H E B R E W

This work was compiled and pub• lished with
the support of the Office of Education,
Department of Health, Education and Welfare,
United States of America.

JOSEPH A. REIF HANNA LEVINSON

F O R E IG N SE R V IC E IN ST IT U T E
WASHINGTON, D.C.

1965

P A R T M E N T
S T A T

O F

F O R E I G N S E R V I C E I N S T I T U T E B A S I C C O U R S E S E R I E S Edited by
LLOYD B. SWIFT
P R E F A C E

H*br*w Basic Course was produced by the Foreign Service Institute with the support of the Office of Education,
Department of Health, Education and Welfare, under the National Defense Education Act.

In its present form, the course is based on classroom experience with Government personnel whose duties require a
knowledge of spoken Hebrew, It is designed to provide material sufficient to enable the student to obtain mini- mum
professional competence both in speaking and in reading modern Hebrew.
The linguist in charge of the project was Joseph A. Reif, Scientific Lin• guist on the staff of the Department of Near
Eastern and African Languages, The Hebrew material was principally written by Mrs, llanna Levinson, language instructor.
Tape recordings were made in the FSI language laboratory, under the direction of Mr. Gary Alley, by Mrs. Levinson, Mr.
Menachem Dov Heller, & Mrs. Rivka Behiri, language instructors. The illustrations were drawn and con- tributed by Mr. Irving
Bernstein of New York.
Mr. Heller contributed valuable suggestions as a result of his experience using drafts of the course in class. Mrs.
Behiri not only typed the final version in English, Hebrew and transcription, but also contributed many improvements in
style and format as the work progressed.

BASIC COURSE

HEBREW

BASIC

COURSE

HEBREW
CONTENTS

School of Language and Area Studies Foreign Service
Institute

TABLE OF CONTENTS
Introduction: Purpose

Style of Hebrew Used
Methods and Procedure
Material
Drills
Translations
Tests
Readings
Summary

xiv
xv
xv
xvii
xx
xxii
xxiii
xxiv
xxiv

Pronunciation: Transcription
Consonants
Consonant Clusters
Vowels
Stress and Intonation

xxv
xxvi
xxix
xxx ii
xxxiv

Tape Recordings

Basic Conversation:

Grammar Notes:

xxxvi

1.
1
1.
2
13
1.
4
15
L.
6
17

Unit 1.
Greetings (Two men meet)

1

Greetinqs (Two women meet)

2

Additional Vocabulary

2

Classroom Expressions

3

Masculine and Feminine

4

Pronominal Suffixes - Singular Set
Alternate Forms of Nouns before Suffixes

1
06

1
1

Unit 2.

Grammar Notes: Review

5

1
07

Review Conversations

Basic Conversation:

9

22Introductions (Two women are introduced)
23Additional Vocabulary
24Equational Sentences
2-5 The Direct Object Preposition /et ~ ot-/

Conversations
21Introductions (Two
men are introduced)

23

1
2
1
4

BASIC

COURSE

HEBREW
CONTENTS
Unit 3•
Basic Conversation: 3*1 Introductions, contd.
3-2 Introductions, contd.
3.3 Additional Vocabulary
Grammar Notes: 3•^ Alternate Forms of Nouns
3-5 Dual Number in Nouns
3.6 Pronominal Suffixes -

24

(Two men) 15
(Two women) 16
16
17
17
Plural Set 17

CONTENTS

Basic Conversation:

HEBREW

Review
Conversa
tions
20Unit
4.

2
1

Grammar Notes:
4.1Housing Arrangements
(Two men
Review Conversations speaking
)
4.2Housi
ng
Arrangem
ents
(Two
women

2
2

g
2
7
27
28

Review Conversations
speaking
)
4.3Addit
ional
Vocabula
ry
4.4The
Preposit
ion
/Mel/
,of"
4.5The
Preposit
ion
/avur/ ‫י‬
for, on
behalf
of'
4.6Contr
action
of /le- ha-/
'to the'

Unit 5•
B
a
s
i
c
C
o
n

versa
tion:
Gramm
ar
Notes
:
51Sp
eaki
ng

VI

BASIC COURSE

CONTENTS

H
e
b
r
e
w
(
M
e
n
)
5
2S
p
e
a
k
i
n
g
H
e
b
r
e
w
(
W
o
m
e
n
)

HEBREW

53Pa
st
Tens
e of
Verb
s Firs
t
and
Seco
nd
Pers
ons
54Al
tern
atio
n
/mi~
me-/
‫י‬
from
' 55
Cons
onan
t
Alte
rnat
ion
/ b
~ v/

BASIC COURSE

29
30
3
1
3
6
36
37

Unit 6.

_________
(A man
asks a
man)

_______
39
62Asking
Directio
ns (A
woman
asks a
woman) 40
63Additi
onal
vocabula
ry 4!
64Stark

VI

CONTENTS

HEBREW

Imperati
ves 42
65Gentle
imperati
ves 45
66Negati
ve
Imperati
ves 47
67Contra
ction of
/be - ha-/ ‫י‬
at the,
in the'
51
68Altern
ate
Forms
/ve- ~
u-/
'and'
69Loss
of Final
Basic Conversation:
sking Directions (i
Grammar Notes:

Review Conversations

Stem
Vowel in
Verbs 51

U
n
i
t
7

B
a
s
i

0

52

sati
on:

Gram
mar
Note
s:
7.1
Wand

Review Conversations
c
C
o
n
v
e
r

erin
g
thro
ugh
Tel
Aviv
(spe
akin

VI

BASIC COURSE

CONTENTS

g
t
o

HEBREW

BASIC COURSE

spea
king
to
woma
n

m
passerby)
a
7-3
n
Voca
passerby)
bula
7
ry
Dril
2
l
W
7.4
a
Gend
n
er
d
and
e
Numb
r
er i
Pres
n
ent
g
Tens
t
e
h
Verb
r
s
o
and
u
Adjectives
g
7h
5
T
/t/
e
l
Suff
A
ix
v
Femi
i
nine
v
Form
(
s

Unit 8.
B
a
s
i
c
C
o
n
v
e
r
s
a
t
i
o
n

5
3

:

5
4

Gra
mma
r
Not
es:
Rev
iew
Con
ver
sat
ion
s
51Wa
nder

5
5
5
7
5
8
6
2

VI

CONTENTS

i
n
g
T
h
r
o
u
g
h
T
e
l
A
v
i
v
(
c
o
n
t
d

HEBREW

BASIC COURSE

.)
52Wa
nder
ing
Thro
ugh
Tel
Aviv
(con
td.)
53Vo
cabu
lary
Dril
l
54/
a/ Suff
ix
Femi
nine
Form
s

6
3
6
4
6
5
6
6
7
0
VI

BASIC COURSE HEBREW CONTENTS
Unit 9•
Basic Conversation:
Grammar Notes:
Review Conversations

Unit 10.
Basic Conversation:
Grammar Notes: Review

Unit 11.

9.1 Wandering through Tel Aviv (contd.)

9-2
9.3
9-4
9«5
77

73
Wandering through Tel Aviv (contd.)
73
Vocabulary Drills
74
The Construct State of Nouns
75
Definite Article /ha-/ Prefixed to Adjectives
80

conversations
101Wandering through Tel Aviv (concluded)
8
102Wandering through Tel Aviv (concluded) 10- 1 3
Vocabulary Drills
8
104The Relative Conjunction /£e-/
2
105Adjectives used to Modify Verbs
8
3
8
4

86

Basic Conversation: 11.1 Dinner Invitation
89 8
112Additional Vocabulary
90 7
113Vocabulary Drills
90
114Cardial Numbers 92 Grammar Notes: 11.5 Contraction
of Initial Syllables
93
11.6 /yeS li/, /eyn li/
93
Review Conversations
95

Unit 12■
Basic Conversation: 12.1 Friday Evening Dinner
97
122Additional Vocabulary
97
123Vocabulary Drills
98 Grammar Notes: 12.4 Cardial
Numbers with Nouns
99
12.5 Ordinal Numbers
163
Review conversations
10b

Unit 13.
Basic Conversation

Review conversations

13-1 Friday Evening Dinner (contd.)
107
132Additional Vocabulary
108
133Vocabulary Drills
109
Grammar Notes: 13*4 Consonant Alternation /k ~ x/ 111
13.5 Formation of the Future Tense
111
13.t Use of the Future Tense
113
122

vll
Unit 14.

BASIC COURSE
Basic Conversation:

Grammar Notes:
Review Conversations

HEBREW CONTENTS
14.1
14.2
14-3
14.4
14-5
14.6
14-7

At the Grocery Store
Additional Vocabulary
Vocabulary Drills
Cardinal Numbers, 20 - 1000
Colors
/o ~ u/ Alternation in Related Forms
Review of Negative Sentences

125
126
128
129
131
132
133
136

Unit 15■
Basic Conversation:

Rapid Response Drill
Review Conversations

15*1 At a Coffee House
152Additional Vocabulary
153Vocabulary
141
Grammar
Notes:
145
15-5 Patterns Occurring with Roots
156Alternating Radicals
157Alternating Patterns
15-8 Designation of Patterns
I5.9 Designation of Radicals

15•4

139
140
Drills
Roots
145
147
148
148
149
150
151

Unit 16.
Basic Conversation:

16.1 Conversation in the Coffee House
153
16.2 Additional Vocabulary
154
16-3 Vocabulary
Drills
155 Grammar Notes: 16.4 Third Person Past Tense
Verb
Forms
156
Rapid
Response
Drill
163
Review
Conversations
164

Unit 17.
Basic Conversation:

17.1 At the Post Office
172Additional Vocabulary
173Vocabulary Drills
Grammar Notes: 17-4 Past Tense of pi'el
I7.5 Past Tense of kal fpa'al)
lf.6 Past Tense of hitpa'el
177Past Tense of hif'il
178Past Tense of lamed hey Verbs
Rapid Response Drill
Review Conversations

167
168
168
170
170
172
173
176
178
179

18.1 Telling Time
182Additional Vocabulary
183Vocabulary Drills
184Clock Drills
Grammar Notes: 18-5 The Expected Future
18.6 /matay Se-/

181
182
183
189
19C
191
191
192

Unit 18.
Basic Conversation:

Rapid Response Drill
Review Conversations

lx

CONTENTS
COURSE

HEBREW

Unit 19•
Basic Conversation:
Grammar Notes:

BASIC

Review Conversations
191Calling Long Distance
195
192Additional Vocabulary
196
193Vocabulary Drills
196
194Adverbs 199 19-5 The nif'al Conjugation - Present
and Past
Tenses 200
19-6 Present Tense of the nif'al
20
19-6
____
1
19.7 Past Tense of the nif'al
20
4
209

Unit 20.
Basic

Conversations:

Grammar Notes:

Unit 21.
Basic

Conversation:

Grammar Notes:

Unit 22.
Rapid Response Drill
Review Conversations Basic

Rapid Response Drill Review Conversations
201Hot Weather
202Cold Weather
203Additional Vocabulary
204Vocabulary Drills
205Further Remarks on lamed hey Verbs
206Verbs with Initial Radical y 20-7 Loss
of n before Consonants

21
1

21
2
213
21
4
21
6
211Going to the Theater
21
212Vocabulary Drills 21-3 Generalizations
8
214The pi'el Conjugation
220
215lamed hey Verbs in the pi'el Conjugation
22
216Stem Vowel Variations in the pi'el
1
217Verbal Nouns of the pi'el
22
223
218The pu'al Conjugation
2
224
229
230
236
237
238
Grammar Notes:
239
Rapid
Response
Drill
Review 240
Conversations
241

Conversation:

Unit 23.
Basic Conversation:

Grammar Notes: Rapid Response

221At the Box Office
222Additional Vocabulary
22-3 The kal (pa'al) Conjugation 22.4 Verbal
Noun of the kal

Drill Review Conversations
231Before the Play
232Additional Vocabulary
233Vocabulary Drills
234Verb Drills
235The nif'al Conjugation

vlll

243
244
245
256
257
257

259
26
0
26
0
26
1
26
4
27
5
27
5

CONTENTS
COURSE
Unit 24.
Basic conversation:

Grammar Notes:

HEBREW
Rapid Response Drill Review
conversations
241Discussing the Show
242Additional Vocabulary
243Vocabulary Drills
244Verb Drills
245The hitpa'el Conjugation

27
7
27
8 2
79

281
28
3

288

Unit 25•
Basic Conversation:

25-1 Leaving the Cafe
291
252Additional
Vocabulary
292
253Vocabulary
Drills
292
254Verb
Drills
293
Grammar
Notes:
25*5
The
hif'il
Conjugation

29°

256Verbal
Nouns
of
the
hif'il
306
257The hof'al conjugation
307
Rapid
Response
Drill
309
Review
Conversations
309

Unit 26.
Basic Conversation:

Rapid Response Drill
Review Conversations

26.1 Military Service
311
262Additional
Vocabulary
312
263vocabulary
Drill
312
264verb
Drills
313
265Members of the Family
322
322

Unit 27•
Basic Conversation:
326
326
327
Grammar Notes:
have"

27-1 At the Barbershop 325
27.2 Additional vocabulary
27-3

Vocabulary

Drills

27.4

Verb

Drills

27.5 /haya/ "he was"
27.6 "I had", "I

33

33O
will

28
9

BASIC

CONTENTS
COURSE

HEBREW

332
Rapid Response Drill
Review Conversations

335
335

Unit 28.
Basic Conversation:

28.1 At the Cleaner's
337
282Additional
Vocabulary
339
283Vocabulary
Drills
339
284verb
Drills
339
285Object
Suffixes
of
Verbs
346
Rapid
Response
Drill
349
Review
Conversations
349

34

BASIC

BASIC COURSE
Unit 29•
Bas
ic
Con
ver
sat
ion
:

Rap
id
Res
pon
se
Dri
ll
Rev
iew
Con

Unit 30•
Bas
ic
Con
ver
sat
ion
:

Gra
mma
r
Not
es:
Ra
pi
d
Re
sp
on
se
Dr
il
l
Re
vi

HEBRE
W

versa
tions
29-1
At
the
Shoem
aker'
s 292
Addit
ional
Vocab
ulary
293Ve
rb
Drill
s
294/
oto
ha-/
"The
same"

ew
Conve
rsati
ons
301Ach
es and
Pains
302Add
itiona
l
Vocabu
lary
303Voc
abular
y
Drills
304Ver
b
Drills
305The
Prepos
ition
/mi-/
"from"
306Com
parati
ves
and
Superl
atives

CONTENT
S

35
1
35
2
35
2
35
5
35
7
35
36
8
1
362
36
3
36
4
36
6
36
7
37
0
37
1

395
XI

CONTENTS
COURSE
Unit 31.
Bas
ic
Con
ver
sat
ion
:

Gra
mma
r
Not
es:
Rap
id
Res
pon
se
Dri
ll
Rev
iew
Con
ver
sat

Un
it
32
.
Ba
si
c
Co
nv
er
sa
ti
on
:
Gr
am
ma
r
No
te
s:

HEBREW
ions
311Fr
iends
Meet
at an
Offic
e
312Ad
ditio
nal
Vocab
ulary
313Vo
cabul
ary
Drill
s
314ve
rb
Drill
s
315To
o
Much
31.•6
The
Passi
ve
Parti
ciple

BASIC

37
3
37
4
37
4
37
5
37
6
37
7
37
9
37
9

Rapid
Respo
nse
Drill
Revie
w
Conve
rsati
ons
321Fri
ends
Meet
at an
Office
(contd
.
322Add
itiona
l
Vocabu
lary
323Ver
b
Drills

xli

32
-4
Th
e

UnitJQ.
Ba
si
c
Co
nv
er
sa
ti
on
:

G
r
a
m
m
a
r
N
o
t
e
s
:
R
a
p
i
d
R
e
s
p
o
n
s
e

Prepos
itions
/ke-/,
/too/

R
e
v
i
e
w
C
o
n
v
e
r
s
a
t
i
o
n
s
33.1
Friends
Meet at
an
Office
(contd.
) 33-2
Additio
nal
Vocabul
ary

33 .3

Vocabul
ary
Drills
33• u
Verb
Drills
33•5
Supposi
tions
and
Conditi
onal
Sentenc
es

38
1
38
2
38
2
38
4

386

395
XI

38
7
38
9
39
0
39
C
3
'1
39
2

39
4

CONTENTS
COURSE
Unit 34.

HEBREW

BASIC

Basic Conversation: 34.1 Friends Meet at an Office
(concluded! 397
342Additional Vocabulary
398
343Vocabulary Drills
398
344verb Drills398 Grammar Notes: 3^*5 Nouns with Pronominal
Suffixes- Singular get 405 Rapid Response Drill407
Review
conversations
408

Unit 35.
Basic Conversation:

35-1 Getting Up in the Morning
35-2 Additional Vocabulary
35.3 Verb Drills
410 Grammar Notes: 35-4
Pronominal Suffixes-Plural Set 411
35*5 Prepositions with Pronominal Suffixes
Rapid Response Drill
Review conversations

409
409
Nouns

with

417
418
419

Unit 36.
Basic Conversation: 36.! Getting Up in the Morning
(contd.) 421
362Additional Vocabulary
422
363Verb Drills423 Grammar Notes: 36.4 Construct State of
Plural
Nouns
424
Rapid
Response
Drill
425 Review conversations
426

IJnit_3Z•
Basic Conversation: 37*1 Getting Up in the Morning
372Additional Vocabulary
373Vocabulary Drills
374verb Drills431 Grammar Notes:
/-ut/ "-ness"
37-6 Hortatives
Rapid Response Drill
Review Conversations

(concluded) 429
43O
430
37*5 Abstract Nouns
433
433
434
435

in

Unit 33.
Basic Conversation: 38.1 Purim Parade
^37
382Additional Vocabulary
438
383Vocabulary Drills
438
384Verb Drills439 Grammar Notes: 38-5 Negative Adverbials
440 Rapid Response Drill4*il Review Conversations
4
+ 2

xli

Unit 39•
BASIC
HEBREW
CONTENTS

COURSE

Basic Conversation:
443
39.2 Additional Vocabulary
Grammar Notes:
445
Rapid Response Drill
Review Conversations

39•! Buying Clothes
444
39*3 /kvar/ and /od/
445
446

Unit 40♦
Basic Conversation: 40.1 Going to the Irrigation Project
40.2 At the Irrigation Project
40-3 Additional Vocabulary
Grammar Notes: 40.4 Derived Nouns - mif'al
40.5 Derived Adjectives - pa'il
Rapid Response Drill

Tests:

Reader:

447
448
449
450
450
45O

Interpreter Situations
Taped Tests

451
456

The Hebrew Alphabet

Stor
y
Stor
y
Stor
y
Stor
y
Stor
y
Stor
y
Stor
y
Stor
y
Stor
y
Stor
y
Stor
y
Stor
y
Stor
y
Stor
y
Common Proverbs and Expressions
Stor
y
Stor
y
537
Stor
y
Glossary
Stor
y
Stor
y
538
Stor
y
Stor
y
Stor
y
Stor
y
Stor
y
Stor
y
Stor
y
Stor
y
Stor
y
Stor
y
Stor
y
is

1.

‫בהדרת‬
‫המזכירה ■־־‬

2.

‫עקרת הבית‬

3•

‫המעשן השדכן‬

4.

‫נגיא החכרה‬
‫בחירת מש־ל ־‬

5•

‫האופנוען האלמוני‬

6.

‫יוני‬.‫ל‬
‫תקלות בקשר הט ־‬

7•

‫פגיעה ברציף‬

8.

‫ה נ יכל המבוקש‬

9•

‫ה קלפ ן המיואש‬

10
.
11
.
12
.
13

14
.
15
.
16
.
17

18

‫שוטר הציל חיי ברסעים‬
‫קיבל רירה לצביעה‬
‫אגר יוסיף מכוניות‬
‫דואר ישראל ישפר הקשר הטלפוני‬
‫ פצועים בתאונת דרכים‬3
‫גן‬-‫הועלה מחיר המים ברמת‬
‫תשוחזר באר •אברהם‬
‫מסע עדלאידע‬
‫קריש לוז בקמרון‬

19
‫הקמת מגדל השידור‬

20 39
‫עונת החפירות תפתח‬
.
21
‫חלב שאפשר לשתותו אחרי אכילת כשר‬
.
22
‫אנשי משמר הגבול עסקו בכיבוי אש‬
.
23
‫השגריר רמז יתייצב בפני המלכה‬
.
24
...‫תה ובורשט‬
.
25
‫האורים פתחו באש‬

26
‫וילידת שרי נאט״ו נפתחה‬
.
27
‫ילד רצה לראות איך קופצת הרכבת‬

28 ‫חיילים מצטייני□ נתקבלו ע״י הנשיא‬
.
29
‫שזר נבחר לנשיא‬

30
‫שזר נפרד מחבריו בהנהלת השוכנות‬
.

46
3
48
8
49
1
49
3
49
5
49
7
50
0
50
2
50
5
50
7
51
0
51
4
51
5
51
6
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9
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0
52
1
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2
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3
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7

PRONUNCIATION HEBREW

BASIC COURSE

INTRODUCTION

Americans know of Hebrew as the language of the Old Testament. Hebrew had
been a living language, that is, it was spoken as a native language by a community
of people, at least until the First Century, B.C., and possibly for several
centuries after that. But even though it ceased to be a living language in this
sense, a large and important body of literature has remained in constant daily use
for prayer and study.
During the Middle Ages and into the Renaissance Hebrew served as a lingua
franca for Jews throughout the world, and the literature was expanded by scholars
and poets. Hebrew thus was kept in continuous familiarity, and in the last century
successful efforts were begun to revive it as a modern language.
Today Hebrew is the official language of the State of Israel. It is being
taught to immigrants speaking a wide variety ,of native languages, and the coal is
to have all the inhabitants learn to speak it.
To be sure, modern Hebrew is different from the Biblical language. The
phonology (sound system) has been symplified, and new syntactic patterns and
vocabulary have been developed to express concepts not dreamed of two thousand
years ago. But the modern language is unmistakably the descendant of the language
of the Psalms and the prophets.
The sounds of modern Hebrew are fairly easy for Americans to learn. Since
only a minority of the present population are native speakers of Hebrew, foreign
accents can hardly be called rare, and one should not feel the slightest
embarrassment in making even halting efforts to speak it.
PURPOSE
It should be stated very clearly at the outset that this book is not
intended as an elementary text for the study of the Bible or other Hebrew
literature. It is also not intended as a reference grammar of Hebrew. There are a
number of good books on the market to fulfill those needs. This book is intended
as a training manual, designed to teach a non-speaker of Hebrew to speak and
comprehend with some degree of fluency an acceptable form of the modern language.
Its relationship to a reference grammar is analogous to the relation- ship of a
program of calisthenics to a textbook on physiology. The student is not supposed
to read this book in order to find out about Hebrew; he is supposed to work at the
material presented here until he can speak Hebrew, and he will have to work hard.
The goal of this course is performance. One "knows" Hebrew in the same
sense that one "knows" how to drive a car. It is not necessary to be an automotive engineer or to know the technical terms for the parts of a car in order to be
a good driver. Many excellent drivers even have wrong notions about the mechanical
aspects of an automobile. Similarly, it is not necessary to be able to discuss
accurately and comprehensively the grammar of a language in order to speak it
fluently and correctly. Intensive drilling will produce the proper habits. When
the student participates in conversation easily and fluently with a minimum of
either "accent" or of conscious effort then he has achieved the goal of the
course.
Emphasis on the spoken language does not mean that reading and writing are
to be ignored or downgraded in overall importance for the educated speaker. These
latter skills are a separate problem which in the initial stages of study are
treated as secondary.
Many students who use this book will already be familiar with the Hebrew
alphabet and writing system. For those who are not it is suggested that work on
reading be postponed until Unit 10 is completed. Classes will of course, vary in
their ability to absorb the material, and the instructor should feel free to
adjust this schedule.
However, it is felt highly probable,on the basis of a large body of
experience with many languages, including Hebrew, that the total competence of the
student will be greater if he starts with the spoken language and then adds the
written form rather than vice versa. students who already know how to read will
profit greatly if they concentrate exclusively on the spoken language for at least
the first ten units.

40

STYLE OF HEBREW USED
BASIC

COURSE

HEBREW
CONTENTS

The language presented here as a model for students
to imitate is the ordinary informal speech of educated
native Israelis. This is different from the Hebrew usually
taught outside of Israel, and students who have already
learned some Hebrew may have to make some adjustments.

Modern Hebrew is a living language and as such it is changing daily. Slang
expression, coinages, variant pronunciations, and grammatical innovations are
characteristic of any living language. Furthermore, Hebrew is spoken and written
in a variety of styles. These vary from highly formal to highly informal.
Formal spoken style is very similar to the literary style and is more
like the Hebrew that is taught traditionally. Formal style is used, as the name
implies, for public speaking, official meetings, radio news broadcasts, or
other occasions where the speaker would use deferential or deliberate speech.
Informal spoken style is that used by native speakers in ordinary, relaxed
conversation. It is often more rapid than the formal style and is the speech which
seems most "natural" to native Israelis.
There is a highly informal style which contains much slang, contractions
and dropping of sounds, and is fairly rapid. The student should not attempt to
learn it until he is fairly fluent in the ordinary informal style.
The informal speech used in this text is tempered with features of more
formal speech. These are included because the non-native speaker will be expected
to have learned them, and their use will not seem affected.
It is interesting to note that the speakers who provided the material for
this book often insisted that one should not use forms or expressions which they,
in fact, did. This occasionally led to long discussions about what to include in
the book, and sometimes no final decision was reached. Thus, for a example, the
forms /birer/and /otxem/ "you"are included in the material as well as the
'correct' forms /berar/ and /etxem/. In such cases the student will find that
either choice will be acceptable in conversation.
METHODS AND PROCEDURE
The Native Speaker

41

INTRODUCTION

HEBREW BASIC

COURSE

Since the emphasis is on speech throughout the course, an indispensable
component is the voice of an instructor whose native language is Hebrew. The
student should not attempt to use these materials without either a native
instructor or recordings of a native instructor's voice. The method of instruction
incorporates guided imitation, repetition, memorization, pattern practice, and
conversation.The instructor performs the following functions:
a)He serves as a model for imitation and a source for elicitation of material.
In this his ability to repeat without change and his endless patience are most
important.
b)He corrects mistakes of all kinds: pronunciation, grammar, and vocabulary.
Tape recordings are an extremely useful tool, but they cannot correct the
student.
c)He drills the student. He conducts, and may himself devise, drills and
exercises designed to fix new language patterns in the habits of the learner.
d)He converses with the student. He acts out prepared conversations with the
student. It is here that his intelligence, imagination, and skill are most
important.
It is to be noted that explanation is not listed as a normal
function of the instructor. In general, explanation of the language is held
to a minimum. Using the language and talking about it are different things.
The native speaker has under his control the vast array of possible
sentences of the language, knows when to use them, and recognizes and responds to
them when used by others. In this sense only the native speaker really knows the
language. For this reason he is the most satisfactory model, corrector, and
conversation partner.
However, the native speaker is to a great extent unaware of the structural
patterns of his language because he learned them at an early age and has not
thought much about them. The educated•man is overtly familiar only with those
patterns of grammar, style, and pronunciation which are emphasized in his
education. These are usually only a small fraction of the total structure of the
language, and by no means the most important for the English-speaking student.
The native speaker's explanations about his language may be satisfac- tory, or
correct but inadequate, or even completely false or misleading. For these reasons
the student should not rely on the native speaker as an explainer. Normally, the
course is conducted under the supervision of a scientific linguist who provides
whatever explanations are necessary. .
Intensiveness
Not only is a large total of instructional hours necessary, but concentrated study is essential. Experience has shown that greater concentration of
contact hours, especially at the beginning of a language course, yields far
better results than dispersal of the same number of hours of over a long period
of time. The maximum load per day for efficient learning is highly variable, some
students reaching the point of diminishing returns with four contact hours and
others being able to work up to eight or more. At the Foreign Service Institute
students usually have six hours a day five days a week of classroom contact
hours.
The size of the class is another important consideration. As in many
learning situations, the learning of a second language proceeds more thoroughly
and rapidly if it takes place in a small group. This provides greater variety in
drill and conversation, more speaking time for each student per class hour, and
allows the instructor to give more attention to each individual. The maximum
figure for effective learning varies with the personality types of the students,
the skill of the instructor, and other factors, but the number six serves as a
standard, across-the-board maximum.
At the other extreme, a class consisting of a single student is feasible
and may be very successful, but it usually proves better to have several students
for drill and conversation. In the regular intensive courses at the Foreign
Service Institute the norm is about four.
xv 1

HEBREW

BASIC COURSE

INTRODUCTION
The drill techniques described below assume that the class will have
no more than six students. For larger classes the instructor will have to
devise various types of choral drills and responses and to rely more on tape
recordings to give- the individual student practice in speaking.
An important aspect of the method is OVERLEARNING, that is, learning
sentences so thoroughly that they come out automatically. Any ‫ י‬thinking in the
language' then consists of thinking about what to say and not about how to go
about saying it. This cannot be accomplished unless the student spends a lot of
time practicing.
MATERIAL
The material for the spoken Hebrew section of the course is divided into
units which consist of the following parts: Basic Conversations, additional
vocabulary, vocabulary drills, verb drills, grammar notes and drills, rapid
response drills, and review conversations.
Basic Conversations
The Basic Conversation is the core of each unit. It consists of a set of
sentences in dialogue form, which is to be completely memorized by the student.
After having overlearned these sentences the student proceeds to intensive
drilling based on the sounds, constructions, and vocabulary contained in the
sentences, then to prepared or guided conversations, and finally to free
conversation on topics covered in the sentences and expanded by the grammatical
points covered in the grammar sections.
The sentence is the natural unit of speech. All languages have sentences,
and sounds and forms of a language normally appear within sentences. It is clear
that the student must learn to use sentences readily, no matter how this learning
is accomplished.
In learning whole sentences the student acquires words and grammatical
patterns simultaneously. Experience has shown that having the student first learn
words and rules and then produce sentences by combining the words according to
the rules is an inefficient way to learn. For most people a grammatical pattern
is learned (in the sense that it is "internalized" and can readily be used) more
rapidly by thoroughly learning illustrative sentences which embody it than by
having it presented as a rule.
Furthermore, the pronunciation and grammatical form of words or other
units of the language may be quite different in isolated citation from what they
are in connected speech, and since the connected speech form is far more frequent
it normally deserves far more attention and drill than the citation form.
The sentences of the Basic Conversation are presented in three parallel
columns. The column on the right gives the Hebrew sentence -in the Hebrew
alphabet. The column on the left gives an English equivalent (not necessarily a
literal translation) of the Hebrew sentence. The middle column is a transcription
of the Hebrew sentence. Since the Hebrew spelling is given vithout vowel points
the student will have to rely on the transcription for rendition of the
pronunciation. The Hebrew in the right hand column is given mainly for the
benefit of the instructor who will find it more familiar to read than the
transcription, although the student may use it for reading practice later.
After each sentence a "breakdown" of the new words is given. The English
translations of these entries tend to be more literal than those given for the
Basic Sentences themselves, and are more like the entries to be found in a
dictionary.
The technique for teaching the Basic Sentences is a "build-up" scheme in
which each longer sentence or group of sentences is broken up into short
pieces, and then each piece is presented last piece first and cumulatively,
until the student can speak the entire sentence or group of sentences. When the
entire sentence is built up it is repeated by the instructor and student.

The pieces to be presented are printed on separate lines. For example, the
group: /toda raba. £lomx tov. uma £lomxa?/ "Thank you very much. I'm fine. And how
are you?" is written in the book like this:

43

PRONUNCIATION HEBREW

BASIC COURSE

Thank you very much.
I'm fine.
And how are you?

toda raba.
Siomi tov.
uma £lomxa?

.‫תורה רבה‬
. ‫״דומי טוב‬
‫־‬
?‫ ומך‬/i'

It is presented to the student as follows:
Instructor or Tape:

uma Slomxa?

Student:

uma Slomxa?

Instructor or Tape:
Student:
Instructor or Tape:

toda raba.

Student:

toda raba.

Instructor or Tape:

toda raba.

Student:

toda raba.

Slomf tov
.
Slomi tov
.
Slomi tov
.
Sloml tov
.
Slomi tov
.
Slomi tov
.

‫ומה‬

uma Slomxa?
uma Slomxa?
uma £lomxa?
uma £lomxa?
uma Slomxa?

(repetition
)

uma Slomxa?

As much as possible the sentences have been divided into natural sounding
pieces. However, the instructor will still have to achieve skill in presenting the
pieces with the intonation that they have within the entire sentence. The
repetitions of these partial sentences should not be dull and mechanical, but should
be an accurate model for the student to imitate in a natural conversation.
The instructor's pronunciation may vary somewhat from that indicated by the
transcription. The student should imitate the instructor, but the instruc- tor should
not try to impose a "bookish" or supposedly "correct" pronunciation if it is not
completely natural to him in ordinary, relaxed speech.
For the benefit of the instructor the Basic Sentences are printed in larger
type than the vocabulary entries after each sentence. The instructor does not drill
the vocabulary entries; they are given for the student's reference.
After acceptable imitation and accurate pronunciation of the Basic Sentences
have been achieved they are assigned for memorization outside of class or repeated in
class until memorized. Repetition outside of class, preferably using recorded
materials as a guide, must be continued to the point of over- learning, as mentioned
above. As a final step, the students act out the entire Basic Conversation from
memory, with the instructor or with other students. Only when the Basic sentences have
been mastered to this extent can they be considered to provide an adequate basis for
grammatical drills and for control of the spoken language.
Some Basic Conversations are rather long, and are therefore broken up into
sections which cover several units. After the section in each succeeding unit is
mastered it may be combined with the sections from preceding units for review and
practice of longer conversations.

Additional Vocabulary

Appropriate additional vocabulary is presented in this section which
follows the Basic Conversation. New words or expressions are always presented
within sentences, and the student is not required to memorize lists of new words
as such. Items are included in this section to give material for expanded or
varied conversation or to present paradigms to be learned before a grammatical
explanation is given.
Vocabulary Drills and Verb Drills
It is not assumed that a student will automatically be able to extend the
rules to all new forms encountered. Therefore, further opportunities are
presented to practice the manipulations. Whenever, for example, an adjective is
introduced in a Basic Sentence or Additional Vocabulary all other forms
(masculine, feminine, singular, plural) will be drilled in this section. Whenever a new verb is introduced the entire conjugation is drilled, as far as is
practicable. These drills not only reinforce the grammatical patterns, but also
give an opportunity to illustrate different meanings and the use of forms in
different contexts.
Grammar Notes and Drills

44

HEBREW

BASIC COURSE

INTRODUCTION
All explanation of the structure of Hebrew - sounds, forms, constructions,
or style, - is kept to a minimum in the course. When a grammatical point is to be
made clear by a supervising linguist or in a Grammar Note, this is done (a) after
examples of the point have appeared in Basic Sentences, (b) by calling attention
to these instances and adding other illustrations, and (c) by a simple, clear
statement. Then, most important of all , the point is reinforced by drills.
Historical explanations or appeals to "logic" are generally avoided, but
contrast with similar or conflicting patterns of English is usually indicated.
It is generally wasteful to spend a great deal of time on grammatical
explanations. Even if they explain what IS said, rather than somebody's idea of
what SHOULD be said, it is still largely wasted motion in that the student does
not participate and does not master the point. The time spent in explaining a
point is usually better spent in drilling that point with carefully selected,
natural sentences exemplifying it.
On the other hand, the attempt to rule out all explanation and to teach
everything by a "direct method" completely in Hebrew also wastes time. Very often
a simple point which takes endless repetitions of various sentences before the
student gets the hang of it can be explained briefly and effectively in English
and then drilled systematically.
The Grammar Notes do not cover all possibilities. The instructor will be
sure to find exceptions to each explanation or contexts in which the explanation
is contradicted. The Grammar Notes are intended as guides, and the student should
not expect them to be comprehensive for all cases.
Some explanations are not given in traditional order. Thus, for example,
the first and second person forms of the past tense of verbs are drilled
separately from the third person forms, and the complete past tense of verbs is
then drilled without regard to binyan, or conjugation. The complete paradigm of
each binyan is not presented until Units 21-25, although references are made to
them and various verbs are drilled in preceding units. Also, the pi'el is
presented before the kal since the former is a simpler conjugation in modern
Hebrew and because most new verbs are coined in the pi'el.
Terminology
In line with the desire to keep explanations simple, no wild forays into
novel terminology are made. All students will recognize such familiar terms as
"past tense", "imperative", "gender", etc. Certain other terms which may not be so
familiar are "construct state", "radical", and "dual", but these are traditionally
used in grammars of Hebrew. Also, some Hebrew grammatical terms are used, such as
"lamed hey verb", "pi'el", etc.
Nevertheless, the student may find some of the terms to be strange,
especially if he has had no grammatical training embodying the practices of modern
scientific linguistics. New terminology has arisen in order to be able to make more
objective statements about language, and some of it is used here as a matter of
course. Thus, for example, "forms" are said to "occur"; groups of consonants with
no intervening vowel are called "consonant clusters"; etc. The most unfamiliar
terminology may be the phonetic descriptions of consonants and vowels, such as
"affricate", "low central vowel", etc.
The student should keep in mind that he does not have to learn terminology
or to talk about Hebrew. It is far better and more pertinent for him to be a good
mimic than to know what a voiced velar fricative is.
Rapid Response Drills
In Rapid Response Drills students answer in quick succession questions on
the Basic Conversation of the unit. The instructor may vary these questions by
having the students take the parts of various actors in the Basic Conversation and
asking them direct questions about their parts.
Review Conversations
The Review Conversations give the student opportunity to improvise brief
conversations, starting with models given in the text. The sample conversations
given in this book may be used both for testing comprehension and for conversation practice. Complete directions for using the Review Conversations for

45

PRONUNCIATION HEBREW
BASIC COURSE
conversation practice are given in Unit 1. Later the instructor and students are
left to their own ingenuity in changing and expanding them.
DRILLS
Drills are not tests.
All drills are planned to be easily and rapidly answered. In class they are
to be done orally with the students' books closed. Answers are available in the
textbook. The drills are not puzzles; they are not to be "figured out" but merely
to be spoken for speed and accuracy. They are opportunities to practice new forms
or sequences in new contexts. If the student has difficulty this may reflect an
inadequate mastery of the Basic Conversations or of previous drills. In any case,
it is of no great importance whether or not he can figure them out by himself. The
goal is to learn to speak Hebrew accurately and fluently, and this aim can be
achieved only by correct repetition of the forms and patterns involved. The
instructor should supply the correct response whenever the student hesitates too
long or does not answer correctly.
In the earlier units of the course the drills are given in the Hebrew
spelling and in transcription so that the student may follow the drills when using
the tape recordings. It is assumed, however, that the student will have learned to
read Hebrew by the time Unit 20 is completed. After Unit 21, therefore, the
transcription is omitted in the drills. Translations are given for the first set of
responses in each drill.
The instructor should check to see if the students understand what is going on
by stopping at random points in a drill and asking a student to translate the last
response. It is best to ask a student other than the one who just responded. The
instructor should do this only once in a while so that a maximum amount of time is
given to the students to speak Hebrew.
Substitution Drills
The purpose of this type of drill is to present variations in form, such as for
gender, number, person, without the student having to do any manipulations at all
other than to repeat what the instructor has said and to fit it into the model
sentence.
A substitution drill is done as follows: The model sentence is given by the
instructor and then repeated by the students. The instructor then gives a form which
is to be substituted into the model sentence. The student responds with the entire
sentence with the new form substituted. The instructor rein- forces the correct
response by repeating the student's response.
In the tape recordings of drills a blank interval is left for the student to
respond. The correct response is then given. If the student has not responded
correctly he will hear something different from what he himself has said. This will
serve as a correction from the instructor. If he has responded correctly then the
repetition will reinforce the proper habits.
Further instructions for doing substitution drills and substitutionagreement drills are given with examples in Unit 1.
Substitution-Agreement Drills
The purpose of this type of drill is to elicit a variation determined by the
cue from the instructor. The instructor gives the student a substitution to make in
the model sentence, and this substitution requires the student to make a change
elsewhere in the sentence. These subsequent changes are the points being drilled.
A substitution-agreement drill is done in the same way as a simple substitution
drill. It will usually require more repetitions for mastery since the student must
make more than one change in the model sentence.
Expansion Drills

46

HEBREW

BASIC COURSE

INTRODUCTION
The purpose of expansion drills is to give the student practice in producing
longer utterances while maintaining a certain grammatical context.
The instructor gives the student a model sentence. The student repeats this
model sentence and adds another sentence to make a longer utterance. For example:
Instructor: hu gar bemalon dan.
Student: hu gar bemalon dan, vehamiSpaxa Selo tag1a beod Savua. Instructor: He's
staying at the Dan Hotel.
Student: He's staying at the Dan Hotel, and his family will arrive in a week.

47

INTRODUCTION

HEBREW

BASIC

COURSE

In this case the reference to the subject of the first sentence is maintained
in the added sentence: /hu - Selo/ "he - his".The instructor repeats the entire
response of the student. After the drill has been done a number of times the
instructor may omit this repetition in order to speed up the drill in class.
Transformation Drills
The purpose of transformation drills is to give the student practice in
shifting from one tense to another/ from one conjugation to another, from singular to
plural, etc., or simply to paraphrase. The student must eventually be able to make all
grammatical manipulations automatically, and this type of drill is most helpful.
The instructor gives a sentence and the student responds with another
sentence, determined by the instructions given for the particular drill. The
instructor should give the first reponse so that the student will understand what
sort of transformation he is supposed to make.
Response Drills
The purpose of response drills is to simulate a situation which may occur in a
real conversation. The question and response is extracted from such a possible
conversation in order to concentrate on the grammatical points which must be drilled.
Response drills differ from real conversation in that the student is instructed
to give only one possible answer. The instructor should give the first response so
that the student will know what his responses to subsequent questions should be.
Translation Drills
The purpose of translation drills is to familiarize the student with the idiom
of Hebrew or with characteristic constructions of Hebrew whose literal English
translation might be misleading. Translations drills are comparatively few in number
in the course, but all drills may be used as translation exercises by asking for spot
translations into English as explained above.
TRANSLATIONS
Two kinds of translations are used in this text, literal and free. The latter
is often more in the nature of an English equivalent, that is, what would be said in
English in an equivalent situation rather than a linguistic trans- lation,
A beginning student often has the impression that the literal meaning is
the "true" meaning and that any other meaning is necessarily secondary or wrong.
This misunderstanding should be avoided. By comparing literal and free
translations, the student will learn how much the translation depends on context.
A word, expression, or construction may have several translations, depending on
other words in the sentence, the grammatical structure of the two languages
involved, and the social situation in which the conversation takes place. For
example, the literal translation of /ma Slomxa/ is "What is your peace?" We have
translated this as "How are you?", which is what an English speaker says in the
same situation. Conversely, though, the literal equiva- lent of the English, /eyx
ata?/, is used in Hebrew but only as a rejoinder to a previous greeting.

xxli
In the drills various possible translations are deliberately used to free
the student from the idea that there is only one correct translation.
TESTS
The ultimate test is the ability to engage in a conversation in Hebrew and
to speak and comprehend accurately, fluently, and easily. Most students, though,

HEBREW

BASIC COURSE

INTRODUCTION
will appreciate some measurement of their performance during the course. Certain
tests are built into the course material itself, and depend on the instructor's
judgment in proceeding to new material. That is, the instructor should not
proceed to new material until the students have mastered the old. A decision to
proceed is thus a satisfactory mark of performance.
Intensive language training is usually very tedious, and the instructor
should resist pressure from the students to go on to a new unit if he feels that
they need more practice on the old.
The Basic Conversations and Additional Vocabulary must be memorized and
overlearned. Any hesitation on the part of a student means that he does not
know the material.
The Review conversations also serve as a test for comprehension and of
the ability of the students to use the limited amount of material learned up
to that point.
For further testing two other types are suggested below and some examples
of each are given in the section on tests.
Interpreter Situations
These require three persons - the instructor, who pretends to know no
English, the student, who acts as the interpreter, and a third person who,
ideally,knows no Hebrew, but who may be another student pretending to know no
Hebrew. The interpreter is the one being tested and his ability to serve in that
function with accuracy will be readily apparent. In later stages of the course an
error on his part may lead the conversation far off the track or reduce it to an
absurdity. Students usually enjoy these interpreter situ- ations once they become
familiar with the technique.
Taped Tests
None of the above tests will give the student a number grade. Suggestions
for tests which can be marked and a number or percentage grade given are included
in the section on tests. These tests require a tape recorder for the student to
record his answers. If the school is equipped with a language laboratory, then
the entire class may be tested at one time. The tapes are then listened to and
marked by the instructor.
The supervising linguist and instructor will, of course, want to devise
additional tests which the student will not be able to see beforehand.
The student should not be required on any test to discuss Hebrew grammar
per se or to list conjugations or the like. Questions such as "What is the
feminine singular imperative of /ba/ ,he came' ?" are to be avoided. Instead, the
student should be told "Tell that girl to come over here." If he responds with
/boi hena/, then he knows the form. Otherwise, he does not.

xxili

PRONUNCIATION HEBREW

BASIC COURSE

READINGS

Material for instruction and practice in reading Hebrew is given in a
special section at the end of the material for spoken Hebrew. This does not mean
that such instruction should wait until the spoken material is completed. Indeed,
it is expected that reading will begin about the time Unit 11 is started.
After the explanation of the Hebrew alphabet some simple recognition
drills are given. These may be supplemented or replaced by flashcard drills in
class. Once the students have learned to recognize all the letters and the most
frequent sequences, then they may go back to the earlier units and read the Basic
Conversations, drills, and Review Conversations.
Resumes of the Basic Conversations from Unit 11 on are then given in the
reading section. These becomes progressively longer and more difficult.
Occasionally new vocabulary "is supplied in these resumes. The material in the
spoken Hebrew does not assume this additional vocabulary, but it may, of course,
be used in Review Conversations and the like.
Following the series of resumes is a series of short paragraphs, some of
which are based on actual news articles. These are intended to bridge the gap
between a fixed written text and free conversation. Progressive stages of
different types of questions follow these paragraphs. All of this is in Hebrew,
and the student practices reading and free conversation this way.
At the very end are some reading selections taken from newspapers and
other periodicals. They are presented as examples of material which the student
will see in normal encounters in Israel. The supervising linguist and instructor
may prepare additional materials to supplement them and to cover a range of
subject matter more pertinent to particular classes or individual students.
SUMMARY
The text provides for the assimilation of all basic forms and patterns of
the language by the guided imitation, memorization, and manipulation of a large
number of sentences and by practice in confronting several widely occurring
everyday situations. Actual living use of the language is a necessary adjunct of
the course. The instructor should therefore encourage his students from the start
to use Hebrew in every way possible, above and beyond what is provided for in the
text. After the first few days of work both students and instructor should avoid
the use of English in the classroom. Only by constant use of the skill he is
learning can the student hope to master it and retain it as a useful tool.
Transcription
In addition to the Hebrew spelling the material in this course is written
in a transcription meant to help the student listen. It is an attempt to put down
on paper the sounds that the instructor will say, or that will be heard on the
recordings. It should be emphasized that the transcription is just a reminder of
what is said and not a substitute for it.
The transcription is based for the most part directly on spoken Hebrew and
is not a transliteration of ordinary Hebrew spelling. Thus, for example, /k/ is
used for both ‫ כ‬and ‫ ק‬, and /t/ is used for both ‫ ט‬and ‫ •ת‬Transcriptions are set
off in slash lines / / except in the Basic Conversations and Additional
Vocabulary. Slash lines are also omitted where they would clutter the text.
Some departures are made from a slavish transcription of the spoken
language. The definite article is spelled /ha-/ even though the /h/ is often
dropped in connected speech. Root consonants which assimilate to other
consonants in clusters are spelled consistently. For example, /tisgor/ "you
wall close" is spelled with /s/ although /tizgor/ would represent the actual
pronunciation more accurately. The departures were made ad hoc to eliminate
possible confusion and then only when the normal pronunciation may be easily
read from the varied transcription.
Students may be familiar with other transcription and transliteration
systems which are in use. sh is used where we use £ and ch or kh where we use x .
The system used here avoids ambiguities in the use of letters, and students will
have no trouble adopting it. However, commonly used transliterations will be
found in the English translations: For example, chala, Moshe, etc.

50

BASIC

TABLE OF SYMBOLS

COURSE

________________________________

HEBREW
Consonants:
_____________________________
PRONUNCIATION
Voiceless: p

Voiced:

b

Nasal:

d

g

j

v

z

^

t

k

c

S

f

s

S

x

h

r

m n

Lateral:

1

Glide:

y

Open juncture: ‫י‬
Vowels:
Stress: Strong

i e a o u
Weak (unmarked)

The correspondences of these symbols with the letters of the Hebrew
alphabet is given in the section on Readings.
In the following drills attention will be paid mainly to those Hebrew
sounds or groups of sounds which are very different from their English
counterparts. The examples in the drills are not to be memorized. The English
translations are given only for reference.

