as a web that resists in-plane transverse loads in shear.27) is the distance from the studied section to a hinged support or a point of contra-flexure of the deflection curve for elastic buckling of an axial force only. 88 (1995): European recommendations for the application of metal sheeting acting as a diaphragm.12. The actual bending moment in the studied section is used in the interaction expression and ωx = where: xs 1 χ y + (1 − χ y ) sin( π x s / l c ) teff.1 General (1) The interaction between structural members and sheeting panels that are designed to act together as parts of a combined structural system. 6.7 of EN1999-1-1. with the edge members acting as flanges that resist axial tension and compression forces. (2) Roofs and floors may be treated as deep plate girders extending throughout the length of a building. lc = KL is the buckling length.

12: Stressed skin action in a pitched roof building 6. such as those from plant.3 Necessary conditions (1) Methods of stressed skin design that utilize sheeting as an integral part of a structure. draws attention to the fact that the building is designed to utilize stressed skin action. or in the floors and facades of high-rise buildings.prEN 1999-1-4: 05-2004 (c) (b) (a) (a) Sheeting (b) Shear field in sheeting (c) Flange forces in edge members Figure 6. . but may not be used to resist permanent external loads. snow loads and other loads that are applied through the sheeting itself.the sheeting is treated as a structural component that cannot be removed without proper consideration. .3.the project specification. .4 Profiled aluminium sheet diaphragms (1) In a profiled aluminium sheet diaphragm. (c) (b) (b) (d) (a) (a) Sheeting (b) Flange forces in edge members (c) Shear field in sheeting (d) Gable tie required to resist forces in roof sheeting Figure 6.the diaphragms have longitudinal edge members to carry flange forces arising from diaphragm action. is limited to the formation of shear diaphragms to resist structural displacement in the plane of that sheeting. .3. . bolts or other fasteners of a 39 . see Figure 6.the diaphragm forces in the plane of a roof or floor are transmitted to the foundations by means of braced frames. welding. further stressed-skin diaphragms. in addition to its primary purpose. cartridge fired pins. including the calculations and drawings.11: Stressed skin action in a flat-roof building 6. They may also be used to resist small transient loads. (3) Stressed skin diaphragms shall be used predominantly to resist wind loads. (2) Stressed skin design shall be used predominantly in low-rise buildings.the use made of the sheeting.suitable structural connections are used to transmit diaphragm forces to the main framework and to join the edge members acting as flanges. or other methods of sway resistance. may be used only under the following conditions: . such as surge from light overhead cranes or hoists on runway beams. both ends of the sheets shall be attached to the supporting members by means of self-tapping screws.13.

(g) (a) Rafter (b) Purlin (a) (b) (c) (d) (f) (e) (c) Shear connector (d) Sheet-to-shear connector fastener (e) Purlin (f) Sheet-to-purlin fastener (g) Seam fastener Figure 6. the end sheet-to-member fasteners. or fail in shear before causing tearing of the sheeting. up to 3% of the relevant area. To ensure that any deterioration of the sheeting would be apparent in bending before the resistance to stressed skin action is affected. self-drilling screws. Openings up to 15% of the relevant area may be introduced if justified by detailed calculations. provided that the total number of fasteners is not reduced. (4) Small randomly arranged openings. (2) The seams between adjacent sheets shall be fastened by rivets. or fail in shear before causing tearing of the sheeting. (5) All sheeting that also forms part of a stressed-skin diaphragm shall first be designed for its primary purpose in bending. unless special measures are taken to ensure that the connections effectively transmit the forces assumed in the design. Areas that contain larger openings should be split into smaller areas. pull out. All such fasteners shall be fixed directly through the sheeting into the supporting member.prEN 1999-1-4: 05-2004 type that will not work loose in service. each with full diaphragm action.for failure of the sheet-to-purlin fasteners under combined shear and wind uplift. . it shall then be verified that the shear stress due to diaphragm action does not exceed 0. The spacing of such fasteners shall not exceed 500 mm. may be introduced without special calculation. by at least 25%. or other fasteners of a type that will not work loose in service.4 Perforated sheeting (1) Perforated sheeting may be designed by calculation. by at least 40%. provided that the rules for non-perforated sheeting are modified by introducing the effective thicknesses given below. for example through the troughs of profiled sheets. (3) The distances from all fasteners to the edges and ends of the sheets shall be adequate to prevent premature tearing of the sheets.13: Arrangement of an individual panel 6. pull out. The calculated shear resistance for any other type of failure shall exceed this minimum value by at least the following: . 40 .25 fo/γM1 (6) The shear resistance of a stressed-skin diaphragm shall be based on the least tearing strength of the seam fasteners or the sheet-to-member fasteners parallel to the corrugations or. for diaphragms fastened only to longitudinal edge members.for any other type of failure. welds.

0 effective section properties may be calculated using 5.1. is the total slant height of the web.30) is the slant height of the perforated portion of the web.28) (4) The resistance of a single unstiffened web to local transverse forces may be calculated using 6.eff obtained from: tc.18t (1 − 0.eff obtained from: tb. (2) Provided that 0.eff obtained from: ta.1. but replacing t by tc.prEN 1999-1-4: 05-2004 NOTE: These calculation rules tend to give rather conservative values.9d/a ) where: d is the diameter of the perforations.eff = 1.7. More economical solutions might be obtained from design assisted by testing.18(1 − d/a ) (6.29) (6.5. 41 . but replacing t by ta.2 ≤ d/a ≤ 1.eff = t 3 1. (3) Provided that 0.8 gross section properties may be calculated using 5.2 ≤ d/a ≤ 0. a is the spacing between the centres of the perforations.eff = t 1 − (d/a )2 s per / s w where: sper sw [ ] 3/ 2 (6. but replacing t by tb.

(2) The combined design resistance may be determined from 6.prEN 1999-1-4: 05-2004 7 Serviceability limit states 7. determined using γM.ser according to 7.11. the combination of support moment and support reaction at an internal support should not exceed 0. (3) The second moment of area may be calculated by interpolation of gross cross-section and effective crosssection using the expression: Ieff. but using the effective cross-section for serviceability limit states and γM.σgr (Igr . forces and moments. NOTE The National Annex may specify the limits. (7. is the second moment of area of the effective cross-section in the ultimate limit state. 7. based on the gross cross-section (positive in the formula).ser and Ieff. (2) The properties of the effective cross-section for serviceability limit states obtained from (3) should be used in all serviceability limit state calculations for cold-formed sheeting. Alternatively a uniform value may be used. based on the maximum span moment due to serviceability loading.9 times the combined design resistance.ser = Igr .1) σgr (4) The effective second moment of area Ieff. 42 .4 limits for deflections should be specified for each project and agreed with the client.ser may be taken as variable along the span.Ieff ) / fo where: Igr Ieff is the second moment of area of gross section. with allowance for local buckling. (2) The influence of slip in the connections (for example in the case of continuous sheeting with overlaps) should be considered in the calculation of deflections.1(3).3 Deflections (1) The deflections may be calculated assuming elastic behaviour. is the maximum compressive bending stress in the serviceability limit state. (3) With reference to EN 1990 – Annex A1. 7.2 Plastic deformation (1) In case of plastic global analysis.1 General (1) The rules for serviceability limit states given in EN 1999-1-1 shall also be applied to cold-formed sheeting.ser .1.