51

PRONUNCIATION

HEBREW

BASIC

COURSE

CONSONANTS
/l/ The articulation represented by this letter differs from the articulations
represented by the letter in English, especially at the end of a syllable. The
Hebrew articulation is a lateral, with the tongue touching the gum ridge behind
the upper teeth. The tongue is somewhat tenser than in English. The Hebrew
articulation is essentially the same at the end as at the beginning of a
syllable, whereas in English the tongue is retroflexed with the tip approaching the gum ridge but not making definite contact.
The Hebrew /!/ should be thoroughly learned since substitution of the
ish or American
Eng articulation gives one
a "thick" accent to the Israeli
l
ear.
li
"to me"
Salom
"hello"
e
"to"
l
lo
"to him"
Seli
"mine"
a
"on"
l
la
"to her"
£elo
"his"
ko
"all"
l
lan
"to us"
Selanu
"ours"
gado
"big"
u
l
lev
"heart"
milon
"dictionar
meil
"coat"
y
kilkul
"malfunction
"
klal "generalization
"
menahe
"director"
l
gide
"he raised"
l
gode
"size"
l
Voiceless velar fricative.
/*/
The
represented by this letter
in English,
articulation
does
and, therefore, may give some difficulty to students. However, it is extremely
important that students master it and do not substitute /h/ or /k/ for it.
The tongue is brought back toward the soft palate, but instead of stopping
the passage of air, as with /k/, a friction sound is made between the back of the
tongue and the soft palate, similar to the noise made in clearing the throat.
Some speakers use an Arabicized pronunciation of /x/ when spelled ‫ ח‬. This
pronunciation is affected on the radio, also. However, it is not used in
general speech and will not be heard on the accompanying tapes.
xam
"warm"
lexem
"bread"
oreax
"guest"
xalav
"milk"
oxel
"food"
eyx
"how"
xom
"heat"
exad
"one"
Slomex
"(greeting)
"
xodeS
"month"
axal
"he ate"
£elax
"yours"
xeci
"half"
?axav
"he lay"
namux
"short"
xika
"waited"
axim
"brothers"
macliax
"succeeds"
xuc
"outside"
axot
"sister"
tox
"inside"
xiduS
"renewal"
xada'S
" new"
xex
"palate"
xaxam
"smart"
‫צ‬lomxa
"(greeting)"
xemed
"delight"
xaval
"pity"
xut
"thread"
/r/ voiced velar fricative.

xxv i

PRONUNCIATION

HEBREW

BASIC COURSE

The articulation of the tongue is similar to that of /x/, but it is accompanied by
voicing of the vocal cords. Some speakers use a tongue-tip trill instead of the velar
fricative. The trill is also generally used on radio, in the theater, etc. Students
may use the trill, but for most native Israelis the velar fricative will sound more
"natural".
ram
"high"
laruc
"to run"
Soter
"policeman
rax
"soft"
teruc
"excuse"
xaver
"friend"
ri£on
"first"
derex
"way"
sefer
"book"
rikud
"dance"
^rev
"evening"
ir
"city"
rega
"minute"
arox
"long"
sar
"minister"
regel
"foot"
garim
"live"
kar
"cold"
ruax
"wind"
xaverim
"friends"
or
"light"
roS
"head‫״‬
Sagrirut
"embassy"
barur
"clear‫״‬
rak
"only"
Sagrir
"ambassador" lira
"pound"
/p/ voiceless Bilabial stop.
This consonant is quite similar to the English articulation. It occurs at
the end of words only rarely, and these are all loan words or abbreviations used
as words. At the end of words the lips are released. Before a stressed vowel it is
not as strongly aspirated as the English counterpart.
po

"here"

bapina

"on the corner"

jip "jeep"

/t/ Voiceless alveolar stop.
This sound is also similar to the English, except that at the end of a
word it must be released. Before a stressed vowel it is not as strongly
aspirated as the English counterpart.
tov
matay
et
at
ot
Selet
safot
kapot

"good"
"when"
"time"
"you"(f.s.)
"letter"
"sign"
"languages"
"spoons"

omedet
menahelet
Sevet
zait
bait
Stut
xut
rut

"stands"
"directress"
"tribe"
"olive"
"house"
"foolishness"
"thread"
"Ruth"

/k/ Voiceless velar stop.
This consonant, too, is similar to the English articulation except that at
the end of a word it must be released. Before a stressed vowel it is not as
strongly aspirated as the English counterpart.
kol
"all"
amok
"deep"
devek
"glue"
sakana
"danger"
xok
"law"
ravak
"bachelor
rak
"only"
bakbuk
"bottle"
xarak
"insect"
sakik
"small bag"
Sotek
"keeps quiet M
selek
"beet"
Sok
"thigh"
matok
"sweet"
tadlik
"kindle"
Suk
"market"
pihuk
"yawn"
emek
"valley"
porek
"unloads"
xelek
"part"

xxvil

PRONUNCIATION HEBREW
BASIC COURSE
/c/ Voiceless alveolar affricate.
This consonant is a combination of the articulation /t/ and /s/ functioning
as a unit ts. Practice is usually required when /c/ occurs at the beginning of a
word or after a consonant.
The single symbol /c/ is used because between vowels the sequence /-ts-/ is
broken up into /-t + s-/ when syllabified. /c/, on the other hand, goes with
the second syllable as a unit.
/huca/ "he
/hutsa/ "she
koc
yoec
ec
lauc
kaic
acic
toceret
kacav
tocaa
mecit

was taken out"

‫הו צא‬

was flown"

‫הוטסה‬

"thorn"
cav
"advisor"
cava
"tree"
cedek
"to
" ceaef
advise
"summer"
cemed
"flowerpo II ‫י‬
t
ceva
"product"
cimuk
"butcher"
cincene
t
"result"
cipor
"lighter"
cir

"turtle"
"army"
"justice"
"shell

cafon
cara
came
carud

"north"
"trouble"
"thirsty"
"hoarse"

"pair"
"color"

coek
cofe

"hollers"
"scout"

"raisin"
"jar"

colea
colelet

"bird"
"representative"

cur
cuk

"lame"
"submar
ine
"rock"
"cliff"

/y/ This sound is similar to the English glide and
forms
precedin vowels.
g
/iy/
/ey/
/ay/
/oy/

diphthon with
gs
/uy/

The diphthong /iy/ is rare and tends to be reduced to /i/ when it occurs.
/tiySan/

—►

/tiSan/ "you will sleep."

At the beginning of a word the sequence /yi/ tends to be reduced to /i/
/yisrael/ —► /israel/
/'/ Open Juncture
The open juncture /'/ has an English counterpart which is not usually
written. It is the "catch" that occurs between vowels in the exclamation
"oh - oh" or the separation of syllables the second of which begins with a
vowel, as in the sequence "an aim" as opposed to "a name", or in "grade A"
as opposed to "gray day".
/'/ occurs mainly in slow or deliberate speech, it
elided or barely audible.

is

In ordinary
conversation

/'/ is spelled ‫ א‬or ‫ ע‬. The latter has an
Arabicized pronunciation which is used by some
speakers but which is not heard generally. It does not occur on the accompanying
tapes.
The following pairs are given as illustrations. They should not require much
practice on the part of the English-speaking student.
/lirot/
/maca/
/nasa/
/mila/

"to shoot" ‫לירווז‬
"he found"
‫מצא‬
"he travelled" ‫נסע‬
"word" ‫ מלה‬/lir'ot/

tee"
/mac'a/
/nas'a/
/mil'a/

"to

54

‫ואות‬
‫ל ־‬
"she rcuna"
"she travelled"
"she filled"

‫מצאה‬
‫נסעה‬
‫מ^ה‬

PRONUNCIATION

HEBREW

BASIC COURSE

For the pronunciation of vowels when the intervening /'/ is elided see the
note on vowel clusters.
/h/ This sound is similar to the English counterpart, except that it tends
to be dropped in rapid speech. Before stressed vowels it is usually
retained.
When /h/ is dropped it is replaced by zero, not /'/•
/lehakir/ —► /leakir/ "to recognize" ‫( להכיר‬not /le'akir/)
The /h/ is generally kept in the transcription since the student might just
as well retain it until he acquires a natural-sounding rapid speech. It will
not seem affected or bookish.
The student should be aware in listening to other speakers that the
dropping of /'/ and /h/ will produce homonyms.
/gahar/ —► /gaar/
/ga'ar/ _ ^
/gaar/

"he crouched"
"he scolded"

‫גהר‬
‫גער‬

The following consonants are infrequent and occur only in loan-words and
proper names.
/£/ as the ch in English cheese.
/?izbat/ "tall tale"

‫צייזבט‬

/j/ as in English ]eep.
/jip/

"jeep"

‫ג י י פ‬

/X/ as the s_ in English measure or the in French.
/2aket/ "jacket"
‫ז'קט‬
/b el/
"beige"
'‫כז‬
Consonant Clusters
In ordinary speech two adjacent consonants within a word will tend to be
either both voiced or both voiceless. If there is a sequence voiced voiceless, such as / - zk -/, or voiceless-voiced, such as /- sg -/ then the
first will assimilate to the second. In slow or very careful speech the
distinction may be maintained.
Slow speech
voiced-voiceless
/tizkor/

Normal speech
‫תזכור‬

/tiskor/ "you will remember"

‫תטגוו‬

/tizgor/ "you will close"

voiceless-voiced
/tisgor/

This will often produce homonyms, or forms which in slow speech are
distinguishable but in normal speech are not. For example, the singular forms
of these verbs are always distinguishable:
/yexapes/

"he will seek"

/yexabes/

"he will launder" ‫יכבס‬

xxlx

‫יחפש‬

PRONUNCIATION HEBREW

BASIC COURSE

The plural forms, though, will usually sound the same:
/yexapsu/
(/yexabsu/ —► ) /yexapsu/

"they will seek."
‫יחפשו‬
"they will launder ‫יכנסו ״‬

English speakers should have no difficulty learning such pronunciations,
though in English the second consonant often assimilates to the first rather
than the reverse:
"observe" is pronounced obzerve, rather than opserve.
The student should be aware of the possibilities since the occurrences are
quite common, but context usually relieves any ambiguity.
The four consonants which do not have voiceless counterparts /m, n, 1, y/
(see chart) as well as /r/ and /v/ do not cause the assimilation of a preceding
voiceless consonant.
/masve/
"veil"
not */mazve/
/nifrad/
"separated" not
*/nivrad/
/c/ assimilates to a following voiced consonant, also: /hicbia/ "voted" ‫הצביע‬
often sounds like /hidzbia/.
The
between
finally
English

above examples show medial consonant clusters, that is, clusters
vowels. Clusters also occur initially (at the beginning of a word) and
(at the end of a word). Medial and final clusters should give the
speaker no particular difficulty.

Initial Consonant Clusters
Some initial clusters are similar to their English counterparts and should
not present any pronunciation problems,
/pi/
/tr/
/kl/

-

/plitim/
/truma/
/klita/

"refugees"
"contribution"
"absorption"

‫פליטים‬
‫תרומה‬
‫קליטה‬

Many frequently occurring initial clusters will be unfamiliar and will
require practice. Some examples are given below, but many more will occur in
the course material.
The most common error that English speakers make is to insert a vowel
between the consonants.
/pt/ /ptixa/

/ptax/
"opening"

"open"

/pn/ -

/pne/
/pnim/

"turn"
"interior"

‫פנים‬

/tm/ - /tmariny‫'׳‬
/tmuna/

"dates"
"picture"

/tl/ - /tluya/

/tliSut/

"dependent"
"detachment"

/ktana/

"address"
"small"

‫כתובת‬
‫קטנה‬

/cror/

"necessary"
"bundle"

‫צריכה‬
‫צרור‬

/cfat/
/cfoni/

"Safed"
"northern"

/kt/ - /ktovet/
/cr/ - /crixa/
/cf/

-

56

‫תמרים‬

‫פתח‬
‫פתיח‬
‫ה‬
‫פנה‬
‫תמונה‬

‫תלויה‬
‫תלישות‬

‫צפוני‬

‫צפת‬

BASIC

COURSE

________________________________

/cvat/
/cv/
_____________________________ /cvai/
PRONUNCIATION /bd/
/bdika/
/bdixa/

"pliers"
"military"

HEBREW

"examination"
"joke"

‫צבת צבאי‬
‫בריקה ׳_־ד‬
‫י חה‬
‫נגדים בגידה‬

M/

-

/bgadim/
/bgida/

"clothes"
"treason"

/dl/

-

/dli/
/dlatot/

"bucket" "doors"

‫דלי דלתות‬

/dv/

-

/dvaS/
/dvora/

"honey" "bee"

‫דבש דבורה‬

/gv/

-

/gveret/
/gvina/

/gd/

-

/gdola/
/gdud/

Cluster
s

o
f

‫״‬Mrs." ,'cheese"
"big" "troop"

‫גברת גבינה‬
‫גדולה ג ד ר‬
‫ד‬

Three Consonants

Medial clusters of three consonants are rare. When they occur as a result
of grammatical patterning then a vowel (usually /e/) is inserted between the
second and third consonants. When clusters of three consonants occur initially
the vowel /i/ is usually inserted between the first and second consonants.
These insertions are discussed in a number of places in the text.
The clusters of three consonants which do occur are mainly in recent loanwords or proper names:
/split/

"(banana) split"

Non-Permissible Clusters
Some sequences of consonants do not occur in Hebrew. These are called
non-permissible clusters. For the most part, restrictions are limited to
initial clusters.
When a grammatical pattern would ordinarily produce a cluster, but
the cluster is non-permissible, then a vowel is inserted, usually /e/. If
the first of the two consonants is /h/, /x/, or /'/ then the inserted
vowel is usually /a/.
are:

Examples of non-permissible clusters occurring in a grammatical pattern
m.s.
/gadol/
/yaxol/
/xazak/
/'acuv/
/na'im/

"big"
"able"
"strong"
"sad"
"pleasant"

f.s.
/gdola/
/yexola/ for Yyxola/
/xazaka/ for yxzaka/
/'acuva/ for */' cuva/
/ne' ima/ for Yn' ima/

The insertion of such vowels is discussed and drilled for each particular
grammatical pattern.

57

PRONUNCIATION HEBREW

BASIC COURSE

Some non-permissible initial clusters are permissible medially. The
addition of a prefix may, therefore, give two possible forms with the same
meaning.
/rexov alenbi/
/berexov alenbi/
or
/birxov alenbi/

"Allenby Road"
"0n Allenby Road"

(The shorter form is often the more formal or literary style.)
VOWELS
The vowels of modern Hebrew are harder to master than the consonants.
Students who have already learned some Hebrew traditionally may find that they
have to un-learn some of the pronunciations.
In stressed syllables the vowels are very similar to the five vowels of
Spanish. In unstressed syllables the vowels are generally reduced or centralized. In rapid speech vowels may be dropped entirely.
The student will find that the instructor's pronunciation of vowels will
shift when going from deliberate speech to normal speed speech. Often the
instructor is unaware of these changes and when asked to repeat or slow down
he will produce a somewhat unnatural utterance. The student should be aware of
this tendency and imitate the normal speed utterance. Speaking whole sentences
at normal speed rather than choppy groupings of individual words will help the
student in this regard.
/i/ High front vowel, tenser than the i. of English bit
"to drink"
1m
IS
iSa ir
biSvili

"with"
"man"
"woman"
"city"
"for
me"

liStot
naim
ma im
tikans
i
adoni

"sir"
II J II

"pleasant"
"water"
"enter"

"who"
am
"without"
mi
bl
"dish"
i
kl
/e/
This i
symbol represents a vowel which has a range covering several
English vowel phonemes. In stressed position followed by a consonant or at the
end of a word it is similar to e of English bet.
Students should be very careful not to replace it with /ey/ at the end of a
word - /kafe/ does not sound like the English cafe. The final /e/ is like the e
of bet with the t cut off.
bet
omed
oxel

"second letter"
"stands"
"eats"

betax
yafe
et

"sure"
"pretty"
"time"

nae
kafe
roe

"nice"
"coffee"
"sees"

In primary stress position before a vowel it is slightly higher and
followed by a y glide.
yodea

"knows"

Somea

"hears"

korea "tears"

In other positions it is more centralized, like tl3«‫־‬e of democracy.
meod
meot
mevin
kesef
yeled

"very"
"hundreds"
"understands"
"money"
"boy"

lamadeti
derex
beseder
bevakaga

58

"I studied"
"way"
"O.K."
"please"

BASIC

COURSE

________________________________
HEBREW

_____________________________ /a/ Low central vowel
PRONUNCIATION
This vowel is pronounced like the o in
American English hot. Before voiced consonants
this vowel is shorter tnan the similar English vowel. At the end of a word
it is glottalized, that is, has a "clipped" ending.
In unstressed syllables, especially before a strongly stressed syllable it
tends to be centralized, like the e of English below.
at
rak
SamaS
mamaS
ahav
ad

"you" f.s.
"only"
"custodian"
"really"
"loved"
"until"

amad
gag
az
kala
xala
teva

"stood"
"roof"
"strong"
"bride"
"twist bread
"nature"

/o/ Low-mid back vowel.
This vowel is similar to the ou of cough as pronounced by many Americans.
Listen to the tapes or the native instructor to get the exact pronunciation.
Be careful not to substitute a diphthong such as the o of note . Before voiced
consonants it is shorter that the similar English vowel. At the end of a word
it is glottalized.
In unstressed syllables, especially before a strongly stressed
syllable it tends to be centralized, like the e of English below.
kof "monkey" boker
tov "good" boker
sof "end" oxel
xodeS "month" oxel
yom "day" ohev

"morning" oto
"herdsman" lo
"food" o ^
"eats" Slomo
"loves"

"him"
"no"
"or"
"Solomon"

/u/ High back vowel
This vowel is slightly higher than the oo of shook. Be careful not to
substitute a diphthong with a w-off-glide such as the oo of food.
Suk "market"
Suv "again"
Siput "jurisdiction"
sulam "ladder"
sidur "arrangement"
ud "firebrand"
uf "fly away"
uc "advise"
hu "he"

yifnu "they will turn"
yiStu "they will drink"
Savu "they returned"
banu "in us"
banu "they built"
kanu "they bought"
avdu "they worked"
kumu "get up"
uru "wake up"

Vowel Clusters
All combinations of two vowels occur. The Hebrew spelling may indicate
that /'/, /h/, or /y/ should occur between them, and in deliberate speech
these consonants will usually be heard. In ordinary speech, however, vowel
clusters occur with a smooth transition between them. English speakers will
have to practice these vowel clusters in order to achieve a proper Israeli
pronunciation.
In the transcriptions these clusters are generally written without the
consonants which are indicated by the Hebrew spelling. Appropriate reminders
are given at various points in the text.

59

PRONUNCIATION

HEBREW

COURSE

In pronouncing the following examples for the students to imitate, the
instructor should be relaxed and informal in his pronunciation. otherwise he
will tend to insert a consonant and the practice will have lost its point.
Elision of /'/, /W> and /y/ does not mean that the speech is "sloppy" or
"corrupt". In slow or emphatic speech they must occur. But in normal, everyday,
"natural" speech they are dropped by native speakers of Hebrew• Maintaining
these
consonants in this informal style will
,time"
paam
sound
awkward.
,you will cross"
taavor
1to go up"
laalot
,house"
oait
,Israel"
israel
,pleasant"
naim
,directors"
menaalin
,to eat"
leexol
,pleasant"
neima
'very"
meod
,really"
beemet
,counsellor"
yoec
,counsellors"
yoacim
'come"
bou _
,week"
Savua
,sure"
batuax
'beans"
Seuit
maaSaa
"What time is it?"
STRESS AND INTONATION
A complete description of stress and intonation patterns would be very
complicated and of little help in the actual learning of them. The
instructor should present the sentences as naturally as possible, and the
student should do his best to mimic closely.
The following comments will explain the general occurrence of stress on
individual words and in connected speech. The learning of the Basic Sentences
and the acting out of the conversations constitute the drills on stress and
intonation.
In the transcription an accent mark _ indicates a syllable which may
receive strong stress. In words of more than one syllable the placement
of stress is meaningful.
In individual words, particularly when pronounced in isolation, the stress
is usually on the last syllable or on the next to the last syllable. In most
cases the placement of stress is a part of the grammatical pattern, but in
others it must be memorized as part of the individual word. For example, the
/-ti/ and /-ta/ suffixes of the past tense are never stressed: /amarti/ "I
said", /amarta/ "you said". On the other hand the following pairs of words are
distinguished from each other by the stress placement.
/oxel/
"(he is) eating"
/oxel/
"food"
/Slomo/ " his peace"
/Slomo/
"Solomon"
/emca/
" I will find"
/emca/
"middle"
/banu/
" they built"
/banu/
"in us"
In some words of three or more syllables the stress is on the last
syllable

but two:

/maSehu/ "something",

/amerika/
"America"

/mfSehu/
someone

/otobus/ "bus"

xxx iv

BASIC

PRONUNCIATION

HEBREW

COURSE

(in general, loan-words tend to retain the stress where it was in the
language from which it was borrowed.)

xxx iv

BASIC

BASIC

COURSE

________________________________
HEBREW

_____________________________
Only the main stress of a word is indicated.
PRONUNCIATION
Of the unstressed (unmarked) syllables some will
seem louder than others. English has similar patterns of "secondary" and
"tertiary" stresses, and there is no need to drill the pronunciation - provided
the main stress is properly placed: /ledaber/ "to speak" and not */ledaber/.
From Unit 18 on the stress mark is placed on a word only when the stress
is not on the last syllable.
Reduction of Stress
In ordinary connected speech many words, particularly the prepositions
with pronominal suffixes, lose the stress which they have when spoken in
isolation: /tagid li/ "tell me". In effect, these words are pronounced as one
word with the stress on the next to last syllable.
Style Differences in Placement of Stress
The placement of stress differs in formal style in some words and
grammatical patterns. In general, a stress on the next to last syllable is
shifted to the last syllable in these forms. For example:

/
Smone/ /
hi
baa/
/amartem
/

Formal
/Smone/
/hi
baa/
/amarte
m/

"eight" "she is coming" "you said"

Intonation Marks
Intonation is indicated only in a very broad way by the use of punctuation
marks at the end of a phrase or sentence.
A period indicates a falling intonation. Questions which begin with a
question-word (who, what, etc.)generally have a falling intonation at the end
and are therefore marked with a period, not with a question mark.
A question mark indicates a rising intonation. Yes-or-no questions and
rejoinder guestions (And how are you?) generally have a rising intonation at
the end.
A comma indicates a possible pause with a relatively sustained intonation. A
hyphen indicates a hesitation pause, usually with a sustained or rising
intonation.
An exclamation mark indicates an exclamation with increased loudness.
Note: These marks are used in this manner only in the transcription. In the
English and Hebrew spellings the standard punctuation is used.

62

RECORDINGS
COURSE

HEBREW BASIC

TAPE RECORDINGS
The tape recordings which accompany FS!-Hebrew Basic Course have the
following format:
1)Basic Conversation
(a)Dialogue for Learning. The first presentation of the Basic Sentences

are built up from the partial utterances, as described in the
Introduction. Each full sentence is said twice. The student repeats everything he hears at this step. ' He may follow in his book.
(b)Dialogue for Fluency. Each complete Basic Sentence is given with space

for repetition. The student should not need his book here.

(c)Dialogue for Comprehension. The Basic Conversation is spoken at normal

speed by a group of Hebrew speakers as you might overhear it. The student
just listens with his book closed.
(d)Alternating

Drill. The Basic Conversation is presented at normal
speed with one speaker's part missing. The Student speaks the missing
part. He thus conducts a conversation with the tape recording.
The Basic Conversation is then presented with the other speaker's part
missing. The student supplies the part. He thus practices participating in the
entire conversation.
In some Basic Conversations a third speaker has a small part. In such
cases the entire conversation is not repeated with this small part missing.
2)Additional vocabulary
The sentences in the Additional Vocabulary section are presented with
build- ups if necessary.
3)Drills
(a)Substitution Drills, Substitution-Agreement Drills. The first, or

"model" sentence is given with spaces for repetition. Then a substitution
cue is given with space for the student to respond with the new sentence.
The correct response is then given on the tape. The student may follow in
the book.
(b)Expansion Drills, Transformation Drills, Response Drills. The
cue sentence is given with space for the response sentence. The tape then gives
the correct response sentence. The student should look in the book to see what
his response should be. Only the translation of the first cue-response in
given.

Note: In using the tapes the student should not go through an entire tape at
one sitting especially when doing the drill sections. Instead he should do a
few drills, rewind the tape, and do them again until he can do them perfectly
without using the book.
Translation Drills, Rapid Response Drills, and Review Conversations are
not recorded.
Occasionally circumstances required the use of a woman's voice to record a
man's part and vice versa. This should not disturb the student.

63

UNIT 3
COURSE.

HEBREW BASIC

1.1 Greetings (Two men meet)
He
ll
o,
Mo
sh
e.
Ho
w
ar
e
yo
u?
peac
e,
welf
are
what
the
welf
are
of
you,
your
(m.s
.)
MR.
WILLIAMS

Sl
om
xe
i.

.‫ משה‬,‫שלום‬
?‫מה שלומך‬

‫שלים‬
‫מה‬
‫שלומר‬

S
a
l
o
m
(
m
)

§al6m
moSe.
11 ‫&ז‬

.‫תודה רבה‬
.‫שלומי טוב‬
?‫ומה שלומך‬

m
S

‫תודה‬
‫רד‬
— ‫ה‬

§
l
6
m
x
&
(
m
.
s
.
)

‫ו‬

‫י‬

MOSHE
Thank you
very much.
I'm fine.
And how are
you?
t
h
a
n
k
s
m
u
c
h
m
e
,
m
y

a
n
d
to
dc
i
ra
bc
i.
Sl
om
I
t6
v.
u‫׳‬
t1
S
Sl
om
xe
i?
t

64

BASIC COURSE
4

HEBREW UNIT

od
&
(f
)
ra
bc
i
(f

)
1

u
-

MR. WILLIAMS
Fine.
How
is
the
famil
y?
th
e
fa
mi
ly
t6v.
m
c
i
§
1
6
m
h
a

m
i
S
p
a
x
c
i
.
h
a
m
i
S
p
a
x
S

‫ה‬
‫משפחה‬

(
f
)

65

‫ מה‬.‫טוב‬
‫שלום‬
?‫המשפחה‬

UNIT 3
COURSE.

HEBREW BASIC

MOSHE
A
l
l

i
f
e
?

r
i
g
h
t
.

in
order
wife,
woman
be
s
e
d
e
r
(
m
)
i
S
£
(
f
)

H
o
w
i
s
y
o
u
r
w
MR. WILLIAMS
gSm SlomS tov. slix&. ana.
muxrcix
laruc. too, also
her
pardon
(noun) I
have to, must
to
run

She's fine,
too. Excuse me.
I have to
run.

bes^de
r.
mS
Slom
iStexS
.

,‫גם שלומה טוב‬
‫ אני‬.‫סליחה‬
.‫מוכרח לרוץ‬

gSm -k
slixci (f)
ani
muxrcix
(m.s.
lariic

.‫בשדר‬
‫מה שלום‬
?‫אשתך‬

‫נם‬.
-‫ב‬
‫ה‬‫סד‬
‫סלי‬
‫ר‬
‫חה‬
‫אשה‬
‫אני‬
‫מוכר‬
‫ח ל‬
‫רוץ‬

MOSHE
0h‫ ׳‬yesl
It's
lace
already.
Gooubye.
ye
s
a
l
r
e
a
d
y

o —
kenl
kvar
meuxar
.
Salom.
ken
kvar
meuxar

l
a
t
e

!‫כן‬

‫כן‬
‫כבר‬
‫מאוחר‬

66

‫או‬
‫כבר‬
.‫מאוחר‬
.‫שלום‬

BASIC COURSE
4

HEBREW UNIT

So long. Be seeing
you.
to see again 1.2
Greetings (Two women meet)
Hello, Miriam. How
are you?
you, your (f.s.)

‫להתראות‬

.‫ להתראות‬.‫שלום‬

f-'-RS- WILLIAMS
Salom, miry&m. mS
Slom6x.
-ex
‫ך‬-

‫מה‬

,‫שלום‬
.‫מרים‬
?‫שלומך‬

MIRIAM
todci
rabci.
Slomi
tov. umci
Slomex?

Thank you very much.
I'm fine.
And how are you?

.‫תודה רבה‬
.‫שלומי טוב‬
?‫ומה שלומך‬

MRS. WILLIAMS

Fine.
How is the family?

tov.
mci Slom hamiSpaxli.

.‫טוב‬
?‫מה עלום המשפחה‬

MIRIAM
All right. How is
your husband?
husband

besede
r.
mci

‫ מה שלום‬.‫בסדר‬
?‫בעלך‬

Slom

baalex
.
He's fine, too.
Excuse me. I have
to run.
him, his have to,
must
MR.
WILLIAMS
Salom.
lehitraot.
Iehitra6t
Oh, yes! It's late
already.
So long.

bial (m)

gcim Slomo tov.
slixcL. ani
rauxraxfi laruc.
-6 ‫י‬-

muxraxi (f.s.) ‫מוכרחה‬
MIRIAM
‫כבר‬

!‫כן‬

‫או‬
.‫ שלום‬.‫מאוחר‬

salon:.
MRS. WILLIAMS

.‫ להתראות‬.‫שלום‬

Salom.
lehitraot.

1.3 ADDITIONAL VOCABULARY
We are fine.
How are you?
How are you?
How are they?
How are they?

.‫גם שלומו טוב‬
‫ אני‬.‫סליחה‬
.‫מוכרחה לרוץ‬

MRS. WILLIAMS

‫י‬
‫י‬

So long. Be seeing
you.
o — ken! kv&r meux&r.
‫י י‬

‫כעל‬

(m.pl.)
(f.pl.)
(m.pl.)
(f.pl.)

67

UNIT 3
COURSE.

HEBREW BASIC

Mr. Carmi
Mr. Carmi (alternate form) Miss or Mrs. Carmi It is early.

Slomenu
tov. mci
Slomxem.
mci
SlomxSn.
mci
Slomcim.
mci SlomSn.
mcir kcirmi
adon kcirmi
68
gveret
kcirmi
mukdcim.

‫שלומנו‬
.‫טוב‬
?‫שלומכם‬
‫מה‬
?‫שלומכן‬
?‫מה שלומם‬
?‫מה שלומן‬
‫מה‬

‫מר כרמי‬
‫אדון כרמי‬
‫גברת כרמי‬
.‫מוקדם‬

BASIC COURSE
4

HEBREW UNIT

1.4 Classroom Expressions
In this section we introduce a few additional Hebrew phrases which will be
used in class. They should be practiced until the pronunciation is learned, but
since they will be used constantly in class they can be memorized without special
effort.
Some of the expressions are given in more than one form, differing in
gender or number. Their use will depend on the make-up of the class, and the
instructor may find it necessary to introduce additional variations not included
here.
Close the door.
1.

2.Sit down, please.

(said to a man)
(said to a woman)
All together.

.‫דבר יותר בקול‬
.‫דברי יותר בקול‬

dabSr yotSr bek6l.
dabri yotfir bek6l.

‫ עוד‬.‫כולם ביחד‬

kulSm beyaxad.
6d hapSam,

.‫הפעם‬

Do you understand? (said to a

man) (said to a woman)

I don't understand, (said by
man) (said by a woman)

a

ani 16 yodea. ani 16 yodSat.

know.
(said by a man) (said by
atS
woman)

11.Please translate.
10 .

?‫אתה מבין‬
mevin, ?‫את מבינה‬ani

ani 16
16 mevinS.

.
don't

.‫פתחו את הספרים‬
.‫פתחנה את הספרים‬

Again.

Speak louder.

I

.‫ בבקשה‬,‫שקט‬

pitxu et hasfar fm.
ptaxna
et
hasfarfm.

(said to men or both)
(said to women)

7

sigri
et
.‫סגור את הדלת‬
.‫סגרי את הדלת‬
.‫ בבקשה‬,‫שב‬
.‫ בבקשה‬,‫שבי‬
‫ בבקשה‬,‫שבו‬

S6ket, bevakaSS.

3.Quiet, please.
4.Open your books.

.

hadSlet.

§6v, bevakaSS.
Svi, bevakaSS.
Sv£i,
bevakaSS.

(said to a man)
(said
to
a
woman) (said to
men or both)

6

sg6r
et
hadSlet.

(said to a man) (said to a woman)

(said to a man)
(said to a woman)

12.How do you say

table in Hebrew?

targSm, bevakaSS.

a

mevin? St
mevinS?
targeml,
bevakaSS.
Syx omrlm table
beivrit. \
.‫ בבקשה‬,‫תרגם‬

69

.‫אני לא מבין‬
.‫אני לא מבינה‬
.‫ בבקשה‬,‫תרגמי‬
.‫אני לא יודע‬
.‫אני לא יודעת‬

‫איר‬

table ‫אומרים‬
?‫בעברית‬

UNIT 3
COURSE.

HEBREW BASIC

GRAKMAR DRILLS
1.5 Masculine and Feminine

Compare the following sets of corresponding sentence ‫־־‬
from conversations 1.1
and 1.2:
a. Sal6m, moS6. mS Slomxei.
Hello, Moshe. How are you?
Sal6m, miry&m. mci
Slomfex. Hello, Miriam.
How is your wife? How How are you?
is your husband?
b. mS 516m
iStexS. mS Sl6m
baal6x.
Note that forms differ when a man or woman is being spoken to. It is
important that the student learn the corresponding forms at the outset. There
are a number of patterns of these corresponding forms, which will be referred
to by their traditional names, masculine and feminine. All nouns in Hebrew,
whether or not referring to beings with sex, are members of one or the other
class. These will be designated (m) or (f) in the vocabulary listings.
Throughout the course the various corresponding forms required by
each gender will be drilled.
The following drills should be thoroughly learned. The student should not
have to be corrected afterwards on the use of the proper forms. Such errors
will produce a reaction similar to that felt by English speakers on hearing the
following: ‫״‬How is your brother?"
‫״‬She is fine, thank you."
The cue words in the following drills are names of men and women.
Include .the name in the response so as to fix firmly the connection of form
and sex of person spoken to. The instructor may vary the drill by using the
names of members of the class or by introducing other Hebrew names such as
/avigdor/(man) and /xcina/ (woman).
The drills are to be done as follows:
Instructor: Salom mo5£ mS SlomxS. Student:
(repeats) Salom moS6. ml SlomxS. Instructor:
mirySm Student: Salom mirySm. mci SlomSx.
Instructor: (repeats) Sal6m mirySm. mS
Slomex.
mcir kohen
§a!6m mo56. mS SlornxS.

Salom mirySm. mS

mirySm

Slomfix. §al6m mcir

mcir k6hen

kohen. mci SlomxS.

gveret Williams

gv6ret Williams. mci

gveret kcispi

Slomex. Sal6m gveret

m&r Williams

kcispi. mS Slomex.

avigdor

mcir

Xcina

Slomxei. Salom

m&r kcispi mo56

avigdor. mci Slomxei.

Williams. mS

70

?‫מה שלומר‬

.run

.‫שלום‬

‫מרים מר כהן‬
‫ גבי וויליאמס‬Sal6m
‫גב• כספי מר‬
‫וויליאמס‬
‫ אביגדור חנה‬Salom
‫מר כספי‬
‫משה‬

Sal6m

BASIC COURSE
4

HEBREW UNIT

x&na. mS Slomex. Salom mcir
kcispi. mS SlomxS. Sal6m moS6. mci SlomxS.
?‫מר וויליאמס‬
,‫תך‬,‫מה שלום אש‬
mfi Slom
mcir
iStexS,
Williams.
^.;:‫גבי ווילי‬
qv6ret
m 516 baal6x gv6ret Williams.
Williams
l m
,
i
mc 316 iStexc mcir kohen.
‫מר כהן‬
mcir kohen
i
m
i,
mc Slo baal6x gveret kcirmi.
‫גבי כרמי‬
gveret kcirmi
i
m
,
mc Slo baal6x xSna.
xcina
‫חבה‬
i
m
,
mc S16 iStexS moS6.
moSS
‫משה‬
i
m
,
mc Sl6 iStexS mcir Williams.
‫־‬,‫מר וויליאמ‬
mcir Williams
i
m
,
1.6 Pronominal Suffixes - Singular Set
There are several sets of pronouns indicating person, gender, and number. The
following occur as suffixes to singular nouns and to certain prepositions. They
will be referred to as the singular set.
When suffixed to nouns they are often translated as possessives.
m£ Slomxei.
(literally) What is your peace?
mS Slom iStexci.
How is your wife?
Slom1_ tov.
(literally) My peace is good.
Except for certain stereotyped expressions as these, though, the suffixing of
nouns to indicate possession is more formal in style.
When suffixed to prepositions they are usually translated as the objects of
the prepositions. This will be discussed later on.
A. Substitution Drill
m& SlomxS.
How are you?
siomex
Slomxem
‫ ו‬siomsm ‫ ו מ ם‬/‫׳‬. .
SlomSn ‫׳ ו‬-‫ ו‬v.. siomo ‫ומו‬
siomx^n
‫ _ומכך‬sioms ‫ ;ל ו מ ה‬:

?‫מה שלומך‬
‫לומר‬:
LOU /'‫״‬
,‫׳‬

B. Substitution Drill
siomi tov.
siomenu
siomo
Slomcin
sioms
510mSm

I'm f

i

n

e

.

.

‫ב‬

‫ו‬

‫ט‬

‫י‬

‫מ‬

‫ו‬

‫ל‬.
,‫*ומנו‬
‫;לומר‬
‫־לי מן‬
:
../‫ומה‬
‫ומש‬,‫■׳׳‬
7

C. Response Drill
mS Slomxa.
Instructor:
m£ Slomxem.
mS SlomSm.
mci

Slom!
Student: SlomSm

tov.
tov.

Siomenu
Siomo

tov.
tov.

Siomenu
tov.
Slomi t6v.

Slom6.

mS SlomxSn.
mS SlomS.

mS Slom6x.

71

SlomS

tov.

UNIT 3
COURSE.
D.
?‫לומך‬.
-..
‫;כ‬.‫לו‬
Instructor:
?‫ש‬
‫לו‬.
?‫מש‬
‫לומו‬:.
?
:
?‫לומכן‬
‫לומה‬:‫׳‬
?
‫׳לו‬.,
?‫מך‬

HEBREW BASIC

‫מה‬
‫מה‬
?‫ו‬
‫בעל ־‬
?‫אשתך‬
?‫המשפחה‬
?‫בעלה‬
?‫אשתו‬

‫מה‬
‫מה‬
‫מה‬
‫מה‬
‫מה‬

Response Drill

mci §16m baalex.
Student: Slom6
t6v.
mli Slom iStexci.
§lomi
t6v.
mci §lom hamiSpaxS.
SlomS
t6v.
mi Slom baali.Slom6
t6v.
mS §16m i§t6. SlomS
t6v.

72

‫שלום‬
‫שלום‬
‫שלום‬
‫שלום‬
‫שלום‬

‫מה‬
‫מה‬
‫מה‬
‫מה‬
‫מה‬

BASIC COURSE
4

HEBREW UNIT

[Note: in the
form
/iStexS/
the
/-e-/
is
inserted
for
phonological
reasons,
to
break
up
the
three-consonant
cluster
/-§tx-/, which
would otherwise
result. ]

1.7 Alternate forms
of nouns before
suffixes
Many nouns have
an alternate form
when occurring with
a
pronominal
suffix.
§alom
'welfare'

73

UNIT 3
COURSE.

HEBREW BASIC

‫ י‬Slomi ,my
welfare'
igci
wife'

,

iSti
my wife'

,

Compare, on the
other
hand:
bSal
,husband'
baali 'my husband'
It is very
difficult
to
predict
which
nouns will have
such alternate
forms or what
the
alternate
form will be.
The
student
should
simply
drill these as
they occur in
the text until

74

BASIC COURSE
4

HEBREW UNIT

he has mastered
them.
When a
suffixed noun
occurs in a Fasic
Sentence the
independent form
of the noun will
be given in the
vocabulary
breakdown, and,
as much as
possible, drills
will be provided.

75

UNIT 3
COURSE.

HEBREW BASIC

REVIEW
CONVERSATIO
NS

The
purpose
of
the
Review
Conversations
is
to
lead
the
student
into
free
conversation
within
the
range of the
vocabulary
and
grammatical
patterns
which he has
learned.
Students
should
keep
their
books
closed
while
the
instructor
follows
the
procedure
suggested
here.

76

BASIC COURSE
4
1.With the class
just
listening,
the
instructor
reads the
conversation
in as
natural a
manner as
possible.
The
instructor
repeats the
conversation
until the
class
understands
it
completely.

HEBREW UNIT

2.The instructor
rereads the
conversation
several
times with
half the
class

77

UNIT 3
COURSE.

HEBREW BASIC

repeating
one role and
half the
other role.
3.The two halves
of the class
exchange roles
and Step 2 is
repeated.
4.The instructor
takes the
first part
and acts out
the
conversation
with the
class.
5.The class and
instructor
exchange roles
and repeat
Step 4.
6.Individual
students are
assigned the

78

BASIC COURSE
4

HEBREW UNIT

various roles
in turn until
all have
taken both
parts in the
conversation.

7.Individual
students
make
substitut
ions
freely,
including
whatever
changes
may
be
necessary
elsewhere
in
the
conversat
ion.
These
free
conversat
ions
should
not
be

79

UNIT 3
COURSE.

HEBREW BASIC

prolonged
more than
four
minutes
or
so.
This will
give
all
the
students
an
opportuni
ty to try
their
hand
at
the
same
situation
.
The
instructo
r
should
refrain
from
adding
a
lot
of
vocabular
y at this
point.

80

BASIC COURSE
4

HEBREW UNIT

A: 8a16m, gvSret

k&hen. mS
siomgx.

:‫א‬

?,‫שלום‬

.‫גברת כהן‬
‫שלומר‬

‫מה‬

b: tods, siomi
t6v, um&
siomxS?
?.‫תודה‬

.‫טוב‬

:‫ב‬

‫שלומי‬

‫ומה שלומן״‬

81

UNIT 3
COURSE.

HEBREW BASIC

A:

gim Slomi t6v, todci.

.‫ תודה‬,‫גם שלומי טוב‬

B:

mS Slom mo5£.

?‫מה שלום ממק‬

A:

ani 16 yod§a.

.‫אני לא יורע‬

C
:

mci Sl6m iStexci, mcir kcirmi.

:
‫ס‬
c:
D:

tov, todci. slixci. meuxcir.

c:

6, g&m ani muxraxS laruc. Salom,

D:

5al6m, lehitraot.

‫א‬
:
‫ב‬
:
‫א‬
:

?‫ מר כרמי‬,‫מה שלום אשתר‬

‫ג‬
:

bes&der, todci. mS Slom baal6x?

?‫ מה שלום בעלר‬.‫ תודה‬,‫בסדר‬

Slom6 tov. mci 516m hamiSpaxci?

?‫ מה שלום המשפחה‬.‫שלומו טוב‬

‫ד‬
:
‫ג‬
:

.‫ מאוחר‬.‫ סליחה‬.‫ תורה‬,‫טוב‬
.‫ שלום‬.‫ ג□ אני מוכרחה לרוץ‬,‫או‬
.‫ להתראות‬,‫שלום‬

E: Sal6m,
mSr
Willia

ms.
Sa
l6m,

82

‫ר‬
:
‫ג‬
:

‫ר‬
:

BASIC COURSE
4

gveret

zahSv

Willia

i. E:

ms. mS

bes6d

Slomx6

er. mci

m. F:

Slom

todci

hamiS

rabci.

paxS?

Slom6n

F:

u t6v.

slixS

mci

HEBREW UNIT

. an!

Slom6x

lo

,

mevtn

gv6ret

. 6d

83

UNIT 3
COURSE.

hapSam

HEBREW BASIC

:

,
b

m

e

S

v
a

S

k

l

a

6

S

m

S
.

h
a

E

m

84

BASIC COURSE
4

i

o

S

m

p

S

HEBREW UNIT

a
x

t

S

o

.

v
,

F
:

t
o

S

d

l

c

85

UNIT 3
COURSE.

HEBREW BASIC

i

:‫ה‬

.

,‫שלום‬
‫מר‬
‫ווילי‬
.‫אמס‬

86

‫‪BASIC COURSE‬‬
‫‪4‬‬

‫‪HEBREW UNIT‬‬

‫‪87‬‬

‫ה‬

‫שלו‬

‫רב‬

‫ם‪,‬‬

‫ה‪.‬‬

‫גבר‬

‫של‬

‫ת‬

‫ומ‬

‫ווי‬

‫נו‬

‫ליא‬

‫טו‬

‫מס‪.‬‬

‫ב‪.‬‬

‫מה‬

‫מה‬

‫שלו‬

‫של‬

‫מכם‬

‫ומ‬

‫?‬

‫ך‪,‬‬

‫ו‪:‬‬

‫גב‬

‫תוד‬

‫‪UNIT 3‬‬
‫‪COURSE.‬‬

‫‪HEBREW BASIC‬‬

‫‪88‬‬

‫סל‬

‫רת‬

‫יח‬

‫זהב‬

‫ה‪.‬‬

‫י?‬

‫אנ‬

‫ה‪:‬‬

‫י‬

‫בסד‬

‫לא‬

‫ר‪.‬‬

‫מב‬

‫מה‬

‫ין‬

‫שלו‬

‫‪.‬‬

‫ם‬

‫עו‬

‫המש‬

‫ד‬

‫פחה‬

‫הפ‬

‫?‬

‫עם‬

‫ו‪:‬‬

BASIC COURSE
4

HEBREW UNIT

:‫ ה‬.‫בבקשה‬

,‫שלומה טוב‬

‫מה שלום‬

.‫תודה‬

:‫המשפחה? ו‬

G:

o
Sal6

!

m,

S

mSr

a

kcir

l

mi.

o

H:

m

89

UNIT 3
COURSE.

HEBREW BASIC

,

S

moSe

.

! mS

H

Slom

:

xei.

b

G:

e

Slom

s

i

£

tov.

d

mS

e

Sl6m

r

hami

.

Spax

s

90

BASIC COURSE
4

HEBREW UNIT

g6r

‫ש‬

et

‫ל‬

hadS

‫ו‬

let,

‫ם‬

beva

,

kaSS

‫מ‬

.

‫ר‬

G:

‫כ‬

ken.

‫ר‬

slix

‫מ‬

S.

‫י‬
.
‫א‬

91

‫‪UNIT 3‬‬
‫‪COURSE.‬‬

‫‪HEBREW BASIC‬‬

‫‪92‬‬

‫ח‬

‫ו!‬

‫ה‬

‫שלום‬

‫?‬

‫‪,‬‬

‫ב‬

‫משה!‬

‫כ‬

‫מה‬

‫ד‬

‫שלומ‬

‫ר‬

‫ך?‬

‫‪.‬‬

‫שלומ‬

‫ס‬

‫י‬

‫ג‬

‫טוב‪.‬‬

‫ו‬

‫מה‬

‫ר‬

‫שלום‬

‫א‬

‫המשפ‬

BASIC COURSE
4

HEBREW UNIT

‫ת‬

‫ס‬

‫הדלת‬

‫ל‬

,

‫י‬

‫בבקש‬

‫ח‬

.‫ה‬

‫ה‬

.‫כן‬

.

I:
mSr

iam
s,
S£v

Will
,

93

UNIT 3
COURSE.

HEBREW BASIC

beva

me

kaSS

vl

.

n.

J:

I:
S6

6d
hap

v,
be

Sam
,

va
ka

bev
aka

SS
.

SS.
ani
lo

J:
o

94

BASIC COURSE
4

HEBREW UNIT

k6n.

mu

an£

xr

mevi

Sx

n.

la

todS

ru

.

c.

K:
sli
xS,
mir
ySm
.
ani

L:
lo
.

v,
be
va

95

UNIT 3
COURSE.

HEBREW BASIC

kaS

to

S.

v.

muk

Ie

dSm

hi

.

tr

K:

a6

lo,

t.

tod

M:

S.
meu

Sik

xSr

et,

.

bev

L:

aka

96

BASIC COURSE
4

HEBREW UNIT

Si.

t!

N:

atS
mev

slix
S.

ln?
N:

dab4
r

tov

yot£

.

r

ani

beko

mev

l.

ln.

M:

sli
xS.

S£ke

97

‫‪UNIT 3‬‬
‫‪COURSE.‬‬

‫‪HEBREW BASIC‬‬

‫י‪:‬‬

‫ט‪:‬‬

‫עור‬

‫מר‬

‫הפע‬

‫וויל‬

‫ם ‪,‬‬

‫יאמס‬

‫בבק‬

‫‪,‬‬

‫שה‪.‬‬

‫עב‪,‬‬

‫אני‬

‫בבקש‬

‫לא‬

‫ה‪.‬‬

‫מבי‬
‫ן‪,‬‬

‫‪98‬‬

‫‪BASIC COURSE‬‬
‫‪4‬‬

‫‪HEBREW UNIT‬‬

‫כ‪:‬‬

‫ט‪:‬‬

‫סלי‬

‫שב‪,‬‬

‫חה‪,‬‬

‫בבק‬

‫מרי‬

‫שה‪.‬‬

‫ם‪.‬‬

‫י‪:‬‬

‫אני‬

‫או‬

‫מוכ‬

‫כן‪.‬‬

‫רח‬

‫אני‬

‫לרו‬

‫מבי‬

‫ץ‪.‬‬

‫ן‪.‬‬
‫תור‬
‫ה‪.‬‬

‫‪99‬‬

‫‪UNIT 3‬‬
‫‪COURSE.‬‬

‫‪HEBREW BASIC‬‬

‫כ‪:‬‬

‫ל‪:‬‬

‫לא‪,‬‬

‫לא‪.‬‬

‫תור‬

‫שב‪,‬‬

‫ה‪.‬‬

‫בבקש‬

‫מאו‬

‫ה‪.‬‬

‫חר‪.‬‬

‫מוקד‬

‫ל‪:‬‬

‫ם‪.‬‬

‫טוב‬
‫‪.‬‬
‫להת‬
‫ראו‬
‫ת‪.‬‬

‫‪100‬‬

‫‪BASIC COURSE‬‬
‫‪4‬‬

‫‪HEBREW UNIT‬‬

‫מ‪:‬‬

‫מ‪:‬‬

‫שקט‬

‫שקט‪,‬‬

‫!‬
‫אתה‬
‫מבי‬
‫ן?‬

‫בבקש‬
‫ה‪.‬‬
‫נ‪:‬‬
‫סליח‬
‫ה‪.‬‬
‫דבר‬
‫יותר‬
‫בקול‬
‫‪.‬‬

‫‪101‬‬

UNIT 3
COURSE.

:‫נ‬

HEBREW BASIC

‫מבי‬
.‫ן‬

.‫טוב‬
‫בלי‬
‫אני‬
.‫חה‬

102

2.1

BASIC COURSE
4

HEBREW UNIT

Introductions (Two men are introduced)
MR. CASPI
M
r
.
C
o
h
e
n
,

,‫מר כהן‬
‫תכיר‬
‫כבקשה את‬
‫מר‬
.‫וויליאמס‬

‫תכי‬
‫ר‬
‫את‬

p
l
e
a
s
e
m
e
e
t
M
r
.
W
i
l
l
i
a
m
s
.
you will
know
(preposit
ion
indicatin
g object
of verb)
mSr k6hen,
takir
bevakaSS et
mSr
Williams.
takir
(m.s.)
et

103

UNIT 3
COURSE.

HEBREW BASIC

I'
m
ve
ry
ha
pp
y
to
me
et
yo
u,
Mr
.
Wi
ll
ia
ms
.

na
im
(m
.s
.)
li
me
6d
le
ha
ki
r
ot
xS
(m
.s
.)
p
l
e
a
s
a
n
t

‫נעים‬
‫לי‬

‫מאד‬
‫להכי‬
‫ר‬
‫אותר‬

‫נעים‬
‫לי מאד‬
‫להכיר‬
,‫אותך‬
‫מר‬
‫וויליא‬
.‫מס‬

t
o
m
e
v
e
r
y
to know
(a
person)
you
(m.s.,
obj.)
MR. COHEN
naim li
me6d
lehakir
otx&,
mSr
William
s.