2.3 provided that the fastening is through a flange not more than 150 mm wide.1 Genaral (1) Connections with mechanical fasteners shall be compact in shape.3 for self-tapping screws. the resistance of mechanical fasteners subject to predominantly static loads should be determined from 8. the resistance should be taken as 0. Fo.Ed min( Fb. used in the above named clauses are found in EN 1999-1-1 with additions in 1. provided that: .3.Rd .Rd and if there are fasteners at both quarter points.4 of EN 1999-1-4. (9) The diameter of holes for screws should be in accordance with the manufacturer's guidelines.7Fp.3.3. (4) The meanings of the symbols.Rd.5 d (a) Direction of load transfer Figure 8.1 for blind rivets or in 8.2. p1 e1 p1 ≥ e2 30 mm 4d p2 d (a) p2 ≥ 20 mm 2d e1 ≥ 20 mm 2d e2 ≥ 10 mm 1.2 for blind rivets and 8.Rd ) ≤1 (8.Rd are determined by calculation on the basis of 8.3. Fo.the applied torque should be just higher than the threading torque.2 for blind rivets or 8.Rd ) + Fv.Rd and Fn. (2) The shear forces on individual mechanical fasteners in a connection may be assumed to be equal.Rd per fastener. The positions of the fasteners shall be arranged to provide sufficient room for satisfactory assembly and maintenance.Ed min( Fp. the design resistance should be reduced to 0.1) (8) The gross section distortion may be neglected if the design resistance is obtained from 8. provided that Fp.3 and 8.1 for self-tapping screws are depending on the location of the fasteners and should be reduced if the fasteners are not located centrally in the troughs of the sheeting. edge distance and spacing for fasteners (6) The pull-through resistances given in 8.3 for self-tapping screws.prEN 1999-1-4: 05-2004 8 Connection with mechanical fasteners 8. . If attachment is at a quarter point.Rd.the fasteners have sufficient ductility.3.1: End distance. These guidelines should be based on following criteria: .shear of the fastener is not the critical failure mode. (5) The partial factor for calculating the design resistances of mechanical fasteners shall be taken as γM3 according to 2(3). see Table 8. (7) For a fastener loaded in combined shear and tension.9Fp.Rd . Fb. the resistance of the fastener to combined shear and tension may be verified using: Ft. (3) For design by calculation. 43 . Fn.

min > 260 N/mm shall not be taken into account .Rd and the shear resistance of the fastener Fv.Rd = 31 d /γM3 [N] with d in mm 3 Fb.Rd = 0. the netsection resistance Fn.5 mm.2 8.2.1 Design resistances for riveted connection loaded in tension Pull-through resistance 3 Fp. 8. .2a) (8.the threading torque should be smaller than 2/3 of the head-shearing torque. dw ≥ 9. (10) The design rules for blind rivets are valid only if the diameter of the hole is not more than 0.5) 8.2.Supporting member of aluminium: 44 .fu.4) Fn.47 tsup d fy /γM3 Fo.2. EN ISO 15977.Rd ≤ 1.6 mm ≤ d ≤ 6.2 Net section resistance (8. EN ISO 15978.prEN 1999-1-4: 05-2004 .2.3.5 fu.fo > 220 N/mm2 shall not be taken into account (8.Rd = 2. EN ISO 15974.Rd .4) 8.Rd = Anet fu /γM3 8. .1 mm larger than the diameter if the rivet.2.t ≤ 1.2.2.6) (8.2.4 mm 2 (8.7) .2.1 General (1) The resistance of blind rivets loaded in shear is the minor value of the bearing resistance Fb.3 Conditions: . EN ISO 15981 or EN ISO 15982 shall be used 8.2 Pull-out resistance Fo.2 Blind rivets 8.3 Shear resistance 2 Fv.2.Supporting member of steel: .Rd = 0.20 tsup d fo /γM3 (8.1 Design resistances of riveted connection loaded in shear Bearing resistance 2 Fb.2b) 8.3 8.min dtmin /γM3 (8.Rd = 38 d /γM3 [N] with d in mm Conditions for bearing and shear resistance: .2. (3) Blind rivets according to EN ISO 15973.Rd. (2) The shank of the blind rivet shall be of EN AW.35 αE t fo /γM3 [N] with t in mm and fo in N/mm .3.2.5 mm. αE according to Table 8.5019.the applied torque should be lower than the thread stripping torque or head-shearing torque.