104

BASIC COURSE
4

HEBREW UNIT

MR. WILLIAMS
How do you do, Mr. Cohen.
MR. CASPI
Mr. Williams
is
Counsellor
of
the
American
Embassy.
he, it
counsel
lor,
adviser
embassy
America
n
When
di
d
yo
u
ar
ri
ve
in
th
e
co
un
tr
y,
Mr
.
Wi
ll
ia
ms
?

)

Sagri
rfit
(f)
ameri
k&i
(m.s.
)

h
u

M
R
.

y
o
6
c

C
O
H
E
N

nalm
me6d, mSr
k6hen'.

h
a
S
a
g
r
i
r
u
t

when
(inter
rogati
ve)
you
arrive
d
(m.s.)
countr
y
mSr

W
i
l
l
i
a
m
s

m
a
t
S
y
h
i
g
S
t
a

h
a
a
m
e
r
i
k
S
i
t
.

l
a
S
r
e
c
,
m
S
r

h
t
i

W
i
l
l
i

yo
6c
(
m

105

‫מר‬

‫נעים‬
,‫מאד‬
.‫כהן‬

‫‪UNIT 3‬‬
‫‪COURSE.‬‬

‫‪HEBREW BASIC‬‬

‫‪ams.‬‬
‫‪matSy‬‬
‫‪higSta‬‬
‫)‪(m.s.‬‬
‫)‪6rec (f‬‬
‫מר וויליאמס הוא‬
‫יועץ השגרירות‬
‫האמריקאית‪.‬‬

‫מתי הגעת‬
‫לארץ‪,‬‬
‫מר וויליאמם‪.‬‬

‫הוא י‬
‫ועץ‬
‫שגרירו‬
‫ת‬
‫אמריקא‬
‫י‬

‫מתי‬
‫הגע‬
‫ת‬
‫ארץ‬

‫‪106‬‬

BASIC COURSE
4

HEBREW UNIT

MR. WILLIAMS
I
ar
ri
ve
d
tw
o
da
ys
ag
o,
Mr
.
Co
he
n.

y
o
m
S
i
m
,
m
S
r
k
6
h
e
n
.
I
a
r
r
i
v
e
d
b
e
f
o
r
e
,

higSti
lifn&y
y6m
(m)
yomSim
‫הג‬
‫עת‬
‫י‬
‫לפ‬
‫ני‬
‫יו‬
‫מי‬
‫ים‬
,
‫מר‬
‫כה‬
.‫ן‬

a
g
o
d
a
y
t
w
o
d
a
y
s

‫הגע‬
‫תי‬
‫לענ‬
‫י‬
‫יום‬
‫יומיים‬

higSti
lifn6y

107

2.2

UNIT 3
COURSE.

HEBREW BASIC

Introductions (Two women are introduced)
MRS. CAS PI
M
r
s
.
C
o
h
e
n
,
p
l
e
a
s
e
m
e
e
t
M
r
s
.
W
i
l
l
i
a
m
s
.

m
s
.
you
(f.
s.,
obj
.)
gv6ret
k6hen,
takiri
bevakaSS
et gveret
Williams.
)

‫תכירי‬

W
i
l
l
i
a
m
s
.

‫אותך‬

ota
x
(f.
s.)

takiri
(f.s.
M
R
S
.
W
I
L
L
I
A
M
S

MRS.
COHE
N
n
a
i
m
l
i

you
will
know
(f.

I'm
ver
y
hap
py
to
mee
t
you
,
Mrs
.
Wil
lia

r
e
t

m
e
6
d
l
e
h
a
k
i
r
o
t
S
x
,
g
v
f
i

108

‫‪BASIC COURSE‬‬
‫‪4‬‬

‫‪HEBREW UNIT‬‬

‫גברת כהן‪,‬‬
‫תכירי בבקשה את‬
‫גברת רויליאמס‪.‬‬

‫לי‬

‫נעים‬
‫מאד‬
‫להכיר‬
‫אותך‪,‬‬
‫גברת‬
‫וויליאמס‬
‫‪.‬‬

‫‪109‬‬

UNIT 3
COURSE.

HEBREW BASIC

How do you do, Mrs. Cohen.
Mrs. Williams
is the wife
of the
Counsellor of
the American
Embassy.
s
h
e
,
i
t
o
f

MRS. CAS PI

‫נעים‬
,‫מאד‬
‫גברת‬
.‫כהן‬

naim me6d,
gvSret
k6hen.

gvSret
Williams hi
iSt6 Sel
yo6c
haSagrirtit
haamerikSit.
hi §61
‫גברת וויליאמס‬
‫היא אשתו של‬
‫יועץ השגרירות‬
.‫האמריקאית‬

‫הי‬
‫א‬
‫של‬

110

BASIC COURSE
4
When
did
you
arr
ive
in
the
cou
ntr
y,
Mrs
.
Wil
lia
ms?

HEBREW UNIT

‫מ‬
‫ת‬
‫י‬
‫ה‬
‫ג‬
‫ע‬
‫ת‬
‫ל‬
‫א‬
‫ר‬
‫ץ‬
,
‫גברת‬
?‫וויליאמס‬

you
arrived
(f.s.)
KRS. COHEN
m
a
t
&
y
h
i
g
&
t
l
a
S
r
e
c
,
gvferet
Williams.
hig&t
(f.s.)

‫הגע‬
‫ת‬

MRS.
WILLIAMS

111

UNIT 3
COURSE.

HEBREW BASIC

higciti

lifnSy yomSim, gveret k6hen.
2.3
ADDITIONAL
VOCABULARY I
arrived
yesterday.
I arrived the
day before
y
esterday. I
arrived a week
ago. week
I arrived two
weeks ago.
I arrived a
month ago. month
I arrived two
months ago.

I arrived
two days
ago, Mrs.
Cohen.

‫הגעתי‬
‫לפני‬
,‫יומיים‬
.‫גברת כהן‬

112

BASIC COURSE
4

HEBREW UNIT

higci

higci

higci

higit

higSt

‫הגעת‬

.‫שלעום‬

‫הגעת‬

.‫לפני שבוע‬

‫הגעת‬

.‫לפני שבועיים‬

‫הגעת‬

.‫לפני חודש‬

‫הגעת‬

.‫לפני חודשיים‬

‫הגעת‬

etm61
.

SilS6
m.

lifn^
y

Savua.

Savua

(m)

lifn6
y

lifn6
y

‫שבוע‬

SvuSim.

xodeS.

‫)״‬
(

‫חודש‬

x6deS

higci

.‫אתמול‬

lifne
y

xodS&im.

113

UNIT 3
COURSE.

HEBREW BASIC

2.4 Equational Sentences
Compare the following sentences and their English translations:
a.m& SlomxS

(literally) What is your peace?

b.Slomi t6v
(literally) My peace is good.
c m&r Williams hti yo6c
Mr. Williams is the Counsellor
haSagrirut haamerikciit.
of the American Embassy.
Note that the Hebrew equivalent of the English sentence pattern ‫״‬A is B‫ ״‬is ‫״‬A B
‫״‬. The Hebrew equivalent for the English present tense forms am, ij3_ and are is the
juxtaposition of the two parts of the sentence. Such sentences are called equational
sentences.
In Sentence c the form /hu/ ,he' is a pleonastic subject.
Now compare the following sentences and their translations:
d.meuxcir.

It is late.

e.naim mtod.
It is very pleasant.
In these sentences the English has not only a verb form, but this verb requires a
subject, in this case the impersonal pronoun it. The Hebrew sentences are complete as
they stand.

A.Substitution Drill
hu amerik&i.
ani
moSe hu
mkr wiliiams
baais

He is an A m e r i c a n .

. ‫א מ ר י ק א י‬

‫ה י א‬
‫אני‬
‫ה הוא‬.‫מ‬
‫מר וויליאמצ‬
‫כעלה‬

B.Substitution Drill
hi amerikSit.
ani
iSti
gvgret Williams
mirySm hi

She is an A m e r i c a n .

, ‫א מ ר י ק א י ם‬

‫ה י א‬
‫א ב י‬
‫ י‬itX
‫ וויליאמס‬THJI
‫! היא‬,t

C.Substitution Drill
hu -joea hagcgrirut.
ani
reSr wiliiams hu
baalli

He is the Counsellor of the Embassy. .iiW "UV ‫ ו א יועץ ה‬H
‫אני‬
‫ הוא‬0 ‫מר וויליאמ‬
‫ ע לה‬J

D.Substitutioa Drill
meuxir meod.

It is very late.

mukdSm

.‫ מאד‬Tl ‫ג״או‬

‫מוקדש‬

naim

‫נע י ש‬

114

BASIC COURSE
4

HEBREW UNIT

2.5 The Direct Object Preposition /et ~ ot-/
The preposition /et/ preceded a direct object of a verb when the object is
definite. An object is definite in any of the following cases:
a.It is preceded by the definite article prefix /ha-/ ,the1;
b.It has a pronoun suffix, e.‫־׳‬
:., /i§t£/ ‫ י‬r8y v.-ife' ;
c.It is a proper name, e.g., /moS6/ ,Moshe";
d.It is the first noun of a noun-noun construction in which the second noun
is definite, e.g., /yoec haSagrirtit/ 'the Counsellor of the Embassy';
[The grammar of this last case will be discussed in detail later. ]
e.It is an interrogative or demonstrative, e.g. /mS/ 'what', /ze/ ,this'.
When the object of the verb is not definite, then the preposition does not
occur. Compare: sgor et hadelet.
Close the door.
sg6r d4let.
Close a door.
The sequence /et ha-/ is often ‫׳‬nontracted in ordinary speech to /ta-/. /sgor
tade'let./ /pitxu tasfarim./
The singular set of pronominal suffixes is used with this preposition, but
the preposition has the alternate form /ot-/ when occuring with a suffix.
naim li meod lehakir otxS.
naim li me6d lehakir otax.
Some speakers use a regularized form of the latter - /otex/. The first person
plural form is /otSnu/ rather than */ot^nu/• These variants of the pronominal
suffixes, /-ax/ and /-Snu/, occur with certain other prepositions.
The second person plural forms are either /otxem, otx6n/ or /etx£m, etxen/.
The latter, however, are considered rather literary and somewhat stilted, though
these are the only ones occurring in the classical language.
Substitution Drill
Please meet
takir bevakaSS et mSf Williams.
gveret Williams
moS£
hayoec
hamiSpaxS
iSti
yoec haSagrirtit
baalS
iSt6
xSna

Mr.

Williams,

‫ גברת וויליאמס משה היועץ‬.‫תכיר בבקשה את מר רריליאמם‬
‫המשפחה אשתי‬
‫יועץ השגרירות בעלה אשתו חנה‬

115

UNIT 3
COURSE.

HEBREW BASIC

B. Substitution Drill
sg6r et hadelet.
hasfarim
C. Substitution Drill
pitxu et hadelet.
hasfarim haSagrirut
D. Substitution Drill
I'm very happy to meet you.
naim li me6d lehakir otxS.
.‫נעים לי מאד להכיר אותך‬
otSx

ot6
et mar Williams
et ist6

‫אותך‬
‫אותו‬
‫ וויליאמם‬1
‫את מ ־‬
‫את אשתו‬

Close the
door.

.‫סגור את הדלת‬
‫הספרים‬

Open the
door.

.‫פתחו את הדלת‬
‫הספרי‬
‫ם‬
‫השגרי‬
‫רות‬

116

BASIC COURSE
4

HEBREW UNIT

E. Substitution-Agreement Drill
I'm very happy to meet you, Mr. Williams. naim li meed lehakir otxa, mar
W

i

l

l

i

,

‫ך‬

‫ת‬

‫ו‬

‫א‬

‫מ‬

‫א‬

‫י‬

‫ל‬

‫י‬1

gveret k6hen
gv6ret Williams
mSr k&spi
mo§e
mirySm
gveret zahSvi
mcir oren
xSna
avigdor

nai
m
nai
m
nai
m
nai
m
nai
m
nai
m
nai
m
nai
m
nai
m

a

‫ו‬

l
i
l
i
l
i
l
i
l
i
l
i
l
i
l
i
l
i

m

s

.

‫ר‬

‫י‬

‫כ‬
1
‫־‬

me6d lehaki
r
me6d lehaki
r
meod lehaki
r
me6d lehaki
r
meod lehaki
r
meod lehaki
r
meod lehaki
r
meod lehaki
r
meod lehaki
r

.
‫ה‬

0

‫ל‬

‫ם‬

‫י‬

‫ע‬

‫י‬

‫א‬

‫מ‬

‫נ‬
‫י‬

‫ל‬

‫מ‬

otax
,
otax
,
otxS
,
otxS
,
otax
.
otax
,
otxS
,
otax
,
otxS
,

REVIEW

gveret k6hen.
gveret Williams.
mSr kaspi.

‫משה‬

mirySm.

‫מרים‬

gveret zahavi.

xSna.
avigdor.

‫גבי וויליאמס‬
‫מר כספי‬

mo§e.

mSr oren.

‫גבי כהן‬

‫גברת זהבי‬
‫מר אורן‬
‫חנה‬
‫אביגדור‬

.‫ גברת וויליאמס‬,‫ שלום‬:‫א‬
.‫תכירי בבקשה את אשתי‬

A: Sal6m, gveret Williams,
takiri bevakaSa et iSti•

,‫ נעים לי מאד להכיר אותך‬:‫ב‬
?‫ מה שלומר‬.‫גברת זהבי‬

B: naim li meod lehakir
sLa;< gveret zahSvi. mS
Slomex.

.‫ גם לי נעים להכיר אותר‬:‫ג‬

C: gSm li naim lehakir otSx.

117

UNIT 3
COURSE.

HEBREW BASIC

D: mirySm. takiri et baalS Sel sSra. E: naim
li meod lehakir otxa, mcir zahavi. F: naim
meod.
‫ נעים לי‬:‫ ה‬.‫ תכירי את בעלה של עדה‬.‫ מרים‬:‫ד‬
.‫ נעים מאד‬:‫ ו‬.‫ מר זהבי‬,‫מאד להכיר אותר‬

118

BASIC COURSE
4

HEBREW UNIT

?‫ מרים? מתי הגעת לשגרירות‬,‫ מה שלומר‬:‫ז‬

G: ma Slomex, mirySm.
matay higSt laSagrirut.
‫־‬w,.
‫״‬
H: higSti lifney yomaim, mar Williams.
takir bevakaSS et baali.

.‫ מר וויליאמם‬,‫ הגעתי לפני יומיים‬:‫ח‬
.‫תכיר בג קשה את בעלי‬
.‫ מר כהן‬,‫ נעים לי מאד להכיר אותר‬:‫ז‬

G: naim li meod lehakir otxS, mar kohen.

.‫ מר וויליאמס‬,‫ נעים מאד‬:‫ס‬

I: naim meod, mar Williams.
‫ הגעתי‬:‫ נר גיונס? כ‬,‫ מתי הגעת לארץ‬:‫י‬

J: matSy higata laarec, mSr Jones.

.‫ גם אני הגעתי אתמול‬:‫ י‬.‫אתמול‬

K: higati etmol.
J: gam ani higati etmol.

?‫ מתי הגעת לתל אביב‬.‫ עסרה‬:‫ל‬
.‫ הגעתי לפני חורש‬:‫מ‬
?‫ דור‬,‫מתי הגעת לשגרירות‬

L: atara. matSy higSt letfel aviv.

.‫ הגעתי שלשום‬:‫ל‬

M: higati lifney xodeS.
matay higSta laSagrirut, david.
L: higSti SilSom.

.‫ בבקשה‬,‫ סגור את הדלת‬.‫ דוד‬:‫נ‬
?‫מה‬

N: david. sgor et hadelet, bevakaSS. O:

‫ את‬:‫ע‬

.‫ את הדלה‬:‫נ‬

et mS? N: et hadelet. O: o ken. slixa.

.‫כן‬

,‫או‬

:‫ע‬

.‫סליחה‬

119

3.2 Introductions,
(Two women)
3.1 Introductions,
contd.
(Two men)
UNIT 3 contd.
COURSE.
MR. COHEN
How did you come?

€x hig&ta.

By plane or
by ship?
how
airplane

beavir6n 6
beonici.
6x, 6yx
avir6n (m)

or
ship

HEBREW BASIC

‫איר‬
‫או ו‬
‫ירו ן‬
‫או‬
‫אוניה‬

6
onici (f)

?‫איר הגעת‬
‫באווירון או‬
?‫באוניה‬

MR. WILLIAMS
I came

higciti

by plane
to Lydda.

beavir6n
lelfid.
lud, I6d

Lydda (place
name)

‫הגעתי‬
‫באווירון‬
.‫ללוד‬

‫לוד‬

MR. COHEN

‫איר‬

How

6x

were you impressed
by Lydda?
you were
impressed
from, by

hitraScimta
milud.
hitraScimta (m.s.)
mi-, me-

‫התרשמת‬
?‫מלוד‬

‫התרשמת‬
‫מ‬
‫הוא‬

‫לוד‬
‫נמל‬
‫תעופה‬
‫יפה‬
.‫וחדיש‬

MR. WILLIAMS
Lydda is

lud hti

a beautiful and
modern airport.

nemil teufci
yaf6
vexadiS.
nam&l, nam£l (m)
teufS (f)
yaf e (m.s.)
vexadiS (m.s.)

port
flight
beautiful, pretty
and
modern

‫נמל‬
‫תעו פה‬
‫יפה‬
‫ו‬
‫חדיש‬

MR. COHEN

-‫אני מקווה ש‬
‫ארצנו מוצאת‬
.‫חן בעיניר‬

I hope that

ani mekavi Se-

you like our country.

arcSnu
m6cet x£n
beeyn£xa.
mekav4 (m.s.,pres.)
Se-

hope
that
(conjunction)
find
favor, charm
eye
[two] eyes
your (m.s.) eyes

mocet (f.s.,pres.)
x£n (m)
Sin (f)
eynSim
eyn6xa

‫מקו ו ה‬
‫ש‬
‫מוצאת‬
‫חן‬
‫עין‬
‫עינייה‬
‫עי נ יר‬

MR. WILLIAMS
Oh, ye s.

6 k6n.

The country is
very pretty.
beautiful, pretty

haSrec
yafci meod.
yafci (f.s.)

120

‫יפה‬

.1 ‫ כ‬,‫או‬
‫הארץ‬
‫יפה‬
.‫מאד‬

MRS. COHEN
How did you come? By plane or by ship?
MRS. WILLIAMS

hig&t.
beaviron
6
higciti
beonici.
beaviron
lelud.

I came
by plane
to
Lydda.

?‫איר הגעת‬
‫בארוירון או‬
‫הגעתי‬
?‫באוניה‬
‫באווירון‬
.‫ללוד‬

MRS. COHEN
How
were you
impressed by
Lydda?
you were
impressed
ex
hitragcimt
milud.
hitragcimt (f.s.)

Lydda is

‫איר‬

‫התרשמת‬

a

b

121

‫התרשמ‬
‫ת‬
?‫מלוד‬

UNIT 3
COURSE.

HEBREW BASIC

eautiful
and
modern
airport.

v
S

I hope that
you like our
country.

a
r
c
6
n
u

hope (present)
your (f.s.)
eyes
MRS.
WILLIAMS
l
G
d

m
o
c
e
t
x
e
n

h
u

b
e
e
y
n
S
i
x
.

n
e
m
S
l
t
e
u
f
c
i

‫מקוו‬
‫ה‬

‫עיני‬
‫ר‬

meka
vci
(f.s
.
,pre
s.)
eynS
ix

y
a
f
e

MRS.
WILLIAM
S
‫לוד הוא נמל‬
‫תעופה יפה‬
.‫וחדיש‬

v
e
x
a
d
i
g
.

MRS. COHEN
an
i
me
ka

g
e
-

‫אני מקווה‬
‫שארצנו‬
‫מוצאת חך‬
.‫בעיניר‬

122

Oh, yes.
The country is
very pretty.
3.3 ADDITIONAL
VOCABULARY
How did you
come?
(said
to men or
both)
(said to
women) We
came by
plane.

o
k6n.
hacir
ec
yaf
Si
meod.

.‫ כן‬,‫או‬
‫הארץ‬
‫יפה‬
.‫מאד‬

123

UNIT 3
COURSE.

ex higlitem.
£x higliten.
higci beaviron.
hacir

mocet xe
n

beeynSy.

.

?‫איר הגעתם‬
?‫איר הגעתן‬

‫הגענו‬
‫באווירון‬
‫הארץ מוצאת חן בע נ ר‬
‫י‬

HEBREW BASIC

mocet xe beeynSv.
.‫הארץ מוצאת חן בע ר יו‬

n
J ‫י‬
haSre mocet xe beeyneha. .‫הארץ מוצאת חן בע ניה‬
n
‫י‬
hacir mocet xe beeyneynu. ‫הארץ מוצאת חן בע נ ינר‬
n
.
‫י‬
hacir mocet xe beeyneyx^m ‫הארץ מוצאת חן בעיניכם‬
n
.
.
hacir mocet xe beeyneyxen ‫הארץ מוצאת חן בע נ יכן‬
n
.
.
‫י‬
hacir mocet xe beeyneyhem ‫הארץ מוצאת חך כע נ יחם‬
n
.
.
‫י‬
hacir mocet xe beeyneyhen ‫הארץ מוצאת רך כע כ יהד‬
n
.
.
‫י‬
BASIC COURSE_________________________HEBREW________________________________UNIT 3
hacir

GRAMMAR DRILLS
3. 4 Alternate Forms of ‫׳‬1Touns
In Grammar Section 1.6 it was noted that some nouns have an alternate form
when occurring with suffixes. Some nouns also have an alternate form when
occurring as the first noun in a noun-noun sequence. Some examples of this are:
'Sal6m
namSl

welfare1
port'
,

,

Slom hamiSpaxS ,the welfare of the family'
,airport1
nemSl teufS

Compare, on the other hand:
yoSc

counsellor1 yoke haSagrirut ,the Counsellor of the jiirbassy1

,

As with suffixed nouns, it is difficult to predict which nouns will have
an alternate form or what the alternate form will be. It may or may not be the
same form of the noun which occurs with suffixes (except for stress placement),
e.g., /Slomi/ and /Slom hamiSpaxS/.
When a noun occurs in a Basic Sentence as the first noun in such a
sequence the independent form will be given in the vocabulary breakdown.

3.5 Dual Number in Nouns
In addition to singular and plural as grammatical numbers Hebrew has a
noun suffix, /-Sim/, which indicates dual number. Some examples are:
y6m ,day'
Savu 'week1
,month
a
xode '
S
'eye'
Sin

yomSim
SvuSim
xodSSi
m
eynSim

'two days1 'two weeks1 ,two months' '[two] eyes'
This suffix occurs with a limited number of nouns and in a few other
forms. These nouns include parts of the body which come in pairs, doubled
1 like the country. He likes the country. She likes the country. We like the
country. You (m.pl.) like the country. You (f.pl.) like the country. They (m)
like the country. They (f) 1ike the country.

124

numbers and units of time, paired articles of clothing, and a few other items.
It is not otherwise used to indicate two of something. Except for this suffix,
dual nouns are treated as plurals. Verbs and adjectives used with them have
plural forms, and the plural set of pronominal suffixes is also used. (See
Section 3.6)

3.6 Pronominal Suffixes - Plural Set
In Section 1.6 the singular set of pronominal suffixes was discussed.
Another set of pronominal suffixes occurs with plural (and dual) nouns and
with certain prepositions. The form of the noun preceding these suffixes is
often a special plural alternate, and this alternation will be drilled later.
Often however, the only indication of the number of the noun is the pronominal
suffix.
eyni^ 'my eye'

eynSy

'my eyes'

[Note: As in many other instances, /ev/ is sometimes shortened to /e/. This
may cause some confusion in the first and second person plural suffixes of the
two sets. ]

125

UNIT 3_______________________________HEBREW____________________BASIC COURSE

A. Substitution Drill
hacirec mocet xen beeynSy.

. ‫הארץ מוצאו! חן בעיני‬
‫בעיניך‬
‫בעיניך‬
‫בעיניו‬
‫בעיניה‬
‫בעינינו‬
‫בעיניכם‬
‫בעיניכן‬
‫בעיניהם‬
‫בעיניהן‬

I like the
country.

beeyn4xa
beeynSix
beeynSv
beeyneha

beeyneynu
beeyneyxem
beeyneyxen
beeyneyhem
beeyneyhen
B. Expansion Drill

The student repeats the question or the instructor and asks the second question.
Instructor: How are you?

Student:

How are you? How do you Tike the country?

mli SlomxS. 6x mocet xen beeyn^xa haSrec.
mci Slom iStexci. ex m6cet beeyneha ha£rec.
mS Slom hamiSpaxS. ex m6cet x^n beeyneha haSrec.
m& Slomex.
mocet x4n beeynSix haSrec.
mS Slomxem. ex mocet xen beeyneyxem haSrec.
mS Slom baalex. 6x m6cet x4n beeynSv hacirec.
mS SlomS. 6x mocet x6n beeyneha hacirec.
mS Slomxen. ex mocet x6n beeyneyxen hacirec.
mS Slom david. ex mocet xen beeynSv hacirec.
mS Siomo. ex mocet xen beeynSv haSrec.
mS SlomSm. ex mocet xen beeyneyhem haSrec.

?‫מה שלומך‬

C. Response Drill
Instructor:
How are you?

Student:
Fine. I like the country.

m& SlomxS.

tov.

mS
mS
mS
mS
m&

t6v.
tov.
tov.
tov.
tov.

Slom david.
Slomxem.
Slom iStexS.
Slom moSe veiSto.
Slomex.

mS Slom xSna umirySm.

tov.

haSrec troce
t
haSrec mocet
haSrec mocet
haSrec mocet
haSrec mocet
hacire mocet
c
hacire mocet
c

xen beeynay.
xen
xen
xen
xen
xen

beeynSv.
beeyneynu.
beeyneha.
beeyneyhem.
beeynSy.

xen beeyneyhen.

D. Transformation Drill - Pronominal Suffixes, singular and Plural Sets

126

BASIC COURSE
4

HEBREW UNIT

Instructor:
His country is very beautiful.

Student:
He likes
country.
the
arc6 yafci meod.
hacir mocet xe beeynSv.
ec
n
arci yafS meod.
ha£re mocet xe beeynSy.
c
n
arcenu yafS meod.
hacir mocet xe joeeyneynu
ec
n
.
arcSm yafS me6d.
ha£re mocet xe beeyneyhem
c
n
.
arcexS yafS me6d.
ha£re mocet xe beeynexa.
c
n
arcex yafS meod.
haSre mocet xe beeynSix.
c
n
arcS yafS meod.
haSre mocet xe beeyneha.
c
n
arcexem yafS meod.
hafir mocet xe beeyneyxem
ec
n
.
E• Transformation Drill - Repeat Drill D in reverse.
F. Substitution-Agreement Drill
In the following drill responses by men should begin with /ani mekave/ and
those of women should begin with /ani mekava/. The instructor should repeat the
correct answer of the particular student.

127

ani mekave Searcenu mocet xen beeynexa, mSr Williams.

qveret Williams mekave
an
Searcenu mocet xe
i gveret
n
Williams,

beeynaix,

mar k6hen

an
mekave
Searcenu mar mocet xe
i kohen.
n

beeynexa,

an
mekave
Searcenu mocet xe
i gveret Smith.
n

beeynaix,

an
mekave
Searcenu mocet xe
i mcir Jones.
n

beeynexa,

an
mekave
Searcenu mocet xe
i gveret Fuller.
n

beeynaix,

an
mekave
Searcenu mocet xe
i gveret Jones.
n

beeyn&ix,

an
mekave
Searcenu m&r mocet xe
i Williams.
n

beeynexa,

qveret Smith

mS.r Jones

gveret Fuller

qveret Jones

mcir Williams

128

‫וויליאמס‬

4

‫ג‬
‫ב‬

‫כהן‬

‫מ‬
‫ר‬

‫סמיט‬

4

‫ג‬
‫ב‬

‫גיונס‬

‫מ‬
‫ר‬

‫פרלר‬

4

‫ג‬
‫ב‬

‫ונס‬4 ‫ג‬

4

‫ג‬
‫ב‬

‫וויליאמס‬

‫מ‬
‫ר‬

BASIC COURSE
4

HEBREW UNIT

R E V I E W
A

:

§a16m, D A V I D

.

M A T S Y

H I G

C O N V E R S A T I O N S

&TA

L A S R E C

. ?.‫ דוד‬,‫ שלום‬:‫א‬

‫מתי הגעת לארץ‬
B

:

H I G S T I

‫ל ח י פ ה‬
A

:

6

X

‫י ה‬

B E O N I A

etm61

‫ב א ג‬

H I T R A G

&

L E X D Y F A

. . ‫ה ג ע ת י‬

: ‫ב‬

‫א ת מ ו ל‬

M T A

M E H A N A M I I

??‫התרשמת‬

‫איך‬

:‫א‬

‫מהנמל‬
B

:

hanamSl xadlS veyafe.

>‫הנמל ךןךיש ךיפה‬

129

C: matSy higSta laSagrirtit, mSr Jones.
D: higciti lifney Savua, mirySm.
C: ani mekavci SehaSagrirut mocet xen
beenexa.
D: ken. haSagrirut meod mocet xen beenay.

‫ מר ג‬,‫ מתי הגעת לשגרירות‬:‫ג‬
? ‫ו נ ם‬4

E: gveret kohen. 4yx hig&t lairec. F

:

,‫ הגעתי לפני שנוע‬:‫ד‬
.‫מרים‬
‫ אני מקוה שהשגרירות‬:‫ג‬
.‫מוצאת חן בעיניך‬
‫ השגרירות מאד‬.‫ כן‬:‫ד‬
.‫מוצאת חן בעיני‬

‫הגעתי באג יה‬

.‫לחיפה‬

higciti beonici lexayfa. E: ani mekav£

‫אני מקוה‬

SehitraS&mt mehaoniS. F: ken. haoniS
yafS me6d.

:‫ה‬

‫ האג יה יפה‬.‫כן‬

?‫לארץ‬
,‫הגעתי אתמול‬

higciti

beaviron

leltid.

,‫מר וויליאמס‬

:‫ח‬

.‫מר כהן‬

etmol, mSr k6hen. G: eyx
H:

:‫ו‬
.‫מאד‬

G: mSr Williams. matSy hig&ta. H:

higSta.

:‫ה‬

.‫שהתרשמת מהאגיה‬

‫ איך הגעת‬,‫גברת כהן‬

higciti

:‫ו‬

:‫ז‬

?‫איך הגעת‬

:‫ז‬

‫הגעתי באוירון‬

:‫ח‬

.‫ללוד‬

?‫מתי הגעת‬

130

BASIC COURSE
4

HEBREW UNIT

4.1 Housing Arrangements

reside

p
r
e
s
.
)
,‫היכן אתה גר‬
‫מר וויליאמס? היכ‬
‫ן‬
‫אתה‬
‫גד‬.

(Two men speaking)
MR. COHEN
Where
are
you
staying,
Mr.
Williams?
where
you

heyx&n
at& g&r,
mcir Williams.
heyx&n
at& (m.s.)
g&r (m.s.

I'm staying in the meantime at
the Dan Hotel.
meanwhile hotel
MR. WILLIAMS
ani
g&r
bemal&n dan.

beynatciim
malon (m)
‫בינתיים‬
‫מלו ן‬

beynat&im

MR. COHEN
Very good. It's close to
the Embassy.
it, this, that near, close
t6v
meod.
z6
karov

laSagrirut.
ze (m)
karov
(m.s.)

‫זה‬
‫קרוב‬

‫אני גר‬
‫בינתיי‬
‫ם‬
‫במלון‬
,‫דן‬

‫טוב‬
‫ זה‬.‫מאד‬
‫קרוב‬
‫לשגרירו‬
.‫ת‬

MR. WILLIAMS
Yes, that's right.
correct

ken. naxon.
naxon (m.s.)

,‫ נכון‬.‫כן‬
‫נכון‬

MR. COHEN
And where do you
plan to live?
where plan
to reside
veeyf6
MR. WILLIAMS
There will be
arranged for us
a house in Ramat Gan.
will be arranged
for, on behalf
of house

ata mitkonen lagur?
ey ro, ey(?o
mitkonen (m.s. pres.)
lagur
‫איהה‬
‫מתכונ‬
‫ן‬
‫לגור‬
yesud&r avurenu
b&it beramat gan.
yesudar (3‫־‬
m.
avur
bait (m)

MR. COHEN
Have you seen the house?
(yes-or-no question introducer)
you S3‫׳‬J.W

‫יסוד‬
‫ר‬
‫עבור‬
‫בית‬
haim raita
et habait?
haim
‫האם‬

raita
(m.s. )

131

‫ראי‬
‫ת‬

‫ואיפה‬
‫אתה מתכונן‬
?‫לגור‬

‫יסודר‬
‫עבורנו‬
‫בית ברמת‬
.‫גן‬

‫האם‬
‫ראי‬
‫ת‬
‫את‬
‫הבי‬
?‫ת‬

UNIT 3
COURSE.

HEBREW BASIC

MR. WILLIAMS
N
o
.
B
u
t
I
‫י‬
v
e
h
e
a
r
d
t
h
a
t
t
h
e
h
o
u
s
e
i
s
b
i
g

f
u
I heard
b
i
y
o
arrive
of you,
yours
of me,
still,
1
6
g
a
&x
gam&ti
gad6l
(m.s.)
M
R
.
C
O
H
E
N

‫ל‬
‫א‬
.

‫אר‬

‫א‬
‫ו‬

‫־‬

‫ש‬
‫מ‬
‫ע‬
‫ת‬
‫י‬
‫ש‬
-

‫ה‬
‫ב‬
‫י‬

min
e
yet
approximately,
as days

‫ת‬

‫ג‬
m
tagia ‫ד‬

(3.f.s.
) gelx&
(m.s.)
M
h
Sell
keyamim
(pi. of
/y6m/)

a
n
d
b
e
a
u
t
i

132

‫שמע‬
‫תי‬
‫גדו‬
‫ל‬

‫תגי‬
‫ע‬
‫שלר‬

‫שלי‬
‫עוד‬
-‫כ‬
‫ימי‬
‫ם‬
‫יום‬

‫‪BASIC COURSE‬‬
‫‪4‬‬

‫‪HEBREW UNIT‬‬

‫ל‬
‫ויפ‬
‫ה‪.‬‬

‫מתי‬
‫תגי‬
‫ע‬
‫המש‬
‫פחה‬
‫שלך‬
‫?‬

‫המ‬
‫שפ‬
‫חה‬
‫של‬
‫י‬
‫תג‬
‫יע‬
‫בע‬
‫וד‬
‫כח‬
‫וד‬
‫ש‬
‫ימ‬
‫ים‬
‫‪.‬‬

‫‪133‬‬

UNIT 3
COURSE.

HEBREW BASIC

4.2 Housing Arrangements
(Two women
speaking)
MRS. COHEN
Whe
re
a
r
e
y
o
u
s
t
a
y
i
n
g
,
M
r
s
.
W
i
l
l
i
a
m
s
?

I
'
m

t
a

a

h
e
y
x
&
n
&
t
g
f
i
r
a
g
v
e
r
e
t
W
i
l
l
i
a
m
s
you .
(f.s)
fit (f.s.)
reside
g&ra
(f.s.pr
(f.s.pres.
es.))
MR
S.
WI
LL
IA
MS

s

134

BASIC COURSE
4

HEBREW UNIT

n
i

k
a
r
o
v

g
&
r
a

‫אני גרה‬
‫בינתיים‬
‫במלון‬
.‫רן‬

l
a
S
a
g
r
i
r
f
i
t
.

b
e
y
n
a
t
&
i
m
b
e
m
a
l
o
n

‫טוב‬
‫ זה‬.‫מאד‬
‫קרוב‬
‫לשגרירו‬
.‫ת‬

MR
S.
WI
LL
IA
MS

d
&
n
.

k
e
n
.
M
R
S
.
C
O
H
E
N

n
a
x
o
n
.
‫ה‬
‫י‬
‫כ‬
‫ן‬

t
o
v

‫א‬
‫ת‬

m
e
o
d
.

‫ג‬
‫ר‬
‫ה‬
,
‫ג‬
‫ב‬

z
e

‫ג‬

‫א‬
‫ת‬

135

UNIT 4
BASIC COURSE

HEBREW

MRS. COHEN
And where
do
you
plan
to
live?
plan

vee
yfo
a
t

onen
et
(f.s
.pre
s.)

‫ר‬
‫א‬
‫י‬
‫פ‬
‫ה‬

m
i
t
k
o
n
e
n
e
t
l
a
g
u
r
?

‫מ‬
‫ת‬
‫כ‬
‫ו‬

m
i
t
k

‫יבירדר‬
‫עבור נו‬
‫בית‬
,‫ברמז גן‬
‫את‬
‫מת‬
‫כונ‬
‫נת‬
‫לגר‬
?‫ר‬

‫נ‬
‫ב‬
‫ח‬

T
h
e
r
e
w
i
l
l
b
e
a
r
r
a
n
g
e
d
f
o
r
u
s
a
ho
us
e
in
Ra

m
a
t
G
a
n
.
MRS
.
WIL
LIA
MS
y
e
s
u
d
a
r
a
v
u
r
e
n
u
b
a
i

136

BASIC COURSE
4

HEBREW UNIT

t
be
ra
ma
t

g
a
n
.

H
a
you saw
MRS
.

COHE
N

N
o
1
'
MRS
.
WIL

LIA
MS

Wh
en
wi
ll
th
e
re
st
of
yo
ur
fa
mi
ly
ar
ri
ve
?

m
a
t
a

h
rait
(f.s.)

‫י‬

l
o
g
a

y

‫ראית‬

y
e
t
e
r

M
y
M
R
S
.

yeter
Selax
(f.s.'
WI
LL
IA
MS
h

137

‫ אך‬.‫לא‬

‫שמעת‬
‫ש־‬
‫רג ית‬
‫גדול‬
.‫ויפה‬
‫מתי‬
‫תגיע‬
‫יתר‬
‫המשיח‬
?‫•לך‬: ‫ה‬
‫יתר‬
‫ה מ ש פ חשלר‬
‫•לי‬: ‫ה‬
‫תגיע‬
‫בעור‬
‫כחודש‬
. ‫י מ י־‬

t
a
g
i
a

h
a
m
i
rest,S
remainp
der ofa
you,x
yoursa
MR
S.
S
CO
e
HE
l
N
a
x
.

‫האב‬
‫ראית‬
‫את‬
‫הבית‬
?

UNIT 4
BASIC COURSE

HEBREW

4.3
ADD
ITI
ONA
L
VOC
ABU
LAR
Y

e
.
T
h
e
i
r

(
m
His )
hou
se h
is o
ver u
y
s
nic e
e.
Her i
hou s
se
is v
ver e
r
y
nic y
e.
Our n
hou i
se c
is e
ver .
y
nic T
e. h
You e
i
r
(m. r
pl.
(
)
hou f
se )
is h
ver o
y
u
nic s
e. e
You
r
i
(f. s
pl.
)
v
hou e
se r
is y
ver
y
n
nic i

138

c
e
W

BASIC COURSE
4

HEBREW UNIT

(m)
liv
e
in
Hai
fa.
You
(m.
pl.
)
liv
e
in
Hai
fa.
The
y
(m)
liv
e
in
Hai
fa.
We
(f)
liv
e
in
Hai
fa.
You
(f.
pl.
)
liv
e
in
Hai
fa.
The
y
(f)
liv
e
in
Hai
fa.
hab
ait
£el
o
yaf
e
meo
d.
hab
ait
Mel

a
y
a
f
e
m
e
o
d
.
h
a
b
a
i
t
S
e
l
a
n
u
y
a
f
e
m
e
o
d
.
h
a
b
a
i
t
S
e
l
a
x
e
m
y
a
f
e
m

139

e
o
h
h

UNIT 4
BASIC COURSE

HEBREW

Sel
ahe
n
yaf
e
meo
d.
a
n
u
g
a
r
i
m
b
e
x
a
y
f
a
.
a
t
e
r
a
g
a
r
i
m
b
e
x
a
y
f
a
.
h
e
m
g
a
r
i
m
b
e

x
a
y
f
a
.
a
n
u
g
a
r
o
t
b
e
x
a
y
f
a
.
a
t
e
n
g
a
r
o
t
b
e
x
a
y
f
a
.
h
e
n
g
a
r
o
t
b
e

140

x

‫ה‬a
‫בת‬
‫ה‬

‫‪HEBREW UNIT‬‬

‫בח‬
‫יפ‬
‫ה‪.‬‬
‫את‬
‫ם‬
‫גר‬
‫ים‬
‫ב‬
‫רז‬
‫י‬
‫פה‬
‫‪.‬‬
‫הם‬
‫גר‬
‫ים‬
‫ל‬
‫רי‬
‫פה‬
‫‪.‬‬
‫אנ‬
‫י‬
‫גר‬
‫ות‬
‫בר‬
‫יפ‬
‫ה‪.‬‬
‫א־‬
‫זך‬
‫גד‬
‫ות‬
‫רח‬
‫יפ‬
‫ה‪.‬‬
‫רן‬
‫גד‬
‫רת‬
‫בח‬
‫יפ‬
‫ה‪.‬‬

‫שה ‪:‬‬
‫׳ ית‬
‫יפ ׳ ‪ :‬׳‬
‫הלנ‬
‫ו‬
‫מי!‬
‫ה‬
‫רא מ א‬
‫ר‪.‬‬
‫‪ .‬ה;‬
‫ית‬
‫ה‬
‫ג‬
‫י ‪:‬ל‬
‫כם‬
‫י י‪:‬‬
‫ה‬
‫תמא‬
‫ד‪.‬‬
‫לש ה ב‬
‫הית‬
‫ן ׳‪:‬‬
‫י לכ‬
‫‪ -:‬ן‬
‫הי;‬
‫•ה‬
‫אמ מ א‬
‫ד ר‪.‬‬
‫‪.‬‬
‫הב‬
‫אנ יו‬
‫ו‬
‫!‬
‫גר ‪:‬ל‬
‫ים ר‬

‫‪141‬‬

‫‪BASIC COURSE‬‬
‫‪4‬‬

UNIT 3
COURSE.

HEBREW BASIC

GRAMMAR NOTES

4.4 The Preposition /Sel/ 'of'
Examine these sentences which have occurred in the text:
hi igto gel voec aaSa^rirut.

She is the wife of the Counsellor of the
Embassy.

mat&y tagia hamigpax& Selx&.

When will your family arrive?

hab&it ge!6 yafe me6d.

His house is very nice.

Note that the preposition /gel/ indicates a genitive or possessive
relationship of the noun following it or pronoun affixed to it with the noun
preceding it.
This is the most frequent construction in spoken Hebrew indicating such a
possessive relationship. The preposition may often be equated to the English
preposition of_ as in the first example above.
The noun preceding /gel/ is made definite with /ha-/ or with a pronominal
suffix /iSto/. The latter is not used when a pronoun is suffixed to /gel/
itself. The difference is primarily one of style.
haig& gel m&r Williams
igto gel m&r Williams

The wife of Mr. Williams
The wife of Mr. Williams

The construction with the suffixed preposition is synonymous with the
suffixed noun construction.
hab&al gel& naim me6d.
baal& naim meod.

Her husband is very pleasant.
Her husband is very pleasant.

When the noun preceding /gel/ is indefinite the usual English equivalent is
a prepositional phrase construction.
avir6n gel&nu.

An airplane of ours.

The singular set of pronominal suffixes is used with /gel/, with variations
in the feminine second person singular, /gel&x/, and in the plural suffixes,
(compare /otax/ and /ot&nu/.)
A. Substitution Drill.
My house is very modern

‫הבית שלי‬
.‫ח ד י ש מאד‬

hab&it Sell xadig meod. 5elx& gel&x §elo
Selfi gel&nu gelaxeni gelaxen Selahem
Selahen

‫שלך‬
‫שלך‬
‫שלך‬
‫שלה‬
‫שלב‬
‫ו‬
‫שלכ‬
‫ם‬
‫שלכ‬
‫ן‬
‫שלה‬
‫ם‬

142

‫שלה‬
‫ן‬

BASIC COURSE
4

HEBREW UNIT

B. Transformation Drill
Instructor:
Mr. Carmi1s
plane is in
Lydda.
haaviron
haaviron
haaviron
haaviron
haaviron
haavir6n
haaviron

ge
l
ge
l
ge
l

m&r k&rmi beltid.

haaviron

x&na belud.

haaviron

mo§e velea belfid.

haavir6n

ge
l
ge
l
ge
l
ge
l

hayoec belud.

haavir6n

hagagrirut belud.

haavir6n

baalex belud.

haaviron

igti belud.

haavir6n

Student:
ris plane
is in
Lydda.
gel beltid
o
.
gel bel&
ud.
geiahem b e
‫ו ל א ה‬
‫ב ל ו ד‬
gel beltid
o
.
5el beltid
&
.
gel belud.
o
gel belud.
&

C.
Transfor
mation
Drill

.‫האו ירון של מר כרמי בלוד‬
‫ו‬
.‫האו ירון של חנה בלוד‬
‫ו‬
i u d .
‫האו ירון של‬
‫מ ש ה‬
‫ו‬
.‫ירון של היועץ בלוד‬

‫הא‬
‫ו ו‬
.‫האו ירון של השגרירות בלוד‬
‫ו‬
.‫האו ירון של בעלך בלוד‬
‫ו‬
.‫האו ירון של אשתי בלוד‬
‫ו‬

yaf&
me6d.
Student
:
haig&
geli
yaf&
meod.
hai5&
5el&
yaf&
me6d.
haig&
2elx&
yafl
nieod.

My wife
is very
pretty.
Instruc
tor:
iSti
yaf&
meod.
igto
yafci
meod.
i5tex&

D. Transformation Drill - Repeat Drill C
in reverse.

E. Transformation Drill
Her husband is staying at
the Dan Hotel.
Ins
tru
cto
r:
ba
al

&
g&r
bem
alo
n
d&n

.
baa
lex
g&r
bem
alo

143

.‫אשתי יפה מאד‬
.‫אשתו יפה מאד‬
.‫אשתך יפה מאד‬

UNIT 3
COURSE.
n
d&
n.
ba
al
i
g&
r
be
ma
lo
n
d&
n.
Stu
den
t:
ha
b&
al
ge
l&

HEBREW BASIC

g&r
bem
alS
n
d&n
.
hab
&al
Sel
&x

gkr
bem
alo
n

dkn
.
hab
cia
l
gel
i
g&r

bem
alo
n
d&n
.
‫בעלה‬
‫גר‬
‫במלו‬
‫ן‬
.‫דן‬
‫בעלך‬
‫גר‬
‫במלו‬
‫ן‬
.‫דן‬
‫בעלי‬
‫גר‬
‫במלו‬
‫ן‬
.‫דן‬

F. Transformation Drill - Repeat Drill E
in reverse.

Transformation Drill
Our country is very
>Deautifr.l.
I
n
s
t
r
u
c
t
o
r
:
a
r
c
e
n
u
y
a
f
&
m
e
o
d

.
arc
i
yaf
&
meo
d.
arc
o
yaf
&
me6
d.
arc
&m
yaf
&
meo
d.
arc
&n
yaf
&
meo
d.

a
r
c
e
x
e
m
y
a
f
&
m
e
o
d
.
a
r
c
e
x
e
n
y
a

144

BASIC COURSE
4
f
&
m
e
6
d
.
a
r
c
&
y
a
f
&
m
e
o
d
.
S
t
u
d
e
n
t
:
h
a
&
r
e
c
S
e
l
&
n
u
y
a
f
&
m
e
6
d
.
h
a
&
r
e
c
S
e
l

l
yaf
&
meo
d.
ha&
rec
Sel
o
yaf
&
meo
d.
ha&
rec
gel
ahe
m
yaf
&
me6
d.
ha&
rec
gel
ahe
n
yaf
&
meo
d.
ha&
rec
Sel
axe
m
yaf
&
meo
d.
ha&
rec
Sel
axe
n
yaf
&
me6
d.
ha&
rec
Sel
&
yaf
&
meo
d.
‫אר‬
H. Transformation Drill -

HEBREW UNIT

‫צ‬
‫נ‬
‫ו‬
‫י‬
‫פ‬
‫ה‬
‫מ‬
‫א‬
‫ד‬
.
‫א‬
‫ר‬
‫צ‬
‫י‬
‫י‬
‫פ‬
‫ה‬
‫מ‬
‫א‬
‫ד‬
.
‫א‬
‫ר‬
‫צ‬
‫ו‬
‫י‬
‫פ‬
‫ה‬
‫מ‬
‫א‬
‫ד‬
.
‫א‬
‫ר‬
‫צ‬
‫ם‬
‫י‬
‫פ‬
‫ה‬
‫מ‬
‫א‬
‫ד‬
.
‫א‬
‫ר‬
‫צ‬
‫ן‬
‫י‬
‫פ‬
‫ה‬
‫מ‬
‫א‬
‫ד‬
.
‫א‬
‫ר‬
‫צ‬
Repeat Drill G in reverse.

145

‫‪UNIT 3‬‬
‫‪COURSE.‬‬

‫‪HEBREW BASIC‬‬

‫כ‬
‫ם‬
‫י‬
‫פ‬
‫ה‬
‫מ‬
‫א‬
‫ד‬
‫‪.‬‬
‫א‬
‫ר‬
‫צ‬
‫כ‬
‫ו‬
‫י‬
‫פ‬
‫ה‬
‫מ‬
‫א‬
‫ד‬
‫‪.‬‬
‫א‬
‫ר‬
‫צ‬
‫ה‬
‫י‬
‫פ‬
‫ה‬
‫מ‬
‫א‬
‫ד‬
‫‪.‬‬

‫‪146‬‬

BASIC COURSE
4
I. Transformation Drill y
f
u
a
I
gar
.
n
im
h
s
bex
a
t
Syf
m
a.
r
i
h6m
u
S
gar
c
p
im
t
a
bex
o
x
Syf
r
S
a.
:
S
ani
H
e
gSr
e
l
bex
l
S
Syf
n
i
a.
u
v
h§n
g
e
gar
S
s
6t
r
i
bex
a
n
Syf
b
H
a.
e
a
Stu
x
i
den
S
f
t:
y
a
His
f
fam
.
a
ily
liv
.
h
es
h
u
in
a
g
Hai
m
a
fa.
i
r
S
b
ha
p
e
mi
a
x
Sp
x
S
ax
S
y
S
S
f
Se
e
a
l6
l
.
gS
a
h
ra
h
i
be
i
g
xS
m
S
yf
g
r
a.
S
a
ha
r
b
mi
a
e
Sp
b
x
ax
e
S
S
x
y
Se
S
f
lS
y
a
gS
f
,
ra
a
S
be
.
n
xS

HEBREW UNIT

147

UNIT 3
COURSE.

HEBREW BASIC

h
a
m
i
S
p
a
x
S
S
e
l
l
g
S
r
a
b
e
x
S
y
f
a
.
h
a
m
i
S
p
a
x
S
S
e
l
a
h
e
n
g
S

ra
be
xS
yf
a.

‫ם‬

‫ה‬
‫ו‬
‫א‬
‫ג‬
‫ר‬
‫ב‬
‫ח‬
‫י‬
‫פ‬
‫ה‬
.
‫ה‬
‫י‬
‫א‬
‫ג‬
‫ר‬
‫ה‬
‫ב‬
‫ח‬
‫י‬
‫פ‬
‫ה‬
.
‫א‬
‫נ‬
‫ו‬
‫ג‬
‫ר‬
‫י‬
‫ם‬
‫ב‬
‫ח‬
‫י‬
‫פ‬
‫ה‬
,
‫ה‬

‫ג‬
‫ר‬
‫י‬
‫ם‬
‫ב‬
‫ח‬
‫י‬
‫פ‬
‫ה‬
.
‫א‬
‫נ‬
‫י‬
‫ג‬
‫ר‬
‫ב‬
‫ח‬
‫י‬
‫פ‬
‫ה‬
.
‫ה‬
‫ן‬
‫ג‬
‫ר‬
‫ו‬
‫ת‬
‫ב‬
‫ח‬
‫י‬
‫פ‬
‫ה‬
.

Transformation Drill
- Repeat Drill I. in
reverse.
K. Expansion Drill
Instructor:
He
is
staying
at
the
Dan
Hotel.
Student: He is staying
at the Dan Hotel, and
his family will arrive in
a week.
hu

gar

bema!6n

dSn.

148

BASIC COURSE
4
vehamiSpaxS Selo tagia
be&d SavCia.
.‫הוא גר‬
‫במלון דן‬
hem
garim
bemaldn
dSn.vehamiSpaxS
3elah6m
tagia be6d Savua.
.‫הם‬
‫גרים במלון דן‬
ani
gSr
bemalon
dSn.vehamiSpaxS
Sell
tagia be6d Savtia.
.‫אני‬
‫גר במלון דן‬
hi
gSra
bema!6n
dSn.vehamiSpaxS
SelS
tagia beod Savua.
.‫היא‬
‫גרה במלון דן‬
Snu
garim
bema!6n
dan.vehamiSpaxS
SelSnu
tagia beod Savfia.
.‫אנו‬
‫גרים במלון דן‬
hayoec
gSr
bema!6n
dan.vehamiSpaxS
Selo
tagia be6d Savua.
• "H
‫ היועץ גר במלון‬hu veiSt6
garim
bema!6n
dSn.vehamiSpaxS
S
e
l
a
h
6
m
.
‫א‬
‫ו‬
‫ה‬
‫ו‬
‫ת‬
‫ש‬
‫א‬
‫ו‬
‫ם‬
‫י‬
‫ר‬
‫ג‬
‫ן‬
‫ו‬
‫ל‬
‫מ‬
‫ב‬
‫ן‬
‫ד‬
tagia
be6d
SavGa.

HEBREW UNIT

L. Transformation Drill
Instructor:
Student:
I
like

the

My
country
pretty.
haSre
c
haSre
c
haSre
c
haSre
c
haSre
c
haSre
c
haSre
c

moce
t
moce
t
m6ce
t
m6ce
t
m6ce
t
moce
t
m6ce
t

xe beeynSy. haSrec
n
xe beeynexa. haSrec
n
xe beenSix. haSrec
n
xe beeyneynu.haSrec
n
x6n
beeyneyxem.haSrec
xe beeyneha. haSrec
n
xe beeyneyxen,haSre
n
c
M.

country.
is

very

geli yafS meod.

‫י‬

SelxS yafS meod.

.‫יר‬

SelSx yafS me6d.

.‫יר‬

SelSnu yafS meod.

.‫ינו‬

! Selax£m yafS me6d.

.‫יכם‬

SelS yafS me6d.
! 8 el axe •‫׳׳‬
‫ר‬a f i veod.
Response Drill

.‫יה‬
.‫יכו‬

‫בעי‬
‫נ‬
‫בעי‬
‫נ‬
‫בעי‬
‫נ‬
‫בעי‬
‫נ‬
‫בעי‬
‫נ‬
‫כעי‬
‫נ‬
‫בעי‬
‫נ‬

‫ח‬
‫ן‬
l
h
‫ח‬
‫ן‬
‫ח‬
‫ן‬
‫ח‬
‫ן‬
‫ח‬
‫ן‬
‫ח‬
‫ן‬

149

‫הארץ מוצאת‬
‫הארץ מוצאת‬
‫הארץ מוצאת‬
‫ר מוצאת‬.‫הץ‬
‫ץ‬
‫הארץ מוצאת‬
‫הארץ מוצאת‬
‫הארץ מוצאת‬

UNIT 3
COURSE.
Instructor:

HEBREW BASIC

Student:
Where
is
your
family
staying? My family is
staying
at
the
Dan
Hotel.

150

BASIC COURSE
heyxS
n
heyxS
n
heyxS
n
heyxS
n
heyxS
n

gSr
a
gSr
a
gSr
a
gSr
a
gSr
a

HEBREW
hamiSpaxS
hamiSpaxS
hamiSpaxS
hamiSpaxS
hamiSpaxS

UNIT £
?‫המשפחה שלך‬

SelxS. hamiSpaxS Seli gSra
beiiidlon dSn.
SelS. hamiSpaxS Sel6 gSra
bemalon dSn.
Selax£m.hamiSpaxS SelSnu gSra
bemalon dSn.
SelSx. hamiSpaxS Seli gSra
bemalon dSn.
SelahSn.hamiSpaxS Selahen
gSra
bemal6n dSn.

?‫המשפחה שלו‬
?‫המשפחה שלכם‬
?‫המשפחה שלי‬
?‫המשפחה שלהן‬

‫גר‬
‫ה‬
‫גר‬
‫ה‬
‫גר‬
‫ה‬
‫גר‬
‫ה‬
‫גר‬
‫ה‬

‫היכ‬
‫ן‬
‫היכ‬
‫ן‬
‫היכ‬
‫ן‬
‫היכ‬
‫ן‬
‫היכ‬
‫ן‬

4.5 The Preposition /avtjr/ 'for', on behalf of'

The preposition /avtir/ is used with the singular set of pronominal suffixes,
yesud&r avur^nu b&it ber&mat g&n.
A. Substitution Drill
A house will be arranged for me.
yesud&r avuri b&it. avurx& avurSx avur6 avur&
avurenu avurxem avurx^n avur&m avur&n

.‫יסודר עבורי בית‬

‫עבורו‬
‫עבורך‬
‫עבורו‬
‫עבודה‬
‫עבורנ‬
‫ו‬
‫עבורכ‬
‫ם‬
‫עבורכ‬
‫ן‬
‫עבורם‬
‫עבורן‬

Transformation Drill
Instructor: A house will be arranged for Mr.
Williams. Students A house will be arranged for him.

C.

yesud&r avur m&r Williams b&it.
yesud&r avtir miry&m b&it. yesud&r
avtir yaak6v vel6a b&it. yesud&r
avtir hamiSpax& Selo b&it. yesud&r
avdir hayoec b&it.
yesud&r
avur6
b
&
i
t
.
.
‫ר‬
‫ד‬
‫ו‬
‫ס‬
‫י‬
‫ר‬
‫מ‬
‫ר‬
‫ו‬
‫ב‬
‫ע‬
‫מ‬
‫א‬
‫י‬
‫ל‬
‫י‬
‫ו‬
‫ו‬
‫ת‬
‫י‬
‫ב‬
‫ס‬
yesudSr
avurS b&it.
.‫יסודר‬
‫עבור מרים בית‬
yesud&r
avur&m

b
&
i
t
‫ר‬
‫ד‬
‫ו‬
‫ס‬
‫ר‬
‫ו‬
‫ב‬
‫ע‬
‫ב‬
‫ק‬
‫ע‬
‫י‬
‫ה‬
‫א‬
‫ל‬
‫ו‬
‫ת‬
‫י‬
‫ב‬
avurS
b
&
i
t
‫ר‬
‫ד‬
‫ו‬
‫ס‬
‫ר‬
‫ו‬
‫ב‬
‫ע‬
‫ה‬
‫ח‬
‫פ‬
‫ש‬
‫ת‬
‫י‬
‫ב‬
yesud&r avur6 b&it.

.
‫י‬

yesud&r
.
‫י‬
‫מ‬

.

.

‫ה‬
‫ו‬
‫ל‬
.‫יסודר עבור היועץ בית‬

‫ש‬

Transformation Drill
Instructor: His house will be arranged. Student: A house will be arranged for him.
hab&it
§el6
yesudar.
hab&it
§elx&
yesud&r.
hab&it
gel&nu
yesud&r.
hab&it
geli
yesud&r.
hab&it
gel&x
yesud&r.
hab&it
gel&
yesud&r.
hab&it
gelahem
yesud&r.
hab&it
gelaxem
yesud&r.
hab&it gel david yesud&r.
yesud&r
avur6
b&it.

yesud&r
yesud&r
yesud&r
yesud£r
yesud&r
yesud&r
yesud&r
yesud&r
b&it.
‫הבית‬

avurx&
avurenu
avuri
avurex
avura
avuram
avurxem
avur

b&it.
bait,
b&it.
b&it.
b&it.
b&it.
b&it.
david

.‫יסודר‬

‫שלו‬

‫ הבית‬.‫שלך יסודר‬
‫ הבית‬.‫שלנו יסודר‬
‫ הבית‬.‫שלי יסודר‬
‫ הבית‬.‫שלך יסודר‬
‫ הבית‬.‫שלה יסודר‬
‫ הבית‬.‫שלהם יסודר‬
‫ הבית‬.‫שלכם יסודר‬
.‫של דוד יסודר‬
‫הבית‬

D. Transformation Drill - Repeat Drill C in reverse.

151

UNIT

HEBREW

11

BASIC
COURSE

4.6 Contraction of /le- + ha-/ 'to the'
Examine the underlined forms in the following:
lelud
'to Lydda‫׳‬
hagagrirut
'the embassy'
lagagrirut
'to the embassy'
Note that the preposition /le-/ and the definite article /ha-/ contract to
/la-/. This is an obligatory contraction.
When /ha-/ is a verb prefix or is simply the first syllable of a word (but not
the definite article) then the contraction is not made: /lehakir/ 'to know' The
preposition has the alternate form /la-/ with certain verb infinitives: /laruc,
lagfir/. However, it is;not a contraction of /leha-/ in these cases.

152

BASIC COURSE

HEBREW

UNIT £
G: 16 yesud&r avur6x b&it?

REVIEW CONVERSATIONS

A: heyx&n at& g&r, m&r Williams?

H: k6n. gam&ti geyesud&r b&it.
&x ani 16 yod&at eyfo
umat&y.

B: ani veigti garim bemal6n beynat&im.

:‫ מר וויליאמס? ב‬,‫ גר‬,‫ היכן אוזר‬:‫א‬

A: bemal6n d&n?

:‫ א‬.‫אני ואשתי גרים כמלון בינתיים‬

B: kin. z6 karov laSagrirut.

‫ זה קרוב‬.‫ כן‬:‫במלון דן? ב‬

A: haim at& mitkonen lagtir betel aviv?

‫ האם אתה מתכונן לגור‬:‫ א‬.‫לשגרירות‬

B: 16. ani mitkonin lagur ber&mat g&n.

‫ אני מתכונן לגור‬.‫ לא‬:‫בתל אביב? ב‬

A: haim yesud&r avurxem b&it?

?‫ האם יסודר עבורכם בית‬:‫ א‬.‫ברמת גן‬
.‫ אך לא ראיתי אותו‬.‫ כן‬:‫ב‬

B: k£n. &x 16 raiti ot6.
C: haim hami§pax& §elx& betel aviv?

:‫ האם המשפחה שלך בתל אביב? ד‬:‫ג‬

D: lo. hamiSoaxu. Sell beamerika.

‫ מתי‬:‫ ג‬.‫ המשפחה שלי באמריקה‬.‫לא‬
.‫ בעוד חודש‬:‫תגיע המשפחה לארץ? ר‬

C: mat&y tagia hami§pax& la&rec?
D: beod x6deS.

?‫ האם ראית את הבית של מר כרמי‬:‫ה‬
:‫ ה‬.‫ והתרשמתי מאד מהבית‬.‫ כן‬:‫ו‬

E: haim raita et hab&it §el m&r k&rmi?

.‫ נכון‬.‫ כן‬:‫ ו‬.‫שמעתי שהבית גדול‬

F: ken. vehitraSamti meod mehab&it.

.‫הבית גדול וחדיש‬

E: gam&ti gehab&it gad6l.
F: ken. nax6n. hab&it gad6l vexadig.

.‫ עטרה‬,‫ היכן את מתכוננת לגור‬:‫ז‬
‫ בינתיים אני גרה‬.‫ אני לא יודעת‬:‫ח‬
.‫במלון‬

G: heyx&n &t mitkonenet lagur, at&ra.
H: ani lo yod&at. beynat&im ani
g&ra bemal6n.

?‫ לא יסודר עבורך בית‬:‫ז‬
.‫ שמעתי שיסודר בית‬.‫ כן‬:‫ח‬
.‫אך אני לא יודעת איפה ומתי‬

I: d&lya, rait et hayo6c haamerik&i?

?‫ ראית את היועץ האמריקאי‬,‫ דליה‬:‫ט‬

J: k4n. hu naim me6d.

.‫ הוא נעים מאד‬.‫ כן‬:‫י‬

I: eyfo hu g&r?

?‫ איפה הוא גר‬:‫ט‬

J: hu veigt6 garim bemalon d&n.

.‫ הוא ואשתו גרים במלון דן‬:‫י‬

I: rait et igto?

?‫ ראית את אשתו‬:‫ט‬

J: lo. &x gam&ti gehi yaf& me6d.
5.1 Speaking Hebrew (Men)
Tell me,

.‫ אך שמעתי שהיא יפה מאד‬.‫ לא‬:‫י‬

please.

Where did

153

HEBREW

UNIT

11
you learn to speak
such a beautiful
Hebrew?
tell, say you
learned to speak
all
so, as much

I learned to speak
Hebrew in America.
I learned

In which school
did you study?
which
book
school

In the school of
languages
of our
State
Department
language
languages
office
outside

COHEN emor li
bevakaSS.
•4
heyxSn lamSdeta
ledaber ivrit kol
kS;c yafS.
em6r (m.s.imv. )
lamSdeta (m.s.)
ledaber k61
kol kSx

BASIC
COURSE
‫כל‬

‫למדתי‬
‫לדבר עברית‬
.‫באמריקה‬

‫למדתי‬

MR. WILLIAMS
lamSdeti ledaber
ivrit beam£rika.
lamSdeti MR. COHEN
beeyze bet sefer
lamadeta.
eyze
(m)
sefer
(m) bet
s6fer

‫באיזה בית‬
?‫ספר למדת‬

‫איז‬
‫ה‬
‫ספר‬
‫כית‬
‫ספר‬

‫של‬

MR. WILLIAMS
bevet hasefer
lesafot Sel
misrSd haxuc
SelSnu.
safS (f) safot
(f.pl.) misrSd (m)
xuc

‫כל כך‬

‫בבית‬
‫הספר‬
‫לשפות‬
‫מעדד‬
‫החוץ‬
.‫שלנו‬

‫שפה‬
‫שפו ת‬
‫משרד‬
‫חוץ‬

MR. COHEN
You did well to
learn Hebrew before
you came here.
you did you came
[to] here, hither
You
speak
Hebrew
just
like an
Israeli
.
speak
really, just like
MR.

t6v me6d asita
SelamSdeta ivrit
lifney Se- bSta
hena.
asita
(m.s.) bSta
(m.s.) hena
atS medaber ivrit
mamSS km6 israeli.
medaber
(m.s.pres.)
mamSS
kmo
‫ היכן‬.‫ בבקשה‬,‫אמור לי‬
‫למדת לדבר עברית כל כר‬
?‫יפה‬

‫אמור למדת לדבר‬

154

‫טוב מאד עשית‬
‫שלמדת עברית‬
‫לפני שבאת‬
.‫הנה‬

‫עשית‬
‫באת‬
‫הנה‬

‫מדבר‬
‫ממש‬
‫כמו‬

‫אתה מדבר‬
‫עברית ממש‬
.‫כמו ישדאלי‬

UNIT 5

HEBREW BASIC

COURSE

MR. WILLIAMS
D
o
n
'
t
e
x
a
g
g
e
r
a
t
e
.
L
i
k
e

‫י‬
you
will
exagger
ate
as yet
not
I don't
S
i
e
y
Si
(neg.par
t.)
tagzim
adSin
eyn
(neg.par
t.)
eyneni

a
n
I
s
r
a
e
l
i
a
s
y
e
t
I
d
o
n
'
t

155

‫אל‬

‫תג ז‬
‫ים‬
‫עדיי‬
‫ן‬

‫אין‬

‫אינני‬

HEBREW

UNIT

BASIC
COURSE

11
‫מדבר‬

MR. COHEN

You speak
very
well.

‫אתה מדבר‬
.‫יפה מאד‬

MR. WILLIAMS
I'm
happy

resu
lts

5.2
Speak
ing
Hebre
w
(Wome
n)
samea
mehatoc x
aot.
h‫שמח‬
atocaa
p(f)
p
y‫תוצאה‬
rtocao
et
s(f.pl
u.)
l
t‫תוצאו‬
‫ת‬
ani
sameax
with
the
results
.

MRS. COHEN
T
e
l
l
m
e
,
P
l
e
a
s
e
,

‫ר‬
p
l
tell, ‫י‬
say
(imv.
) you
learn
ed
i
m
i mri
lamSde
t
(f.s.)

156

atS
medaber
yafe
meod.

‫אני שמה‬
‫מהתוצאות‬
.

‫אמר‬
‫י‬
‫למד‬
‫ת‬

‫‪UNIT 5‬‬

‫‪HEBREW BASIC‬‬

‫‪COURSE‬‬

‫לי‬
‫בב‬
‫קש‬
‫ה‪.‬‬
‫הי‬
‫כן‬
‫למ‬
‫דת‬
‫לד‬
‫בר‬
‫עב‬
‫רי‬
‫ת‬
‫כל‬
‫כר‬
‫יפ‬
‫ה?‬

‫‪157‬‬

HEBREW

UNIT

BASIC
COURSE

11
MRS. WILLIAMS

‫למדתי‬
‫לדבר עברית‬
.‫באמריהה‬

I learned
to speak
Hebrew in
America.
MRS. COHEN
In which
school
did you
study?
MRS. WILLIAMS
I
n
t
h
e

o
f
b
e

s
c
h
o
o
l

e
t
‫בכ‬

‫ית‬
‫הס‬
‫פר‬
‫לש‬
‫פו‬
‫ת‬
‫של‬
‫מש‬
‫רד‬
‫הח‬
‫וץ‬
‫של‬
‫נו‬
,

lamSdeti
beeyze
ledaber
bet
ivrit
sefer
beamerika.
lamSdet
?

158

‫באיזה‬
‫בית ספר‬
?‫למרת‬

BASIC COURSE

HEBREW

UNIT £

MRS. COHEN
You did well
to learn
Hebrew before
you came here.
you did you came

t6v me6d asIt
SelamSdet ivrit
lifney Se- bSt
hena.
asit (f.s.) bSt (f.s.)

You speak
Hebrew just
like an
Israeli
speak Israeli

St
medab^ret
ivrit mamSS
kmo
israelit.

‫טוב מאד עשית‬
‫שלמדת עברית‬
‫לפני שבאת‬
.‫הנה‬

‫עשי‬
‫ת‬
‫באת‬

medab6ret (f.s.pres.) ‫מדברת‬
israelit (f.)
‫ישראלית‬
Do
n'
t
ex
ag
ge
ra
te
.
Li
ke
an
Is
ra
el
i
as

y
e
t
I
don't
speak.
y
o
u
w
i
l
l
e
x
a
g
g

159

MR
S.
WI
LL
IA
MS
S
i
t
a
g
z
i

‫את מדברת‬
‫עברית‬
‫ממש כמר‬
.‫ישראלית‬

er
at
e

HEBREW

UNIT

BASIC
COURSE

11
m
i
.

t
a
g
z
i
m
i
(
f
.
s
.
)

k
m
6
i
s
r
a
e
l
i
t
a
d
S
i
n
eynini
medab£ret.
You speak
very
well.

‫ת‬

‫אל‬
‫תגזי‬
.‫מי‬
‫כמר‬
‫ישרא‬
‫לית‬
‫עדיי‬
‫ן‬
‫אינני‬
.‫מדברת‬

MRS. COHEN
at medaberet yaf4 me6d.
MRS. WILLIAMS

I'm happy
with the results.

160

‫ג‬
‫ז‬
‫י‬
‫מ‬
‫י‬

‫את מדברת‬
.‫יפה מאד‬

BASIC COURSE

HEBREW

UNIT £
‫שמחה‬

happy

ani smexS
mehatoca6
smexS
t.
(f.s.)

161

‫אני שמחה‬
‫מהתרצארת‬
.

HEBREW

UNIT

11
GRAMMAR NOTES

5• 3 Past Tense of Verbs - First and Second Persons
Compare the underlined forms in
the following sentences:
1. mat&y
hig&ta
la&rec,
mcir
Williams,
mat&y
hig&t
la&rec,
gveret
Williams.

2.

heyx&n lam&deta ledaber
ivrit kol k&x yafS. heyx&n
lam&det ledaber ivrit kol
k&x yaf&.
3• tov me6d asita
Selam&deta ivrit lifney
Seb&ta h4na. t6v me6d
asit Selam&det ivrit
lifney Seb&t h6na.

Note that in speaking to a man the forms
end in /-ta/, and in speaking to a woman they
end in /-t/. Now compare the following forms
as spoken by either a man or a woman.
4. hig&ti lifniy yom&im.

5 • lam&deti ledaber
ivrit beam£rika.

Note that these forms end in /-ti/.
Comparison with some plural verb forms yields
three more suffixes.
/-rm/ 'we' hig&nu lifney yom&im.
/-tem/ 'you' (m.pl.) mat&y hiq&tem
la&rec.
/-ten/ ,you' (f.pl.) matSy hig&ten
la&rec.
These pronominal suffixes are affixed to the

162

BASIC
COURSE

BASIC COURSE

HEBREW

UNIT £

past tense stems of all verbs. Given a past tense
form with any of these suffixes, the other five
may be derived by substitution.
The third person forms of the past tense will
not be drilled until later.
The third person forms involve changes in the
stem, whereas the first and second person forms
differ only in the suffixes.
The independent pronouns may be used with the
first and second person past tense forms for
contrast, insistence, etc.
ani hig&ti hena
etm61 mat&y at&
hig&ta.

got
here
yesterday.
When
did you get here?

A. Substitution Drill
When did you get here?
mat&y hig&ta hena.

.

163

HEBREW

UNIT

BASIC
COURSE

11
B.
In

Substitution Drill
higat
higatei which school did you study?
r,
hig&ten begyze bet sefer lam&deta.?‫־‬

‫ב י ת‬

Instructor
: Student:
b&ta
etmol.
b&nu
etmol.
etmol.
b&ti
etmol.
b&tem
etmol.
baten
etmol.

b&t

‫ב א י ז ה‬
1am&det
lam&detem
laiti&deten

‫הגעת‬
‫הגעת‬
‫ם‬
‫ל מ ד ת הגעת‬I S O
‫ן‬
‫למדת‬
‫למדתם‬
‫למדתן‬

You came yesterday.
C. Expansion Drill
You did well that you came yesterday.

t6v asita Seb&ta etm6l. t6v
asinu Seb&nu etm61. tov asit
Seb&t etm6l. tov asiti Seb&ti
etm6l. tov asitem Seb&tem
etm6l. tov asiten Sebaten etmol.

.‫גר במלון סבוי‬

»;‫ו‬
‫ני‬
‫ואת‬
‫ם‬
‫ואנ‬
‫ו‬
‫ואת‬
‫ואת‬
‫ן‬
‫ואת‬
‫ה‬

.‫גרים במלון מבוי‬
.‫גרים במלון סבוי‬
.‫גרה במלון סבוי‬
.‫גרות כמלון סבוי‬
.‫גר במלון סבוי‬

.‫אתמול‬

.‫ באנו אתמול‬.‫ טוב עשית שבאת אתמול‬.‫באת אתמול‬
‫ טוב עשית‬.‫ באת אתמול‬.‫טוב עשינו שבאנו אתמול‬
‫ טוב עשיתי שבאתי‬.‫ באתי אתמול‬.‫שבאת אתמול‬
.‫ טוב עשיתם שבאתס אתמול‬.‫ באתם אתמול‬.‫אתמול‬
.‫ טוב עשיתן שבאתן אתמול‬.‫באתן אתמול‬

‫הגעת‬
‫י‬
.‫הגעת אתמול‬
‫ם‬
.‫הגענ אתמול‬
‫ו‬
.‫הגעת אתמול‬
.‫הגעת אתמול‬
‫ן‬
.‫הגעת אתמול‬

Instructor: I arrived yesterday. Student:
I arrived yesterday, and I'm
staying at the Savoy Hotel.
hig&ti etmol. veani g&r bemal6n savoy.
hig&tem etm61 . veatem garim bemalon savoy.
hiq&nu etmol. ve&nu garim bemal6n savoy.
hig&t etmol. ve&t g&ra bemalon savoy.
hig&ten etm6l . veaten gar6t bemal6n
sav6y. hig&ta etmol. veat& g&r bemalon
savoy.

D. Expansion Drill
Note: Women students may respond with /ani g&ra/ and /&nu gar6t/.

E. Expansion Drill Instructor: Hello. David.
Student:
Hello, David. When did you get here?
Salom
david .
Salom
s&ra .
Salom. m&r
k&rmi.
Salom,
moSe.
dov .
Salom,
kohen .

matay higata hena. mat&y hig&t
?‫דוד מתי הגעת הנה‬
hena. mat&y higata hena.
.
?‫שרה מתי הגעת הנה‬
.‫מר ברמי‬
?‫מתי הגעת הנה‬
.
Salom. x&na. Salom. lea , mat&y
hig&ten hena. ?‫ מתי הגעתן הנה‬.‫לאה‬.‫ שלום‬.‫ חנה‬Salom,
avigdor .
Salom,
‫ מתי הגעתם‬.‫דב‬.‫ שלום‬.‫משה‬
gveret
?‫הנה‬
‫ מתי הגעת‬.‫גברת בהן‬
•‫הנה‬
mat&y
hig&ta

164

‫שלו ם‬
‫שלום‬
‫שלו‬
‫ם‬
‫שלו‬
‫ם‬
‫שלו ם‬
‫שלו‬
‫שלום‬
‫ם‬

BASIC COURSE

HEBREW

UNIT £

hena.
?‫ מתי הגעת הנה‬.‫אביגדור‬
mat&y hig&tem hena mat&y hig&t h6na.

165

HEBREW

UNIT

BASIC
COURSE

11
F. Transformation Drill

Instructor: I was very impressed by the school.
Student:
I saw that the school is modern and beautiful.
hitrag&mti me6d mib£t hasefer.
raiti §eb6t has£fer xadig
hitraS&mnu meod mibet hasefer.
rainu Sebet has&fer xadiS
hitraS&mtem me6d mibet hasefer.
raitem Seb6t has£fer xadig
hitraS&mt me6d mibet hasefer.
rait Seb£t hasefer xadig
hitraScimta me6d mibet hasefer.
raita gebet hasefer xadig
hitraS&mten meod mibet hasefer.
raiten geb£t hasefer xadiS

.‫התרשמתי מאד מבית הספר‬

veyaf6.

.‫ראיתי שבית הספר חדיש ויפה‬

veyafe.

.‫ראינו שבית הספר חדיש ויפה‬

veyafe.

.‫ראיתם שבית הספר חדיש ריפה‬

veyaf£.

.‫ראית שבית הספר חדיש ויפה‬

veyafe.

.‫ראית שבית הספר חדיש ויפה‬

veyaf£.

.‫התרשמנו מאד מבית הספר‬
.‫התרשמתם מאד מבית הספר‬
.‫התרשמת מאד מבית הספר‬
.‫התרשמת מאד מבית הספר‬
.‫התרשמתן מאד מבית הספר‬

.‫ראיתן שבית הספר חריש ריפה‬

This drill may be varied by making it an expansion drill. Instructor: hitraScimti

Student:

me6d mibet hasefer.
hitraScimti me6d mibet hasefer. raiti Sebet hasefer xadiS
veyaf6.

G. Transformation Drill
Instructor: You live in Tel Aviv. Student:
You have seen the Dan Hotel.
atem garim betel aviv.
&t g&ra bet£l aviv.
an! g&r betel aviv.
&nu garim betel aviv.
at& g&r betel aviv.
aten gar6t bet£l aviv.
raitem et mal6n d&n.

rait et
raiti et
rainu et
raita et
raiten
d&n.

malon d&n.
mal6n d&n.
mal6n d&n.
mal6n d&n.
et
malon

.‫אתם גרים בתל אביב‬
‫ אני‬.‫את גרה בתל אביב‬
‫ אנו‬.‫גר בתל אביב‬
‫ אתה‬.‫גרים בתל אביב‬
‫ אתן‬.‫גר בתל אביב‬
.‫גרות בתל אביב‬

This drill may be varied by making it an expansion drill.
Instructor: atem garim betel aviv.
Student:
atem garim betel aviv. raitem et mal6n d&n.
H. Transformation Drill
Instructor: I learned to speak Hebrew in America. Student:
before I came here.
lam&deti ledaber ivrit beamerika.
lam&deti ivrit lifney Seb&ti hena.
lam&dnu ledaber ivrit beamerika.
lam&dnu ivrit lifney Seb&nu hena.
lam&deta ledabir ivrit beamerika.
lam&deta ivrit lifney Seb&ta hena.
lam&det ledaber ivrit beamerika.

166

I studied Hebrew

lam&det ivrit lifney
Seb&t hena. lam&deten ledaber
ivrit beamerika.
lam&deten ivrit lifney
geb&ten hena. lam&detem ledaber
ivrit beamerika.
lamadetem ivrit lifniy

BASIC COURSE

HEBREW

UNIT £

geb&tem h£na.

.‫למדת לדבר עברית באמריקה‬

.‫למדתי לדבר עברית באמריקה‬

.‫למדת עברית לפני שבאת הנה‬

.‫למדתן לדבר עברית באמריקה‬

.‫למדתי עברית לפני שבאתי הנה‬

.‫למדתן עברית לפני שבאתן הנה‬

.‫למדנו לדבר עברית באמריקה‬

.‫למדתם לדבר עברית באמריקה‬

.‫למדנו עברית לפני שבאנו הנה‬

.‫למדתם עברית לפני שבאתם הנה‬

.‫למרת לררר עברית באמריקה‬

.‫למדת עברית לפני שבאת הנה‬
I. Transformation Drill
Instructor: I heard that Haifa is very beautiful.
Student:
I haven't seen Haifa.
Samfiti Sexayfa yaffi meod.
16 raiti et xfiyfa.
Samfitem gexfiyfa yaffi me6d.
16 raitem et xfiyfa.
gamSt gexayfa yafa me6d.
lo rait et xfiyfa.
gam emu gexfiyfa yaffi meod.
16 rainu et xfiyfa.

.‫שמעתי שחילה יפה מאי‬
.‫לא ראיתי את חיפה‬
•™'3 ‫י יפה מאי‬
.‫לא ראיתם את חיפה‬
.‫׳״מעת שחיפה יפה מאר‬

.‫לא ראית את חיפה‬
.‫שמענו שחיפה יפה מאד‬

.‫לא ראינו את חיפה‬

gamSta gexfiyfa yafS meod.

.‫׳חיפה יפה מאד‬.; ‫שמעת‬

lo raita et xfiyfa.
gamSten gexfiyfa yaffi meod.

.‫לא ראית את חיפה‬

16 raiten et xayfa.

.‫לא ראיתן את חיפה‬

.‫שמעתן שחיפה יפה מאד‬

J. Trans formation Drill - Repeat Drill 1 in reverse.
Drills I and J may be varied by making them expansion drills.
Instructor: gamfiti Sexfiyfa yafa meod.
Student:

gamfiti gexfiyfa yaffi meod, fix lo raiti otfi.

Instructor: lo raiti et xfiyfa.
Student;
lo raiti et xfiyfa, fix gamfiti gehi yaffi meod.
In the following drills the instructor supplies the independent pronoun
as a cue,and the student responds with an entire sentence. The instructor may
vary the drills by requiring the students to include the independent pronoun
in the response.
Instructor: bfiti hena lifney yomfiim. Student:
bfiti hena lifney
yomfiim.
Instructor: atfi
Student:
bfita hena lifney yomfiim. (or) atfi bfita hena lifney
yomfiim.
K. Substitution Drill
I came here two days ago.
bfiti hena lifney yomfiim.

.‫באתי הנה לפני יומיים‬

atfi - finu - fit - atem

‫ אתם‬- ‫ את‬- ‫ אבו‬- ‫אתה‬

167

HEBREW

UNIT

BASIC
COURSE

11
aten - finu - atfi - ani

‫ אבי‬- ‫ אתה‬- ‫ אנו‬- ‫אתן‬

L. Substitution Drill
You did well to get to Israel a month ago.
tov asita gehigfita lafirec lifney xodeg. .‫טוב עשית שהגעת לארץ לפני חורש‬
ani - fit - atem - finu
‫ אבי‬- ‫ אתם‬- ‫ את‬- ‫אבי‬
fit - aten - ani - atfi
‫ אתה‬- ‫ אבי‬- ‫ אתן‬- ‫את‬
M. Substitution Drill
We've heard him and we've seen him.
sam&nu oto verainu oto.
ani - fit - atfi - ani
atem - atfi - aten - finu

.‫שמענו אותו וראינו אותו‬

‫ אתה ־אני‬- ‫ את‬- ‫אני‬
‫ אנו‬- ‫ אתן‬- ‫ אתה‬- ‫אתם‬

N. Substitution - Agreement Drill
When did you arrive in the country, Mr. Williams?
matfiy higfita laarec, mfir Williams.
gveret fuler
miryfim
avigdor
gveret kohen
mfir 6ren
qveret kfispi
mar Williams

matfi
y
matfi
y
matay

higfit
laarec,
higfit
lafirec,
higfita
laarec
matay higfit
lafirec,
matfi higfita
y
lafirec
matfi higfit
y
lafirec,
matfi higfita
y
lafirec
5-4 Alternation

?‫ וויליאמס‬1
‫ מ ־‬,‫מתי הגעת לארץ‬

gveret filler.

‫גבי פולר‬

mirySm.

‫מרים‬

, avigdor.

‫אביגדור‬

gveret kohen.

‫גבי כהן‬

, mfir oren.

‫מר אורן‬

gveret kfispi.
, mfir Williams.

‫גבי כספי‬
‫מר וויליאמס‬

/mi- ~ me-/ 'from'

The prefixed preposition /mi-/ 'from' has the alternate form /me-/ when
immediately followed by a vowel or by /h/.
ex hitraSfimta miltid.
ani sameax mehatocaot.
Many speakers, especially in more formal speech, use /me-/ before /x/ and
/r/.
mexfiyfa.
meramat gfin.
5-5 Consor.ant Alternation /b ~ v/
The consonant /b/ often alternates with /v/ when not initial in the word.
bet hasefer
'the school'
bevet hasefer
'in the school'

168

BASIC COURSE

HEBREW

UNIT £

In this
particular
case the
alternation in
the second
example is
optional in
informal
speech both /bebet
hasefer/
and /bevet
hasefer/ are
heard. In
other cases,
particularly
in verbs, the
alternation is
required. The
patterns of
alternation
are rather
complicated
and are not
consistent for
all levels of
speech nor for
all speakers.
For the time
being the
student should
simply
memorize each
particular
example as it
occurs in the
text. [Note:
The instructor
may insist
that students
make the
optional
alternations
since it is
supposedly
'correct' to
do so.
Students
should
interpret
'correct' to
mean ,more
formal' and
not spend much
time on this
point. ]REVIEW

D.o ? atS 16 israeli?
C. lo. bati hena mehungSrya.
E.St medaberet ivrit km6
israelit.
P. Si tagzim. kmo israelit
eyneni medaberet.
E.St medaberet yaf4 me6d.
F.todS rabS.
G.SamSti SehabSit gel moS4 gad6l
veyafe.
H.Si tagzim . raiti et habSit ,
vehu lo kol kSx gadol.
I.haim raitem et habSit SelSnu?
J. 16,Sx gamSnu mimoSe
gehabSit Selax^m yafe meod.
I. matSy raitem et moSe?
J. rainu oto lifney yomSim.
I. eyfo hu gSr?
J. an! lo yodea . rainu oto
bemisrSd haxuc.

CONVEF

A.heyxSn lamSdeta ledaber ivrit, mSr
Williams.
B.lamSdeti ivrit beamerika.
A.tov asita SelamSdeta ivrit.
B.ken, ani sameax mehatoca6t.
C.hitraSSmti me6d mib4t hasefer lesafot.
D.k£n. ze bet sefer tov.
C.gSm ani lamSdeti ivrit bev4t sefer
lesaf6t.

169

‫‪HEBREW‬‬

‫‪BASIC‬‬
‫‪COURSE‬‬

‫‪UNIT‬‬

‫‪11‬‬

‫‪medaber ivr£t.‬‬
‫‪L. ken. gamfiti. hu medaber yaf6‬‬
‫‪me6d.‬‬
‫?‪K. km6 israeli‬‬
‫‪L. lo. lo km6‬‬
‫‪israeli. fix hu‬‬
‫‪medaber t6v.‬‬

‫א‪ :‬היכן למדת לדבר עברית‪ ,‬מר וויליאמס?‬
‫ב‪ :‬למדתי עברית באמריקה‪.‬‬
‫א‪ :‬טוב עשית שלמדת עברית‪.‬‬
‫ב‪ :‬כן‪ ,‬אני שמח מהתוצאות‪.‬‬
‫ג‪ :‬ו‪.‬תרשמתי מאד מבית הספר לשפות‪ .‬ד‪ :‬כן‪ .‬זה‬
‫בית ספר טוב‪.‬‬

‫‪M. rainu et habfiit gelxfi.‬‬
‫‪N. eyx hitraSfimtem.‬‬

‫ג‪ :‬גם אני למדתי עברית בבית ספר ‪/‬שפות‪.‬‬
‫ד‪ :‬או י אתה ;א ישראלי?‬

‫‪M. hitragfimnu meod. habfiit‬‬
‫‪Selxfi xadig meod.‬‬

‫ג‪ :‬לא‪ .‬באווי ז(‪J‬ה מהונגריה‪.‬‬

‫‪N. ani mekave gegfim avurxem‬‬
‫‪yesudfir bfiit yafe.‬‬

‫ה‪ :‬את מדברת עברית כמי ישראלית‪.‬‬

‫‪,M. gfim ani mekave.‬‬
‫כ‪ :‬יעקב! שמעת? היועץ האמריקאי מדבר‬
‫עברית‪.‬‬

‫ו‪ :‬אל תגזיט‪ .‬כמו ישראלית אינגי מדברת‪.‬‬
‫ה‪ :‬את מרבו ת יפה מאד‪.‬‬
‫ו‪ :‬תרדה רבה‪.‬‬

‫ל‪ :‬כן‪ ,‬שמעתי‪ .‬הוא מדבר יפה מאד‪.‬‬
‫כ‪ :‬כמו ישראלי?‬
‫ל‪ :‬לא‪ .‬לא כמו ישראלי‪ .‬אך הוא מדבר‬
‫טוב‪.‬‬
‫מ‪ :‬ראינו את הבית שלך‪.‬‬
‫נ‪ :‬איר התרשמתם?‬

‫ז‪ :‬שמעתי שהבית של משה גדול ויפה‪.‬‬
‫ח‪ :‬אל תגזים‪ .‬ראיתי את הבית‪ ,‬והוא לא כל כר‬
‫גדול‪.‬‬

‫ט‪ :‬האם ראיתם את הבית שלנו?‬
‫י‪ :‬לא‪ .‬אר שמענו ממשה שהבית שלכם יפה מאד‪.‬‬

‫מ‪ :‬התרשמנו מאד‪ .‬הבית שלר חריש מאד‪.‬‬

‫ט‪ :‬מתי ראיתם את משה?‬

‫נ‪ :‬אני מקווה שגם עבורכם יסודר בית‬
‫יפה‪.‬‬

‫י‪ :‬ראינו אותי לפני יומיים‪.‬‬

‫מ‪ :‬גם אני מקווה‪.‬‬

‫ט‪ :‬איפה הוא גר?‬
‫י‪ :‬אני לא יודע‪ .‬ראינו אותו במשדר היוץ‪.‬‬

‫‪K. yaak6v. gamfita? hayo£c haamerikfii‬‬

‫‪170‬‬

BASIC COURSE

HEBREW

UNIT £

6.1 Asking Directions (a man
kfin
d6ar (m)
merkazi (m.s.)
Tell me, please, how can
I get from here to the
main post office? can
to arrive here
mail, post office
central

Turn here
at the first corner to
the right.
turn
corner
first
to the right

Yes-

Go
about four blocks, and
there turn left.
go four street
there
you will turn to
the left

Yes-

Continue straight to the
intersection.
you will continue
straight until, up
to intersection

PASSERBY
pn£ kSn
bapinS hariSonS
yemina.
pne (m.s.imv.)
pina (f)
riSonS (f.s. )
yemina

em6r li bevakaSS. 6x
ani yaxol lehagia
mikSn ladoar
hamerkazi.
yax6l (m.s.)
lehagia

‫פנה‬
‫פינ‬
‫ה‬
‫ראש‬
‫ונה‬
‫ימי‬
‫נה‬

— ‫כו‬

MR. WILLIAMS

‫לר‬

k6nPASSERBY
lex
kearbaa rexovot,
veSam
tifne smola.
l£x (m.s.imv.)
arbaS (m)
rex6v (m) Sam
tifne (m.s.)
smola

‫לר‬

,‫כארבעה רחובות‬
‫ושם‬
.‫תפנה שמאלה‬

‫ארב‬
‫עה‬
‫רחו‬
‫ב‬
‫שם‬
‫תפנ‬
‫ה‬
‫שמא‬
‫לה‬

MR. WILLIAMS
kin-

— ‫כן‬

PASSERBY
tamSix yaSSr £d
lahictalvfit.
tamSix
(m.s.)
yaSSr
(m.s.)
£d
hictalvut (f)
MR. WILLIAMS
hahictalvut
hariSonS?
,‫ בבקשה‬,‫אמרר לי‬
‫איר אני יכול‬
‫להגיע מכאן‬
?‫לדואר המרכזי‬

The first intersection?
asks a man)
MR. WILLIAMS

‫פנה כאן בפינה‬
.‫הראשונה ימינה‬

‫יבול‬
‫להגי‬
‫ע‬
‫כאן‬
‫דואר‬
‫מרכז‬
‫י‬

171

‫חמש‬
‫יר‬
‫ישר‬
‫עד‬
‫הצטלבו‬
‫ת‬

‫תמשיר ישר עד‬
.‫להצטלבות‬

‫ההצטלבות‬
?‫הראשונה‬

HEBREW

UNIT

BASIC
COURSE

11
Yes. Go past
the lights,
and continue straight to
the post office
building, cross,
pass traffic light
continue building

ken. PASSERBY
avor et
haramzorim,
vehamSex yaSSr
fid lebinySn
had6ar.
avor (m.s.imv.)
ramzor (m)
hamSex

(m.s,imv.)
binySn (m)
,‫ עבור את הרמזורים‬.‫כן‬
‫והמשך ישר עד לבנין‬
.‫הדואר‬

‫עכדר‬
‫רמזור‬
‫המשר בנין‬

MR. WILLIAMS
Is it

haim z6 rax6k mikSn?
rax6k (m.s.)

far from here?
far
PASSERBY

‫האם זה‬
?‫רחוק מכאן‬

‫רחוק‬

No,
it's
not
far.

16.
ze
16
rax6k.

‫זה‬

.‫לא‬
‫לא‬
.‫רחוק‬

MR. WILLIAMS
Thank you very much, sir.
sir
todS rabci lexS, adoni.

adoni
‫ארו ני‬

Don't mention it. on
thing
PASSERBY
6.2 Asking Directions

(A

,‫תודה רבה לך‬
.‫אדוני‬

Si lo davSr. SI
davSr (m.)
.‫על לא דבר‬

‫על‬
‫דב‬
‫ר‬

woman asks a woman)
MRS. WILLIAMS

Tell me, please, how can
I get from here to the
main post office? can
imri li bevakaSS. ex
ani yexolS lehagia

mikan ladoar
hamerkazi.
yexola (f.s.)

‫להגיע מכאן לדואר‬
?‫המרכזי‬

‫יכולה‬

,‫ בבקשה‬,‫אמרי לי‬
‫איך אני יכולה‬

PASSERBY
Turn here
at the
right.

first

corner

to

pni kSn
bapinS hariSonS yemina.
pni (f.s.imv.)

the

turn
Yes-

‫פני כאן בפינה‬
‫הראשונה‬
.‫ימינה‬

MRS. WILLIAMS k6n-

‫כן ־־‬

172

‫פני‬

BASIC COURSE

HEBREW

UNIT £

PASSERBY
Go
a
b
go
you
will
turn
l
e
k
e
t
i
l
‫ל‬e

‫כ‬
‫י‬
‫י‬

‫כ‬
‫א‬
‫ר‬
‫ב‬
‫ע‬
‫ה‬
‫ר‬
‫ח‬
‫ו‬
‫ב‬
‫ו‬
‫ת‬

‫ו‬
‫ש‬
‫ם‬
‫ת‬
‫לפ‬

‫כ‬
‫י‬
‫ת‬
3
‫נ‬
‫י‬

173

HEBREW

UNIT

BASIC
COURSE

11
MRS.
WILLI
AMS
kenPASS
Yes-

— ‫כוי‬

ERBY
C
o
n
t
i
n
u
e

.
you
will
continu
e

y
a
S
a
r

t
o

S
d

t
h
e

l
a
h
i
c
t
a
l
v
u
t
.

i
n
t
e
r
s
e
c
t
i
o
n

tamgix
i
(f.s.)

The first
intersection
?

PASSERBY
Y

174

‫תמשיכי‬
‫ער‬
‫ תמשיכי‬.‫להצטלבות‬

t
a
m
S
i
x
i

s
t
r
a
i
g
h
t

MRS. WILLIAMS

‫ישר‬

e
s

a
n

hahictalv
ut
hariSonS?

‫ההצטלבות‬
?‫הראשונה‬

BASIC COURSE

HEBREW

UNIT £

c
r
o
s
s
,
p
a
s
s
c
o
n
t
i
n
u
e
k
Is it

e
n
i‫כ‬
‫ן‬
.
‫ע‬
‫ב‬
‫ר‬
‫י‬
‫א‬
‫ת‬
‫ה‬
‫ר‬
‫מ‬
‫ז‬
‫ו‬
‫ר‬
‫י‬
‫ם‬

‫וה‬
‫מש‬
‫יכ‬
‫י‬
‫יש‬
-‫ו‬
‫ער‬
‫לב‬
‫ני‬
‫ן‬
‫הד‬
‫וא‬
.‫ר‬

‫ע‬

A
S
S
E
R
B
Y

f
a
M
R
h
P
lo. ze
lo
rax6k.
MRS.
WILLIAMS

Thank you very much , ma'am.

t
o
g

ma' am

6
No,
it's
not
far.

R
Y
C
(said to
men or
both)
(said to
women)
h

.
3
A
D
D
I
T
I
O
N
A
L
V
O
C
A
B
U
L
A

‫האם זה‬
?‫רחוק מכאן‬

‫זה‬

.‫לא‬
‫לא‬
.‫רחוק‬

,‫חודה רבה לך‬
.‫גבירתי‬

‫גבירתי‬.

.‫על לא רבו‬

.‫המשיכו ישר‬
‫המשכנה‬
.‫יי׳ר‬

175

UNIT

HEBREW

11
a
m
S
i
x
u
y
a
g
S
r
.
h
a
m
S
e
x
n
a
y
a
g
S
r
.

176

BASIC
COURSE

BASIC COURSE

HEBREW

UNIT £

GRAMMAR NOTES
6.4 Stark Imperatives
Compare the underlined forms in the following sentences:
a.sgor et hadelet.
sigri et
hadelet.
b.Sev. bevakaSS.
Svi.
bevakaSS.
c.daber. yoter bek61.
dabri,voter bekol.
d.targem, bevakaSS.
targemi.
bevakaSS.
e.emor li bevakaSS. heyxSn lamSdeta ledaber ivrit.
imri 11 bevakaSS. heyxSn lamSdet ledaber ivrit.
f.pne kSn bapinS hariSonS yemina.
pni kSn bapinS hariSonS
yeminS.
g.l£x kearbS rexov6t.
lexi kearbS
rexov6t.
h.avor et haramzorim vehamSex yaSSr.
ivri et haramzorim vehamSixi yaSSr.
The underlined words are imperative forms of verbs. They are termed 'stark
imperatives' since their only function is as imperatives and to differentiate
them from the 'gentle imperative' forms which function also as future tense
forms.
There are a number of form classes of verbs in Hebrew, but the imperatives
of all of them have certain similar characteristics. The masculine singular does
not end in /-i/ and the feminine singular does. In some the /-i/ does not bear
the stress /hamSixi/, and in some it does /imri, sigri, pni/.
Examine now the plural forms which have occurred in the text.
i.hamSixu yaSSr.
hamSexna
yaSSr.
Note that the masculine plural is identical to the feminine singular except
for the final vowel, /-u/ instead of /-i/; and that the feminine plural is
identical to the masculine singular except for the additional syllable /-na/.
This criss-cross patterning occurs with all verbs in the stark imperative. Thus,
given both singular forms, both plurals, both masculine forms, or both feminine
forms, the other two may be easily derived.
The stress will always be on the corresponding syllable in the feminine
singular and masculine plural: /hamSixi - hamSixu/ and /sigri - sigru/. The
feminine plural suffix /-na/ is never stressed.
At this point the student will have to memorize the corresponding
pairs. It will be a while before the patterns become sorted out. However,

177

UNIT

HEBREW

11

BASIC
COURSE

since the pattern of the stark imperative is one of the keys to the
identification of a particular verb pattern the student will have lost
nothing by memorizing and drilling them thoroughly now.

178

BASIC COURSE

HEBREW

UNIT £

A. Substitution Drill

Tell me, please, where is the post

office?

emor li bevakaSS. eyfo had6ar.
emoma
imri
imru
em6r

? ‫ איפה הדוא!־‬,‫ כבקשה‬,‫אמור לי‬
‫אמורנה‬
‫אמרי‬
‫אמרו‬
‫אמור‬

B. Substitution - Agreement Drill
In the following drill the instructor may vary the substitutions supplied as cues,
alternating between the imperatives and the pronouns.