Section 8.1 General (1) The resistance of screws loaded in shear is the minor value of the bearing resistance Fb.Rd = 2. (8.drilling screws shall be of steel or stainless steel with diameter d ≥ 5. fo > 220 N/mm shall not be taken into account (everyone to be fulfilled) .3.9b) Fb.9a) (8. 45 .5 fu. but Fb.prEN 1999-1-4: 05-2004 Conditions: .10) (3) For resistance of supporting member of timber.drilling screws of steel. fy > 350 N/mm .tapping and self.2.Rd = 47 d /γM3 [Ν] .2 8. 2 fu.3. Section 8.Rd may be obtained by linear interpolation. Self-drilling screws according to EN ISO 15480 or EN ISO 15481 shall be used. unless other limits can be obtained and verified by adequate tests.5 (8.0 < tsup / t < 2.1 Design resistance of screwed connections loaded in shear Bearing resistance t 3d /γM3 (1) Bearing resistance if supporting members are of steel or aluminium is given by: Fb.3. the drilling holes have to be performed according to the recommendations of the manufacturer.2.5 fu. where d to be taken in mm. for t > tsup take t = tsup.edge distances and spacing in the member of timber.Rd and the shear resistance of the fastener Fv.min t d /γM3 For thicknesses 1.tsup > 6 mm. (3) The limits for strength values of supporting materials shall be valid. the netsection resistance Fn.min > 260 N/mm shall not be taken into account.8) 8.min for tsup / t = 1.Rd. (2) Bearing resistance of aluminium sheeting if supporting members are of timber is given by: Fb.5 mm. (4) (5) Self-tapping screws according to EN ISO 1479.Rd = 1. see EN 1995-1-1.5 fu.5 the bearing resistance Fb. (2) The limits for diameters of screws given in the following clauses shall be valid.3.5 t d fu.min t d /γM3 for tsup / t ≥ 2. .Rd ≤ 1.Rd .5 mm ≤ d ≤ 8 mm. steel-to-timber connection. Conditions: .min /γM3 [N] (8.0.Rd ≤ 1.self-tapping and self.3 Self-tapping / self-drilling screws 8.the diameter of the drilling hole shall be performed in accordance with the recommendations of the manufacturer 2 2 8. 8. stainless steel or aluminium with 5. Conditions: self.3 Tension resistance 2 Ft. EN ISO 1481 or ISO 7049 shall be used. see EN 1995-1-1. unless other limits can be obtained and verified by adequate tests.

0 0.2. with As in mm2 8.5 mm.1: Correction factor αL. . dw > 30 mm and fu > 260 N/mm shall not be taken into account.1 Design resistance of screwed connections loaded in tension Pull-through resistance (1) The pull-through resistance of screwed connections loaded in tension is given by: Fp.3.25 . width of the adjacent flange of the sheet cross-section part ≤ 200 mm.2.1).2). Table 8.3).3.11) Fn.5 ≤ L ≤ 4.3 Shear resistance (8.3.Rd = 6.prEN 1999-1-4: 05-2004 8. dw ≥ 14 mm and thickness of the washer ≥ 1 mm.5 m 1 0.5 m 1 1.3. to take account of tensile bending stresses at support fastenings Ultimate strength [N/mm ] < 215 ≥ 215 NOTE 2 Span L < 1.L/6 Span L > 4.12) Design shear resistance of screws of steel or stainless steel is given by: Fv.5 m 1 1 Span 1.αE correction factor with respect to the location of fasteners (Table 8.αL correction factor with respect to tension in bending (Table 8.2 Net section resistance (8.13) with: t and dw in mm and fu in N/ mm and . Rd = 380 As /γM3 [N].αM correction factor with respect to the type of washer (Table 8.8 46 .3.resistance shall be reduced by 30 %.1 αL αE αM t fu d w /22 /γM3 [N] 2 (8.2: Correction factor αM to take account of the material of the washer Material of the washer Carbon steel. Conditions: t ≤ 1.Rd = Anet fu /γM3 8. . stainless steel Aluminium αM 1.3 8. at a depth of the sheeting smaller than 25 mm.5 At end supports without bending stresses and at connections at the upper flange always αL = 1 Table 8. the pull-through.