Tel
l

C.

m , please, where
e do
em6r l bevakaSS
eyf
i
o
emorna li
eyf
bevakaSS.
o
imr l bevakaSS.
eyf
i
i
6
imr l bevakaSS.
eyf
u
i
o
imr l bevakaSS.
eyf
i
i
6
emo l bevakaSS.
eyf
6
r
i
imr l bevakaSS.
eyf
6
u
i
em6rna li
eyf
bevakaSS.
o
imr l bevakaSS.
eyf
i
i
o

you live?
atS gSr.
aten garot.
St gSra.
atem qarim.

?‫גר‬.
?‫גרות‬
?‫גרה‬
?‫גרים‬

St gSra.

?‫גרה‬

atS gSr.

?‫גר‬

atem garim.
aten qarot.
St gSra.

‫את‬
‫ה‬
‫את‬
‫ן‬
‫את‬
‫את‬
‫ם‬
‫את‬

‫את‬
‫ה‬
?‫את גרים‬

‫את גרות־‬
'.‫׳‬
‫ן‬
?‫את גדה‬

‫איפ‬
‫ה‬
‫איפ‬
‫ה‬
‫איפ‬
‫ה‬
‫איפ‬
‫ה‬
‫איפ‬
‫ה‬
‫איפ‬
.‫ר‬
‫איפ‬
‫ה‬
‫איפ‬
‫ה‬
‫אי‬
‫פה‬

,‫ בבקשה‬,‫לי‬
,
,‫בבקשה‬
,‫בבקשה‬
,‫בבקשה‬
,‫בבקשה‬
,‫בבקשה‬
,‫בבקשה‬
,
,‫בבקשה‬
,‫בבקשה‬

‫אמו‬
‫ר‬
‫אמורנה‬
‫לי‬
‫אמר ליי‬
‫י‬
,‫אמר לי‬
‫ו‬
,‫אמר לי‬
‫י‬
,'‫אמו ל‬
‫ר‬
,‫אמר לי‬
‫ו‬
‫אמורנה‬
‫לי‬
,'‫אמר ל‬
‫י‬

ivru

Substitution Drill

‫עבור את‬
‫ההצטלבו‬
‫ת‬
‫הראשונה‬
.
‫עבורנה‬
‫עברי‬
‫עברו‬
‫עבור‬
‫עברי‬
‫עברו‬

Go past the first intersection.

avor et hahictalvut hariSonS.
avorna
ivri
ivru
avor
ivri

D. Substitution Drill
Close the door, please.
sigri et hadelet, bevakaSS.
sigrfi
sgor
sgorna
sigru

179

‫‪BASIC‬‬
‫‪COURSE‬‬

‫‪HEBREW‬‬

‫‪UNIT‬‬

‫‪11‬‬
‫‪sigri‬‬
‫‪sgor‬‬

‫□גרי‬
‫את‬
‫הדלת‬
‫‪,‬‬
‫בבקש‬
‫ה‪.‬‬
‫סגרו‬
‫סגור‬
‫סגור‬
‫נה‬
‫סגרו‬
‫סגרי‬
‫סגור‬

‫‪180‬‬

BASIC COURSE

HEBREW

UNIT £

E.
Substitution Drill
.‫ בבקשה‬,‫פתחו את הדלת‬

Open the door, please.

‫פתח‬
‫י‬
‫פתח‬
‫בה‬
‫פתח‬
‫פתח‬
‫י‬
‫פתח‬
‫ו‬
‫פתח‬

pitxu et hadelet bevakaSS.
pitxi
ptSxna
ptSx
pitxi
pitxu
ptSx
F. Substitution Drill

The following drill may be varied by first going through the drill a few
times using one verb as substitution cues and then a few times using the other
verb as cues. When the forms are mastered the drill may be done by alternating
the cues.
Turn left here and go straight.
pne kSn yemina
pni kSn yemina
pnu kSn yemina
pnena
kSn
yemina pne kSn
yemina pnu kSn
yemina pni kSn
yemina
vel&x

‫לך‬
‫ו‬
‫ו‬
.‫ישר‬
.‫לכי ישר‬
‫לכו‬
‫ו‬
.‫ישר‬
‫ולכנה‬
‫ו‬
.‫ישר‬
.‫לך ישר‬
‫לבו‬
‫ו‬
.‫ישר‬
‫ולכי‬
.‫ישר‬

yaSSr.
velexi
yaSSr.
velexu
yaSSr. velexna
yaSSr.
velex
yaSSr.
velexu
yaSSr.
velexi
yaSSr.

G. Substitution Drill
Continue straight to the school.

‫פנה כאן ימינה‬
‫פני כאן ימינה‬
‫פנו כאן ימינה‬
‫פנינה כאן ימינה‬
‫פגה כאן ימינה‬
‫פנו כאן ימינה‬
‫פני כאן ימינה‬
hamSexna
hamSex
hamSixi

.‫פר‬0 ‫המשך יער עד לבית ה‬

‫המשיכו‬
‫המשיכי‬
‫המשכנה‬
‫המשך‬
‫המשיכי‬

hamSex yaSSr Sd leb^t hasefer.
hamSixu
hamSixi

H. Substitution - Agreement Drill

181

HEBREW

UNIT

BASIC
COURSE

11
I. by alternating the substit .ion
This drill may be varied
ut
cues
Close the door
sit down, please.
and
sgor et hadelet
veSev bevakaSS.
.‫ בבקשה‬,‫ושב‬

as in Drill
F.

siqru et hadelet

veSvu bevakaSS.

.‫בבקשה‬

‫סגרו את הדלת‬

sigri et hadelet

veSvi bevakaSS.

.‫בב קשה‬

sq6rna et hadelet

veSevna bevakaSS.

sqor et hadelet
siqri et hadelet

veSev bevakaSS.
veSvi bevakaSS.

.‫בבקשה‬
.‫בבקשה‬

sigru et hadelet

veSvu bevakaSa.

.‫בבקשה‬

.‫ בבקשה‬,

‫סגור את הדלת‬

‫ושב‬
,‫ו‬
‫ושב‬
,‫י‬
‫ושב‬
‫נ ה‬
,‫ושב‬
‫ושב‬
,‫י‬
2 ‫ושב‬
,

‫סגרי את הדלת‬
‫סגורנה את‬
‫הדלת‬
‫סגור את הדלת‬
‫סגרי את הד לח‬
‫סגרו את הדלת‬

Substitution Drill
Please speak Hebrew.
daber ivrit, bevakaSS.
dabri
dabru
daberna
dab£r

6.5 Gentle Imperatives
Compare the
underlined forms in the
following sentences:
a.taki
r
be
va
ka
SS
et
mS
r
Wi
ll
ia
ms
.
ta
ki
ri
be
va

182

.‫גקשה‬J ,‫דבר עברית‬
‫דברי דברר דבר נ ה‬
‫דבר‬

BASIC COURSE

HEBREW

UNIT £

ka
SS
et
gv
6r
et
Wi
ll
ia
ms
.
b.SSm
ti
fn
e
sm
6l
a.
SS
m
ti
fn
l
sm
61
a.
c.tamS
ix
ya
SS
r
Sd
la
hi
ct
al
vt
it
.
ta
mS
ix
i
ya
SS
r
Sd
la
hi
ct
al
vu
t.

183

HEBREW

UNIT

11
Note that the
masculine-feminine
alternation is very
much the same as in the
stark imperatives. In
addition the forms have
a prefix beginning with
/t-/. These are
identical with the
second person future
tense forms but are
used as imperatives.
They are termed ‫י‬
gentle imperatives'
since they are not
ordinarily used for
direct positive
commands, and have a
gentler connotation.
The stark imperative is
used for the whole
range of simple request
to direct command.
As with the stark
imperatives,
the
corresponding
pairs
should be drilled and
memorized.
With
the
exception noted below
the
same
criss-cross
derivations may be made
to get the remaining
forms.
ti
fn
e
(m
.s
.)
ti
fn
i
(f
.s
.)
ti
fn
en
a
(f
.p
l.
)

184

BASIC
COURSE

BASIC COURSE

HEBREW

UNIT £

ti
fn
u
(m
.p
l.
)
The exception is
with verbs in which the
final vowel of the
masculine singular
is /-i-/. In most of
these verbs the
feminine plural has /£-/, in the others
/-S-/.
ta
mS
ix
ta
mS
ex
na
ta
ki
r
ta
k^
rn
a
(When the feminine
plural has /-&-/, this
will be especially
noted.)
[in the vocabulary
breakdown of the basic
sentences the gentle
imperatives are
translated as future
forms. This is a
convention adopted for
this text. ]
The vowel of the
prefix depends on the
form class to which the
verb belongs. It may be
/i, e, a, o/, but it is
the same in all four
forms. At this point

185

HEBREW

UNIT

11
the substitution drills
should be repeated
until the vowel of the
prefix is memorized.

186

BASIC
COURSE

BASIC COURSE

HEBREW

UNIT £

‫הרא‬
‫שונ‬
.‫ה‬
‫תפנ‬
‫י‬
‫תפנ‬
‫ו‬
‫תפנ‬
‫ינה‬
‫תפנ‬
‫י‬
‫תפנ‬
‫ו‬
‫תפנ‬
‫ה‬

Substitution Drill
Turn left at the first
corner.
tifne smola bapinS hariSonS.
tifni
tif nu
tifnena
tifni
tifnu
tifne
‫תפנה‬
‫שמאלה‬
‫בפינה‬

‫תעבור‬
‫את‬
‫ההצטל‬
.‫בות‬
‫תעברי‬
‫תעברו‬
‫תעבור‬
‫נה‬
‫תעברי‬
‫תעבור‬
‫תעברו‬

B. Substitution Drill
Cross the intersection.
taav6r et hahictalvut.
taavri
taavru
taavorna
taavri
taavor
taavru
C. Substitution Drill
Keep on speaking
tamSix ledaber•
tamSixi
tamSixu
tamSexna
tamSix
tamSixi

‫ך‬
.‫לדבר‬
‫אני‬
.‫מבין‬
‫תמשיכי‬
‫תמשיכו‬
‫תמשכנה‬
‫תמשיך‬
‫תמשיכי‬

I understand,
ani mevin.
‫ת‬
‫מ‬
‫ש‬
‫י‬

Women students should respond with /ani mevinS/.
D. Substitution Drill

Please meet my wife

187

HEBREW

UNIT

11

BASIC
COURSE
takiri
takiru
takirna

(husband).
takir bevakaSS et iSti

.(‫תכיר בבקשה את אשתי )בעלי‬
‫תכירי תכירו תכרנה‬

(baali).

188

BASIC COURSE

HEBREW

UNIT £

E. Substitution - Agreement Drill

Moshe, please meet Mr. Oren.

.‫ תכיר כבקשה את מר אורן‬,‫משה‬

moS6. takir bevakaSS et m&r

‫מרים מר‬
‫כספי מר‬
‫וויליאמס‬
‫גברת כהן‬
‫חנה‬
‫אביגדור‬

6ren.
mirySm
mirySm. takiri bevakaSS
et mSr 6ren.
mSr kaspi mSr kSspi. takir
bevakaSS et mSr 6ren. mSr
Williams mSr Williams. takir
bevakaS et mSr 6ren. qveret kohen
gveret k6hen. takiri bevakaSS et
mSr oren. xSna
xSna. takiri
bevakaSS et mSr oren.
avigdor
avigdor. takir bevakaSa
et mSr 6ren.
P. Substitution - Agreement Drill
This drill may be done first
as
two
separate
substitution
drills,
and
then
varied
by
alternating the substitution cues
as in Drill F, Section 6.4 above.
Drill 1. tisqor et hadelet. Drill 2.
teSSv beSeket.
Drill 3• tisg6r et hadelet
veteSev beSMket.
Close the door and sit quietly.
tisg6r
et
hadelet
tisgeru
et
hadelet
tisgerl
et
hadelet
tisg6rn
a
et
hadelet
tisg6r
et
hadelet
tisgeri
et

hade
let
tisg
eru
et
hade
let
vete
Sev
beSe
ket.
vete
Svu
beSe
ket.
vete
Svi

b
e
S
e
k
e
t
.
v
e
t
e
S
e
v
n
a

beSek
et.
veteS
<§v
beSek
et.
veteS
vi
beSek
et.
veteS
vu
beSek
et.
‫ותשב‬
.‫בשקט‬
‫ו תשב‬

189

‫‪BASIC‬‬
‫‪COURSE‬‬

‫‪HEBREW‬‬

‫‪UNIT‬‬

‫‪11‬‬
‫לת‬
‫תסגו‬
‫ר את‬
‫הדלת‬
‫תסגר‬
‫י את‬
‫הדלת‬
‫תסגר‬
‫ו את‬
‫הדלת‬

‫‪190‬‬

‫ת‬
‫ת‬
‫ס‬
‫ג‬
‫ו‬
‫ר‬
‫נ‬
‫ה‬
‫א‬
‫ת‬
‫ה‬
‫ד‬

‫את‬
‫הדל‬
‫ת‬
‫תסג‬
‫רו‬
‫את‬
‫הדל‬
‫ת‬
‫תסג‬
‫רי‬
‫את‬
‫הדל‬

‫ו בשקט‪.‬‬
‫ו תשב י‬
‫בשקט‪.‬‬
‫ותשבנה‬
‫בשקט‪ .‬ו‬
‫תשב‬
‫בשקט‪ .‬ו‬
‫י‬
‫תשב‬
‫בשקט‪ .‬ו‬
‫ו‬
‫תשב‬
‫בשקט‪.‬‬
‫תסגור‬

‫‪r‬‬

‫‪Sub‬‬

‫‪i‬‬

‫‪sti‬‬

‫‪.‬‬
‫‪t‬‬
‫‪i‬‬
‫‪f‬‬
‫‪t‬‬
‫‪e‬‬
‫‪x‬‬
‫‪i‬‬
‫‪t‬‬
‫‪i‬‬
‫‪f‬‬
‫‪t‬‬
‫‪e‬‬
‫‪x‬‬
‫‪u‬‬
‫‪t‬‬
‫‪i‬‬
‫‪f‬‬
‫‪t‬‬
‫‪S‬‬
‫‪x‬‬
‫‪n‬‬
‫‪a‬‬
‫‪t‬‬
‫‪i‬‬
‫‪f‬‬
‫‪t‬‬
‫‪e‬‬
‫‪x‬‬
‫‪i‬‬
‫‪t‬‬
‫‪i‬‬
‫‪f‬‬
‫‪t‬‬
‫‪e‬‬
‫‪x‬‬

‫‪tut‬‬
‫‪ion‬‬
‫‪Dri‬‬
‫‪ll‬‬
‫‪Ope‬‬
‫‪n‬‬
‫‪the‬‬
‫‪off‬‬
‫‪ice‬‬
‫‪for‬‬
‫‪me.‬‬
‫‪tif‬‬
‫‪tSx‬‬
‫‪et‬‬
‫‪ham‬‬
‫‪isr‬‬
‫‪Sd‬‬
‫‪avu‬‬

BASIC COURSE

HEBREW

u
tif
tSx
‫את‬

‫תפתח‬

UNIT £

.‫עבורי‬
‫המשרד‬
‫תפתחו‬
‫תפתחי‬
‫תפתחי‬
‫תפתחנה‬
‫תפתחו תפתח‬

6.6 Negative Imperatives
The

negative
of
both
imperatives
consists
of
the
Si
construction
/al/+
tagzim. gentle imperative.
1

Don ‫י‬t exaggerate.‫י‬

G.

191

HEBREW

UNIT

11
A. Substitution Drill
Don't exaggerate. The house isn't that
big.
&1

a
g
z
i
m
u

t
a
g
z
i
m
.

t
a
g
z
i
m

h
a
b
&
i
t

t
a
g
z
e
m
n
a

l
o
k
o
l
k
a
x
g
a
d
o
l
.
t
a
g
z
i
m
i
t

t
a
g
z
i
m
i
B.
Transfor
mation
Drill Affirmat
ive to
Negative

‫אל תגזים‬
‫הבית לא‬
‫כל כך‬
.‫גדול‬

;

‫תגזימ‬
‫י‬

‫ז‬

‫תג‬

‫תגזימו‬

192

BASIC
COURSE

BASIC COURSE

HEBREW

‫תגז ימי‬

‫תגזמנה‬

p
n
e
s
m
6

a
‫ת‬

‫ל‬
‫מ‬
‫י‬
‫ד‬
:

UNIT £

‫ו‬
‫ש‬
‫מ‬
‫א‬
‫ל‬
‫ה‬
.

‫א‬
‫ל‬

Instructor: Turn left here.
Student: Don't turn left here.
1
a
.
p
n
i
s
m
6
1
a
,

‫ת‬
‫פ‬
‫נ‬
‫ה‬
‫ש‬
‫מ‬
‫א‬
‫ל‬
‫ה‬
.
‫א‬
‫ל‬

p
n
u

‫ת‬
‫פ‬
‫נ‬
‫י‬

s
m
6
1
a

‫ש‬
‫מ‬
‫א‬
‫ל‬
‫ה‬
.

.
p
n
e
n

‫א‬
‫ל‬
‫ת‬
‫פ‬
‫נ‬

‫א‬
‫ל‬
‫ת‬
‫פ‬
‫נ‬
‫י‬
‫נ‬
‫ה‬
‫ש‬
‫מ‬
‫א‬
‫ל‬
‫ה‬
.
‫א‬
‫ל‬
‫ת‬
‫פ‬
‫נ‬
‫ה‬
‫ש‬
‫מ‬
‫א‬
‫ל‬
‫ה‬
.

‫מו‬
:‫רה‬
‫פ‬
‫נ‬
‫ה‬

193

HEBREW

UNIT

11
‫שמ‬
‫אל‬
.‫ה‬
‫פנ‬
‫י‬
‫שמ‬
‫אל‬
.‫ה‬
‫פנ‬
‫ו‬

‫ש‬
‫מ‬
‫א‬
‫ל‬
‫ה‬
.
‫פ‬
‫נ‬
‫י‬
‫נ‬

‫ה‬

‫נ‬
‫ה‬

‫ש‬
‫מ‬
‫א‬
‫ל‬
‫ה‬
.

‫ש‬
‫מ‬
‫א‬
‫ל‬
‫ה‬
.

‫פ‬

C.Transformation - Expansion Drill
Repeat Drill B
with student
adding /pne
yemina./ ‫׳‬Turn
right'.
Instructor: pn6
sm6la.
Student: kl tifne
smola. pne yemina.
D.Transformation Drill
- Affirmative to
Negative.
Instructor: Go to
the main post
office. Student:
Don't go to the
main post office.
l£x
lado
ar
hame
rkaz
i.
lexi
lado
ar
hame

rkaz
i.
lexn
a
lado
ar
hame
rkaz
i.
lexu

lad
oar
ham
erk
azi
.
lex
i
lad
oar

194

BASIC
COURSE

BASIC COURSE

hame
rkaz
i.
lex
lado
ar
hame
rkaz
i.
&1
tel
ex
lad
oar
ham
erk
azl
.
al
tel
xi
lad
oar
ham
erk
azi
.
&1
tel
^xn
a
lad

6ar
hame
rkaz
i.
&1
telx
u
lado
ar
hame
rkaz
i.
SI
telx
i
lado
ar
hame
rkaz
i.
&1
tele
x
lado
ar
hame
rkaz
i.
‫לך‬
‫לדואר‬
‫המרכז‬
.‫י‬

HEBREW

UNIT £

‫לכי‬
‫לדו‬
‫אר‬
‫המר‬
‫כזי‬
.
‫לכנ‬
‫ה‬
‫לדו‬
‫אר‬
‫המר‬
‫כזי‬
.
‫לכו‬
‫לדו‬
‫אר‬
‫המר‬
‫כזי‬
.
‫לכי‬
‫לדו‬
‫אר‬
‫המר‬
‫כזי‬
.
‫לך‬
‫לדו‬
‫אר‬
‫המר‬
‫כזי‬
.

E. Transformation - Expansion Drill
Repeat Drill D with
student adding /l6x
laSagrirut./ ‫׳‬Go to the
embassy.'
Instructor: lex
lad6ar hamerkazi.
Student: al telex
ladoar hamerkazi.

16x
laSagrirut.

195

HEBREW

UNIT

BASIC
COURSE

11
F. Transformation Drill - Affirmative to Negative

Instructor: Continue straight to the intersection.
Student: Don't continue straight.
hamSex
al tamSixna
y
a
S
S
‫ר‬
‫ש‬
‫י‬
‫ו‬
‫ב‬
‫ל‬

r
‫ה‬
‫ט‬

.
‫נ‬
‫צ‬

‫כ‬
‫ה‬

.
‫ש‬
‫ל‬

yaSSr
n
‫מ‬

‫ה‬
‫ד‬

lahictalvtat.
hamSixu yaSSr
lahictalvut.
hamSixi yaSSr
lahictalvut.
hamSexna yaSSr
lahictalvut.

Sd

hamSix
yaSSr Sd
lahictal
vtit.
hamSixi
yaSSr Sd
lahictal
vtit.
al tamSix
yaSSr. Si
tamSixu
yaSSr. Si
tamSixi

‫ע‬
Sd
Sd
Sd

yaSSr.
tamSix
yaSSr.
Si
tamSixi yaSSr.
‫המשך ישר עד‬
.‫להצטלבות‬
‫המשיכו ישר עד‬
.‫להצטלבות‬
‫המשיכי ישר עד‬
.‫להצטלכות‬
‫המשך ישר עד‬
.‫להצטלבות‬
‫המשיכי ישר עד‬
.‫להצטלבות‬
cil

G.Transformation - Expansion Drill
Repeat Drill F with student adding /pni sm6la./
,Turn left.
Instructor: hamSex yaSSr Sd lahictalvfit.
Student: Si tamSix yaSar. pne smola.
H.Transformation Drill - Affirmative to Negative.
Instructor: Cross the lights. Student: Don't
cross the lights.
avor
et
haramzorim.
ivri
et
haramzorim.
avorna
et
haramzorim.
av6r
et
haramzorim.
ivr<1
et
haramzorim.
ivri
et
haramzorim.
Si
taav6r

et
haramzorim.
al taavri et
haramzorim.
Si
taav6rna
et
haramzorim.
Si taav6r et
haramzorim.
Si taavru et
haramzorim.
Si taavri et
haramzorim.

‫את‬
‫עבור‬
.‫הרמזורים‬
‫את‬
‫עברי‬
.‫הרמזורים‬
‫את‬
‫עבורנה‬
.‫הרמזורים‬
‫את‬
‫עבור‬
.‫הרמזורים‬
‫את‬
‫עברו‬
.‫הרמזורים‬
‫את‬
‫עברי‬
.‫הרמזורים‬

I. Transformation Drill - Negative to Affirmative

Si

teda

ber

bek61.

196

BASIC COURSE

Si
tedabru
bekol. Si
tedabri
bekol. Si
tedaberna
bekol. Si
tedaber
bekol. Si
tedabri
bekol.
dabir
bek6l.
dabru
bekol.
dabri

HEBREW

beko
l.
dabe
rna
bek6
l,
dabi
r
bek6
l.
dabr
i
bek6
1.
‫תלמי‬
:‫ד‬

UNIT £

‫דבר‬
‫בקול‬
.
‫דברו‬
‫בקול‬
.
‫דברי‬
‫בקול‬
.
‫דברנ‬
‫ה‬
‫בקול‬
.
‫דבר‬
‫בקול‬

‫דברי‬

.
.‫בקול‬
:‫מורה‬

‫תדבר‬
‫אל‬
‫ אל‬.‫בקול‬
‫תדברו‬
‫ אל‬.‫בקול‬
‫תדברי‬
‫ אל‬.‫בקול‬
‫תדברנה‬
‫ אל‬.‫בקול‬
‫תדבר‬
‫ אל‬.‫בקול‬
‫תדברי‬
.‫בקול‬

Transformation Drill - Affirmative to Negative
Repeat Drill I in reverse. K. Transformation
- Expansion Drill Drill I is repeated as follows.
Instructor: daber bekol.
Student: SI tedaber !oekol. daber beSeket.

Instructor: Don't speak loudly.
Student: Speak loudly.

197

HEBREW

UNIT

BASIC
COURSE

11
L.

S
I
S
i
S
i
S
I
S
i
S
I
N.

Substitution Drill M. Expansion Drill
Don't say goodbye, Instructor: Don't say goodbye to me.
Student: Don't say goodbye to me; say ‫׳‬Be seeing you'
Si
.‫תאמר שלום‬
tomStomc
l Salom.
emo l lehitraot.
.‫ אמור ל להתראות‬.‫תאמדי לי שלום‬
‫תאמר‬
r ir i
r
i
‫י‬
‫תאמרנ‬
tomrSal6
l Salom.
imr l lehitraot.
.‫ אמרי ל להתראות‬.‫תאמר לי שלום‬
‫ה‬
i m. i
i
i
‫י‬
‫יתאמרו‬
tomr li
tomSrna
emorna 11
‫ אמורנה לי‬.‫תאמרנה לי שלום‬
‫תאמר‬
i
Salom.
.
lehitraot.
.‫להתראות‬
‫תאמרי‬
tomrtomS
l Sal6m.
imr l lehitraot.
.‫ אמרו ל להתראות‬.‫תאמר לי שלום‬
u rnai
u
i
‫י‬
‫ו‬
tomrtomr
l Salom.
imr l Iehitra6t.
.‫ אמרי ל להתראות‬.‫תאמר לי שלום‬
i u i
i
i
‫י‬
‫י‬
tomStomc
l Salom.
emo l Iehitra6t.
.‫ אמור ל להתראות‬.‫תאמר לי שלום‬
r ir i
r
i
‫י‬
tomr
i
Individual Transformation - Expansion Drill

‫אל‬

‫אל‬
‫אל‬
‫אל‬
‫אל‬
‫אל‬
‫אל‬

In this drill the student contradicts the instructor and adds a further
instruction.
Instructor: Turn left here.
Student: Don't turn here. Continue straight.
Instructor: pni kSn sm61a. Student: Si tifni kSn.
hamSix yaSSr.
lix ladoar hamerkazi. pni bapinS hariSonS yemina.
dabir anglit, bevakaSS. lexxi lemalon dSn. avor
et hahictalvtit. ivri et haramzorim. hamSixu
yaSSr Sd laSagrirut. hamSixi ledabir.
pnu bahictalvut hariSonS yemina.

.‫ פנה כאן שמאלה‬:‫מורה‬
.‫ המשך ישר‬.‫ אל תפנה כאן‬:‫תלמיד‬

‫ פני בפינה‬.‫לך לדואר המרכזי‬
,‫ דבר אנגלית‬.‫הראשונה ימינה‬
‫ עבור את‬.‫ לכו למלון דן‬.‫בבקשה‬
.‫ עברי את הרמזורים‬.‫ההצטלבות‬
‫ המשיכי‬.‫המשיכו ישר עד לשגרירות‬
.‫לדבר‬
.‫פנו בהצטלבות הראשונה ימינה‬

6.7 Contraction of /be- + ha-/ 'at the, in the'
When the preposition /be-/ is prefixed to a form with the definite article
prefix /ha-/, the two syllables are contracted to /ba-/.
hapinS hariSonS
bapinS hariSonS

'the first corner'
'at the first corner'

This contraction is similar to that of /le- -1- ha-/ to /la-/, described in
Section 4.6, and it is equally obligatory.

198

BASIC COURSE

HEBREW

UNIT £

6.8 Alternate forms /ve- ~ u-/ 'and'
In formal speech the conjunction /ve-/ has the alternate form /u-/ before
the consonants /m, v, f/ and before consonant clusters.
moSe umirvcim.
I6x usg6r et hadilet.
In informal speech the form /u-/ is heard occasionally in these cases and
in stereotyped expressions, such as /um& SlomxS/ but the form /ve-/ is far more
frequently used, with some speakers there is free alternation of these forms,
and the student should be prepared for both.
sigrti et hadilet veSvu beSiket.
sigrti et hadilet uSvu beSeket.
Since the use of /u-/ in these cases is more formal, ,correct', classical,
or what have you, the instructor may insist on the student using it, but the
student may safely ignore these strictures in informal conversation.

6.9 Loss of Final Stem Vowel in Verbs
Compare the following pairs of forms:
dabir
dabirna
Siv
Sevna

dabri
dabru
Bvi

Bvfi

taav&r
taav6rna

taavri
taavru

Note that the forms in the right-hand column have a suffix beginning with
a stressed vowel /-i, -6/ and that the final vowel of the verb stem is dropped.
Now compare the following
pairs:
hamSex
hamSix
hamSex
i
na
hamSix
u
takir
takirn
takiri
a
takiru
In the forms of the right-hand column the suffix is not stressed, and the
final vowel of the stem remains.
When a suffix beginning with a stressed vowel is affixed to a verb, the
final vowel of the verb stem is dropped.
This is a general rule in verbs and allows but a few exceptions, which will
be stated when they occur.
Wlien the dropping of this stem vowel results in a medial three-consonant
cluster, or in a non-permissible initial two-consonant cluster, then /-e-/ is
inserted for
phonological reasons.
tiftexi
/lxi/]

[for tiftS
x
targi
m lex

* /tiftxi/] targemi [for * /targmi/] lexi [for

199

*

HEBREW

UNIT

BASIC
COURSE

11

The latter pair is comparable to /§ev~ §vi/ except that /Sv-/ is
a permissible initial cluster and /lx-/ is not. However, in the gentle
imperative both verbs are more similar since there are no initial
clusters.
teSev
telex

te§v£
telxi

When an initial three-consonant cluster results /-i-/ is usually inserted
between the first' two.
sg6r
ptSx

sigri [for * /sgri/]
pitxi [for * /ptxi/]

>.10 Consonant Alternation /p ~ f/ in Related Forms Examine the following pairs of
forms:
ptax
pne
tiftax
tifne
In these pairs there is an alternation of the consonants /p/ and /f/.
These two consonants often alternate in related forms (such as stark and gentle
imperatives.) The patterns of the alternation are regular but somewhat complicated, and at this point the student should simply memorize them by drilling
the forms.

REVIEW CONVERSATIONS
A.imri li bevakaSS. 6yx ani yax&l
lehagia lemalon dcLn.

‫ איר אני יכול‬,‫ אמרי לי כבקעה‬:‫א‬
?‫להגיע למלון דן‬

B.lex kearbS rexovot, pne smola,
vetamSix yaSSr Sd lamalon.

,‫ פנה שמאלה‬,‫ לר כארבעה רחובות‬:‫ב‬
.‫ותמשיר ישר עד למלון‬

A.haim ze raxok?

?‫ האם זה רחוק‬:‫א‬

B.lo, ze karov.

.‫ זה קרוב‬.‫ לא‬:‫ב‬

200

BASIC COURSE

HEBREW

C.

daber ivrit, bevakaSS.

D.

atS medaber ivrit?

C.

ken. lamSdeti bevet hasifer.

D.

ani eyneni medaber kol kSx tov.

C.

lex lebet hasefer.

D.

leeyze bet sefer?

C.

lebit hasefer lesaf6t. kSn bapinS.

UNIT £

.‫ בבקשה‬,‫דבר עברית‬
?‫אתה מדבר עברית‬
.‫ למדתי בבית הספר‬.‫כן‬
.‫אני אינני מדבר כל כר טוב‬
.‫־‬
bun !‫לר לביו‬
?‫לאיזה בית ספר‬
.‫ כאן בפינה‬.‫לבית הספר לשפות‬

201

‫ג‬
:
‫ד‬
:
‫ג‬
:
‫ד‬
:
‫ג‬
:
‫ד‬
:
‫ג‬
:

BASIC COURSE

HEBREW

UNIT £

7.1 Wandering Through Tel Aviv (speaking to man passerby)
MR. WILLIAMS
Pardon me, sir. I
want to get
to the tourist office.
you will pardon
want
tourism
tislcix li, adoni.

ani roci lehagia
lemisrSd hatayarut.
tislSx (m.s.)
roce
(m.s.pres.)
tayarut (f)

‫אני רוצה להגיע‬
.‫למשרד התיירות‬

‫תסלח‬
‫רוצה‬
‫תייר‬
‫ות‬

,‫ אדוני‬,‫תסלח לי‬

PASSERBY
To the Government tourist
office?
governmental
lemisrSd hatayarut hamemSalti?

memSalti (m. ‫התיירות‬

‫למשרד‬
?‫הממשלתי‬

‫ממשלתי‬

MR. WILLIAMS
‫ האם זה‬.‫כן‬
?‫רחוק מכאן‬

Yes. Is it far from here?

ken. haim ze
raxok mikSn?

No, it's not far.
you are
now next to
the Mugrabi Theater,
right?
situated, found
now
next to,
alongside movie
theater

lo. ze lo raxok.
atci nimcS axSav
al ySd kolnoa
mugrabi. naxon?
nimca
(m.s.) ax §
civ al ySd
kolnoa (m)

PASSERBY

‫ זה לא‬,‫לא‬
‫ אתה נמצא‬.‫רחוק‬

MR. WILLIAMS

Yes, I
think
so.
think

kin,
ani xo§ev kix.
xo§e'v (m. s.pres.)

‫עכשיו על יד‬
.‫קולנוע מוגרבי‬
?‫נכון‬

‫נמצא‬
‫עכשי‬
‫ו על‬
‫יד‬
‫קולנ‬
‫וע‬

,‫כד‬
‫חושב‬

‫אני חושב‬
.‫כר‬

PASSERBY
What do you mean,
you think so? You
don't see that this
is the Mugrabi
Theater? it, this
say see
mS zot

omeret, atci
xo§ev kcix. atci
lo roe Seze
kolnoa mugrabi?
zot (f)
omeret (f.s.pres.) roe
(m.s.pres.)

MR. WILLIAMS
Sir,
speak a little slower.
a little,

adoni.
daber kcat
yoter
leat.
kci
t

‫זאת‬
‫מה‬
‫אתה‬
,‫אומרת‬
‫חושב כר? אתה‬
‫לא רואה שזה‬
?‫קולנוע מוגרכי‬

‫זאת‬
‫או‬
‫מרת‬
‫רואה‬
‫קצת‬

202

.‫אריני‬
‫דכר‬
‫קצת‬
‫יותר‬
.‫לאט‬

HEBREW UNIT

BASIC COURSE

7
I'm new
in

the

new
I come
from America.
come

‫חר‬
‫ש‬

country.

ani xadS§
baarec.
xadcig (m.s. )
ani bci
meamerika
.
b£ (m.s.pres.)

PASSERBY
re
new
in
the
That's
something . k- atS xadSS baSrec
? ze davar axer.
axer (m.s.)
other
az lima lo amarta 11
So why didn't
kodem?
you tell me
kz
before?
lima
then, so why
am&rta (2
you said
m.s/ kodem
before,
earlier
Oh,
you
country
else.

When before?
You didn't give me
a chance to speak.
you gave
chance, opportunity
MR. WILLIAMS
matay

kodem.

‫בא‬

?‫ אתה הדש בארץ‬,‫אה‬
.‫זה דבר אחר‬

‫אחר‬

‫אז למה לא‬
‫אמרת לי‬
?‫קודם‬

‫אז‬
‫למ‬
‫ה‬
‫אמ‬
‫רח‬
‫קו‬
‫דם‬

natata
11
hizdamnut
ledaber.
nat&ta (2
m.s.
hizdamnut (f)

‫אני חדש‬
.‫בארץ‬
‫אני בא‬
.‫מאמריקה‬

‫בחח‬
‫הזרמב‬
‫ות‬

?‫מתי קודם‬
‫לא נתת לי‬
‫הזדמנות‬
.‫לדבר‬

lo

7.2 Wandering through Tel Aviv (speaking to woman passerby)
MRS. WILLIAMS
Excuse me,
ma'am. I want to
get
to the tourist
office, want

hamemgalti?
‫ אני‬,‫ גברתי‬,‫תסלחי לי‬
‫רוצה להגיע‬
.‫למשדר התיירות‬

‫רו צה‬

To the
Government
tourist office?
tislexi li, gvirti.
ani rocS
lehagia
lemisrad hatayarut.
roca (f.s.
pres.)
PASSERBY
lemisrlid
hatayarut

203

‫למשרד התיירות‬
?‫הממשלתי‬

HEBREW

UNIT

11
Yes. Is it far from
here?

found
MRS. WILLIAMS
ken. haim ze
raxok mikan?

No , it's not far.
You are
now next to
the Mugrabi Theater,
right?
situated,

BASIC
COURSE

nimcet
(f.s.
‫ האם זה‬.‫כך‬
?‫רחוק מכאן‬

PASSERBY
lo. ze lo raxok.
at nimcet ax§av
al yad kolnoa
mugrabi. naxon?

‫נמצא‬
‫ת‬

204

.‫ זה לא רחול‬.‫לא‬
‫את נמצאת עכשיו‬
‫על יד קולנוע‬
?‫ נכון‬,‫מוגרבי‬

HEBREW UNIT

BASIC COURSE

7
MRS. WILLIAMS

‫חושב‬
‫ת‬

Y
e
t
h

‫כ‬

‫ה‬
‫א‬
‫נ‬

‫ז‬
‫א‬
‫ת‬

s
p
I
I
f
r
k
i
a
n
xoSevet
(f.s.pr
es.)

‫א‬
‫ו‬
‫מ‬
‫ר‬
‫ת‬
,
‫א‬
‫ת‬

‫רואה‬

‫ח‬
‫ו‬
‫ש‬
‫ב‬
‫ת‬

PASSERB
Y
m
k
o
ro&
(f.s.pr
es.)

‫כ‬
‫ר‬
?

MR
S.
WI
LL
IA
MS

‫א‬
‫ת‬

‫חדשה‬

‫ל‬
‫א‬

‫באה‬

‫ר‬
‫ו‬
‫א‬
‫ה‬

g
a
xadaSa
(f.s.)
a
n
bcia
(f.
s.pres.
)

‫ק‬
‫ו‬

PASSERB
Y

205

‫ש‬
‫ז‬
‫ה‬

UNIT

HEBREW

BASIC
COURSE

11
‫ג‬
‫ב‬
‫ר‬
‫ת‬
‫י‬
,

‫צ‬
‫ת‬
‫א‬
‫א‬

‫ד‬
‫ב‬
‫ר‬
‫י‬
‫ק‬

T
h
a
t
'
s

l
z
e
a

‫א‬

s
o
m
e
t
h
i
n
g
e
l
Oh, you're new in the country.a- St xadaSa baSrec'
s
e
.
S
o
w
h
y
d
i
d
n
'
t
y
o
u
t
e
l

206

‫‪HEBREW UNIT‬‬

‫‪BASIC COURSE‬‬

‫‪7‬‬
‫ה‬
‫‪,‬‬
‫א‬
‫ת‬
‫ח‬
‫ר‬
‫ש‬
‫ה‬
‫ב‬
‫א‬
‫ר‬
‫ץ‬
‫?‬
‫ז‬
‫ה‬
‫ד‬
‫ב‬
‫ר‬
‫א‬
‫ח‬
‫ר‬
‫‪.‬‬
‫אז למה‬
‫לא אמרת‬
‫לי קודם?‬

‫‪207‬‬

UNIT

HEBREW

BASIC
COURSE

11
I
A
M
S

W
h
e
n
b
e
f
o
r
e
?
Y
o
u
d
i
d
n
'
t
g
i
v
e
m
e
a
c
h
a
n
c
e
t
o
s
p
e
a
k
.

m
a
t
S
y
k
o
d
e
m
?
l
o
n
a
t
a
t
1
1
h
i
z
d
a
m
n
u
t
l
e
d
a
b
e
r
.

M
R
S
.
W
I
L
L

7.3

D

Vocab

r

ulary

i

208

?‫מתי קודם‬
‫לא נתת לי‬
‫הזדמנות‬
.‫לדבר‬

HEBREW UNIT

BASIC COURSE

7
lls

and

A.

.

Subst

tis

ituti

lax

on

11.

Drill

ani

E

lo

x

mev

c

in.
tis
lex
i
tis
lex
u
tis
lSx
na

u
s
e
m
e

(
W
o
m
e
n

,
I
d

s
t
u
d
e
n
t
s

o
n
'
t

s
h
o
u
l
d

u
n
d

s
u
b
s
t
i
t
u
t
e

e
r
s
t

209

UNIT

HEBREW

11
/ani
lo
mevin
a/.)

‫תסלח‬
,‫לי‬
‫אני לא‬
.‫מבין‬

210

BASIC
COURSE
‫תסלחו תסלחנה‬

HEBREW UNIT

BASIC COURSE

7
B.

Substitution - Agreement Drill /tislax "tislexi/ Excuse me, Moshe, I have to
run.
tisi&x li, moSe. ani muxrSx laruc.

.‫ אני מוכרח לרוץ‬.‫תסלח לי משה‬

x&na - gvirti - mcir kcispi - mirySm avigdor - adoni gveret k6hen - david

‫ מריס‬- ‫ מר כספי‬- ‫ גברתי‬- ‫חנה‬
‫ דוד‬- ‫ גברת כהן‬- ‫ ארוני‬- ‫אביגדור‬

(Women students should substitute /ani muxraxS/.) C.
Substitution - Agreement Drill /am&rti/ "1 said" ‫אמרתי‬
The instructor gives the underlined portion of the following sentences,
and the student responds with the entire sentence. The instructor may vary
the first person sentences, depending on the composition of the class, /ani
g&ra, Snu garot/.
I told Moshe that I live in Tel Aviv.

at& - &nu
- &t ani atem
- aten at& - &t

an:&rti lerroSe Seanl g&r betel
am&rnu lemoge Se&nu garim betel
am&rt lemoge ge&t g&ra betil
am&rtem lemoge geatem garim
aviv. _ am&rta lemoge geat& g&r

aviv.
aviv.
aviv.
betel
betel
aviv.
am&rten lemoge geaten garot betel
aviv.

. ‫אמרתי למשה שאני גר כתל אביב‬
. ‫אמרנו למשה שאנו גרים בתל אביב‬
.‫אמרת למשה שאנו גרים בתל אי יב״‬
. ‫אמרתם למשה שאנו גרים בתל אביב־‬
.‫־‬
‫אמרת למשה שאנו גרים בתל אביב‬
. ‫אמרתך למשה שאנו גריים בתל אביב‬

D. Substitution- Agreement Drill
I didn't give David the books.
lo natati ledavid et hasfarim.

. ‫לא נתתי לדור את הספרים‬

211

‫‪BASIC‬‬
‫‪COURSE‬‬
‫‪ -‬אתה ‪ -‬את‬

‫‪HEBREW‬‬

‫‪UNIT‬‬

‫‪11‬‬
‫אתה ‪ -‬אבו ‪ -‬את ‪ -‬אני אתם ‪ -‬אתן‬

‫‪212‬‬

HEBREW UNIT

BASIC COURSE

7
GRAMMAR NOTES
7.4 Gender and Number - Present Tense Verbs and Adjectives
Examine

the

underlined

forms

in

the

following sentences: 1.
atci medaber ivrit mama§ km6 israeli. at
medaberet ivrit mamaS km6 israelit.

2
.

.‫אתה מדבר עברית ממש כמו ישראלי‬
.‫את מדברת עברית ממש כמו ישראלית‬
.‫אני לא יודע‬
.‫אני לא יודעת‬

ani lo yodea. ani lo yod&at.

at& nimc& .‫אתה נמצא עכשיו על יד קולנוע מרגרבי‬
‫ את נמצאת עכשיו על יד קולנוע‬axg&v ai y&d koinoa mugrabi
&t nimcet ax§&v ai y&d koinoa mugrabi.‫מוגרבי‬

4.
ani roce lehagia lemisr&d hatayariit. ani roc&
lehagia lemisr&d hatayarut.

6.

‫אני רוצה להגיע למשרד‬
.‫התיירות‬

ani muxr&x
laruc. ani
muxraxci
laruc.

‫אני מוכרח‬
‫ אני‬.‫לרוץ‬
‫מוכרחה‬
.‫לרוץ‬

ani g&r beynat&im bemalon dan.
ani g&ra beynat&im bemalon dan.
.‫אני רוצה להגיע למשרד התיירות‬

h
‫ל‬
‫י‬
h

‫ז‬
a

‫כ‬
m

a
‫ו‬
‫ר‬
‫ר‬
e

‫ר‬

‫א‬

m
‫כ‬
‫א‬
‫מ‬
r
‫ה‬
‫ו‬

e
‫י‬
‫ו‬
‫ה‬
k
‫ל‬
‫ד‬

.‫אני גר בינתיים במלון דן‬
.‫אני גרה בינתיים במלון דן‬
7. eyx ani yax6l
r
k
a
z
‫י‬
‫נ‬
‫א‬
‫ד‬
‫ל‬
‫ע‬
eyx ani yexol&
a
z
i
.
‫ו‬
‫כ‬
‫י‬
‫ל‬
‫ע‬
‫י‬
‫י‬
‫ז‬
‫כ‬

lehagia
i
.
‫ך‬
‫י‬
‫ג‬
lehagia
‫ך‬
‫י‬
‫י‬
‫נ‬
‫ג‬
‫ה‬
‫ר‬
‫מ‬

ladoar
.
‫י‬
‫א‬
‫ה‬
‫ל‬
ladoar
‫ א‬.‫אני חרש בארץ‬
‫א‬
.‫אני חדשה בארץ‬
‫ל‬
‫ה‬

You will note here that, in contrast to the past tense
verb forms, there is no pronoun suffix to the verb itself.
Instead the independent form of the pronoun is used.
Further, the verb form indicates the gender of the subject
with the first person, also. The pattern is similar to the
noun-adjective sentence pattern:

.‫אנו גרים בחיפה‬
.‫אנו גרות בחיפה‬

ani xad&§ ba&rec. ani xada§& ba&rec.
The similarity extends to the plurals.
&nu garim bex&yfa. &nu garot
bex&yfa.
The present tense of verbs has just these four forms masculine singular and plural and feminine singular and
plural - and person is indicated by an independent subject.

213

UNIT

HEBREW

11
Plurals of present tense verb forms and of adjectives are
all alike in that the masculine plural has the suffix /-im/
and the feminine plural has the suffix /‫־‬
ot/.
[Note: Some masculine plural nouns end in /-ot/ and some
feminine plural nouns in /-im/. The present tense verbs
and adjectives for these plurals, however, end in /-im/
and /-6t/ respectively. ]
The feminine singular forms are of two major types those that have a suffix ending in /-t/ and those that
have the suffix /-a/. The forms which have thus far c ■;?
virred are:

214

BASIC
COURSE

BASIC COURSE

HEBREW

UNIT £

these two /-a/ feminines major types
muxrax&
in turn.
/-t/ feminines drilled
mevina
medabiret
yexol& g&ra
omiret
7.5 /t/ - Suffix
Feminine
Forms *
riSoni b&a
xoSivet
xadag&
mitkonenet
a) Present Tense of
Verbs
with Stem
smex&
yod&at
Pattern /-eC/
mekav€ roc&
mocit
Examine the verb
forms in
the following
ro& yaf&
nimcit
sentences: at& medabir
ivrit. &t
medaberet
amerik&it
ivrit. In this pattern
the
masculine
singular ends in /-eC/. The feminine is the same
as the
masculine but with an added unstressed /-et/. In
the plurals
the final stem vowel /-e-/ is dropped, unless a
threeconsonant cluster would result or two similar consonants would be juxtaposed,
atim medabrim ivrit. atin medabrot ivrit.
The variations of
will be described and

atim mitkonenim lagur ber&mat g&n.
aten mitkonenot lagur ber&mat g&n.
The adjective /axer/ is also of this pattern. The forms are: m.s. /axer/
m.pl. /axerim/
f.s. /axeret/
f.pl. /axer6t/
There are some other minor variations of this pattern in the plurals, and
these will be described as they occur in the text.
The following drills are substitution-agreement drills. The last
substitution cue given in each drill will result in the model sentence. Each
drill should be done a number of times in continuous succession until correct
entire sentences are given without hesitation as responses.
Substitutions for the first person may be masculine or feminine,
depending on the class situation.
A. You speak Hebrew very well.
at& medaber tov meod ivrit.
at - hem - m&r Williams - x&na aten hu - atem - &nu - at&

. ‫אתה מדבר טוב מאד עברית‬

‫ הוא‬- ‫ חנה אתן‬- ‫ מר וויליאמס‬- ‫ הס‬- ‫את‬
‫ אתה‬- ‫ אנו‬- ‫ אתם‬-

215

HEBREW

UNIT

BASIC
COURSE

11

kcispi - hen - aten - moSe

B. Moshe says that it's very late.

.‫משיה אומר שככר מאוחר מאר‬

‫ הם‬- ‫ מרים‬- ‫ אבר‬- ‫ הוא‬- ‫אני‬
‫ משה‬- ‫ אתן‬- ‫ הן‬- ‫גברת כספי‬

moSe omer Sekv&r meux&r meod.
ani - hu - anu - mirySm - hem gveret
C. What do you think - is it far from

here?

mli atci xoSev - z6 rax6k mik&n?

?‫ זה רחוק מכאן‬- ‫מה אתה חושב‬

‫ הוא‬- ‫ אתן הם‬- ‫ את‬- ‫ אתם‬- ‫הלא‬
‫ אתה‬- ‫ הן‬-

hi - atem - St - aten
hem - hu - hen - at&
D. I plan to live in Savyon.

hen - hu - atara - ani

.‫אני מתכונן לגור בסביון‬

ani mitkonen lagur besavy6n.

‫ היא‬- ‫ אשתי ואני‬- ‫ אביגדור‬- ‫הם‬
‫ אני‬- ‫ עטרה‬- ‫ הוא‬- ‫ הן‬- ‫אנו‬

hem - avigdor - iSti veani - hi Snu -

E.In this drill some noun plurals are introduced. The instructor should
correct the student by giving the correct noun-adjective sequence rather
than by discussing gender per se.
He sees something else.
hu ro6 davfir axer.

.‫הוא רואה דבר אחר‬

oni& - nam&l - sfarim - b&it
‫ בית‬- ‫ ספרים‬- ‫ נמל‬- ‫אוניה‬
melonot - oniot - binyan - delet
‫ דלת‬- ‫ בנין‬- ‫ אוניות‬- ‫מלונות‬
Sagrirut - misradim - migpaxot - dav&r ‫ דבר‬- ‫ משפחות‬- ‫ משרדים‬- ‫שגרירות‬
b) Present Tense of Verbs with Stem Pattern /-ea(x)/
This is the pattern of /yodea/ 'know'. The four forms are:
m.s. yodea
f.s. yod&at
‫יודע יודעת‬
m.pl. yod'im
f.pl. yod'ot
‫יודעים יודעות‬
Note that in the plurals an internal open juncture functions as a third
root consonant. Verbs in which the masculine singular ends in /-eax/ have a
similar pattern. The four forms have the following endings: m.s. -eax f.s.
-&xat
m.pl. -xim
f.pl. -xot
[There is a close correspondence with written Hebrew in that all such words
are spelled with y or ‫ ח‬and not with ‫ א‬or ‫ כ‬. ]
F.He knows I'm new in the country.
hu yodea Sean! xad&s ba&rec.

.‫הוא יורע שאני חרש בארץ‬

at& - igto - hen - gveret kohen
aten - at - david - atem - hu

‫ גברת כהן‬- ‫ הן‬- ‫ אשתו‬- ‫אתה‬
‫ הוא‬- ‫ אתם‬- ‫ דוד‬- ‫ את‬- ‫אתן‬

216

UNIT 7

HEBREW

BASIC COURSE

I think he knows how to speak Hebrew.
ani xoSev gehu yodea 1edab<§r ivrit.

. ‫אני חושב שהרא יודע לדבר עברית‬

gehi - geatS - gehem - geigtexS
‫ שאשתך‬- ‫ שהם‬- ‫ שאתה‬- ‫שהיא‬
gebaalex - Sehen - gedov vemoge - gehu ‫ שהוא‬- ‫ שדב ומשה‬- ‫ שהן‬- ‫שבעלך‬
c)Present Tense Pattern /moce "mocet/
This pattern is characterized by the singular ending in /—e e
‫־‬t/ and by an
internal open juncture functioning as a third root consonant in the plural /-,im ~
-1ot/. The full present of /moci/ is: m.s. mocem.pl. moc'im
f.s. mocet
f.pl. moc'ot
In the plurals this pattern is similar to that of /yod1im/ in Section b. The
student should be sure to practice the singulars of any such plural that he may
learn in order not to confuse the two types. There are pairs of verbs whose only
distinction is in this respect. The writing system reflects this difference in that
verbs of the /moce ~ mocet/ pattern are spelled with ‫ א‬and not with ‫ ע‬- the reverse
of verbs like /yodea/.
H.I like the country.

haSrec mocet xen beeynay .
‫בעיני‬

.‫הארץ מוצאת חך‬

habSit - hagagrirut - hasfarim - haaviron ‫האויוו‬-‫הספרים‬-‫השגרירות‬-‫הב ית‬
‫ ן‬haoniot - him - aten - harexovot - haarec -‫הרחוב ות‬-‫אתן‬-‫הם‬-‫הא ב י ו ת‬
‫הארץ‬
I.He finds that the house is very nice.

hu moce gehabSit yafe meod .
‫מאך‬
ani - mar zahSvi - igtexS - hem
aten - Snu - igto veiSti - hu

. ‫היא מוצא שהבית יפה‬
‫ הם‬- ‫ אשתך‬- ‫ מר דהבי‬- ‫אבי‬
‫ הוא‬- ‫ אשתו ואשתי‬- ‫ אנו‬- ‫אתן‬

d)Present Tense Pattern /nimca ~ nimcet/
This pattern is a minor variation of a pattern which will be discussed later.
The plural suffixes are ad .!ed to the masculine singular, and the feminine singular
has the suffix /-t/ with the vowel change. The student should simply learn this
particular verb at this time. The full present is: m.s. nimcS
f.s. nimcet
m.pl. nimcaim
f.pl. nimcaot
Some speakers use the pronunciation /nimceim, nimceot/ in the plural.
This particular pattern is similar to that of /moce/ in that such verbs are
always spelled with ‫ א‬. In fact, /moce/ and /nimcS/ are different conjugations of
the same verb root - /moce/ 'finds', /nimca/ 'is found' - but ‫״‬lis point will be
discussed in detail further on.

j. The Embassy is located in Tel Aviv.

6‫כ‬

hasagrirut nimcet betel

UNIT 7

HEBREW

BASIC COURSE

. ‫השגרירות נמצאת בתל אביב‬
aviv.
‫ אשתו‬- ‫ מר וויליאמס‬- ‫הבית שלי‬
habait sell - mar Williams - iSto vehu ‫ והוא‬hen
‫ חבה‬- ‫ אשתך־‬- ‫ אשתו‬- ‫ כולם‬- ‫הן‬
- kulam - isto - iStexa -xana velea ‫ילאה‬
‫השגרירות‬
hasagrirut
e. Derived Adjectives with /-i/

Adjectives are often derived from other parts of speed, by the addition of
/-i/, in certain cases with other changes in the form. Examples from our text so far
are:
/memSalti/ derived from /memSalS/ ,government'
/amerik&i/ derived from /amerika/ ‫׳‬America'
/merkazi/ derived from /merkaz/ 'center'
The endings for these adjectives are of the following pattern:
m.s. /-1/
f.s. /-it/
m.pl. /-iim/
f.pl. /-i6t/
In some adjectives the stress is on
amerik&it/.

a non final syllable as in /amerik&i,

The above pattern occurs in derived
nouns, which have similar patterns.

adjectives.

For example:
m.s. yisraeli
m.pl. yisraelim

There

are

also

derived

f.s. yisraelit
f.pl. yisraeliot

Note that a distinction is made in the following case:
noun: /yisraelim/ 1Israelis'
adjective: /avironim yisraeliim/ ‫׳‬Israeli airplanes' K. Where is the Government
office? heyx&n hamisrad hamemSalti.

?‫היכן המעדר הממשלתי‬.
habiny&n - hamisradim - hayoec
habinyanim - hayoacim - hamisr&d

‫ היועץ‬- ‫ המשרדים‬- ‫הכני ן‬
‫ המשרד‬- ‫ היועצים‬- ‫הב נינים‬

I,. Where is the American Embassy?
eyfo haSagrirut haamerikait.

‫ה‬
‫ת‬
‫ן‬

x,

‫פ‬
‫ו‬
‫ק‬
‫ן‬

•u ■‫■ ׳‬u n,■ ‫י‬
‫ר‬
‫י‬
‫י‬

-

‫א‬
‫י‬
‫■א‬

‫ר‬
^

hayoec - haonia - habinyanim
haoniot - hakolnoa - haSagrirut

REVIEW CONVERSATIONS

‫ג‬
‫ה‬

?
‫ש‬

‫ה‬

- I

‫ הבכינים‬- ‫ האוניה‬- ‫היועץ‬
‫ השגרירות‬- ‫ הקולנוע‬- ‫האוניות‬

A: Salom moSe. lama ata rac.

A: leeyze misrad tayarut.

B: Salom miryam. ani muxrax

Bs lemisrad hatayarut

hamemSalti.

laruc lemisrad hatayarut.

6‫כ‬

‫‪BASIC COURSE‬‬

‫‪HEBREW‬‬

‫א‪ .‬לאיזה משרד תיירות?‬

‫א‪ .‬שלום משה‪ .‬למה אתה רץ?‬

‫ב‪ .‬למשרד התיירות הממשלתי‪.‬‬

‫ב‪ .‬שלום מרים‪ .‬אני מוכרח לרוץ‬
‫למשרד התיירות‪.‬‬

‫כ‪6‬‬

‫‪UNIT 7‬‬

UNIT 7

HEBREW

BASIC COURSE

6‫כ‬

UNIT 7

C:

BASIC COURSE

HEBREW

ani nimca axSav
mugrabi. naxon?

al

yad

‫ אני נמצא עכשיו על יד קולנוע‬.‫ג‬
?‫ נכון‬.‫מוגרכי‬

kolnoa

‫ ואתה רוצה להגיע‬.‫ נכון‬.‫ כן‬.‫ד‬
?‫לשפת הים‬

D: ken. naxon. veata roce lehagia
lisfat hayam?

?‫ האם זה רחוק מכאן‬.‫ כן‬.‫ג‬

C: ken. haim ze raxok mikan?

‫ לך ישר כרחוב‬.‫זה לא רחוק‬.‫ לא‬.‫ר‬
.‫אלנכי עד לשפת הים‬

D: lo. ze lo r a x o k l e x ^ a S a r
berexov alenbi ad lesfat hayam.

E:

.‫ דבר קצת יותר לאט‬,‫ ארוני‬.‫ה‬

adoni. daber kcat yoter leat.

?‫ אתה לא מבין עברית‬.‫ו‬
F: ata lo mevin ivrit?

.‫ אני חדש בארץ‬.‫ קצת‬.‫ה‬

E: kcat. ani xadaS baarec.

.‫ אתה חרש בארץ? זה דבר אחר‬.‫ו‬

F: ata xadaS baarec? ze davar axer.

.‫ אני בא מאמריקה‬.‫ה‬

E: ani ba meamerika.
5.1 Wandering through Tel Aviv (cont'd.)
PASSERBY
All right.
So you say
you want to get
to the tourist office,
right?

Yes, that's right.

Listen.
Are you in a hurry?
listen, hear hurry
(verb)

cities

If so, go straight on
Allenby Road towards
the seashore, if
direction
shore, language,
lip sea
seashore

In this direction?

Yes. You'll pass the
Brooklyn Bar.
Not really. I want to
walk around and see the
city.
to stroll, hike
to see
city

The what?
nd t6v. &z
am&rta

6‫כ‬

SeatS
roci
lehagia
lemisr&d
hatayarut.
naxon?
MR. WILLIAMS
kin. nax6n.
PASSERBY
Sm&.
atfi memahir?
Smfi
(m.s.imv.)
memahir
(m.s.pres.)
MR. WILLIAMS
16
kol
k&x.
ani
roci
letay

UNIT 7

HEBREW

BASIC COURSE
?‫בכיוון הזה‬

el velir'ot et
hair, letayil
lir'ot ir (f)
arim (f.pi.)

‫ תעבור את ברו קלי ן‬.‫כן‬
.‫בר‬

PASSERBY
im k&x, lix yaS&r
berexov filenbi lekivun
sffit hayfim. im
kivfin (m) saffi (f) y&m
(m) sffit yfim

?‫את מה‬

MR. WILLIAMS
bakivun hazi?
PASSERBY
kin. taavor et
bruklin bfir.
MR. WILLIAMS
et m&?

‫למשרד‬

‫ אז אמרת‬.‫נו טוב‬
‫להגיע‬
‫רוצה‬
‫שאתה‬
?‫ נכון‬,‫התיירות‬

.‫ נכון‬.‫כל‬

‫שמע ממהר‬

.‫שמע‬
?‫אתה ממהר‬

.‫לא כל כך‬
‫אני רוצה לטייל ולראות את‬
.‫העיר‬

‫לראות‬

‫לטי יל‬
‫עיר ערים‬

‫ לר ישר ברחוב אלנבי‬,‫אם כר‬
.‫לכיוון שפת הים‬

‫אם‬
‫כיוון שפה ים‬
‫שפת ים‬

6‫כ‬

UNIT 7

HEBREW

BASIC COURSE

The Brooklyn Bar. Do you know
where the Brooklyn Bar is?
et bruklin bar. atci yodea
No, I don't know. Haven't I told you that
I'm
new
in
the
country,
(interjection)

iyfo
bar?

PASSERBY Sebruklin

16. ani lo yodia.
hariy am&rti lexa
Seanl xad&S ba&rec.
hariy

MR. WILLIAMS

‫ אתה‬.‫את ברוקלי ן בר‬
‫יודע‬
‫>יפה שבר ו קלי ן‬,
?‫בר‬
.‫ אני לא יודע‬.‫לא‬
‫הרי אמרתי לך‬
.‫שאני חדש בארץ‬

‫הר‬
‫י‬

5.2 Wandering through Tel Aviv (cont'd.)

All right.

The what?
PASSERBY

So you say
you want to get
to the tourist office,
right?

nfi t6v. &z
am&rt
Se&t roc& lehagia
lemisr&d hatayarut.
nax6n?

Yes, that's right.

MRS. WILLIAMS
kin. nax6n.

Listen.
Are you in a hurry?

Not really. I want to walk
around and see the city.

If so,
go straight on Allenby Road
towards the seashore.

In this direction?

PASSERBY
Sim'i.
&t memahiret?
MRS. WILLIAMS
16 kol k&x. ani
roc& letayel
velir'ot et hair.
PASSERBY
im k&x, lexi yaS&r
berexov &lenbi
lekivun sf&t hay&m.
MRS. WILLIAMS
bakivun haze?

Yes. You'll pass the
Brooklyn Bar.

PASSERBY
kin. taavri et
bruklin b&r.

6‫כ‬

MRS. WILLIAMS
et m&?

‫‪BASIC COURSE‬‬

‫‪UNIT 7‬‬

‫‪HEBREW‬‬

‫נו טוב‪ .‬אז אמרת‬
‫להגיע‬
‫רוצה‬
‫שאת‬
‫התיירות‪ ,‬נכון?‬

‫למשרד‬

‫כן‪ .‬נכון‪.‬‬

‫שמעי‪ .‬את ממהרת?‬

‫לא כל כר‪ .‬אני רוצה לטייל‬
‫ולראות את העיר‪.‬‬

‫אם כר‪ ,‬לכי ישר ברחוב אלנבי‬
‫לכיוון שפת הים‪.‬‬

‫בכיוון הזה?‬

‫כן‪ .‬תעברי את ברו קלי ן בר‪.‬‬

‫את מה?‬

‫כ‪6‬‬

UNIT 7

HEBREW

BASIC COURSE

The Brooklyn Bar. Do you
know
where the Brooklyn Bar is?
No, I don't know.
Haven't I told you
that I'm new in the country?
MRS. WILLIAMS

PASSERBY

‫ את‬.‫את ברוקלי ן בר‬
‫יודעת‬
?‫איפה שברוקלין בר‬

et bruklin bSr. St
yodSat
iyfo Sebruklin bSr?
lo. ani lo yodSat.
hariy amSrti lSx
Seani xadaSS baSrec,

.‫ אני לא יודעת‬.‫לא‬
‫הרי אמרתי לך שאני‬
.‫חרשה בארץ‬

8.3 Vocabulary Drill
Present tense plurals of verbs in which the middle root consonant is /h/ such
as /memahir/ vary slightly from the pattern described in Section 7.5a. The vowel /e/
is replaced by /a/ instead of being dropped. The present tense forms of /memahir/
are:
m.s. memahir
m.pl. memaharim
f.s. memahiret
f.pl. memaharot

In normal speech intervocalic /-h-/ is often replaced by a smooth
transition between the vowels when the stress does not immediately follow the
/h/. Thus, one frequently hears /memaarim/ and /memaarot/.
A. Substitution - Agreement Drill
I'm hurrying to the movies.
ani memahir lakoinoa.
hi - mSr k6hen - mir kohen veiSto

hin - gviret Williams - atim - ani

6‫כ‬

.‫אני ממהר לקולנוע‬

‫ מר כהן ואשתו‬- ‫ מר כהן‬- ‫היא‬
‫ אני‬- ‫ אתם‬- ‫גבי וויליאמם‬. - ‫הן‬

UNIT 7

HEBREW

BASIC COURSE

GRAMMAR NOTES
8. 4 &-Suffix Feminine Forms

a. Present Tense of /l&med hiy/ Verbs
A frequent pattern is illustrated by the following:
ani roci lehagia lemisr&d hatayarut.

ani roca lehagia lemisrSd hatayariat.
In the plurals the suffixes /-im/ and /-ot/ are substituted.
hem roc1m lehagia lemisr&d hatayarut.
hen rocot lehagia lemisr&d hatayarut.
This pattern occurs in a number of adjectives such as /yafi ~ yaf&/.
[in traditional Hebrew grammars, which deal mainly with the written language,
verbs are classified according to the letters which comprise the "roots". Verbs of
the pattern described in this section are called "/l&med hey/" verbs since the third
letter of the root in the writing system is ‫ ה‬/hiy/. This designation may remain
abstruse for the time being until the student learns to read, but there is little to
be gained by coining a new term for these verbs. All /l&med hey/ verbs exhibit
certain similarities regardless of the conjugation or consonants of the root. With
the exception of one conjugation, this is true of the present tense. The exception
will be described later on.]
The following drills are substitutionagreement drills and should be done as the
drills in the previous unit.
A. He wants to get to the Eden Theater.
hu roce lehagia lekolnoa eden.

hi - Snu - &t - hen - dov atem - s&ra - ani
- hu

.‫הוא רוצה להגיע לקולנוע ערן‬

‫ דב‬- ‫ הן‬- ‫ «ת‬- ‫ אבו‬- ‫היא‬
‫ הוא‬- ‫ אבי‬- ‫ שרה‬- ‫אתם‬

B.He hopes to speak Hebrew in Israel.
hu mekave ledaber ivrit beisrael.

. ‫י־ר א בדויד לרבי עברית בישראל‬

ani - m&r Williams - gveret Williams ‫ גבי וויליאמס‬- ‫ מר רויליאמס‬- ‫אני‬
iSti veani - hen - &t - anu - hu
‫הוא‬- ‫ אנך‬- ‫ את‬- ‫ הן‬- ‫אשתי ואני‬
C.He sees the office.
hu roe et hamisr&d.

.‫הוא רואה או! רמשרר‬

hem - at&ra - ani - x&na velea

6‫כ‬

‫ חנה ולאה‬- ‫ אני‬- ‫ עטרה‬- ‫הם‬

UNIT 7

HEBREW

BASIC COURSE

Snu - hi - hayoec veiSto - hu

6‫כ‬

‫ הוא‬- ‫ היועץ ואשתו‬- ‫ היא‬- ‫אנו‬

UNIT 7

BASIC COURSE

HEBREW

D. I heard that the house is very nice.
gamfiti §ehabait yafe meod.
Sehafirec - gemiryfim - Sehamisradim
gehaoniot - gehanamfil - gehasfarim
Sesara veatara - Seze - Sehabait

.‫שמעתי שהכית יפה מאד‬
‫ שהמשרדים‬- ‫ שמרים‬- ‫שהארץ‬
‫ שהספרים‬- ‫שהאנייה — שהנמל‬
‫ שהבית‬- ‫ שזה‬- ‫ששרה ועטרה‬

b. Common Adjective Pattern
The pattern illustrated in the following pairs of sentences is very
frequent in adjectives and occurs in certain conjugations of verbs.
ani xadfig bafirec. (man speaking) ani xadagfi bafirec. (woman
speaking)
ani muxrax laruc. (man speaking) ani muxraxfi laruc. (woman speaking)
In the plurals the suffixes /-im/ and /-ot/ are substituted where the
feminine singular has /-a/.
finu muxraxim laruc. finu muxraxot laruc.
When the masculine singular is a monosyllabic verb then the stress is on
the first syllable in the feminine singular.
ani gara bemalon dan. ani bfia meamerika.
When the masculine singular form has the consonant-vowel pattern /cactfc/
e.g. /xadig, gadol, yagfir/, then the pattern of the feminine and plurals is
phonologically a bit more complicated.
The /-a-/ of the masculine singular is dropped when the suffixes for the
feminine and plurals are added.
m.s. gadol
f.s. gdolci
m.pl. gdolim
f.pl. gdolot

karov
krova
krovim
krovot

If a phonologically impossible cluster would result from dropping the
/-a-/, then the vowel /e/ occurs between the first two consonants in the
pattern /ceCVCa/. Bear in mind that there are many clusters which are quite
possible in Hebrew, but which the student will be tempted to break up by
inserting a vowel as in /gdola/ above.
raxok

m.s
.

yaSar

f.pl. rexokot

f.s. rexoka
yeSara
m.pl. rexokim yeSarim
yeSarot

6‫כ‬

UNIT 7

HEBREW

BASIC COURSE

If the first consonant is /x/, /'/, or /h/, then the vowel /a/ is
inserted to break up the resulting cluster. The net effect is that the
feminine and plural suffixes are added without change.
xadiSa
xadfS
m.s. xadaS
xadiS^m
f.s.
xadaSa
xadiSot
m.pl. xadaS^m
f.pl. xadaSot
The consonants /h/ and /'/ are often dropped between vowels. Vowels which
break up clusters containing these consonants are retained even when the
consonants are dropped. In this text the transcription usually reflects the
informal spoken pronunciation, especially when /,/is elided.
f.s.
m.pl
.‫אני בא לראות את מר זהבי‬
m.s. naim (for /na' 1m/)
.
f.pl
‫הם‬- ‫ גבי כרמי‬- ‫ היא‬- ‫אנו‬
.
E.He has to live near the office.
‫ אבי‬- ‫ הן‬- ‫ אביגדור‬- ‫אתן‬
hu muxrcix lagur karov lamisr&d .
&t - finu - hayoec - him atin gviret k6hen - ani - hu

‫אני‬
‫הוא‬-

F.Moshe lives on Allenby Road.
mo§4 g&r berexov &lenbi.
hem - ani - at&ra - Snu
david veiSt6 - hen - moSe
G.1'm coming to see Mr. Zahavi.
ani b& lir'6t et m&r zah&vi.
&nu - hi - gveret k&rmi - hem
aten - avigdor - hen - ani
H.The Lydda airport is new and beautiful.
nemal hateuffi lud xad&5 veyafi.
naima (for /ne'ima/) ne imxm (for /ne
‫י‬imim/) neimot (for /ne'imot/)
.‫הוא מוברח לגרר קרוב למשרד‬

‫ הם‬- ‫ היועץ‬- ‫ אנו‬- ‫את‬
‫גבי כהן‬.- ‫אתן‬

.‫משה גר כרחוב אלנבי‬

‫ משה‬- ‫ הן‬- ‫ אנו דוד ואשתו‬- ‫עטרה‬- ‫ אבי‬- ‫הם‬

6‫כ‬

UNIT 7

HEBREW

BASIC COURSE
.‫נמל התעופה לוד חדש ויפה‬

haavironim - ha§agrir<it - nem&l hateuf&

.‫האוניות רחוקות מאד מהנמל‬

The tourist office is very large.
misr&d hatayarut gadol meod.
malon d&n - haoniot - hakolnoa haavironim ha§agrirtit - misrad hatayarut
The ships are very far from the port.
haoniot rexok6t meod mehanam&l.

.‫משרד התיירות גדול מאד‬

- ‫ הקולנוע האווירונים‬- ‫ האוניות‬- ‫מלון דן‬
‫השגרירות משרד התיירות‬

mal6n d&n - haoniot - kolnoa mugrabi ‫ קולנוע מוגרבי‬- ‫ האוניות‬- ‫מלון דן‬
‫ ^ האןוירןנים _ ךשגרירות‬,
‫נמל התעועה‬
I.

6‫כ‬

UNIT 7

HEBREW

BASIC COURSE

6‫כ‬

UNIT 7

HEBREW

BASIC COURSE

ha§agrirut - habatim -misrad hatayarut
haavironim - malon d&n - haoniot

6‫כ‬

_

‫משרד התיירןת‬

‫הבתים‬

_

‫רירות‬1 ‫הש‬

- ‫ מלון דן‬- ‫האווירונים‬
‫האוניות‬

BASIC COURSE

K.

HEBREW

UNIT £

The plane is very close to the port.
haaviron karov meod lanam&l.

,‫האווירון קרוב מאד לנמל‬

habatim - haoniot - misr&d hatayarut
malon d&n - kolnoa mugrabi - haavir6n

‫ משרד התיירות‬- ‫ האוניות‬- ‫הבתים‬
‫גרבי‬.‫ קולנוע מו‬- ‫מלון דן‬
‫האווירון‬

Moshe's family is very pleasant.

.‫המשפחה של משה נעימה מאד‬
hami§pax& §el moSe neim& meod.
i§tex& - at& - hem - aten - atem

M.

gveret zah&vi - m&r kohen - hamiSpax& Sel mo§e

‫ אתם‬- ‫ אתן‬- ‫ הם‬- ‫ אתה‬- ‫אשתך‬
‫ מר כהן המשפחה של‬- ‫נ' זהבי‬1
‫משה‬

Mr. Williams is honest and good. m&r Williams yag&r
vet6v.

&nu

hen - hu - at&ra -

hu gviret karmi &nu - hi

‫ עטרה‬- ‫ הוא‬- ‫הן‬
‫ אנו‬- ‫ אתה ורוד‬- ‫משה‬
‫מר וויליאמס‬

moSe - at& vedavid m&r Williams
N. You can't see the

at
&

‫אתה לא יכול‬
‫לראות את‬
.‫האוניה‬

ship.
at& 16 yax61 lir'6t

- ‫ אני‬- ‫ הן‬- ‫אתם‬
‫הוא‬
- ‫ אנו‬- ‫כ' כרמי‬1
‫ אתה‬- ‫היא‬

et haoni&.
atim - hen - ani c. Adjectives ending in

AW

A variation of the above patterns is that
of /samiax/ 'happy'. In this adjective pattern the
masculine singular ends in /-tfax/.
m.s.

f.s. smex& m.pl. smexim f.pl. smex6t
[There is a close correspondence with written Hebrew in that all
such

233

.‫מר וויליאמס ישר וטוב‬

HEBREW

UNIT

BASIC
COURSE

11
i
§
t
o

words are spelled with ‫ ח‬, and not with
. ‫כ‬

0.

-

I'm very happy to

a
n
i
Compare Section
7.5b. ]

see Mr. Carmi.
ani sameax meod
lir'6t et m&r
k&rmi.

‫אני שמח מאד לראות‬
.‫את מר כרמי‬

&nu - hi

- atem
- s&ra

‫ אתם‬- ‫ היא‬- ‫אנו‬
‫ שרה ולאה כולם‬- ‫ אשתו‬- ‫ בעלה‬‫אני‬

velia
kul&m baal& -

234

UNIT 8

_________
HEBREW

REVIEW
A:

CONVERSATIONS
e
a
n
f

a
m
a
r
t

r
o
c
a

S
e
a
t

l
e
h
a
g
i
a

r
o
c
a
l
e
h
a
g
f
a

l
e
m
i
s
r
a
d

l
e
m
a
l
o
n

h
a
t
a
y
a
r
u
t
.

d
a
n
.

A:

n
a
x
o
n
?
B:

BASIC
COURSE

s
l
i
x
S
.

l
o
.

1
6

a
m
a
r
t
i

S
a
m
S

S

235

HEBREW

UNIT

BASIC
COURSE

11
t
i

o

o
t
&
x
.

k
o
l

k

C:

a
S

x

i

.

m
'

v

f

e

.

a
t

a

a

t

?
Cs

m
e

g

m

a

a

m

h
e

a

r

n

e

i

t
l

?

o

D:

l

m

236

‫‪BASIC‬‬
‫‪COURSE‬‬

‫_________‬
‫‪HEBREW‬‬

‫ת‬

‫‪e‬‬
‫‪m‬‬
‫‪a‬‬
‫‪h‬‬
‫‪e‬‬
‫‪r‬‬
‫‪.‬‬
‫א‪:‬‬

‫א‬
‫מ‬
‫ר‬
‫ת‬
‫ש‬
‫א‬
‫ת‬
‫ר‬
‫ו‬
‫צ‬
‫ה‬
‫ל‬
‫ה‬
‫ג‬
‫י‬
‫ע‬
‫ל‬
‫מ‬
‫ל‬
‫ו‬
‫ן‬
‫ר‬
‫ן‬
‫‪,‬‬
‫נ‬
‫כ‬
‫ו‬
‫ן‬
‫?‬

‫כ‪:‬‬

‫ל‬
‫א‬
‫‪.‬‬
‫א‬
‫מ‬
‫ר‬

‫‪237‬‬

‫‪UNIT 8‬‬

HEBREW

UNIT

BASIC
COURSE

11
‫ס‬
‫ל‬

‫י‬
‫ש‬
‫א‬
‫נ‬
‫י‬

‫ את‬,‫ שמעי‬:‫ג‬

‫ר‬
‫ו‬
‫צ‬
‫ה‬

:‫ר‬

?‫ממהרת‬

.‫כך‬

‫כל‬

‫לא‬

‫ גם‬:‫ואתה? ג‬
‫לא‬

‫ל‬
‫ה‬
‫ג‬
‫י‬
‫ע‬

‫אני‬
.‫ממהר‬

‫ל‬
‫מ‬
‫ש‬
‫ר‬
‫ד‬
‫ה‬
‫ת‬
‫י‬
‫י‬
‫ר‬
‫ו‬
‫ת‬
.
:‫א‬

E: at roca

Sam tova

glfda?

meod.

F: ken.

E: ken,

eyfo

ani

bruklin

yodea.

bar?
ata

E: berexov

G:

alenbi

yodea

bekivun

eyfo

sfat

Sebruklin

hayam.

bar?

F: haglida

H:

238

lo. ani

UNIT 8

BASIC
COURSE

_________
HEBREW
lo
yodea.
G:

ata lo

haSagriru
t?
L: lo, ani

tel avivi?

lo yodea.

lo. ani

ani xadaS

H:

xadaS

betel

baarec.

aviv.
K: tov. az

I: ata roce

tamSix

lalexet

yaSar

lemisrad

barexov

hatayarut?

haze.

J:

ken.

lemisrad

L: toda
raba.

hatayarut

‫ את‬:‫ה‬

hamemSalti

‫רוצה‬

.

?‫גלידה‬

I: im kax,

.‫ כן‬:‫ו‬

lex yaSar

‫איפה‬

birxov

‫ברוקלין‬

alenbi.
J:

?‫בר‬

rexov

‫ ברחוב‬:‫ה‬

alenbi hu

‫אלנבי‬

bakivun

‫בכיוון‬

haze?

.‫שפת הים‬

I: ken.

‫ הגלידה‬:‫ו‬
‫שם טובה‬

Ks ata
yodea eyfo

.‫מאוד‬
‫ אני‬,‫ כן‬:‫ה‬

nimcet

.‫יודע‬

239

‫‪HEBREW‬‬

‫‪BASIC‬‬
‫‪COURSE‬‬

‫‪UNIT‬‬

‫‪11‬‬
‫ח‬

‫ז‪:‬‬

‫‪:‬‬

‫את‬

‫ל‬

‫ה‬

‫א‬

‫יו‬

‫‪.‬‬

‫דע‬

‫א‬

‫אי‬

‫נ‬

‫פה‬

‫י‬

‫שכ‬

‫ח‬

‫רו‬

‫ר‬

‫קל‬

‫ש‬

‫ין‬

‫ב‬

‫בר‬

‫א‬

‫?‬

‫ר‬

‫ח‪:‬‬

‫ץ‬

‫לא‬

‫‪.‬‬

‫‪.‬‬
‫אנ‬

‫ט‬

‫י‬

‫‪:‬‬

‫לא‬

‫א‬

‫יו‬

‫ת‬

‫דע‬

‫ה‬

‫‪.‬‬

‫ר‬

‫ז‪:‬‬

‫ו‬

‫את‬

‫צ‬

‫ה‬

‫ה‬

‫לא‬

‫ל‬

‫תל‬

‫ל‬

‫אב‬

‫כ‬

‫יב‬

‫ת‬

‫י?‬

‫‪240‬‬

‫‪BASIC‬‬
‫‪COURSE‬‬

‫_________‬
‫‪HEBREW‬‬
‫ב‬

‫למ‬

‫א‬

‫שר‬

‫ל‬

‫ד‬

‫נ‬

‫הת‬

‫ב‬

‫יי‬

‫י‬

‫רו‬

‫‪.‬‬

‫ת?‬

‫י‬

‫י‪:‬‬

‫‪:‬‬

‫כן‬

‫ר‬

‫‪.‬‬

‫ח‬

‫למ‬

‫ו‬

‫שר‬

‫ב‬

‫ד‬

‫א‬

‫הת‬

‫ל‬

‫יי‬

‫נ‬

‫רו‬

‫כ‬

‫ת‬

‫י‬

‫המ‬

‫ה‬

‫מש‬

‫ו‬

‫לת‬

‫א‬

‫י‪.‬‬

‫כ‬

‫ט‪:‬‬

‫כ‬

‫אם‬

‫י‬

‫כר‬

‫ו‬

‫‪,‬‬

‫ו‬

‫לר‬

‫ן‬

‫יש‬

‫ה‬

‫ר‬

‫ז‬

‫בר‬

‫ה‬

‫חו‬

‫‪241‬‬

‫‪UNIT 8‬‬

HEBREW

UNIT

BASIC
COURSE

11
?

Semisrad

:‫ט‬

hatayarut.

‫כן‬

M: kan

.

bapina
hariSona.

‫ אתה‬:‫כ‬
‫יורע איפה‬
‫נמצאת‬
?‫השגרירות‬
‫ אני‬,‫ לא‬:‫ל‬
.‫לא יודע‬
‫אני חדש‬
.‫בתל אביב‬

O: lama
ata
memaher,
adon£?

P: kvar
meuxar

veanf roce
lehagi

‫ אז‬.‫ טוב‬:‫כ‬

a

‫תמשיך יישר‬

lekoln

.‫ברחוב הזה‬

oa

‫ תורה‬:‫ל‬

mugrab

.‫רבה‬

M: at
memaheret‫״‬
gvirtf?
N: lo. an£ lo
memaheret.
an£ roca

i.
O: ze lo
raxok
mikan.

letayel

P: ken.

velir'o

an! yodea

t et

Seze lo

hair.

raxok.

M: az lexi
lemisrad
hatayarut.

N: ani lo
yodaat eyfo

O: az lama
ata
memaher?

P: amarti
lexa

242

‫‪BASIC‬‬
‫‪COURSE‬‬

‫_________‬
‫‪HEBREW‬‬

‫מ‪ :‬את‬
‫ממהרת‪,‬‬
‫גברתי?‬

‫‪Sekvar‬‬

‫נ‪ :‬לא‪.‬‬
‫אני לא‬
‫ממהרת‪.‬‬
‫אני רוצה‬

‫‪meuxar.‬‬

‫לטייל‬
‫ולראות‬
‫את‬
‫העיר‪.‬‬
‫מ‪ :‬אז‬
‫לכי‬
‫למשרד‬
‫התיירו‬
‫ת‪ .‬נ‪:‬‬
‫אני לא‬
‫יודעת‬
‫איפה‬
‫שמשרד‬
‫התיירו‬
‫ת‪ .‬מ‪:‬‬
‫כאן‬
‫בפינה‬
‫הראשונ‬
‫ה‪.‬‬

‫ס‪ :‬למה‬
‫אתה ממהר‪,‬‬
‫ארוני?‬
‫ע‪ :‬כבר‬
‫מאוחר‪,‬‬
‫ואני רוצה‬
‫להגיע‬
‫לקולנו‬
‫ע‬
‫מוגרבי‬
‫‪.‬‬

‫‪243‬‬

‫‪UNIT 8‬‬

‫‪BASIC‬‬
‫‪COURSE‬‬

‫‪HEBREW‬‬

‫‪UNIT‬‬

‫‪11‬‬
‫ם‪ :‬זה לא‬
‫רחוק מכאן‪.‬‬
‫ע‪ :‬כן‪ .‬אני‬
‫יודע שזה‬
‫לא רחוק‪.‬‬
‫ס‪:‬‬
‫אז‬
‫למה‬
‫אתה‬
‫ממה‬
‫ר?‬
‫ע‪:‬‬
‫אמר‬
‫תי‬
‫לר‬
‫שכב‬
‫ר‬
‫מאו‬
‫חר‪.‬‬

‫‪244‬‬

BASIC COURSE

HEBREW

UNIT £

9•1 Wandering through Tel Aviv (cont'd.)
PASSERBY
You can
go into
Brooklyn
and eat
cream.

the
Bar
ice
t
o
e
n
t
e
r

‫ל‬
‫א‬
‫כ‬
‫ר‬
‫ל‬
‫ג‬
‫ל‬
‫י‬
‫ד‬
‫ה‬

t
o
e
a
t
i
c
e
c
r
e
a
m
atfi yax61

lehikanes
lebruklin
bSr
veleexol
glida.
lehikanes
leexol
glida,
glidS
(f)

‫ל‬
‫ה‬
‫כ‬
‫ב‬
‫ס‬

‫אתה יכול‬
‫להכנס‬
‫לברוקדין‬
‫בר ולאכול‬
.‫גלידה‬

245

HEBREW

UNIT

11

BASIC
COURSE

MR. WILLIAMS

What kind of ice cream do
they have there? which
there is
eyzo glida yiS SSm.
eyzo (f) yeS

‫איזו גלידה‬
?‫יש שם‬

‫אי‬
‫זו‬
‫יש‬

246

BASIC COURSE

HEBREW

UNIT £

PASSERBY

The ice cream there is very good.
MR. WILLIAMS
Really
?

truth

beeroet?

‫אמת‬

emet (f)
PASSERBY

They even

‫א‬
‫צ‬
‫ל‬

make a
banana
split
like
[with
you] in
America.
prep
are
at
(Fre
nch
chez
)

haglidS
SSm
tovS
meod.

‫הגלידה שם‬
.‫טובה מאד‬

him afilu
mexinim banana
split kmo
eclexem
beamerika.
afilu
mexin
(m.s.
)
ecel

‫הם אפילו‬
‫מכינים בננה‬
‫□פליט כמו‬
‫אצלכם‬
.‫באמריקה‬

‫א‬
‫פ‬
‫י‬
‫ל‬
‫ו‬
‫מ‬
‫כ‬
‫י‬
‫ן‬

247

HEBREW

UNIT

11

BASIC
COURSE

MR. WILLIAMS
What do you say!
say

mS atS sSx!
sSx (m.s.pres,

9.2 Wandering through Tel Aviv (cont'd.)
PASSERBY
You can
go into
Brooklyn
and eat
cream.

the
Bar
ice

What kind of
ice cream do
they
have
there?

St yexolS
lehikanes
lebrflklin
bSr veleexol
glida.
MRS.
WILLIAMS

iyzo glida
yiS SSm.
‫את יכולה‬
‫להכנס‬
‫בר‬
‫לברוקליו‬
.‫ולאכול גלידה‬

‫איזו גלידה‬

248

!‫מה אתה שח‬

‫שח‬

BASIC COURSE

The ice cream
there is very
good.

Really?

They even
make a banana
split like
[with you] in
America.

What do you
say!
PASSERB
Y

HEBREW

UNIT £

‫ה‬
‫ג‬
‫ל‬
‫י‬
‫ד‬
‫ה‬
‫ש‬
‫ם‬
‫ס‬
‫ו‬
‫כ‬
‫ה‬
‫מ‬
‫א‬
‫ד‬
.

?‫באמת‬

ha
gl
fd
a
Si
m
to
vi
me
od
.

‫הם אפילו‬
‫מכינים‬
‫בננה ספלים‬
‫כמו אצלכם‬
.‫באמריקה‬

MRS.

‫מה את שחה׳‬

WILLIAM
S
beemit?
PASSERB
Y
him afilu
mexinim
banSna
split km6
eclexira
beamirika.
MRS.
WILLIAM
S
mi &t s&xa!

249

HEBREW

UNIT

BASIC
COURSE

11

9•3 Vocabulary Drills
A. They are preparing the ice cream.
him mexinim et hag1Ida.
.‫הם מכינים את הגלידה‬
hi - inu - atin - david

‫ דוד‬- ‫ אתן‬- ‫ אנו‬- ‫היא‬
at&ra - xina veiSti - hu - him

‫ הם‬- ‫ הוא‬- ‫ חנה ואשתי‬- ‫עטרה‬
The preposition /icel/ is difficult to
translate succinctly. It is roughly
comparable to the French chez and means "at
the home, place, office of, by, with", etc.
The preposition has the alternate form
/eel-/ before pronominal suffixes. It is
used with the singular set.
Many speakers have the following variant
forms with some of the suffixes.

2f.s. /eclix/
3m.pl. /eclahim/

for /eclix/
for /ecl&n/ 3
f.pl. /eclahin/ for /eclin/
B. Substitution Drill
The book is at my house.
hasifer nimci ecli babiit.
eclexi
eclix
ecli
ecli
eclinu
eclexim
eclexin
eclim
ecl&n

.‫הספר נמצא אצלי בבית‬

‫אצלך‬
‫אצלר‬
‫א*לו‬
‫אצלה‬
‫לנו‬$‫א‬
‫אצלכם‬
‫אצלכן‬
‫אצלם‬
‫אצלן‬
GRAMMAR NOTES

9.4 The Construct State of Nouns
a. Examine the underlined noun phrases in the
following sentences:
1.lud hu nemfil teuffi yafi vexadiS.
2.beiyze bet sifer lam&deta.
In each of these phrases a noun is
modified by another noun. In Sentence 1, for
example, the noun /nam&l/ (in the alternate

250

BASIC COURSE

HEBREW

UNIT £

form /nem&l/) is modified by /teuf&/. This
construction is comparable to the English in
which one noun modifies another, except that
in English the first noun modifies the second,
while in Hebrew the reverse is true.
/nam&l/
/teuf&/
/nem&l teuf&/

"port"
"flight"
(lit.) "flight port"

In sentence 2 the
noun /b&it/ (in the
alternate form /bit/) is modified by /sefer/
/b&it/
"house"
/sefer/
"book"
/bet sefer/
The first noun in

"school" (lit.) "book house"
such a sequence is said to

be in the construct state.

b.As noted in Grammar Section 3.4 some
nouns have an alternate form when
occurring as the first noun in this
construction. It is hard to predict the
alternate forms, but as patterns occur
in this text th^y wi.T 1 be pointedd
out. if not otherwise noted it may be at
least temporarily assumed that there is
no alternate construct state form.

(1)Masculine singular nouns of the
pattern /CaCVC/ have a construct form
without the /-a-/ unless the first
consonant is /x-/.
/Sal6m/ - /Sl6m igtexa/
/nam&l/ - /nem&l teuf&/ (with /-e-/
because /nm-/ is a non-permissible initial
cluster)
This pattern is very similar to the
pattern of masculine-feminine adjectives
described in Grammar Section 8.4b
(2)Feminine singular nouns ending
in /-&/ have a construct form ending
in /-&t/, sometimes with other
changes.
/saf&/ - /sf&t y&m/ "seashore"
(3)Alternates forms of other nouns in
this text so far are:
/b&it/ "house" - /bet/ or /biyt/
/iSa/ "wife" - /SSet/
/&in/ "eye" - /gyn/
/miSpax&/ "family" - /miSp&xat/

c.The main stress in the comparable nounnoun constructions in English is on the

251

UNIT

HEBREW

11
first noun; in Hebrew it is on the second.
In this text the primary stress of each
word is indicated, but a comparatively
louder stress will be heard on the second
noun - /nem&l teuf&/. When the stresses are
on contiguous syllables the first may
become unstressed - /bet sefer/, but /bet
hasefer/.

d.The definite article /ha-/ is
prefixed only to the second noun
in the construct state sequence.
The first noun, however, is still
treated as definite.
/yoic haSagrirut/ "the Embassy counsellor"
‫יועץ השגרירות‬
/misrfid haxuc/ "the foreign office"‫החוץ‬
TKtfD
/binyfin had6ar/ "the post office
building"
‫בבי ל הלואר‬
/misrfid hatayarut/ "the tourism office"
‫משרד התיירות‬
e.Adjectives modifying the first noun
of a construct state sequence follow
the entire construction.
/nem&l teuffi yafi vexadiS/ "a
beautiful and modern airport" Note that the
adjectives /yaf£ vexadiS/ modify /nemfil/
and are, therefore, masculine.
f.Three nouns may occur in a construct
state sequence, /kivua sffit hayfim/
"the direction of the seashore"
Sequences of four nouns occur but they
are rare and are often
paraphrased.
g.Hebrew construct state sequences are
not always translatable as English
noun-noun
constructions.
They
are
sometimes translated as prepositional
phrase constructions, usually with the
preposition "of".
/kivtin hayfim/ "the direction of the sea"
/Sagrirut
yisrafel/
"the
Embassy
of
Israel" or "the Israel Embassy"
Some sequences are translatable as
possessives. /Sl6m hamiSpaxfi/ "the
family's welfare"
On the other hand, English noun-noun
constructions are not necessarily translated
as construct state sequences in Hebrew.
/misrad hatayarut hamemSaltl/ "the
government tourist office" Here the Hebrew
has an adjective /memSalti/ modifying

252

BASIC
COURSE

BASIC COURSE

HEBREW

UNIT £

/misrfid/ while English has the noun
"government" modifying "office".
A. Completion Drill - The instructor
gives the sentence and then the noun in
parentheses. The student responds by
giving the sentence with a construct
state sequence using the noun.
Instructor: He is in an office. (the
hotel) Student: He is in the hotel
office.
1.

hu nimca bemisrad. (hamalon).

.(‫)המלון‬.

hu nimcfi berrisr&d harualon.
2.

3.

‫נמצא במעד־‬
‫ד‬

.‫במשרד המלון‬

hu nimcfi bebinyfin. (haSagrirut).

‫הוא נמצ‬
‫א‬

.(‫ )השגרירות‬. ‫ הוא נמצא בבניד‬.2

hfi nimcfi bebinyfin haSagrirut.

.‫כבנין השגרירות‬

namfil nimcfi belud. (teuffi).

.(‫ )תעו פה‬.‫נמצא בלוד‬

nemfil teuffi nimcfi belud.

‫לתל אביב‬
5.rainu bfiit berex6v filenbi.

.
.

5

.

.‫ראינו בית ברחוב אלנבי‬

‫ר‬
‫ק‬
)
‫ע‬
‫ו‬
‫נ‬
‫ל‬
rainu bet kolnoa berexov alenbi.
.‫ראינו בית קולנוע ברחוב אלנבי‬
hamSex fid lepinfi.
(rex6v filenbi).

.

(
‫ר‬
‫ו‬

‫י‬

‫ל‬
‫י‬

‫הוא נמצ‬
‫א‬
‫ נמל‬.3

.‫נמל תעופה נמצא בלוד‬

4.miSpaxfi tagia letSl aviv. (zahfivi).
.
(
4
.
‫ח‬
‫פ‬
‫ש‬
‫מ‬
‫ה‬
‫ע‬
‫י‬
‫ג‬
‫ת‬
‫ל‬
‫ת‬
‫ל‬
‫ב‬
‫י‬
‫ב‬
‫א‬
‫)זהבי‬
. miSpfixat zahfivi
tagia letel aviv. .‫יע‬1 ‫משפחת זהבי ת‬

(kolnoa)
(

‫ הוא‬.1

.
6

‫המשר עד‬
.‫לפינה‬

)
‫ח‬
‫ב‬
‫א‬
‫נ‬

hamSex fid
lepinfit rexov
filenbi.
.‫המשך‬
‫עד לפינת רחוב אלנכי‬B.
Transformation Drill Indefinite to

Instructor: You
saw a movie
house. Student:
You saw the
movie house.

1.rait
em
be
t
ko
ln
oa

253

HEBREW

UNIT

11
.
raitem
et bet
hakolno
a.

2.higfit
etmol
lenemfi
l
teuffi.
higfit
etm61
lenemfi
l
hateuff
i.

‫למדתי עברית בבית‬
.‫ספר‬

‫למדתי עברית‬
.‫בבית הספר‬

‫משרד דאר נמצא‬
.‫כאן בפינה‬

‫משרד הדואר נמצא‬
.‫כאן בפינה‬
‫הם רוצים לראות‬
.‫שפת ים‬

‫הם רוצים לראות‬
.‫את שעת הים‬

3.mfir Williams
hfi yoec
Sagrirut.
mfir
Williams hu
yoec
haSagrirut

4.lamfideti
ivrit bebet
sefer.
lamfideti
ivrit bebet
hasefer.

5.misrfid doar
nimca kfin
bapirtfi.
misrfid
hadoar nimca
kfin bapina.

6.hem rocim

lir'6t sffit
yfim.
hem rocim lir'6t et
sffit hayfim.

.‫ראיתם בית קולנוע‬

‫ראיתם את בית‬
.‫הקולנוע‬

‫הגעת אתמול לנמל‬
.‫תעופה‬

‫הגעת אתמול לנמל‬
.‫התעופה‬
‫מר וויליאמס הוא יועץ‬
.‫שגרירות‬

‫מר וויליאמס הוא יועץ‬
.‫השגרירות‬

254

BASIC
COURSE

BASIC COURSE

HEBREW

UNIT £

4.
9.5 Definite Article /ha-/ Prefixed to Adjectives
Examine the following underlined forms:

(1)mfir Williams hu yoec haSagrirut
haamerikfiit.
(2)pni kfin bapinfi hariSonfi yemina.
(3)bakiviin hazi?
Note that both the noun and the adjective
modifying it are preceded by the definite
article /ha-/. Whenever a noun is definite all
adjectives modifying it in the same phrase are
preceded by /ha-/. It does not matter how the
noun is made definite. (Cf. Grammar Section
2.5)
are:

Examples of nouns made definite in other ways

a.Nouns with a pronoun suffix: /iSto
hayaffi/ "his pretty wife"
b.Proper names: /tel aviv haxadiSa/
"modern Tel Aviv"
c.The first noun of a definite
construct state sequence (see
Grammar Section g.4d):
/misrfid hatayarut
hamemSalti/
Note
that
the
adjective
/memSalti/
modifies
/misrfid/
and
is,
therefore,
masculine. On the other hand, in Sentence (1)
above, the adjective /amerikfiit/ modifies
/Sagrirfit/ and is feminine.
Ambiguities may occasionally arise
when both nouns are of the same gender and
either may reasonably be modified by the
adjective, but context or paraphrasing
usually settles the matter.
When the adjective is not part of the
same noun phrase it is not preceded by /ha-/.
Thus, the following contrast may occur:
(a)/habfiit hagadol/ "the big hous^i1
(b)/habfiit gadol/ ‫״‬The house is big."

In
the
first
example
/hagadol/
modifies /hab&it/ in the same noun phrase.
In the other example /gadol/ modifies
/hab&it/, but it is in the second half of
an equational sentence and, therefore, is
not prefixed by /ha-/.
Demonstratives such as /ze/
"this" are prefixed with /ha-/ when

255

HEBREW

UNIT

11
they modify nouns as adjectives.
/bakiviin haze/ "in this direction"
In this example, as in Sentences 2
and 3 above, the /ha-/ preceding the
noun is contracted into /ba-/. See
Grammar Note 6.7•
A. Transformation Drill - Indefinite to
Definite
5.

Instructor: I came
in a big airplane.
Student: I came
in the big
airplane.
1.b&ti
beavir6n
gadol
b&ti
baavir6n
hagad61.
2.rainu b&it
yaf4.
rainu et
hab&it
hayafi.
3• hamSixi yaS&r &d
rexov gad6l.
hamSixi yaS&r &d
harex6v hagadol.
4.haim ze
biny&n
xadiS?
haim ze
habiny&n
haxadiS?
5.oni& xadaS&
nimcet
banam&l.
haoni&
haxadaS&
nimcit
banam&l.
6.gam&ti Seze
misr&d
memSalti.
Samati Seze
hamisr&d
hamemSalti.
‫ כאחי באוירון‬.1
‫ באתי‬.‫גדול‬
.‫כאוירוז הגדול‬
.‫ ראינו בית יפה‬.2
.‫ראינו את הבית היפה‬
‫ המשיכי ישר עד רחוב‬.3
.‫גדול‬
‫המשיכי ישר עד הרחוב‬

.‫הגדול‬
‫ האם זה בנין‬.4
?‫חדיש‬
‫האס זה הבנין‬
?‫החריש‬
‫ אוניה חדשה‬.5
.‫נמצאת בנמל‬
‫האוניה החדשה‬
.‫נמצאת בנמל‬
‫ שמעתי שזה‬.6
‫משרד‬
.‫ממשלתי‬
‫שמעתי שזה‬
‫המשרד‬
.‫הממשלתי‬

256

BASIC
COURSE

BASIC COURSE

HEBREW

UNIT £

6.