3.tapping screws of steel or stainless steel where supporting members are of steel or aluminium is given by: Fo.7 0.3.2 Pull-out resistance (1) The pull-out resistance for self. the diameter of the drilling hole shall be in accordance with the recommendations of the manufacturer. diameter of the screws 6. ≥ 0. tsup ≥ 0.3: Correction factor αE to take account of the location of the fasteners For the flange in contact with the support Connection without contact αE NOTE 1.3.7 0.9 0.9 mm (aluminium).75 mm (steel). 8.9 The combination of correction factors is not necessary.Rd = 560 As /γM3 [Ν] with As in mm 2 (8.0 0. Section 8. 2 tsup > 6 mm and fu.3.3 Tension resistance (1) The design tension resistance of screws of steel or stainless steel is given by: Ft.7 1. 8.0 bu ≤ 150:0.15) 47 .prEN 1999-1-4: 05-2004 Table 8.14) (2) For supporting members of timber. 3 t sup ⋅d /γM3 (8.Rd = 0.sup> 400 N/ mm for steel shall not be taken into account.7 0.5 mm.9 bu > 150:0.sup Conditions: self-tapping screws of steel.25 mm ≤ d ≤ 6.or stainless steel.sup > 250 N/ mm for aluminium or 2 tsup > 5 mm and fu.95 fu. see EN 1995-1-1.

(2) Testing of profile sheeting should apply the principles given in Annex A. NOTE: Pending availability of an appropriate European or International Standard. 42 (1983): European recommendations for steel construction: mechanical fasteners for use in steel sheeting and sections. (4) Testing of fasteners and connections should be carried out in accordance with the relevant European Standard or International Standard. (3) Tensile testing of aluminium alloys should be carried out in accordance with EN 10002-1.prEN 1999-1-4: 05-2004 9 Design assisted by testing (1) This Section 9 may be used to apply the principles for design assisted by testing given in EN 1990 with the additional specific requirements of cold-formed sheeting. 48 . information on testing procedures for fasteners can be obtained from: ECCS Publication No. ECCS Publication No. Testing of other aluminium properties should be carried out in accordance with the relevant European Standards. 21 (1983): European recommendations for steel construction: the design and testing of connections in steel sheeting and sections.

1. (2) This annex covers: . (a) (b) (c) (a) Rivet or screw (b) Transverse tie (metal strip) (c) Timber blocks Figure A. see A.1 General (1) This Annex A gives appropriate standardized testing and evaluation procedures for a number of tests that are commonly required in practice. NOTE 1 In the field of cold-formed sheeting. transverse ties or other appropriate test accessories such as timber blocks may be applied to the test specimen. 49 . many standard products are commonly used for which design by calculation might not lead to economical solutions. (2) To prevent spreading of corrugations. the test set-up should realistically simulate the behaviour of the sheeting under practical conditions. Some examples are given in Figure A.2. NOTE 2 The National Annex may give further information on testing NOTE 3 The National Annex may give conversion factors for existing test results to be equivalent to the outcome of standardised tests according to this annex.prEN 1999-1-4: 05-2004 Annex A [normative] – Testing procedures A. A. . see A. but a test specimen may comprise just one complete corrugation.valuation of test results to determine design values. to avoid any influence of torsional or longitudinal restraint at the supports on the test results.3.1: Examples of appropriate test accessories (4) For uplift tests. Free longitudinal edges shall be during test procedure in the tension zone. so it is frequently desirable to use design assisted by testing. (5) To give the results a wide range of applicability. as a basis for harmonization of future testing.tests on profiled sheets.2 Tests on profiled sheets A.2. The type of connections between the sheet and the supports should be the same as in the connections to be used in practice.1 General (1) Loading may be applied through air bags or in a vacuum chamber or by metal or timber cross beams arranged to simulate uniformly distributed loading. provided that the stiffness of the corrugations is sufficient. (3) Test specimens for sheet profiles should normally comprise at least two complete corrugations. hinged and roller supports should preferably be used.