B.Transformation Drill - Definite to
Indefinite
Repeat Drill A in reverse.
C., Transformation Drill - Indefinite to
Definite
Instructor: I was impressed by a new
government office.
Student: I was impressed by the new
government office.
1. hitras&mti
mimisr&d
memSaiti
xad &s.
.1.
‫התרשמתי‬
‫ממשרד‬
‫ממשלתי חדש‬
hitraS&mt
i
mehamisr&
d
hamemSalt
i
haxad&S.
.‫התרשמתי‬
‫מהמשרד‬
‫הממשלתי‬
‫החדש‬
2. hi g&ra
beb&it
gad61
veyafe.
.2. ‫היא‬
‫גרה בבית‬
‫גדול ויפה‬
hi g&ra
bab&it
hagadol
v
e
h
a
y
a
f
g
.
.
‫א‬
‫י‬
‫ה‬
‫ה‬
‫ר‬
‫ג‬
‫י‬
‫ב‬
‫ב‬
‫ת‬
‫ד‬
‫ג‬
‫ה‬

257

HEBREW

UNIT

11
‫ל‬
‫ו‬
‫י‬
‫ה‬
‫ו‬
‫ה‬
‫פ‬
3. hem baim
beoniot
gdo16t
vexadiSot
.
.3. ‫הם‬
‫באים‬
‫באוניות‬
‫גדולות‬
‫וחרישות‬
him baim
baoniot
hagdolot
vehaxadiS
ot..‫הם‬
‫באים‬
‫באוניות‬
‫הגדולות‬
‫והחדישות‬
4. Sam&ti
5eze
ma16n
gadoi
venaim.
.4 ‫שמעתי‬
‫שזה מלון‬
‫גדול‬
‫ונעים‬
Sam&ti
Seze
hamal6n
hagadol
vehanaim.
.‫שמעתי שזה‬
‫המלון‬
‫הגדול‬
‫והנעים‬
D.Transformation Drill - Definite to
Indefinite
Repeat Drill C in reverse.

258

BASIC
COURSE

BASIC COURSE

HEBREW

UNIT £

E. Transformation Drill - Indefinite to Definite
7.

8.

Instructor: Where is a government tourist
office? Student: Where is the government tourist
office?
1. e
y
f
o
m
i
s
r
f
i
d
t
a
y
a
r
u
t
m
e
m
S
a
l
t
i
.
i
y
f
o
m
i
s
r
f
i
d
h
a
t
a
y
a
r
u
t
h
a
m
e
m
S
a
l

ti.
2. mfir
Williams
hu yoec
Sagrirut
xadfiS.
.‫ חרש‬mar
Williams
hu yoec
haSagrir
ut
haxadf
iS.
‫החדש‬
3. raiti
misrfid
doar
gadol.
raiti et
misrfid hadoar
hagadol.
.‫ל‬
4. ze bet
sefer
tov.
ze bet hasefer
hatov.
5. higata
lenemfil
teuffi
xadiS.
higata
lenemfil
hateuffi
haxadiS.
6. raiti
oto
bebet
kolnoa
karov.
raiti oto bebet
hakolnoa
hakarov,
.‫הקרוב‬
7. ani roe
binyan
Sagrirti
t gadol.
ani roe et
binyfin
haSagrirut
hagad6l.

259

‫‪BASIC‬‬
‫‪COURSE‬‬

‫‪HEBREW‬‬

‫‪UNIT‬‬

‫‪11‬‬
‫הגדול‪.‬‬
‫ ‪Transformation Drill‬‬‫‪Definite to Indefinite‬‬

‫‪.1‬אי‪:‬ה משירד תיירות ממשלתי ‪v‬‬

‫איפה משרד התיירות‬
‫הממשלוז‬

‫‪.2‬מר ווילי״מס רוא יועץ ׳״גרירות‬

‫מר וויליאמס הוא יועץ השגרירות‬

‫‪.3‬ראיתי משרד דואר גרול‪.‬‬

‫ראיתי את משרד הדואר‬
‫הגרו‬

‫‪.4‬זה בית שפר טוב‪.‬‬

‫זה בית הספר הטוב‪.‬‬
‫‪.5‬הגעת לנמל תעופה חדיש‪.‬‬

‫הגעת לנמל התעופה החדיש‪.‬‬
‫‪.6‬ראיתי אותו בבית קולנוע קרוב‪.‬‬

‫ראיתי אותו נניח הקולנוע‬

‫ד‪ .‬אני רואה בניך שגרירות גדול‪.‬‬

‫אני רואה את כנין‬
‫השגרירות‬

‫‪260‬‬

BASIC COURSE

HEBREW

UNIT £

9.

Repeat Drill E in reverse.
Transformation Drill
Instructor:
I saw his
wiCe. She
is pretty.
Student:
X saw his
pretty
wii;e.
1.

2.

3.

4.

raiti e
t
raiti e
t
raiti e
t

iSt6. hi yaffi.

.‫ היא יפה‬.‫ראיתי את אישתו‬

i?t6 hayaffi.

.‫ראיתי את אשתו היפה‬

raiti e
t
raiti e
t
raiti e
t
raiti e
t
raiti e
t
raiti e
t
raiti e
t

baalfi hatov.

baalfi. hu bSal tov.

eyneha. hin gdolot.
eyneha hagdolot.

misradxfi. hu xadfiS.
misradxfi haxadfiS.
arcexem. hi yaffi.
arcexem hayaffi.

.‫ הוא בעל חול‬.‫ר״יתי את בעלה‬

.
1

‫ג‬
‫ז‬
.

.‫ראיתי אח בעלה הטוב‬
.‫ הך גדולות‬.‫ראיתי את עיניה‬

.
3

.‫ראיתי את עיניה הגדולות‬
.‫ הוא חרש‬.‫ראיתי את משרדך‬

.
4

.‫ראיתי את משרדך החדש‬
.‫ היא יפה‬.‫ראיתי את ארצכם‬

.‫ראיתי את ארצכם היפה‬

The instructor may vary this drill by changing /raiti/ to /ani roci
lir1ot/.
H. Transformation Drill
Instructo
r: We saw
Israel.
It's
modern.
Student:
We saw
the
modern
Israel.

261

.
5

HEBREW

UNIT

BASIC
COURSE

11
1.

rainu et yisrael. hi xadiSfi.

.‫ היא חדישה‬.‫נו את ישראל‬

rainu et yisrael haxadiSfi.
rainu et atfira. hi yaffi.

.‫ראינו את ישראל החדישה‬

2.
3.

rainu et atfira hayaffi.
rainu et david. hu gadol.

4.

rainu et david hagadol.
rainu et avigdor. hu sameax.

.‫ היא יפה‬.‫;ת עטרה‬: ‫נו‬

.‫ראינו את עטרה היפה‬
‫גדול‬
‫ הוא‬.‫נו את דוד‬
‫־‬

".‫ראינו את רוד הגדול‬
.‫ הוא שמח‬.‫נו את אביגדור‬

.‫ראינו את אביגדור השמח‬

rainu et avigdor hasameax.
rainu et dov. hu tov.

.‫ הוא טוב‬.‫נו את רוב‬

.‫ראינו את דוב הטוב‬

rainu et dov hatov.

6.

rainu et sfira
vexfina.
hen
.‫ הך אמריקאיות‬.‫נו את שרה וחנה‬
amerikfiiot.
rainu et sfira vexfina haamerikfiiot.
.‫ראינו את שרה וחנה האמריקאיות‬

REVIEW
CONVERSATIONS

10.

A:

ecle
xa

eyfo

bab

nimca

ait.

hasefer

A:

.
bee

B:

met

hasefer

?

nimca

B:

262

‫רא‬
‫י‬

.
1

‫רא‬
‫י‬

.
2

‫רא‬
‫י‬

.
3

‫רא‬
‫י‬

.
4

‫רא‬
‫י‬
‫רא‬
‫י‬

.
5
.
6

BASIC COURSE

HEBREW

UNIT £

ken.

:‫א‬

natati
‫איפ‬

lexa et

‫ה‬

hasefer

‫נמצ‬

haboke

‫א‬

r.

‫הספ‬
?‫ר‬
:‫ב‬
‫הספ‬
‫ר‬
‫נמצ‬
‫א‬
‫אצל‬
‫ך‬
‫בבי‬
.‫ת‬
:‫א‬
‫באמ‬
?‫ת‬

263

HEBREW

UNIT

11
.‫ כן‬:‫ב‬
‫נתתי‬
‫לך את‬
‫הספר‬
.‫הבוקר‬

264

BASIC
COURSE

BASIC COURSE

HEBREW

UNIT £

11.

C:

:‫ג‬

ata

‫אתה‬

roe et

‫רואה‬

bet
hakol
noa
hagad
ol?

‫את‬
‫בית‬
‫הקול‬
‫נוע‬
‫הגדו‬
?‫ל‬

D: lo.

:‫ד‬

eyfo.
C:

.‫לא‬
‫איפה‬

kan

?

bapin

:‫ג‬

a.
D: O,
ken.

‫כאן‬
‫בפינ‬
.‫ה‬

265

HEBREW

UNIT

11
:‫ד‬
,‫אה‬
.‫כן‬

266

BASIC
COURSE

BASIC COURSE

HEBREW

UNIT £

12.
‫ מכינים בננה‬:‫ה‬
.‫ספליט בברוקלין בר‬
:‫ ה‬1 ‫ מה אתה שח‬:‫ו‬
.‫ כמו כאמריקה‬.‫כן‬
13.

G:

ken

rainu

.

et

bab

misra

ait

d

hag

hatay

ado

arut

l

haxad

veh

aS.

axa

H:

diS.

babai
t
hagad
ol?
G:

267

E: mexinim banana split bebruklin bar.
F: ma ata sax '.
E: ken. kmo beamerika.

‫‪BASIC‬‬
‫‪COURSE‬‬

‫‪HEBREW‬‬

‫‪UNIT‬‬

‫‪11‬‬
‫ז‪:‬‬
‫ראינ‬
‫ו את‬
‫משרד‬
‫התיי‬
‫רות‬
‫החדש‬
‫‪ .‬ח‪:‬‬
‫בבית‬
‫הגדו‬
‫ל?‬
‫ז‪:‬‬
‫כן‪.‬‬
‫בבית‬
‫הגדו‬
‫ל‬
‫והחר‬
‫יש‪.‬‬

‫‪268‬‬

BASIC COURSE

HEBREW

UNIT £

14.
:‫ט‬

Is

Samati

‫שמעת‬

Sehabait
Sel dov
gadol

‫י‬
‫שהבי‬
‫ת של‬

veyafe.
J:

ken.

‫רב‬
‫גדול‬

raiti et

‫ויפה‬

habait

.

etmol.

:‫י‬

I: eyfo?
beramat

.‫כן‬

gan?

‫ראית‬

J: lo.

‫י את‬

hem

‫הבית‬

garim

‫אתמו‬

bexulon.

.‫ל‬

269

‫‪BASIC‬‬
‫‪COURSE‬‬

‫‪HEBREW‬‬

‫‪UNIT‬‬

‫‪11‬‬
‫ט‪:‬‬
‫איפה?‬
‫ברמת‬
‫גן?‬
‫י‪ :‬לא‪.‬‬
‫הם גרים‬
‫בחולון‪.‬‬

‫‪270‬‬

BASIC COURSE

HEBREW

UNIT £

10.1 Wandering through Tel Aviv (concluded)
PASSERBY

15.

After
you finish the
ice cream
continue
straight
towards the
seashore.
after, behind
you will finish
axariy Setigm6r et
haglida
tamSix yaSfir
lekivun
hayfim.
axariy
tigm6r
(m.s.)

‫אחרי ש‬
‫תגמור את‬
‫הגלידה‬
‫תמשיך ישר‬
‫לכיוון‬
.‫הים‬

‫א‬
‫ח‬
‫ר‬
‫י‬
‫ת‬
‫ג‬
‫מ‬
‫ו‬
‫ר‬

271

HEBREW

UNIT

BASIC
COURSE

11
16.

MR. WILLIAMS

17.

- ‫כז‬

Yes-

18.
When
you get
to
Hayarko
n
Street
turn
right
and go
straigh
t
to
Mendele
Street.
when
(conjun
ction)
you
will
arrive

-‫כש‬
‫תגי‬
‫ע‬

PASSERBY
kSetagia
lerex6v
hayark6n, tifne
yemina vetelex
yaSar Sd rex6v
mendele. kSetagia
(m.s.)

‫כשתגיע‬
,‫לרחוב הירקון‬
‫ ותלך‬,‫תפנה ימינה‬
‫ישוער רחוב‬
.‫מנדלי‬

272

BASIC COURSE

19.

That is to say,
the
tourist
office
is
located
on
Hayarkon St. at
the
corner
of
Mendele?

HEBREW

UNIT £

‫זאת אומרת‬
‫שמשרד‬
‫התיירות‬
‫נמצא ברחוב‬
‫הירקון פינת‬
?‫מנדלי‬

MR. WILLIAMS
z&t omeret Semisrfid
hatayarfit
nimcfi berex6v
hayark6n pinfit
mindele?

273

HEBREW

UNIT

BASIC
COURSE

11
20.

Not
exac
tly
on
the
corn
er.
exactly
Turn right there
and go on to
the
tourist
office.

Is
it
poss
ible
to
go
by
way
of
BenYehu
da
Stre
et?
possible to go
way,
path,
through

of course.

Than
k
you,
Sir.
Good
bye.

definit
ely

PASSERBY
16

Yes,

WILLI
AMS
to
da
ra
ba
le
xa
,
ad
on
i.
Sa
lo
m.

b
e
d
i
y
u
k
b
a
p
i
n
f
i
.
bediyu
k
Sfim
tifne
yemina
vetele
x fid
misrfi
d
hataya
rut.
MR.
WILLIA
MS
haim
efSfir
lalixe
t
derex
rex6v
bin
yehtid
a?
efSfir
lalixe
t
derex
(f)

‫ברי וק‬

‫אפש‬
‫ר‬
‫ללכ‬
‫ת‬
‫ריר‬

PASSER
BY
ken

beh
exl
et.
beh
exl
et
MR.

274

‫‪HEBREW‬‬

‫‪UNIT £‬‬

‫‪BASIC COURSE‬‬

‫לא כדיוק בפינה‪.‬‬

‫שם תפנה ימינה‬
‫ותלך ער משרד‬
‫התיירות‪.‬‬

‫האם‬
‫ללכת‬
‫רחוב‬
‫יהורה?‬

‫אפשר‬
‫דרך‬
‫בו־‬

‫כן‪ .‬בהחלט‪.‬‬
‫תורה רבה לך‪,‬‬
‫ארוני‪: ,‬צדום‪.‬‬

‫בי!‪,‬ול‬
‫ט‬

‫‪275‬‬

HEBREW

UNIT

BASIC
COURSE

11
It was nothing. Goodbye and good
luck, blessing
PASSERBY

‫כרכה‬

al 16 davSr. Salom
uvraxS.
braxS (f)

276

.‫על לא דבר‬
‫שלום‬
.‫וברכה‬

BASIC COURSE

HEBREW

UNIT £

21.
10.2 Wandering through Tel Aviv (concluded)
PASSERBY

22.

After
you finish
the ice cream
continue
straight
towards the
seashore.

axariy Setigmeri et
haglxda
tamSixi
yaSar
lekivun
haySm.

‫אחרי‬
‫ש‬
‫תגמרי‬
‫את‬
‫הגליד‬
‫ה‬
‫תמשיכ‬
‫י ישר‬
‫לכיוו‬
‫ן‬
.‫הים‬

277

HEBREW

UNIT

BASIC
COURSE

11
23.

MRS. WILLIAMS

24.
25.

- ‫כן‬
PASSERBY

26.
When
you
get to
Hayark
on
Street
turn
right
and go
straig
ht
to
Mendel
e
Street
.

That is to
say, that the
tourist office
is located on
Hayarkon St.
at the corner
of Mendele?

Not exactly on
the corner.
Turn right
there and go
to
the tourist
office.

IA
MS

w
a
y

z6t

omiret
SemisrSd
hatayar
ut
nimcS

o
f
B
e
n
Y
e
h
u
d
a

berex6v
heyark6n

pinSt
inendel
e?
PA
SS
ER
BY

s
t
r
e
e
t
?

lo
bediyuk
bapinS.

Yes, of
course.

MR
S.
WI
LL
IA
MS

Thank you,
ma1 am.
Goodbye.

kSetagii
lerexov
Is
it
po
ss
ib
le
to
go
by

Sam
tifnf
yamfna
vetelxi
Sd
misrSd
hatayar
&t.

hayark6n

tifni
yamina
vetelxi
yaSSr Sd
rexov
mendele.
MRS.
WILL

haim
efSSr
lalixet
direx
rexiv
bin
yehtida
?
PA

278

Yes-

‫‪HEBREW‬‬

‫‪UNIT £‬‬

‫‪BASIC COURSE‬‬

‫‪SSERBY‬‬

‫‪kin.‬‬
‫‪behexlit.‬‬
‫‪MRS.‬‬
‫‪WILLIAMS‬‬

‫‪todS rabS lSx‬‬
‫‪gvirti.‬‬
‫‪Sal6m.‬‬

‫כשתגיעי לרחוב‬
‫הירקון תפני‬
‫ימינה ותלכי‬
‫ישר ער רחוב‬
‫מנדלי‪.‬‬

‫זאת אומרת ש‪-‬‬
‫משרד התיירות‬
‫נמצא ברחוב‬
‫הירקון פינת‬
‫מנדלי?‬

‫לא בדיוק‬
‫בפינה‪.‬‬
‫שם תפני ימינה‬
‫ותלכי עד משרד‬
‫התיירות‪.‬‬

‫האם‬
‫אפשר‬
‫ללכת‬
‫דה־‬
‫רחוי‬
‫כן־‬
‫יהוד‬
‫ה?‬

‫כן‪ .‬בהחלט‪.‬‬

‫תורה רבה לך ‪,‬‬
‫גגר ‪,‬י‪ ,‬שלום‪.‬‬

‫‪279‬‬

HEBREW

UNIT

11

BASIC
COURSE

PASSERBY
It was nothing.
Goodbye and good luck.

Si lo davfir.
Salom uvraxS.

•‫ילל לא רכי‬
.‫שלום וכרכה‬

10.3 Vocabulary Drill
A variation of the stark and gentle imperative is the pattern of /tagia/. In this
pattern the masculine singular ends in /-Ctfa/ and the feminine plural ends in
/-Cfina/. The forms of /tagia/ are: m.s. /tagia/ m.pl. /tagiu/
f.s. /tagii/
f.pl. /tagSna/
[in the Basic Sentences of this unit the verb is used as a second person future.]
A. Substitution-Agreement Drill - Use the underlined words as cues. When you get to the
intersection turn left.

kSetagia
kSetagiu
kSetagii
kSetag&na

lahictalvut tifne smola.
lahictalvut tifnu smola.
lahictalvut tifni smola.
lahictalvut tifnena smola.

280

.‫כשתגיע להצטלבות תפנה שמאלה‬
.‫כשתגיעו להצטלבות תפנו שמאלה‬
.‫כשתגיעי להצטלב ות תפני שמאלה‬
‫תפנינה‬
‫ות‬
‫להצטלב‬
‫כשתגענה‬
.‫שמאלה‬

BASIC COURSE

HEBREW

UNIT £

GRAMMAR NOTES

10.4 The Relative Conjunction /Se-/
a)Whenever an equational sentence, or a declarative sentence containing a verb, is
included within another sentence, but not as a direct quotation, then it is
preceded by the conjunction /Se-/.
Examine the following sentences:
1.habSit gadol veyafe.

‫״‬The house is big and
beautiful." SamSti SehabSit gadol veyafe. ‫״‬I heard that the house
is big
and beautiful!'
2.arcenu m6cet xen beeynexa,
'You like our country."
ani mekavi Searcinu mocet
‫״‬I hope you like our country."
xen beeynexa.
Note that although the conjunction "that" is optional in English the
conjunction /Se-/ is required in Hebrew.
b)/§e-/ is used when prepositions precede such included sentences:
3.bSta hena.

"you came here." lifney SebSta
"before you came here"

hena
4.tigm6r et haglida.
axarey Setigmor et
haglida

and

‫״‬You will finish the ice cream. "
"after you finish the
the ice cream"

The conjunction /kSe-/ is a contraction of the prefixed preposition /ke-/ "as"
/Se./‫־‬
5.tagia lerex6v hayarkon.
"You will get to Hayarkon Street. "
kSetagia lerex6v hayark6n "when you get to Hayarkon Street"

c) When the included sentence is a question beginning with an interrogative,
the /Se-/ is optional, but after the interrogative.
27.

6.

eyfo bruklin bSr. atS
yodia iyfo Sebruklin bar?
(or) atS yodia eyfo bruklin
bar?
"Where is the Brooklyn
‫״‬Do you know where
the Brooklyn Bar is ?"

Bar?"

281

HEBREW

UNIT

11

BASIC
COURSE

28.

7• heyxSn ata nimca.
atS 16 yodea heyxSn

"Where are you located?"
‫״‬You don't know where you are?" atS nimca?

d) A sentence with an included sentence may in turn be included in a still
larger sentence.

8.

bSta hena.
lamSdeta ivrit lifney

‫״‬You came here."
‫״‬You studied
Hebrew before you came here."

Sebata hina.

282

BASIC COURSE

HEBREW

UNIT £

t6v meod asita
Selamfideta ivrit lifney
Sebata hina.

‫״‬You did well
to study Hebrew
before you came here."

It cannot be repeated too often that the above description refers to the
Hebrew sentences and not to the English translations. In sentences 4 and 5 the
English verb form changes; in sentences 5> 6 and 7 the word order changes; and in
Sentence 8 "you studied" changes to "to study". In the Hebrew, however, the
included sentences remain intact except for intonation patterns. There are
stylistic variations of word order in included sentences in Hebrew, but these are
relatively minor.

‫עשית‬

[Note: This conjunction is always written in Hebrew as a prefix to the following word. asita
lamadeta ‫ למדת‬bata ‫כאת‬
Seasita ‫ שעשית‬Selamadeta ‫ שלמדת‬Sebata ‫] שבאת‬

The following drills are expansion drills. The instructor gives a
sentence, and the student responds with a larger sentence in which the
instructor's sentence is included.
Instructor: tigmor et haglidfi.
‫״‬You will finish the ice cream."
Student: ani roci Setigmor
‫״‬I want you to
et haglidfi.
finish the ice cream."
A more literal translation would be ‫״‬I want that you should finish the ice
cream," but this is, of course, awkward English.
Instructor1 s sentences:
1.

mfir Williams gfir beramat gfin. .]‫ג‬

‫ברמת‬

‫מר וויליאמס גר‬

2.

iSto medaberet ivrit.

‫אשתו מדברת עבר‬

3.

miryam nimcet betel aviv.

4.

lamfideta bevit hasefer lesafot.

‫ית‬
.
‫אב י‬
‫ב‬
.
r. ‫ל‬
‫ ר‬1

haSagrirut nimcet al yad malon dfin."M ‫יד מלו ן‬

6. habinyfin xadiS.

‫מרים נמצאת בתל‬

.
4

‫השגרירות נמצאת על‬

.
5
.
6
.
7

:

7.

haSrec yaffi meod.

.‫הארץ יפה מאד‬

le
nt
A.

adds :
ani xoSev Se-

‫ב ש‬.‫אני חו‬

B.

ani mekave Se-

‫אני מקוה ש‬

C.

hu roi Se-

‫הוא רואה ש‬

D.

Samfinu Se-

‫שמענו ש‬

E.

raiti Se-

‫ראיתי ש‬

283

.
2
.
3

:‫למרת בבית ה‬
‫פר‬

.‫הבנין חריש‬

Instructor's Sentences:

.
!

‫א‬
.
‫ב‬
.
‫ג‬
.
‫ר‬
.
‫ה‬
.

UNIT

HEBREW

BASIC
COURSE

11
8.lamadeta ivrit.
‫עברית‬
9.gamata mimSr kfispi.
‫ממר כספי‬
10.rainu et habait geio.
.
‫ת‬
‫א‬
‫ו‬
‫ו‬
‫ל‬
‫ש‬
11.natati lemiryam et hasfarim..
‫י‬
‫ת‬
‫ח‬
‫נ‬
‫ת‬
‫א‬
‫ם‬
‫ם‬
‫י‬
‫ר‬
‫פ‬
Student adds:
29.
F.higata laarec lifney SeG.higfita hena axarey Se-‫ הגעת לארץ לפני ש‬.‫ו‬
-‫ הגעת הנה אחרי ש‬.‫ז‬

284

.8. ‫למרת‬
.9. ‫שמעת‬
1

0

.

‫נ‬
‫ת‬
1

‫י‬
‫י‬
1

‫א‬
‫ב‬
.

‫ר‬
‫ה‬

‫י‬
‫ס‬

‫ר‬
‫ה‬

‫מ‬

‫ל‬

BASIC COURSE

HEBREW

UNIT £

Instructor's Sentences:
12.natfita 16 et hasefer.
13.raita et hamisrfid.
.
1
3
‫ת‬
‫א‬
‫ד‬
‫ר‬
‫ש‬
14.higfita lamalon.
.
1
4
‫ן‬
‫י‬
‫ל‬
‫מ‬

.12. ‫נתת לו את הספר‬
.
‫ת‬
‫מ‬

‫י‬
‫ה‬

‫א‬

.

‫ת‬

‫ר‬

‫ע‬

‫ג‬

‫ה‬

‫ל‬

Student adds:
H.

mfi amfirta 16 kge1. mfi asita kSe-

‫ מה אמרת לו כש־‬. ‫ח‬
-‫ מה עשית כש‬. ‫ט‬

Additions H and I can be varied by changing /kSe-/ to /axariy §e-/ or /lifniy
Se-/.
10.5 Adjectives used to Modify Verbs
a.The masculine singular form of
1.l&x yaSfir berex6v filenbi.

adjectives is used to modify verbs.
‫״‬Go straight on Allenby Street."

2.fit medaberet yaf6 meod.

‫״‬You speak very nicely."

3.t6v asita Selamfideta ivrit.
‫״‬You did well to study Hebrew."
The following synonymous sentences illustrate the use of an adjective to modify
a noun or a verb.
4.atfi medabir ivrit yaffi
meod.

‫״‬You speak a very beautiful Hebrew."

5.atfi medabir ivrit yafe
me6d.

‫״‬You speak Hebrew very nicely."

b.When there is no noun antecedent in the context the masculine singular form
of the adjective is used.
6.kvar meuxar.

‫״‬It's late already."

7.naim li meod lehakir otxfi. ‫״‬I am very pleased to meet you."
Although the English translations have pronoun antecedents for "late" and
"pleased" the Hebrew does not. In sentence 7 the form is /naim/ even when a woman is
speaking. See Section 2.2.
BASIC COURSE___HEBREW ___________________________________UNIT10
REVIEW CONVERSATIONS

A: axarey Setigmor leexoi et haglida :‫א‬
‫אחרי שתגמור לאכול אח הגלידה י‬
teiex lemisrad hatayarut?

?‫תלך למשרד התיירות‬

B: 16. laSagrirut haamerikait.

.:‫ב‬

‫ לשגרירות האמריקאית‬.‫לא‬
.:‫א‬

A: az tamSix LEKIVUN sfat hayam.

285

HEBREW

UNIT

11

BASIC
COURSE

‫אז תמשיר לכיוון שפת הים‬
B: ken. ani yodea.

.:‫כ‬

‫ אני יודע‬.‫כן‬
30.
C: eyfo nimca misrad hatayarut.
D: kan. bapina hariSona.
C: berexov ben yehuda?
D: lo. berexov mendele.

‫ איפה נמצא משרד התיירות?׳‬:‫ג‬
.‫ כפינה הראשונה‬.‫כאן‬

:‫ר‬

?‫ ברחוב כן יהודה‬:‫ג‬
.‫ ברחוב מנדלי‬.‫לא‬

:‫ר‬

286

BASIC COURSE

HEBREW

UNIT £

31.
E: ata medaber ivrit yafe meod.
Fs toda raba.
Es haim lamadeta ivrft lifney Sebata hena?
Fs lo. lamadeti ivrit axarey Sehigati leka
E: matay higata.
F: lifney xodSaim.
E: veata medaber kvar kmo israeli. ani
xoSev Seze tov meod.

G: raita et habinyan haxadaS Sel misrad
hatayarut?
H: lo. ax Samati Sehu xadiS meod.
Gs ken. xadiS vegadol. hu meod moce xen
beeynay.
.‫ אתה מדבר עברית יפה מאוד‬:‫ה‬
.‫ תורה רבה‬:‫ו‬
?‫ האם למדת עברית לפני שבאת הנה‬:‫ה‬
• .‫ למדתי עברית אחרי שבאתי לכאן‬.‫ לא‬:‫ו‬
?‫ מתי הגעת‬:‫ה‬
.‫ לפני חודשיים‬:‫ו‬
‫ אני חושב שזה‬.‫ ואתה מדבר כבר כמו ישראלי‬:‫ה‬
.‫טוב מאור‬

?‫ ראית את הבג י ן החדש של משרד התיירות‬:‫ז‬
.‫ אר שמעתי שהוא חדיש מאור‬.‫ לא‬:‫ח‬
.‫ הוא מאוד מוצא חן בעיני‬.‫ חריש וגדול‬.‫ כן‬:‫ז‬

287

UNIT 15 HEBREW

BASIC COURSE

11.1 Dinner Invitation
32.

M
r
W
.
i
W
l
i
l
l
i
l
a
i
a
m
s
,This Friday evening^

LLI
AMS
bel
el
SiS
i
hak
ar6

Yes.
m
s
,

w
h
a
t
a
r
e
y
o
u
d
o
i
n
g
F
r
i
d
a
y
e
v
e
n
i
n
g
?
*
d
o

v?
M

m
f
i

R
.

a
t
e
m

C
A

o
s
i
m

S
P

b
e
l
i
l

I
kin
.

S
i
S
i
.

night
sixth
MR.
CAS
PI
m
i
r

‫מ‬
‫ר‬
‫ו‬
‫ו‬
‫י‬
osi
‫ל‬
(m.s.pres‫י‬
.) lSyla ‫א‬
(m) SiSi ‫מ‬
(m.s.)
‫ס‬
,
MR
‫מ‬
‫ה‬
.
‫א‬
‫ת‬
‫ם‬
WI
‫ע‬

288

‫‪BASIC‬‬
‫‪COURSE‬‬
‫‪UNIT £‬‬

‫‪HEBREW‬‬
‫ושים‬
‫בליל‬
‫שישי‬
‫?‬

‫ע‬
‫ו‬
‫ש‬
‫ה‬
‫ל‬
‫י‬
‫ל‬
‫ה‬
‫ש‬
‫י‬
‫ש‬
‫י‬

‫ב‬
‫ל‬
‫י‬
‫ל‬
‫ש‬
‫י‬
‫ש‬
‫י‬
‫ה‬
‫ק‬
‫ר‬
‫ו‬
‫ב‬
‫?‬

‫כ‬
‫ן‬
‫‪.‬‬

‫‪289‬‬

UNIT 15 HEBREW

BASIC COURSE

33.
I
h
ther
e is
not
to
us
plan
,
prog
ram
M
R
a
eyn
l&nu
toxnit

t
h
i
n
k
t
h
a
t
w
e
d
o
n

‫א‬
‫ר‬

M

2

‫ש‬
-

t
2 w
ant
to
eat
'br
eak
fas
t,
(mo
rni
ng
mea
l)
I
wan
t
to
eat
lun
ch.
(no
on
mea
l)
I
wan
t
to
eat
bru
nch
.
(10
a.m
.
sna
ck)

(f)

290

‫אין‬
‫לנו‬
‫תו כנ‬
‫יוז‬

BASIC
COURSE
HEBREW
34.

We
wa
nt
to
in
vi
te
yo
u
fo
r
di
nn
er
.

is
suitabl
e
S
n
lehazmin
aruxi (f)
irev (m)

‫א‬
‫נ‬

UNIT £

‫ר‬
‫ב‬

M
t

to
inv
ite
mea
l
eve
nin
g

Thank
you.
We
will
be
very
happy
.

‫להזמי‬
‫ן ארו‬
‫חה‬
‫ערב‬

we
wil
l
be
hap
py
nismSx (1 pi. fut.)

‫נשמח‬

MR. CASPI
haim
‫האם‬
siva uSiosim
‫שבע ושלושים‬
mat‫׳‬im?
?‫מתאים‬
Seva
‫שבע‬
SloSim
‫שלושים‬
mat'im (m.s.pres.) ‫מתאים‬

Is
se
ve
nth
ir
ty
al
l
ri
gh
t?
sev
en
thi
rty

291

UNIT 15 HEBREW

BASIC COURSE

‫נשמח‬
‫מאוד‬
.

292

BASIC
COURSE
HEBREW
35.

UNIT £

MR.
WILLIAMS
kin. ten
li et
haktivet
Selaxim.

[*Many speakers insist
that /lei SiSi/ is
properly Thursday
night and that Friday
night is /lei Sabat/.J

t
i
n
(
m
.
s
.
i
m
v
.
)
k
t
i
v
e
t
(
f
)

‫ חו לי את‬.‫כן‬
.‫הכתובת שלכם‬

Yes. Give me
your address.
give address

‫כתובת‬

293

‫תן‬

UNIT 15 HEBREW

BASIC COURSE

MR. CASPI
36.

f
i
n
d

We
li
ve
o
n

t
h
e

M
o
z
k
i
n

p
l
a
c
e
wit
hou
t
dif
fic
ult
y.

S
t
r
e
e
t
,

we
will
find
plac
e

n
u
m
b
e
r

d
3
.

iff

number
three

icu
lty

I

11.2

t
h
i
n
k

ADDI
TION

t
h
a
t

AL

w
e

BULA

VOCA

RY

w
i
l
l

i
n
u
g

294

BASIC
COURSE
HEBREW
a
r
i
m
b
i
r
x
&
v
m
o
c
k
i
n
m
i
s
p
i
r
S
a
l
o
S
.

n
i
m
c
a

UNIT £

‫אנו גרים‬
‫ברחוב מוצקין‬
.‫מספר שלוש‬

e
t
h
a
m
a
k
o
m

-‫אני חושב ש‬

‫נמצא‬

‫את המקום ללא‬
.‫קושי‬

l
e
l
o
k
o
S
i
.

mispir
(m)
‫מספר‬
§al6§
‫שלוש‬

nimca
(1 pi.
fut.)
‫נמצא‬
mak6m
(m)
‫מקום‬
k63i
(m)
‫קושי‬

MR
.
WI
LL
IA
MS

a
n
i
x
o
S
e
v
S
e
-

295

UNIT 15 HEBREW

BASIC COURSE

37.

.What
‫א‬
AWhat
Plea
What
se

ar
e

you doing Sunday?

ar
e

you doing Monday?

ar
e

you doing Tuesday?

..bey6m riSon bairev.
..bey6m Seni
bairev. ..beyom SliSi
bairev. ..bey6m revii
bairev.
..bey6m
ma atc os
beyom riSon.
xamiSi
bairev.
i
i
..bey6m SiSi
mf
atc os
bey6m Seni.
bairev.
..bemocaey
i i
i
Sabit. ..hairev. yiS
mf
atc
os bey6m SliSi.
linu
toxnit.
i

i

i

What ar
give e

you doing Wednesday?

What ar
me
e

you doing Thursday?

What ar
the
e
book

you doing Friday?

ma ati os
i

beyom SiSi.

What ar
.
e

you doing Saturday?

mf
i

os
i

beSabit.

What ar
ten

you doing today?

at
ci
mi at
. ci

os
i

hayom.

What ar
li,

you doing

e
e

beva

296

at
ci
mf at
i ci

‫ביום שליש‬
‫ביום ׳‬
‫רביע‬
‫ביום‬
?‫עושה ב יום ראשון‬
‫ביום ׳‬
‫במוצ חמיש‬
?‫איעושה י ב יום שני‬
‫הערב שישי‬
?‫? עוש ב יום שלישי‬
‫תוכנ‬
‫ה‬
.‫ית‬
?‫עוש ב יום רביעי‬

os
i

beyom revii.

os
i

beyom xamiSi. ?‫ר יום חמישי‬

ma it osi

ani roce leexol
aruxSt
boker.
?‫שני בערב‬
‫ביום ראשון‬
ani ‫ביום‬
roce »‫בערכ‬
leexol
aruxfit
cohoriim.
ani
roce
leexol
aruxit iser.

?‫כ יום שישי‬

?‫ת‬.‫ב שד‬
?‫ה יום‬

‫את‬
‫ה‬
‫את‬
‫ה‬
‫את‬
‫ה‬
‫את‬
‫ה ה‬
‫את עו^־‬
‫ה ה‬
‫את ע‬
‫י‬:‫ה ו‬
‫ה‬
‫את עוש‬
‫ה ה‬
‫את עוש‬
‫ה ה‬
‫את עושה‬
‫י‬

‫מ‬
‫ה‬
‫מ‬
‫ה‬
‫מ‬
‫ה‬
‫מ‬
‫ה‬
‫מ‬
‫ה‬
‫מ‬
‫ה‬
‫מ‬
‫ה‬
‫מ‬
‫ה‬
‫מ‬
‫ה‬

BASIC
COURSE
HEBREW
kaSa
, et
hase
fer.
tni

tnu
tenn
a
‫ת‬
‫ן‬

297

UNIT £

UNIT 15 HEBREW

B.

Substitutio
n as cues.

BASIC COURSE

Agreement Drill

The instructor gives the underlined forms

give me your telephone
Please number.

ti
n
tn
fi
tn
i
te
n
tenna
tn
i

li
,
li
,
li
,
li
,
li
,
li
,

bevakaSS
,
bevakaSS
,
bevakaSS
,
bevakaSS
,
bevakaSS
,
bevakaSS
,

et mispSr
hatelefon
et mispSr
hatelefon
et mispSr
hatelefon
et mispSr
hatelefon
et mispSr
hatelefon
et mispSr
hatilefon

SelxS.

• ‫שלב‬

Selaxem .‫שלכם‬
.
SelSx.
.‫שלר‬
SelxS,

.‫שלר‬

Selaxen
.
Selax.

‫שלב‬
.‫ך‬
.‫שלר‬

C. Substitution Drill
Don't give me any ice cream.
Si titin li
glidS.
titni titnu
titenna
D. Transformation Drill - Affirmative to
Negative
I
n
s
t
r
u
c
t
o
r
:
G
i
v
e

298

‫בבקש‬
‫ה‬
‫מספר הטלפו‬
‫ן‬
‫מספר הטלפו‬
‫ן‬
‫מספר הטלפ‬
‫ו ן‬
‫מספר הטלפר‬
‫ן‬
‫מספר הטלפו‬
‫ן‬
‫מספר הטלפו‬
‫ן‬

‫ל‬
‫י‬
,
‫א‬
‫ת‬
‫א‬
‫ת‬
‫א‬
‫ת‬
‫א‬
‫ת‬
‫א‬
‫ת‬
‫א‬
‫ת‬

‫תן‬

‫תנ‬
‫ו‬
‫תנ‬
‫י‬
‫תו‬
‫אל תיתן לי‬
‫תנ‬
‫׳!תני‬
.‫גלידה‬
‫ה‬
‫תתנו תתנה‬
‫תנ‬
‫י‬

BASIC
COURSE
HEBREW

UNIT £
h
e
r
t
h
e
b
o
o
k
s
.
S
t
u
d
e
n
t
:
D
o
n
'
t
g
i
v
e
h
e
r
t
h
e
b
o
o
k
s
.

299

UNIT 15 HEBREW

BASIC COURSE

ten I e hasfarim.
S t
tnu I e hasfarim.
S t
tni I e hasfarim.
S t
tenna IS et hasfarim.
ten I
S
tni I
S
tnu I
S

e
t
e
t
e
t

S
I
S
i
S
i
S
i
S
i
a
l
a
l

hasfarim.
hasfarim.
hasfarim.

tite I e hasfarim.
n
S t
titn I e hasfarim.
u
S t
titn I e hasfarim.
i
S t
titenna la et
hasfarim.
titi I e hasfarim.
n
S t
titn I e hasfarim.
i
S t
titn I e hasfarim.
u
S t

E.Transformation Drill - Negative to
Affirmative
Repeat Drill D in
reverse.
F.Substitution Drill
Let me walk around
and see the city.
ten 11
letayel
velir'ot et
hair, tni
tinna tnu
‫תו לי לטייל ולראות את‬
‫ תני תנה תנו‬.‫העיר‬

300

.‫לר את הספרים‬
,
.‫לה את הספרים‬
.‫לה את הספרים‬
.‫ את הכפרים‬,‫ל‬
:
.‫לה את הספרים‬
.‫לה את הספרים‬
.‫לה את הספרים‬

‫תית‬
‫ן‬
‫תתנ‬
‫ו‬
‫תתנ‬
‫י‬
‫תתנ‬
‫ה‬
‫תית‬
‫ן‬
‫תתנ‬
‫י‬
‫ת‬
‫ב‬1
‫ר‬

‫א‬
‫ל‬
‫א‬
‫ל‬
‫א‬
‫ל‬
‫א‬
‫ל‬
‫א‬
‫ל‬
‫א‬
‫ל‬
‫א‬
‫ל‬

BASIC
COURSE
HEBREW

UNIT £

11.4 Cardinal Numbers
a)The situation with respect to the cardinal numbers can be described as complicated. There are historically two sets of numbers - masculine and feminine.
However, the alternation of the forms is the opposite of what one would expect;
that is, the masculine appear to be feminine forms, and vice versa. For example:
§alo§ (feminine) §lo§S (masculine) Compare: karov (masculine) krovi (feminine)
b)In formal speech masculine numbers (i.e., those with the apparent
feminine shape) are used with masculine nouns, and feminine numbers
with feminine nouns. This usage is preferable at all levels of speech.
c)in counting and in reading off numerals the feminine form is used.
/axat, StSim, galog, arbk./
‫״‬One, two, three, four."
/rexov mockin, mispfir §al6S./
‫״‬Mozkin Street, number 3."
d)in informal speech the two sets are often used interchangeably, with the
feminine numbers being the more frequent choice. One often hears hybrid forms
such as /gniymesre/ 'twelve' from /gneymasar/ and /Steymesre/. To complicate
matters a bit more, occasional new distinctions have developed in modern Hebrew
such as /arbk/ 'four' (masculine) and./irba/ (feminine).
zero (name of numeral only) efes (m)

301

UNIT 15 HEBREW

BASIC COURSE

one
two
three
four
five
six
seven
eight
nine
ten
eleven
twelve
thirteen
fourteen

Feminine
axSt
gtaim
galog
arbi
xameS
Se§
Siva
gmone
te§a
iser
axit'esre
gteym'esre
§lo§'esre
arbiesre

Masculine
exid
gnSim
SloSa
arbai
xamigS
§ig k
giv'S
gmoni
tig'i
asari
ax&d'asar
sneym'asar
glogaasar
arbiasar

fifteen
sixteen

xameS'esre
§e§‫י‬esre

xamigSasar
gigaasar

seventeen
eighteen
nineteen
twenty

Sviesre
gmoneesre
tSaesre
esrim

giv'aasar
gmon&asar
tiS1aasar
esrim

A. Count

‫זכר‬
‫אחד‬
‫שנים‬
‫שלושה‬
‫ארבעה‬
‫חמשה‬
‫שישה‬
‫שבעה‬
‫שמונה‬
‫תשעה‬
‫עשרה‬
‫אחדיעשר‬
‫םעשר‬
‫שני ־‬
‫העשר‬
‫שלוש ־‬
‫או כ ע־‬
‫עשר‬
‫העשר‬
‫ ־‬1 ‫חמ‬
‫״י שה־‬,
‫עשר‬
‫שנעה־עשר‬
‫העשר‬
‫שמונ ־‬
‫ע^ר‬-‫ת^עה‬
‫ידים‬-‫ע‬

‫נקבה‬
‫אחת‬
‫שתים‬
‫שלוש‬
‫ארבע‬
‫חמש‬
‫שש‬
‫ישבע‬
‫שמונה‬
‫תשע‬
‫עשר‬
‫תעשרה‬
‫אח ־‬
‫םעשרה‬
‫שתי ־‬
‫שעשרה‬
‫שלו ־‬
‫עעשרה‬
‫ארב ־‬
‫שעשרה‬
‫חמ ־‬
‫שעשרה‬
‫ש ־‬
‫עעשרה‬
‫שב ־‬
‫שמו נה״עשרה‬
‫עע^רה‬
‫תש ־־‬
‫עשרים‬

to twenty.

B. Recite

the masculine numbers one to twenty.

C. Read off the following
1
.
2
.
3
.
4
.
6
!

3 - 0 - 1

numerals.
7• 0 - 8 -

15

5 - 8 - 8

8. 4 - 7 ‫ ־‬7 ‫ ־‬4

4 - 1 - 8 - 2

9• 7 ‫ ־‬3 ‫ ־‬7

2 - 0 - 2
8 - 2 - 9
5 - 3 - 3 - 6

10. 8 - 7 ‫ ־‬K _ 0
11. 3 ‫ ־‬5 ‫ ־‬1
12. 1 - 1 - 0 GRAMMAR NOTES

115Contraction of Initial Syllables
Compare the following underlined forms:
I6x yagfir berexov filenbi.
finu garim birx6v mockin.
When the prefix /be-/ precedes a form beginning with the pattern
/CeCV-/ (with unstressed /e/) the two syllables may be contracted to
/biCCV-/.
This contraction, interestingly enough, is characteristic of the formal style,
but it is often heard in informal speech, also.
A similar contraction is made with the prefixes /le-/ ,to' and /ke-/ ,as1.
116/y£S li/. /eyn 11/
a)A special grammatical construction is used to indicate possession. Examine the

302

BASIC
COURSE
HEBREW
following sentence;
y£S lfinu toxnit.

UNIT £

‫״‬We have a plan."

b)The construction consists of the form /yeS/ "there is, there are" plus the
preposition /le-/ "to". (in the example above the preposition has a pronominal
suffix.) This construction translates the present tense forms of the English verb
"have" with the meaning "possess".
The negative of this construction consists of /eyn/ plus /le-/. eyn lfinu
toxnit.
‫״‬We don't have a plan."
c)Though, strictly speaking, neither /y£§/ nor /iyn/ is a verb, the direct object
preposition /et/ is used before definite nouns which are "possessed".
yeS lfinu sefer.
‫״‬We have a book."
y£g lfinu et hasefer.
‫״‬We have the book."
d)The word order of the construction may be inverted for emphasis or style reasons.
This inversion is frequent when a name follows the preposition.
ledavid yeS glidfi.
‫״‬David has ice cream."
or
y£S ledavid glida.
e)The preposition /le-/ occurs with the singular set of pronominal suffixes, with
the same variations that occur with /gel/: /lfix, lfinu, laxem, laxen, lah6m,
lahen/.
A. Substitution Drill
I have a house in Ramat Gan.
yeg li bfiit berfimat gfin. lexfi lfix 16 lfi lfinu laxem laxen lahem lahen

.‫יש לי כית כרמת גן‬

303

‫ל‬
‫ו‬
‫ל‬
‫ה‬
‫ל‬
‫נ‬
‫ו‬
‫ל‬
‫ב‬
‫ש‬
‫ל‬
‫כ‬
‫ן‬
‫ל‬
‫ה‬
‫ם‬

‫לה‬
‫ן‬

UNIT 15 HEBREW

BASIC COURSE

Substitution Drill - Repeat Drill A in the negative. I
don't have a house in Ramat Gan.

6yn li bSit beramat gSn.

.‫אין לי בית ברמת גן‬

Transformation Drill - Affirmative to Negative
Instructor: I have Miriam's phone number. Student: I don't have Miriam's
phone number.

ye
g
ye
g
ye
g
ye
g
ye
g
ye
§
ye
g
ye
g

li et mispSr hatelefon gel mirySm.

.‫של מרים‬

‫לי את מספר הטלפון‬
...‫אין לי‬

eyn li , . .
lSnu et mispSr hatelefon gel mirySm.

.‫של מרים‬

‫את מספר‬
‫הטלפון‬

‫לנ‬
‫ו‬

‫י‬
‫ש‬

eyn lSnu . ..
lSx et mispSr hatelefon gel mirySm.

.‫של מרים‬

‫לר את מספר הטלפון‬

‫י‬
‫ש‬

4yn lSx ...
lo et mispSr hatelefon gel mirySm.

.‫של מרים‬

..•‫א י ן לר‬
‫לו‬
‫את מספר הטלפון‬

...‫אין לב ו‬

eyn 16 . . .
laxem et mispSr hatelefon gel mirySm.

.‫מרים‬

eyn laxem . . .
IS et mispSr hatelefon gel mirySm.

‫את מספר‬
‫הטלפון‬

‫לכ‬
‫ם‬

‫י‬
‫ש‬

‫לה את מספר הטלפון‬

‫י‬
‫ש‬

...‫אין לכם‬

.‫של מרים‬

eyn IS . . .
lexS et mispSr hatelefon gel mirySm.

...‫אין לה‬

.‫של פרים‬

eyn lexS . . .
lahem et mispSr hatelefon gel mirySm.

‫לר את מספר הטל!•ו‬
‫ן‬

.‫של מרים‬

eyn lahem . ..

‫ר‬.:‫את מ‬
‫הטלפון‬

‫לה‬
‫ם‬

Negative to Affirmative

Repeat Drill C in reverse.
E.Response Drill
Instructor:
Where do you live?

Student:
We have a house in Savyon.

s a v y o n .
a
v
a
v
a
v

v
y
v
y
v
y

y
6
y
6
y
o

6
n
6
n
o
n

? □ ‫א ת‬

n .
? ‫ג ר‬
‫ו א‬
.
? ‫ג ר י ם‬
‫ם‬
n .
? ‫ג ו ה‬
‫ת‬
.
? ‫מ ע י ה‬
‫ר‬
n .
? ‫ג ר‬
‫ת ה‬
.
? ‫ל א ה‬
‫ר ה‬

‫א י ז ה‬
‫ה‬
‫ה‬
‫א‬
‫ג‬
‫״‬
‫ג‬

F.Transformation Drill
Instructor: The books are at my place. Student: I have the books.