(3) Alternatively any number of line loads (transverse to the span) may be used. A. (7) To eliminate the deformations of the supports. A. 50 . the deflections at both ends of the test specimen should also be measured.2 Single span test (1) A test set-up equivalent to that shown in Figure A. and its resistance to combined moment and support reaction for a given support width.2 may be used to determine the midspan moment resistance (in the absence of shear force) and the effective flexural stiffness. (8) The test result should be taken as the maximum value of the loading applied to the specimen either coincident with failure or immediately prior to failure as appropriate.1) (3) If plastic redistribution of the support moment is expected. arranged to produce internal moments and forces that are appropriate to represent the effects of uniformly distributed loading. (2) (3) (4) The span should be chosen such that the test results represent the moment resistance of the sheet.4 Internal support test (1) As an alternative to A.prEN 1999-1-4: 05-2004 (6) It should be ensured that the direction of the loading remains perpendicular to the initial plane of the sheet throughout the test procedure.2. for example).3. The flexural stiffness should be determined from a plot of the load-deflection behaviour. tests should be carried out for several different spans. (5) Each test result may be used to represent the resistance to combined bending moment and support reaction (or shear force) for a given span and a given support width.3 Double span test (1) The test set-up shown in Figure A.4. (2) The test span s used to represent the portion of the sheet between the points of contraflexure each side of the internal support.2. Some examples of suitable arrangements are shown in Figure A. To obtain information about the interaction of bending moment and support reaction.3 may be used to determine the resistance of a sheet that is continuous over two or more spans to combinations of moment and shear at internal supports.2. (2) The loading should preferably be uniformly distributed (applied using an air bag or a vacuum chamber. A. (4) The width bB of the beam used to apply the test load should be selected to represent the actual support width to be used in practice.5 may be used to determine the resistance of a sheet that is continuous over two or more spans to combinations of moment and shear at internal supports. the test span s should be reduced to represent the appropriate ratio of support moment to shear force.2. the test set-up shown in Figure A. and its resistance to combined moment and support reaction for a given support width.4 L (A. The moment resistance should be determined from the test result. in a sheet continuous over two equal spans L may be obtained from: s = 0.

2: Test set-up for single span tests L L Figure A.4h Figure A.3: Test setup for double span tests F F F F F F F F L/8 F L/4 L/4 L L/4 F L/4 L/4 F L/4 L L/4 F L/8 0.35L 0.525L L 0.525L L 0.prEN 1999-1-4: 05-2004 F/2 F/2 F/2 F/2 L/8 L/4 L/4 L L/4 L/8 1 a) Uniformly distributed loading and an example of alternative equivalent line loads b) Distributed loading applied by an airbag (alternatively by a vacuum test rig) 1 = transverse tie ˜h h >h L c) Example of support arrangements for preventing distortion F F d) Example of method of applying a line load ˜ 1.4: Examples of suitable arrangements of alternative line loads 51 h .125L 0.125L Figure A.35L 0.

to the actual end of the sheet.6: Test set-up for end support tests A.6.6 may be used to determine the resistance of a sheet at an end support. (2) Separate tests should be carried out to determine the shear resistance of the sheet for different lengths u from the contact point at the inner edge of the end support.5: Test set-up for internal support test u ≈L/3 F ≈2L/3 h 1:20 bA ≥ h RA 300 mm L ≥ 3h ≥ 3h Key: bA = support length u = length from internal edge of end support to end of sheet Figure A. see Figure A.5 End support test (1) The test set-up shown in Figure A.2.prEN 1999-1-4: 05-2004 F F F bB a) Internal support under gravity loading bB F h h F F b) Internal support under uplift loading F F F bB c) Internal support with loading applied to tension flange Figure A. 52 h <10 mm .

obs ≤ f0.2 % proof strength f0. as appropriate. or of components in which the examination of large deformations is necessary for accurate assessment (for example. in evaluating the moment-rotation characteristics of sleeves). or if the gross deformations exceed specified limits. (2) In the testing of connections.1) β  t f  µR =  0.5 (7) The exponent β for use in expression (A.2.i using: Radj.i = Robs.2) α=0 α=1 .2.2 Adjustment of test results (1) Test results should be appropriately adjusted to allow for variations between the actual measured properties of the test specimens and their nominal values.2) should be obtained as follows: .2) should be obtained as follows: .1 General (1) A specimen under test should be regarded as having failed if the applied test loads reach their maximum values. (4) Adjustments should be made in respect of the actual measured values of the material thickness tobs and the 0. A.2 % proof strength of the material.obs should not deviate by more than ± 25% from the nominal 0.prEN 1999-1-4: 05-2004 A. NOTE: This is often the case for connections.for profiled sheets in which compression parts have such large bp / t ratios that local buckling is clearly the failure mode: α = 0.if tobs ≤ t: .if f0.3.2 .2.if f0. (5) The adjusted value Radj.2.obs > f0.3.2 % proof strength f0. As brittle failure modes do not usually appear in large scale tests. no limit need be placed on the gross deformation during the test.2. (3) The actual measured material thickness tobs should not exceed the design thickness t based on the nominal material thickness tnom by more than 12%. except where the design expression that uses the test results also uses the actual measured value of the thickness or 0.if tobs > t: β=1 β=2 53 .2 : .2 % proof strength f0.obs for all tests.3 Evaluation of test results A.2   t    (6) The exponent α for use in expression (A.i / µR in which µR is the resistance adjustment coefficient given by: α (A.i of the test result for test i should be determined from the actual measured test result Robs.2 generally: (A.obs   obs   f 0. additional detail tests should be carried out where necessary. (4) An appropriate margin of safety should be available between a ductile failure mode and possible brittle failure modes. (2) The actual measured 0.

3) The characteristic value of a resistance Rk determined on the basis of at least 4 tests may be obtained from: Rk = Rm – k s where: s is the standard deviation.prEN 1999-1-4: 05-2004 A. (2) The characteristic resistances of the members of a family may be determined on the basis of a suitable design expression that relates the test results to all the relevant parameters.3.3.64 Characteristic values for families of tests (1) A series of tests carried out on a number of otherwise similar sheets. 54 . The number of tests n should be taken as equal to the total number of tests in the family. This design expression may either be based on the appropriate equations of structural mechanics. by adjusting the coefficients to optimize the correlation.i −∑ Rm n n 2 2 ∑ Radj.i − n ⋅ Rm n (A. (4) The standard deviation s may be determined using: 2 2 ∑ Radj. n is the number of tests. it should be determined by using appropriate adaptations of the provisions given for the characteristic minimum value.1 General (1) Characteristic values may be determined statistically. If the design expression has been modified as specified in (3).3.i is the adjusted test result for test i . Table A. particularly if the scatter is relatively wide.3 Characteristic values A.3) s = i =1 where: n −1 i =1 = i =1 n −1 (A4) Radj.63 5 2. thicknesses and material strengths.76 30 1. Rm is the mean value of the adjusted test results Radj. provided that there are at least 4 test results.3.3. or determined on an empirical basis. (4) In order to calculate the standard deviation s.18 8 2.92 20 1.33 6 2. may be treated as a single family of tests.00 10 1.73 ∞ 1. in which one or more parameters is varied. the mean value of the normalized test results will be unity.2 4 2. each test result should first be normalized by dividing it by the corresponding value predicted by the design expression.1: Values of the coefficient k n k A. spans. (2) The characteristic minimum value should be determined using the following provisions. The parameters that are varied may include cross-sectional dimensions. provided that they all have the same failure mode. k is the appropriate coefficient from Table A. NOTE: Information on this process is given in Annex D of EN 1990.1. (3) The design expression should be modified to predict the mean measured resistance as accurately as practicable. If the characteristic maximum value or the characteristic mean value is required. NOTE: A larger number is generally preferable.

55 . For a family of at least four tests.0 in case of sheeting. the value of γM may be determined using statistical methods.5) γM γsys (2) is the partial factor for resistance.prEN 1999-1-4: 05-2004 (5) For a family of at least four tests. (4) For other types of tests in which possible instability phenomena.4 Design values (1) The design value of a resistance Rd should be derived from the corresponding characteristic value Rk determined by testing.1 corresponding to a value of n equal to the total number of tests in the family. of structures or structural components might not be covered sufficiently by the tests. A. using: Rd = Rk / (γM γsys) where: (A. NOTE: Information on an appropriate method is given in Annex D of EN 1990. the characteristic resistance Rk should then be obtained from expression (A.3. and using the value of k from Table A.3. (3) Alternatively γM may be taken as equal to the appropriate value of γM for design by calculation given in Section 2. the value of γsys should be assessed taking into account the actual testing conditions. in order to achieve the necessary reliability. A recommended value for γsys is 1. NOTE The National Annex may give values for γM and γsys. or modes of behaviour.5 Serviceability (1) The provisions given in Section 7 should be satisfied. is a partial factor for differences in behaviour under test conditions and service conditions. A.3) by taking Rm as equal to the value predicted by the design expression.

E S A C.4301 d 1. 56 . Only risk of corrosion is considered. d 1.= type of material not recommended from aluminium irrespective of surface finish corrosion standpoint un-coated steel sheet refers to rivets only a hot-dip zinc coated (Z275) or aluzinc coated refers to screws and nuts only b (AZ150) steel sheet insulation washer of material resistant to c hot-dip zinc coated + coating of paint or aging between sheeting and fastener plastic stainless steel EN 10 088 d aluzinc coated (AZ185) steel sheet risk of discoloration e stainless steel always check with sheet supplier type of material recommended from corrosion f standpoint type of material recommended from corrosion standpoint under the specified condition only (2) The environmental corrosivety categories following EN ISO 12944-2 are presented in Table B. II and III Table B. S A C. . B.4006 ≥45µm X X X X X X X X X X X X (X)C X X X (X)C X X X X X - Corrosivety category C1 C2 C3 Sheet material Aluminium X X X X X X X X X X X X - C4 C5-I C5-M A. case Coat thickhardened. E.4436 X X X X X X (X)C (X)C X (X)C (X)C (X)C X (X)C (X)C X (X)C (X)C X Monel a X X X X X X X X X - NOTE A= B= C= D= E= S= X= (X) = Fastener of steel without coating may be used in corrosivety category C1. e 1. D.prEN 1999-1-4: 05-2004 Annex B [informative] – Durability of fasteners (1) In Structural Classes I. steel.1 may be applied Table B.1 Fastener material with regard to corrosion environment (and sheeting material only for information). Environmental corrosivety categories according to EN ISO 12944-2 Material of fastener Hot-dip zinc Stainless b coated steel .2. Coat thickness ≥ 7µm X X - Stainless steel. E D S A D E S A f D S A f D S Electro galvanized steel. ness d. C D.

laundries. offices.g. depots. e. coastal ship. e. foodprocessing. Buildings and areas with almost permanent condensation and with high pollution.and boatyards. sport halls. Production rooms with high humidity and some air pollution. breweries and dairies. plants. schools.g. Industrial areas with high humidity and aggressive atmospheres.prEN 1999-1-4: 05-2004 Table B. Coastel areas with low salinity. e. Buildings and areas with almost permanent condensation and with high pollution C4 C5-I high very high (industrial) very high (marine) C5-M 57 .g. may occur. shops. Coastal and offshore areas with high salinity. moderate sulphur dioxide pollution.2: Atmospheric-corrosivity categories according to EN ISO 12944-2 and example of typical environment Corrosivety category C1 Corrosivity level very low Example of typical environments in temperature climate (informative) Exterior Interior Heated buildings with clean atmospheres. swimming pools. Unheated buildings where condensation Mostly rural areas. Urban and industrial atmospheres. C2 C3 low medium Atmospheres with low level of pollution. hotels. Industrial areas and coastal areas with moderate salinity. Chemical plants.

le dimensionnement. Schweizerischer Fachverband für hinterlüftete Fassaden. Gesamtverband der Aluminiumindustrie. Directives APSFV pour façades ventilées.prEN 1999-1-4: 05-2004 Annex C [informative] – Bibliography 1. Weber. Konstruktion und Ausführung. Düsseldorf 1995 (in German) 3. Aluminium-VerlagDüsseldorf 1982 (in German) 2. Bemessung. Düsseldorf 1995 (in German) 4. Zürich 1992 (in German and French) 5.Grundsätze für Planung. SFHF-Richtlinien für hinterlüftete Fassaden . Aluminium-Merkblatt A9. Richtlinie für die Verlegung von Aluminium-Profiltafeln. la construction et l'exécution. Aluminium-Merkblatt A7.Panen und Bauen mit Aluminium-Profiltafeln. Gesamtverband der Aluminiumindustrie.: Dach und Wand . Association professionnelle suisse pour des façades ventilées (in French and German) 58 . Principes et remarques pour l'étude. Verbindungen Profiltafeln und dünnwandigen Bauteilen aus Aluminium. H.