304

‫יש‬

...‫אין ל ר‬

...‫אין להם‬

atem garim.
ye§ lSnu bSit b e
‫ג ר‬
hu g&r.
yeg 16 bSit b e s
hem garim.yeS lahem bSit b e s a
St gSra.
yeS li bSit b e s
gSr moge.
yeg lo bSit b e s a
atS gar.
yeg li bSit b e s
gSra lea.
yeg 1S bSit b e s a

‫י‬
‫ש‬

...‫אין לו‬

‫של‬

D.Transformation Drill -

eyfo
‫י ם‬
eyfo
eyfo
eyfo
eyfo
eyfo
eyfo

‫י‬
‫ש‬

‫ה‬
‫ה‬
‫ה‬
‫ה‬
‫ה‬
‫ה‬

‫פ‬
‫פ‬
‫פ‬
‫פ‬
‫פ‬
‫פ‬

‫י‬
‫י‬
‫י‬
‫י‬
‫י‬
‫י‬

‫א‬
‫א‬
‫א‬
‫א‬
‫א‬
‫א‬

‫־‬
‫י‬
‫יז‬

BASIC
COURSE
HEBREW

UNIT £

hasfarim

nimcaim

ecll.

yeg

li et hasfarim.

.‫אצלי‬

‫נ מצא י ם‬

!‫פרי‬

‫הס‬

hasfarim

nimcaim

eclo.

ye§

16 et hasfarim.

. ‫אצלו‬

:‫נמצאי‬

‫*ריש‬.

‫הס‬

hasfarim

nimcaim

eclS.

yeg

1S et hasfarim.

.‫אצלה‬

hasfarim

nimcaim

ecel dov.

yeg

ledov et hasfarim.

hasfarim

nimcaim

eclenu.

ye§

lSnu et hasfarim.

hasfarim

nimcaim

eclam.

yeg

lahem et hasfarim.

.‫אצלם‬

‫נמצאים‬

‫?ריח‬

‫הש‬

hasfarim

nimcaim

eclexa.

ye§

lexS et hasfarim.

.‫אצלך‬

‫נמצאים‬

‫פרי ב‬

0‫ה‬

hasfarim

nimcaim

eclex.

yeg

lSx et hasfarim.

.‫אצלר‬

‫נ מצא י ם‬

‫פרים‬

‫הס‬

hasfarim

nimcaim

eclaxem.

yeg

laxem et hasfarim.

.‫אצלכם‬

‫נמצאים‬

‫פרי ם‬

‫הס‬

.‫אצל רב‬
.‫אצלנו‬

‫ י פ‬v ‫נ מ צ‬
‫נמצאים‬
j ‫נ מ צ א י‬

c ‫פרי‬

‫הס‬

r ‫ר י‬:

‫הס‬

‫פ ר י ם‬

‫הס‬

G . Transformation Drill

Instructor: He doesn't speak Hebrew.
Student: He doesn't have a chance to speak Hebrew.

h6 16 medaber ivrit.
eyn lo hizdamnut ledaber ivrit. h§m
lo medabrim ivrit.
eyn lahem hizdamnut ledaber ivrit.
ani lo medaber ivrit.
4yn 11 hizdamnut ledaber ivrit. atS
lo medaber ivrit.
eyn lexS hizdamnut ledaber ivrit.
Snu lo medabrim ivrit.
6yn lanu hizdamnut ledaber ivrit.
atem lo medabrim ivrit.
eyn laxem hizdamnut ledaber ivrit.
iSto 16 medaberet ivrit.
eyn leiSto hizdamnut ledaber ivrit.
hi lo medaberet ivrit.
eyn IS hizdamnut ledaber ivrit. St
lo medaberet ivrit.
eyn lSx hizdamnut ledaber ivrit.
atin lo medabrot ivrit.
eyn laxen hizdamnut ledaber ivrit.
hen lo medabrot ivrit.
eyn lahen hizdamnut ledaber ivrit.

.‫הוא לא מדבר עברית‬
.‫אין לו הזדמנות לדבר עברית‬

.‫הם לא מדברים עברית‬
.‫אין להם הזדמנות לדבר עברית‬

.‫אני לא מדבר עברית‬
.‫אין לי הזדמנות לדבר עברית‬
.‫אתה לא מדבר עברית‬
.‫אין לר הזדמנות לדבר עברית‬

.‫אנו לא מדברים עברית‬
.‫אין לנו הזדמנות לדבר עברית‬

.‫אתם לא מדברים עברית‬
.‫אין לכם הזדמנות לדבר עברית‬

.‫אשתו לא מדברת עברית‬
.‫אין לאשתו הזדמנות לדבר עברית‬

.‫היא לא מדברת עברית‬
.‫אין לה הזדמנות לדבר עברית‬

305

.‫את לא מדברת עברית‬
.‫אין לך הזדמנות לדבר עברית‬

‫אתן לא מדברות‬
.‫עברית‬

.‫אין לכן הזדמנות לדבר עברית‬

.‫הן לא מדברות עברית‬
.‫אין להן הזדמנות לדבר עברית‬

UNIT 15 HEBREW

BASIC COURSE

REVIEW CONVERSATIONS

‫ מה אתם‬:‫א‬
?‫עושים מחר‬

A: mS atem osim maxSr.
B: ani 16 yodea. ani xoSev
ge&yn lSnu toxnit.

‫ אני לא‬:‫ב‬
‫ אני חושב‬.‫יודע‬
‫שאין לנו‬
.‫תוכנית‬

A; anu rocim lehazmin otxem
lebruklin bSr.
B: todS raba. nismax meod.

‫ אנו רוצים‬:‫א‬
‫להזמין אתכם‬
‫לברוקלי ן‬
.‫בר‬
.‫ תורה רבה‬:‫ב‬

A: haim Se§ mat'im?
B: ken. behexlet.

.‫נשמח מאד‬
‫ האם שש‬:‫א‬
?‫מתאים‬
.‫ בהחלט‬.‫ כן‬:‫ב‬

306

BASIC
COURSE
HEBREW

C. ten li bevakaSa, et hasfarim hagdolim.
D: natSti lexS otSm etmol.
C:

UNIT £

?‫ איפה אתם גרים‬:‫ה‬
.‫ יש לנו בית נתל אניב‬:‫ו‬

16. lo natSta et hasfarim 11. natata

‫ את מספר הטלפון‬,‫שה‬,;‫נ‬.‫ ב‬,‫ תנו לי‬:‫ה‬
.‫שלכם‬

otSm lemirySm.

‫ אז תנו‬:‫ ה‬.‫ אין לנו ערי י ן טלפון‬:‫ו‬

D: lemirySm eyn et hasfarim.
C: k6n. yeg IS et hasfarim eclS babSit.

‫ את‬,‫ בבקשה‬,‫ תן לי‬:‫ג‬
.‫הספרים הגדולים‬
.‫ נתתי לך אותם אתמול‬:‫ד‬
‫ לא נתת את הספרים‬.‫ לא‬:‫ג‬
.‫ נתת אותם למרים‬.‫לי‬
.‫ למרים אין את הספרים‬:‫ד‬
‫ יש לה את הספרים‬.‫ כן‬:‫ג‬
.‫אצלה בבית‬

E: eyfo at6m garim.

.‫לי את הכתובת שלכם‬
?‫ אתה יורע איפה שמשרר התיירות‬:‫ז‬
.‫ זה אחרי הבנין הגרול הזה‬:‫ח‬
‫ אני הו_׳נ שנמצא את המקום‬.‫ תודה‬:‫ז‬
.‫י‬.‫ללא קו‬
‫ מה אתם‬.‫ איך לנו תוכנית לליל שישי‬:‫ט‬
?‫עושים‬
‫ אנו רוצים ללכת לראות את מר‬:‫י‬
.‫וויליאמם‬

F: yeg lSnu bait betel aviv.

E: tnu li bevakaga, et mispSr hatelefon
gelaxem.

‫ מר וויליאמם גר ערי י ן במלו‬: ‫ הא‬:‫ט‬
?‫ך רן‬
.‫ יש לו בית ברמת גך‬.‫ לא‬:‫י‬

F: eyn lanu adSin telefon.

?‫ אתה יודע את הכתובת שלו‬:‫ט‬

E: az tnu li et haktovet gelaxem.

.‫ יש לי את הכתובת במשרד‬.‫ כך‬:‫י‬

G: atS yodea eyfo gemisrSd hatayarut?
H: ze axarey habinySn hagadol haze.
G: todS. ani xogev genimcS et hamakom lelo
kogi.

I: eyn lanu toxnit lelel gig!. mS atem
osim.
J: anu rocim lalexet lir'ot et mir Williams.
I: haim mar Williams gar adSin bemalon dan?
J: lo. yeg lo bait berSmat gan.

I: ata yodea et hakt6vet gelo?
J: ken. yeg li et haktovet bamisrad.

307

UNIT 15 HEBREW

BASIC COURSE

12.1 Friday Evening Dinner
Hel
lo,
Mrs
.
Wil
lia
ms.
Hel
lo,
Mr.
Wil
lia
ms.
How
are
you
?

M
R
S
.
C
A
S
P
I

Salo
m
gver
et
Will
iams
.
Salo
m
mar
Will
iams
, ma
Slom
xem.
‫שלום‬
,
‫גברת‬
‫וויל‬
‫יאמס‬
.
‫שלום‬
‫ מר‬,
‫רריל‬
‫יאמס‬
‫ מה‬.
‫שלומ‬
?‫כם‬

308

BASIC
COURSE
HEBREW

UNIT £

MR
.
WI
LL
IA
MS
Good Sabbath.

Hello.

galom. Sabcit Salom.
(Greeting used from

.‫ שכת שלום‬.‫שלום‬

‫שבח שלום‬

Sabfit Salom
sunset Friday to sunset
Saturday)
MR
S.
CA
SP
I

‫אני שמחה מאד‬
.‫שבאתם‬

I'm
very
happy
that
you
came.
ani
smexa
meod
SebSt
em.

309

UNIT 15 HEBREW

BASIC COURSE

MRS. WILLIAMS
Ho
w
co
ul
d
we
re
fu
se
?
we were
able to
refuse
eyx
yaxoln
u
lesare
v.
ya
x6
ln
u
le
sa
re
v

‫איר יכולנו‬
?‫לסרב‬

‫יכול‬
‫נו‬
‫לסרב‬

310

BASIC
COURSE
HEBREW

MRS. CASPI
L
e
t
'
s

e
w
i
n
e

g
o

f
o
r

t
o

K
i
d
d
u
s
h
.

t
h
e
t
a
b
l
e

p
o
u
r

l
e
t
'
s

w
i
n
e
(Sa
bba
th
cer
emo
ny)

we
will
appr
oach
tabl
e
M
o
s
h
e
,
p
l
e
a
s
e
p
o
u
r
t
h

h
&
v
a
n
i
g
f
i
S
l
a
S
u
l
x
f
i

311

UNIT £

UNIT 15 HEBREW

BASIC COURSE

n
.
hciv
a
niga
S
(l.p
l.fu
t.
Sulx
an
(m)
moSe.
m
e
z
o
g
b
e
v
a
k
a
S
a
e
t
h
a
y
a
i
n
l
e
k
i
d
u
S
.

‫הבה ניגש‬
.‫לשולחן‬

‫הבה‬
‫ניג‬
‫ש‬
‫שו לחן‬

,‫משה‬
‫מזוג בבקשה‬
‫את היין‬
.‫לקידוש‬

‫מזוג‬
‫ייז‬

‫קידוש‬
mezo
g
(m.s
.imv
.)
yfii
n
(m)
kidu
S(m)

312

BASIC
COURSE
HEBREW

UNIT £

12.2 ADDITIONAL VOCABULARY
Good evening.
erev tov.
Good morning.
boker tov.
Good night.
layla tov.
The
above
Hebrew
expressions
are
almost
identical to the English in
usage,
/erev/
'evening'
begins at sunset. In the
afternoon /Sal6m/ is used.
Happy holiday.

xag
sameax.

This greeting is used on
holidays,similarly
to
/Sabfit Salom/.
Happy New Year. Sana tovS. .‫שנה‬
‫טובה‬
Congratulations. mazal tov.
.
‫מזל טוב‬
luck mazal (m)
‫מזל‬

.‫ערב טוב‬
.‫בוקר טוב‬
.‫לילה טוב‬

313

UNIT 15 HEBREW

BASIC COURSE

12•3 Vocabulary Drills

A. Transformation Drill
Instructor: We didn't come yesterday.
Student: We couldn't get here.
16
ba
nu
et
mo
l.
lo
bf
it
em
et
mo
l.
lo
bf

i
t
i

f
i
t
a

e
t
m
6
l
.

e
t
m
o
l
.

1
6

1
6

b

314

BASIC
COURSE
HEBREW
bf
it
et
mo
l.
16
bf
it
en
et
mo
l.
B.
Substituti
on Drill
lo yaxolnu
lehagia.
16
yaxoltem
lehagia.
lo yaxolti

lehag
ia.
lo
yax61
ta
lehag
ia.
16
yax6l
t
lehag
ia.
lo
yaxol
ten
lehag
ia.

‫לא‬
‫באנ‬
‫ו‬
‫אתמ‬

‫ול‬
.
‫לא‬
‫בא‬
‫תם‬
‫את‬
‫מו‬
.‫ל‬
‫לא‬
‫בא‬
‫תי‬
‫את‬
‫מו‬
.‫ל‬
‫לא‬
‫בא‬
‫ת‬
‫את‬
‫מו‬
.‫ל‬
‫לא‬

315

UNIT £

UNIT 15 HEBREW

BASIC COURSE

‫באת‬
.‫אתמול‬
‫לא‬
‫באתן‬
.‫אתמול‬

316

BASIC
COURSE
HEBREW

UNIT £

Please pour the wine.
mezog bevakaSa et hayain.
mizgi
mizgu
mezogna

‫מזוג בבקשה‬
,‫את היין‬

‫מזג‬
‫י‬
‫מזג‬
‫ו‬
‫מזו‬
‫גבה‬

317

UNIT 15 HEBREW

BASIC COURSE

GRAMMAR NOTES
12.4 Cardinal Numbers with Nouns
a)Note in the following example that the number precedes the noun that is quantified.
lexi kearbafi rexov6t.

‫״‬Go about four blocks."

With the exception of /exfid, axfit/ "one" which follow the noun, the cardinal
numbers precede the noun.
/y6m exfid/
/Slogfi yamim/

"one day"
"three days"

b)The number /gnfiim, Stfiim/ "two" has the alternate forms /Sn£y, Stey/ when
preceding the quantified noun.
/3n6y avironim/
/gtSy oniot/

"two airplanes"
"two ships"

Compare, on the other hand, the following:
/li y6S gney sfarim,
vegfim 16 yeg gnfiim./

‫״‬X have a book,
and he has two, also."

c)Jn certain stereotyped expressions the singular form of the noun is
used after numbers higher than ten.
/eser Sanim/
/esrim ganfi/

"ten years"
"twenty years"

1

d)When the noun is definite the preceding number is treated as a construct state noun
itself. The masculine numbers "three" to "ten" have the alternate forms listed below.
Compare then:

/

/gloga batim/
/Sloget habatim/

"three houses"
"the three houses"

Some feminine numbers have alternate forms in formal speech, but otherwise they
do not. However, many speakers use the alternate, construct- state form of the
masculine numbers before feminine nouns which are definite.
/galog oni6t/
/gloget haoni6t/

"three ships"
"the three ships"

It should be remembered that there is wide variation in the use of numbers.
th
e
th
e
th
e
th
e
th
e
th
e
th
e
th
e

three...

/Sl6Set ha-/

four...

/arbfiat ha-/

five...

/xam^get ha-/

six...

/geget ha-/

seven...

/giv'fit ha-/

eight...

/gmonfit ha-/

nine...

/tiS'at ha-/

ten...

/as^ret ha-/

318

BASIC
COURSE
HEBREW

UNIT £

In the following drills some new plurals are introduced. Note that
some masculine plural nouns end in /-&t/ and some feminine plural nouns in
/-im/.
A. Transformation Drill - Student adds one.
Instructor: I have one
table. Student: I have two
tables.

S

Instructor:

l gulxfin exfid.
yeg 1 gn£y gulxanot.
.‫ל שולחן אחד‬
'
1
‫י‬
i
y£ l gney gulxanot.
yeS l glogfi gulxan6t.
.‫ל שני שולחנות‬
g
i
i
‫י‬
ye l glogfi gulxanot.
yeg l arbafi gulxanot.
.‫ל שלושה שולחנות‬
g
i
i
‫י‬
ye l arbafi gulxanot.
yeg 1 xamigfi gulxanot.
.‫ל ארבעה שולחנות‬
g
i
i
‫י‬
ye l xamigfi gulxanot.
yeg l gigfi gulxanot.
.‫ל חמשה שולחנות‬
g
i
i
‫י‬
yS 1 gigfi gulxanot.
yeg 1 giv'fi gulxan6t.
.‫ל ששה שולחנות‬
g
i
i
‫י‬
ye l giv'fi gulxanot.
yeg 1 gmonfi gulxanot.
.‫ל שבעה שולחנות‬
g
i
1
‫י‬
ye 1 gmonfi gulxanot.
yeg l tig'fi gulxanot.
.‫ל שמונה שולחנות‬
g
1
i
‫י‬
ye l tig'fi gulxanot.
yeg l asarfi gulxanot.
.‫ל תשעה שולחנות‬
g
i
i
‫י‬
B. Transformation Drill - Repeat Drill A in reverse. Student subtracts one.
yeg 11 asarS gulxanot. Student: yeg li
tig'a gulxa,not.
.‫ יש לי עשרה שולחנות‬:‫מורה‬

.‫ יש לי תשעה שולחנות‬:‫תלמיד‬

319

‫י‬
‫ש‬
‫י‬
‫ש‬
‫י‬
‫ש‬
‫י‬
‫ש‬
‫י‬
‫ש‬
‫י‬
‫ש‬
‫י‬
‫ש‬
‫י‬
‫ש‬
‫י‬
‫ש‬

UNIT 15 HEBREW

BASIC COURSE

The instructor may vary Drills A and B by selecting numbers at random.
C. Transformation Drill - Student adds one.
Instructor: We want‫ ׳‬to see one big city.
Student: We want to see two big cities.
finu rocim lir'ot ir axfit gdolfi.
finu
rocim
lir'ot
gtey
arim
gdol6t. finu rocim lir'ot gt6y arim gdol6t.
finu
rocim
lir'ot
galog
arim
gdol6t. finu rocim lir'ot galog arim
gdolot.
finu
rocim
lir'ot
firba
arim
gdolot. finu rocim lir'ot firba arim
gdolot.
anu
rocim
lir'ot
xameg
arim
gdol6t. finu rocim lir'ot xameg arim
gdolot.
anu rocim lir'ot geg arim gdolot.
finu rocim lir'ot geg arim gdolot.
anu rocim lir'ot geva arim gdolot.
finu rocim lir'ot geva arim gdolot.
finu
rocim
lir'ot
gmone
arim
gdolot. finu rocim lir'ot gmone arim
gdolot.
finu
rocim
lir'6t
tega
arim
gdolot. finu rocim lir'ot t6ga arim gdolot.
finu rocim lir'ot eser arim gdolot.

320

‫ אנו‬.‫רוצים לראות עיר אחת גדולה‬5 ‫אנו‬
.‫רוצים לראות שתי ערים גדולות‬
.‫אנו רוצים לראות שלוש ערים גדולות‬
.‫אנו רוצים לראות ארבע ערים גדולות‬
.‫אנו רוצים לראות חמש ערים גדולות‬
.‫אנו רוצים לראות שש ערים גדולות‬
‫ אנו‬.‫אנו רוצים לראות שבע ערים גדולות‬
‫ אנו‬.‫רוצים לראות שמונה ערים גדולות‬
.‫רוצים לראות תשע ערים גדולות‬

BASIC
COURSE
HEBREW

UNIT £

D.Transformation Drill - Repeat Drill C in reverse. Student subtracts one.
Instructor: finu rocim lir'ot £ser arim gdolot.
Student: finu rocim lir'ot t6Sa arim gdolot.
The instructor may vary Drills C and D by selecting numbers at random.
E.Transformation Drill - Student totals numbers.
Instructor: I have four books, and he has seven.
Student: We have eleven books.

.‫ולו יש שבעה‬

‫לי י ארבעה‬
,‫ש ספרים‬

.‫עשר ספרים‬-‫יש לכי אחד‬

.‫ולו יש ארבעה‬

‫לי י שמונה‬
,‫ש ספרים‬

.‫סעשר ספרים‬
‫יש לבו שני ־‬

.‫ולו יש שלושה‬

‫לי י עשרה‬
,‫ש ספרים‬

‫עשר‬-‫יש לנו שלושה‬
.‫ספרים‬

.‫ולו יש ששה‬

‫לי י שמונה‬
,‫ש ספרים‬

yeg lfinu arbfiasar sfarim.
li yeg sefer exfid, vel6 yeg
arbfiasar.
yeg lfinu xamigfiasar sfarim.
li yeg tig'fi sfarim, velo yeg giv'fi.
yfig lfinu gigfiasar sfarim.
li yeg gmonfi sfarim, velo yeg tig'fi.
y£g lfinu givfiasar sfarim.
li yeg asarfi sfarim, velo yeg gmonfi.
yeg lanu gmonfiasar sfarim. li
y£g axfidasar sfarim, velo yeg gmonfi.

‫עשר‬-‫יש לנו ארבעה‬
.‫ספרים‬

.‫עשר‬-‫יש ארבעה‬

,‫לי י ספר אחד‬
‫ש ולו‬

.‫עשר ספרים‬-‫יש לנו חמשה‬

.‫ולו יש שבעה‬

‫לי י תשעה‬
,‫ש ספרים‬

.‫עשר ספרים‬-‫יש לנו ששה‬

.‫ולו יש תשעה‬

‫לי י שמונה‬
,‫ש ספרים‬

.‫עשר ספרים‬-‫יש לנו שבעה‬

.‫ולו יש שמונה‬

‫לי י עעדה‬
,‫ש ספרים‬

‫עשר‬-‫יש לנו שמונה‬
.‫ספרים‬

‫ ולו יש‬,‫ם‬
.‫שמונה‬

‫עשד‬-‫לי י אחד‬
‫ש ספרי‬

.‫עשר ספרים‬-‫יש לנו תשעה‬

‫ ולו יש‬,‫עשר ספרים‬-‫לי י שלושה‬
‫ש שבעה‬
.[;
‫'נ עשרים ספרי ־‬. ‫יש‬
‫ו‬

li yeS arbafi sfarim, vel6 yeg giv'fi.
yeg lfinu axfidasfir
sfarim. li yeg gmonfi sfarim, velo
yeg arbafi.
y£g lfinu sneymasar
sfarim. li yeg asarfi sfarim, velo
yeg glogfi.
yeg lfinu glogfiasar
sfarim. li yeg gmonfi sfarim, velo
yeg gigfi.

321

UNIT 15 HEBREW

BASIC COURSE

yeg lfinu tigfiasar sfarim. li y£g glogfiasar sfarim vel6 yeg Siv'a. yeg lfinu
esrim sfarim.
F. Transformation Drill - Student total numbers.
Instructor: I saw four women speaking Hebrew,
and you saw seven. Student We saw eleven women speaking Hebrew.

ani raiti arba naSim medabrot ivrit,
veata raita ¥eva
rainu axat'esre naSxm medabrot ivrit ani
raiti Smone naSim medabrot ivrit,
veata raita arba
rainu Steym'esre naSim medabrot ivrit ani
raiti iSa axat medaberet ivrit,
veata raita Steym"esre,
rainu SloS'esre naSim medabrot ivrit, ani
raiti xameS naSim medabrot ivrit,
veata raita te§a
rainu arba'esre naSim medabrot ivrit ani
raiti eser naSim medabrot ivrit,
veata raita xameUT rainu xameS'esre naSim
medabrot ivrit ani raiti xameX'esre naSim
medabrot ivrit,
veata raita axat rainu Se§'esre naSim
medabrot ivrit

,‫אני ראיתי ארבע נשים מדברות עברית‬
.‫ואתה ראית שבע‬
(‫גרה‬
‫ ־‬7 ‫ע‬-‫)אחת‬

,‫אני ראיתי שמונה נשים מדברות עברית‬
.‫ואתה ראית ארבע‬
(‫עשרה‬-‫)שוזים‬

,‫ אחת מדברת עברית‬,‫אני ראיתי אשר‬
.‫עשרה‬-!:‫ואתה ראית שת י‬
(‫עשרה‬-‫)שלוש‬

‫ ואתה‬,‫אני ראיתי חמש נשים מדברות עברית‬
.‫ראית תשע‬
(‫עשרה‬-‫)ארבע‬

‫ ואתה‬,‫אני ראיתי עשר נשים מדברות עברית‬
.‫ראית חמש‬
(‫עשרה‬-‫)חמש‬

,‫עשרה נשים מדברות עברית‬-‫אני ראיתי חמש‬
.‫ואתה ראית אחת‬
(‫עשרה‬-‫)שש‬

322

UNIT 12

BASIC COURSE

HEBREW

,‫אני ראיתי תשע נשים מדברות עברית‬
ani raiti teSa naSim medabrot ivrit,
(‫עשרה‬-‫ )שבע‬.‫ואתה ראית שמונה‬
veata raita Smone. rainu Svaesre naSim
,‫אני ראיתי שמונה נשים מדברות עברית‬
medabrot ivrit. ani raiti Smone na&im
.‫ואתה ראית עשר‬
medabrot ivrit,
veata raita eser. rainu Smonaesre naSim
medabrot i
v
r
i
t
.
(
‫ה‬
‫ר‬
‫ש‬
‫ע‬
‫ה‬
‫כ‬
‫ו‬
‫מ‬
‫)ש‬
ani raiti Slogesre nagim medabrot ivrit,,‫עשרה בשים מדברות עברית‬-‫אני ראיתי שלוש‬
veata raita .‫ואתה‬
,‫עשרה נשים מדברות עברית‬-‫אני ראיתי שבע‬
‫ראית שש‬
(‫ )עשרים‬.‫ואתה ראית שלוש‬
rainu tSaesre nasim medabrot
ivrit.
(
‫ה‬
‫ר‬
‫ש‬
‫ע‬
‫ע‬
‫ש‬
‫)ת‬
ani raiti svaesre naSim medabrot ivrit,
veata raita SaloS. rainu esrim naSim medabrot ivrit.
.‫ם‬

‫ יש לנו שני ספ‬:‫מורה‬
‫ תנו לנו את ש‬:‫תלמיד‬

G. Transformation
Drill
Instructor: We
have two books.
Student: Give us
the two books.

,‫הספרים‬

UNIT 12

BASIC COURSE

HEBREW

sney hasfarim.

.‫ו את שני הספרים‬

SloSet hasfarim. .‫ו את שלושת הספרים‬
arbaat hasfarim..‫הספרים‬
h

a

s

f

a

r

‫ם‬

‫י‬

‫ר‬

‫פ‬

‫ס‬

‫ה‬

SeSet hasfarim.
Siv'at hasfarim.

i

m

.

‫ארבעת‬
.

‫ת‬

‫את‬
‫ש‬

‫מ‬

‫ח‬

‫ו‬

xameSet
‫ת‬

‫א‬

‫ו‬

.‫ו את ששת הספרים‬
.‫ו את שבעת הספרים‬

Smonat hasfarim. .‫ו את שמונת הספרים‬
tiS'at hasfarim. .‫ו את תשעת‬
ye

lan

s

u

ye

lan

s

u
‫✓י‬
‫ ׳‬lan

yes
' u
v
lan
ye
u
s
lan
ye
u
s
lan
ye
u
S
lan
ye
u
s
lan
ye
u
S
lan
ye
u
s

Sney
s tnu
sloSa
tnu
arbaa
tnu
xamiS
a tnu
SiSa
s tnu
siv'
a
tnu
Smona
tnu
ti£'a
tnu
asara
tnu

far1m.
lanu et
sfarim.
lanu et
sfarim.
lanu et
sfarim.
lanu et
farim.
lanu et
sfarim.
lanu et
sfarim.
lanu et
sfarim.
lanu et
sfarim.
lanu et

‫הספרים‬

aseret hasfarim. .‫הספריםש לנו ו את עשרת‬
‫ש לנו‬
‫ש לנו‬
‫ש לנו‬

.‫שני ספרים‬

‫תנו‬

.‫שלושה ספרים‬

‫תנו‬

.‫ארבעה ספרים‬

‫תנו‬

.‫חמשה ספרים‬

‫ש לנו‬

‫תנו‬

‫ש לנו‬

‫תנו‬

‫ש לנו‬

‫תנו‬

‫ש לנו‬
‫ש לנו‬

.‫שישה ספרים‬
.‫שבעה ספרים‬

.‫שמונה ספרים‬

‫תנו‬

.‫תשעה ספרים‬

‫תנו‬

.‫עשרה ספרים‬

‫תנו‬

UNIT 12

HEBREW

BASIC COURSE

H. Transformation Drill
Instructor: Yesterday I saw two ships. Student: Where did you see the two ships'
etmol raiti stey oniot.

eyfo raita
etmol raiti Salos oniot.
eyfo raita
etmol raiti arba oniot.
eyfo raita
etmol raiti xameS oniot.
eyfo raita
etmol raiti SeS oniot.
eyfo raita
etmol raiti Seva oniot.
eyfo raita
etmol raiti Smone oniot.
eyfo raita
etmol raiti tesa oniot.
eyfo raita
etmol raiti eser oniot.
eyfo raita
Stey
haoniot.
xameset
haoniot.
Smonat

et
et
et
et
et
et
et
et
et

haoniot.

Sloset

arbaat

haoniot.

haoniot
siv'at
haoniot.

Seset
haoniot.
tis'at

haoniot. aseret haoniot.
.‫אתמול ראיתי שתי אוניות‬

‫איפה ראית את שתי‬
/‫האוניות‬

.‫אתמול ראיתי שלוש אוניות‬

‫איפה ראית את שלושת‬
?‫האוניות‬

.‫אתמול ראיתי ארבע אוניות‬

‫איפה ראית את ארבעת‬
?‫האוניות‬

.‫אתמול ראיתי חמש אוניות‬

‫איפה ראית את חמשת‬
?‫האוניות‬

.‫אתמול ראיתי שיש אוניות‬

‫איפה ראית את ששת‬
?‫האוניות‬

.‫אתמיל ראיתי שבע אוניות‬

‫איפה ראית את שבעת‬
?‫האוניות‬

.‫אתמול ראיתי שמונה אוניות‬

‫איפה ראית את שמונת‬
?‫האוניות‬

.‫אתמול ראיתי תשע אוניות‬

‫איפה ראית את תשעת‬
?‫האוניות‬

.‫אתמול ראיתי עשיר אוניות‬

‫איפה ראית את עשרת‬
';‫האוניות‬

UNIT 15 HEBREW

12.5 Ordinal Numbers

BASIC COURSE

a) The ordinal numbers are adjectives. The numbers from "second" to
"tenth" have forms resembling the corresponding cardinal numbers. Ordinal
numbers "eleventh" and higher are identical in form to the corresponding
cardinal numbers, but they follow the noun as adjectives.

first
second
third
fourth
fifth
sixth
seventh
eighth
ninth
tenth
eleventh
twelfth etc.

Masculine
riSon
geni
SliSi
revii
xamiSi
SiSi
Svii
Smini
tSii
asirl
axad'asar
Sneym* asar

Feminine
riSonfi
Snifi
SliSit
reviit
xamiSit
SiSit
gviit
Sminit
tSiit
asirit
axat'esre
Steym'esre

‫זכר‬
‫ראשון‬
‫שני‬
‫שלישי‬
‫רביעי‬
‫חמישי‬
‫שישי‬
‫שביעי‬
‫שמיני‬
‫תשיעי‬
‫עשירי‬
‫עשר‬-‫אחד‬
‫עשר‬-‫שניט‬

b) The names of the days of the week are proper nouns. Thus, the following
distinction is made.
/bey6m riSon/
/bayom hariSon/

"on Sunday"
"on the first day"

The ordinal number may be used with the name of the
day. /bey6m riSon hariSon/

"on the first Sunday"

/Sabfit/ often has the definite article when
modified. /haSabfit hariSona/

"the first Saturday"

A. Transformation Drill
Instructor: Go four blocks.
Student: Turn right at the fourth street.
lex
lex
lex
lex
lex
lex

arbafi rexovot.
gney rexovot.
SloSfi rexovot.
SiSa rexovot.
Smona rexovot.
asarfi rexovot.
lex
xamiSa
rexovot
lex
Siv'fi
rexovot. lex tig'a
rexovot.
barexov harevii
pne yamina.
barexov hageni
pne yamina.
barexov hagligi
pne yamina.
barexov hagigi
pne yamina.

S

barexov hagmini pne yamina.
barexov haasiri pne yamina.
barexov haxamigi pne yamina.
barexov hagvii pne yamina.
barexov hatgii pne yamina.
.‫ לך שני רחובות‬.‫לך ארבעה רחובות‬
.‫ לך שישה רחונות‬.‫לר שלושה רחובות‬
‫ לך‬.‫ עשרה רחובות‬.‫שמונה רחובות‬
‫ לך‬.‫ לך שבעה רחובות‬.‫חמישה רחובות‬
.‫תשעה רחובות‬

326

‫נקבה‬
‫ראשונה‬
‫שניה‬
‫שלישית‬
‫רביעית‬
‫חמישית‬
‫שישית‬
‫שביעית‬
‫שמינית‬
‫תשיעית‬
‫ע״ירית‬
‫אהת עשרה‬
‫שתי□ עשרה‬

BASIC
COURSE
This drill may be varied by making it an expansionHEBREW drill.

UNIT £

instructor: lex arbafi rexovot.
,‫לך ארבעה רחוכות‬
student: lex arbafi rexovot, ubarexov ‫ לר ארבעה רחובות וברחוב‬harevii pne yemina.
. ‫בנה ימינה‬
‫הרביעי ־‬

327

B.

UNIT 15 HEBREW

BASIC COURSE

Transformation Drill

Instructor: Go four blocks.
Student: Turn left at the
lexi fourth corner.
lexi
‫לכי‬
viit
lexi arba
‫ארב‬
pni
lexi fi
‫עה‬
smol
lexi rexo
‫רחו‬
vot.
a.
lexi
‫בות‬
bapi
lexi asar
.
fi
nfi
lexi
‫לכי‬
rexo
haas
lexi
‫עשר‬
vot.
irit
‫ה‬
gney
pni
‫רחו‬
rexo
smol
‫בות‬
vot.
a.
.
glog
bapi
‫לכי‬
fi
nfi
‫שני‬
rexo
hagn
‫רחו‬
v6t.
ifi
‫בות‬
xami
pni
.
gfi
smol
‫לכי‬
rexo
a.
‫שלו‬
vot
bapi
‫שה‬
gmon
na
‫וחו‬
fi
haSl
‫בות‬
rexo
iSit
.
vot.
pni
‫לכי‬
gigf
sm6l
‫חמי‬
i
a.
‫שה‬
rexo
bapina
‫רחו‬
vot. haxamig
‫בות‬
giv' it pni
.
fi
smola.
‫לכי‬
rexo bapinfi
‫שמו‬
vot. hagmini
‫נה‬
tig' t pni
‫רחו‬
fi
smola.
‫בות‬
rexo bapina
.
vot. haSigit
‫לכי‬
b
pni
‫שיש‬
a
smola.
‫ה‬
p
bapina
‫רחו‬
i
haSviit
‫בות‬
n
pni
.
f
smola.
‫לכי‬
i
bapina
‫שי‬
‫עה‬
h
hatSiit
‫רחו‬
a
pni
‫בות‬
r
smola.
.
e

328

BASIC
COURSE
‫לכי‬
‫תשעה‬
‫רחוב‬
.‫ות‬

HEBREW

329

UNIT £

UNIT 15 HEBREW

BASIC COURSE

This
drill
may
be
varied
by
may
be
varied by making it
an expansion drill.
I
n
s
t
r
u
c
t
o
r
:
l
e
x
i
a
r
b
a
f
i
r
e
x
o
v
6
t
.
S
t
u
d
e
n
t
:
l
e
x
i
a

330

BASIC
COURSE
r
b
a
f
i

HEBREW

r
e
x
o
v
o
t
,
u
b
a
p
i
n
a
h
a
r
e
v
i
i
t
p
n
i
s
m
o
l
a
.
C. Transformation Drill
I
n
s
t
r
u

331

UNIT £

UNIT 15 HEBREW

BASIC COURSE

c
t
o
r
:
H
e
l
i
v
e
s
e
l
e
v
e
n
b
l
o
c
k
s
f
r
o
m
h
e
r
e
.
S
t
u
d
e
n
t
:
G

332

BASIC
COURSE
HEBREW

o
u
p
t
o
t
h
e
e
l
e
v
e
n
t
h
s
t
r
e
e
t
.
hu gfir
axad'as
ar
rexovot
mikan.
l
ex ad
harexo
v
haaxad
'asar.
hu
gfir
&neym'
asar
rexovo
t
mikan.
l
ex fid
harexo
v

hagn
eym'
asar
. hu
gfir
glog
fias
ar
rexo
v6t
mikf
in.
l
ex
ad
hare
xov
hagl
ogaa
sar.
hu

333

UNIT £

UNIT 15 HEBREW
gar
arbfia
sar
rexovo
t
mikan.
l
ex fid
harexo
v
haarbf
iasar.
hu
gfir
xamigf
iasar
rexovo
t
mikfin
.
l
ex fid
harex6
v
haxami
gfiasa
r. hu
gfir
gigfia
sar
rexovo
t
mikfin
.
l
ex ad
harexo
v
hagigf
iasar.
hu gar
Sivfia
sar
rexovo
t
mikfin
.
l
ex ad
harexo
v
hagiv&

BASIC COURSE
asar
. hu
gfir
gmon
fias
ar
rexo
v6t
mikf
in.
l
ex
ad
hare
xov
hagm
onfi
asar
. hu
gar
tigf
iasa
r
rexo
vot
mika
n.
l
ex
fid
hare
xov
hati
gfia
sar.
hu
gar
esri
m
rexo
vot
mika
n.
l
ex
fid
harex
ov
haesr
im.

334

‫‪UNIT £‬‬

‫ל‬
‫ך‬

‫‪HEBREW‬‬

‫ע‬
‫ר‬
‫ה‬
‫ר‬
‫ח‬
‫ו‬
‫ב‬
‫ה‬
‫א‬
‫ח‬
‫ר‬
‫‬‫ע‬
‫ש‬
‫ר‬
‫‪.‬‬
‫ה‬
‫ו‬
‫א‬
‫ג‬
‫ר‬
‫ש‬
‫נ‬
‫י‬
‫ם‬
‫־‬
‫ע‬
‫ש‬
‫ר‬
‫ר‬
‫ח‬
‫ו‬
‫ב‬
‫ו‬
‫ת‬
‫מ‬
‫כ‬
‫א‬
‫ן‬
‫‪.‬‬

‫‪335‬‬

‫‪BASIC‬‬
‫‪COURSE‬‬
‫הוא גר‬
‫רעשר‬
‫אח ־‬
‫רחובות‬
‫מכאן‪.‬‬

‫‪UNIT 15 HEBREW‬‬

‫‪BASIC COURSE‬‬
‫ל‬
‫ך‬

‫ל‬
‫ך‬

‫ע‬
‫ר‬

‫ע‬
‫ד‬

‫ה‬
‫ר‬
‫ח‬
‫ו‬
‫ב‬

‫ה‬
‫ר‬
‫ח‬
‫ו‬
‫ב‬

‫ה‬
‫ש‬
‫ל‬

‫ה‬
‫ש‬
‫נ‬
‫י‬
‫ם‬

‫ו‬
‫־‬
‫׳‬
‫ש‬
‫ה‬
‫־‬
‫ע‬
‫ש‬
‫ר‬
‫‪.‬‬
‫ה‬
‫ו‬
‫א‬
‫ג‬
‫ר‬
‫א‬
‫ר‬
‫ב‬
‫ע‬
‫ה‬
‫‬‫ע‬
‫ש‬
‫ר‬
‫ו‬
‫ח‬
‫ו‬
‫ב‬
‫ו‬
‫ת‬
‫מ‬

‫‪336‬‬

‫ע‬
‫ש‬
‫ר‬
‫‪.‬‬
‫ה‬
‫ו‬
‫א‬
‫ג‬
‫ר‬
‫ש‬
‫ל‬
‫ו‬
‫ש‬
‫ה‬
‫‬‫ע‬
‫ש‬
‫ר‬
‫ר‬
‫ח‬
‫ו‬
‫ב‬
‫ו‬
‫ת‬
‫מ‬
‫כ‬
‫א‬
‫ן‬
‫‪.‬‬

‫‪UNIT £‬‬

‫ל‬
‫ך‬

‫‪HEBREW‬‬

‫ע‬
‫ד‬
‫ה‬
‫ר‬
‫ח‬
‫ו‬
‫ב‬
‫ה‬
‫א‬
‫ר‬
‫ב‬
‫ע‬
‫ה‬
‫‬‫ע‬
‫ש‬
‫ר‬
‫‪.‬‬
‫ה‬
‫ו‬
‫א‬
‫ג‬
‫ר‬
‫ח‬
‫מ‬
‫י‬
‫ש‬
‫ה‬
‫־‬
‫ע‬
‫ש‬
‫ר‬
‫ר‬
‫ח‬
‫ו‬
‫ב‬
‫ו‬
‫ת‬
‫מ‬
‫כ‬
‫א‬
‫ן‬
‫‪.‬‬

‫‪337‬‬

‫‪BASIC‬‬
‫‪ COURSE‬כ‬
‫א‬
‫ן‬
‫‪.‬‬

‫‪UNIT 15 HEBREW‬‬

‫‪BASIC COURSE‬‬

‫ל‬
‫ך‬

‫‪.‬‬

‫ע‬
‫ר‬
‫ה‬
‫ר‬
‫ח‬
‫ו‬
‫ב‬
‫ה‬
‫ח‬
‫מ‬
‫י‬
‫ש‬
‫ה‬
‫־‬
‫ע‬
‫ש‬
‫ר‬
‫‪.‬‬
‫ה‬
‫ו‬
‫א‬
‫ג‬
‫ר‬
‫ש‬
‫י‬
‫ש‬
‫ה‬
‫‬‫ע‬
‫י‬
‫ש‬
‫ר‬
‫ר‬
‫ח‬
‫ו‬
‫ב‬
‫ו‬
‫ת‬
‫מ‬
‫כ‬
‫א‬
‫ן‬

‫‪338‬‬

‫‪.‬‬
‫‪UNIT £‬‬

‫‪HEBREW‬‬

‫‪BASIC‬‬
‫‪ COURSE‬ל‬
‫ך‬
‫ע‬
‫ד‬
‫ה‬
‫ר‬
‫ח‬
‫ו‬
‫ב‬
‫ה‬
‫ש‬
‫י‬
‫ש‬
‫ה‬
‫‬‫ע‬
‫ש‬
‫ר‬
‫‪.‬‬
‫ה‬
‫ו‬
‫א‬
‫ג‬
‫ר‬
‫ש‬
‫ב‬
‫ע‬
‫ר‬
‫‪.‬‬
‫‬‫ע‬
‫ש‬
‫ר‬
‫ר‬
‫ח‬
‫ו‬
‫ב‬
‫ו‬
‫ת‬
‫מ‬
‫כ‬
‫א‬
‫ן‬

‫‪339‬‬

‫‪UNIT 15 HEBREW‬‬

‫‪BASIC COURSE‬‬
‫‪.‬‬

‫ל‬
‫ך‬
‫ע‬
‫ר‬
‫ה‬
‫ר‬
‫ח‬
‫ו‬
‫ב‬
‫ה‬
‫ש‬
‫ב‬
‫ע‬
‫ה‬
‫‬‫ע‬
‫ש‬
‫ר‬
‫‪.‬‬
‫ה‬
‫ו‬
‫א‬
‫ג‬
‫ר‬
‫ש‬
‫מ‬
‫ו‬
‫נ‬
‫ר‬
‫‪.‬‬
‫‬‫ע‬
‫ש‬
‫ר‬
‫ו‬
‫ח‬
‫ו‬
‫ב‬
‫ו‬
‫ת‬
‫מ‬
‫כ‬
‫א‬
‫ן‬

‫‪340‬‬

‫‪.‬‬
‫‪UNIT £‬‬

‫‪HEBREW‬‬

‫‪BASIC‬‬
‫‪ COURSE‬ל‬
‫ן‬
‫־‬
‫ע‬
‫ד‬
‫ה‬
‫ר‬
‫ח‬
‫ו‬
‫ב‬
‫ה‬
‫ש‬
‫מ‬
‫ו‬
‫נ‬
‫ה‬
‫־‬
‫ע‬
‫ש‬
‫ר‬
‫‪.‬‬
‫ה‬
‫ו‬
‫א‬
‫ג‬
‫ר‬
‫ת‬
‫ש‬
‫ע‬
‫ה‬
‫‬‫ע‬
‫ש‬
‫ר‬
‫ר‬
‫ח‬
‫ו‬
‫ב‬
‫ו‬
‫ת‬
‫ג‬
‫־‬
‫׳‬
‫ש‬
‫״‬
‫ן‬

‫‪341‬‬

‫‪BASIC COURSE‬‬
‫ה‬
‫ר‬
‫ח‬
‫ו‬
‫ב‬
‫ה‬
‫ע‬
‫ש‬
‫ר‬
‫י‬
‫ם‬
‫‪.‬‬

‫‪UNIT 15 HEBREW‬‬
‫ל‬
‫ך‬
‫ע‬
‫ר‬
‫ה‬
‫ר‬
‫ח‬
‫ו‬
‫ב‬
‫ה‬
‫ת‬
‫ש‬
‫‪:‬‬
‫ה‬
‫‬‫ע‬
‫ש‬
‫ר‬
‫‪.‬‬
‫ה‬
‫ו‬
‫א‬
‫ג‬
‫ר‬
‫ע‬
‫ש‬
‫ר‬
‫י‬
‫ם‬
‫ר‬
‫ח‬
‫ו‬
‫ב‬
‫ו‬
‫ת‬
‫מ‬
‫כ‬
‫א‬
‫ן‬
‫‪.‬‬
‫ל‬
‫ך‬
‫ע‬
‫ר‬

‫‪342‬‬

‫‪Drill‬‬
‫‪UNIT £‬‬

‫‪HEBREW‬‬

‫‪Instructor: Yesterday I saw ten‬‬
‫‪ships.‬‬
‫‪Student: Yesterday I‬‬
‫‪saw ten ships‬‬
‫‪and today‬‬
‫‪I saw the‬‬
‫‪eleventh‬‬
‫‪ship.‬‬
‫ע‪-‬עשרה או נ‬
‫•>ת‬
‫ראיתי‬
‫האו נ י ה‬
‫יתי שמונה‪-‬‬
‫א‬
‫עשרה‬
‫את‬
‫ראיתי‬
‫האו נ י ה‬
‫תשע‪-‬‬
‫יתי‬
‫עשרה או נ‬
‫את‬
‫ראיתי‬
‫האו נ יה‬
‫האחת־עשרה‪.‬‬
‫יות‪.‬‬
‫השתי ס־‬
‫עשרה‪ .‬נ‬
‫יות‪.‬‬
‫שעשרה‪.‬‬
‫השלו ־‬
‫נ י ות‪.‬‬
‫הארבע ־‬
‫עשרה‪ .‬נ‬
‫יות‪.‬‬
‫החמש־‬
‫עשרה‪ , .‬י‬
‫ות‪.‬‬
‫השש־עשרה‪.‬‬
‫ות‪.‬‬
‫השבע־עשרה‪.‬‬
‫יות‪.‬‬
‫העשרה‬
‫השמונ ־‬
‫ו נ יות‪.‬‬
‫התשע־עשרה‪.‬‬
‫י ות‪ .‬העשר‬
‫י ם‪.‬‬
‫‪etmol raiti‬‬
‫‪eser oniot.‬‬
‫‪vehay‬‬
‫‪om raiti et‬‬
‫‪haonia‬‬
‫‪haaxat'esre.‬‬
‫‪etmol raiti‬‬

‫‪343‬‬

‫‪BASIC‬‬
‫‪COURSE‬‬

‫‪D. Expansion‬‬

‫י‬
‫את‬
‫הא‬
‫ונ‬
‫יה‬
‫ית‬
‫י‬
‫חמ‬
‫ש‪-‬‬
‫עש‬
‫רה‬
‫או‬
‫נ‬
‫רא‬
‫ית‬
‫י‬
‫את‬
‫הא‬
‫ו‬
‫נ‬
‫יה‬
‫ית‬
‫י‬
‫שש‬
‫‬‫עש‬
‫רה‬
‫או‬
‫ני‬
‫רא‬
‫ית‬
‫י‬
‫את‬
‫הא‬
‫ו‬
‫נ‬
‫יה‬
‫ית‬
‫י‬
‫שב‬

‫יתי‬
‫עשר‬
‫אוני‬
‫ות‪.‬‬
‫ראית‬
‫י את‬
‫האונ‬
‫יה‬
‫יתי‬
‫אהת‪-‬‬
‫עשרה‬
‫אונ‬
‫ראית‬
‫י את‬
‫האו‬
‫נ יה‬
‫יתי‬
‫שתים‬
‫‬‫עשרה‬
‫או‬
‫ראית‬
‫י את‬
‫האונ‬
‫יה‬
‫יתי‬
‫שלוש‬
‫‬‫עשרה‬
‫או‬
‫ראית‬
‫י את‬
‫האונ‬
‫יה‬
‫יתי‬
‫ארבע‬
‫‬‫עשרה‬
‫או‬
‫ראית‬

UNIT 15 HEBREW
axat
'esr
e
onio
t.

et haonia
mo haSeS'esre.
l
etmol raiti
ra SeS'esre
it oniot.
vi
vehay
ehay ar om raiti et
om
ba haonia
rait 'e haSva'esre.
i et sr etmol raiti
haon e
Sva'esre
ia
on oniot.
haSt io
vehay
eym' t. om raiti et
esre
v haonia
etmo eh haSmone'esr
l
ay e
etmol
rait om raiti
i
ra Smone'esre
Stey it oniot.
m'es i
vehay
re
et om raiti et
onio ha haonia
t.
on hatSa'esre.
via etmol raiti
ehay ha tSa'esre
om
xa oniot.
rait me
vehayo
i et S' m raiti et
haon es haonia
ia
re haesrim.
haSl et
oS'e mo
sre. l
etmo ra
l
it
rait i
i
xa
SloS me
'esr S'
e
es
onio re
t.
on
vio
ehay t.
om
v
rait eh
i et ay
haon om
ia
ra
haar it
ba'e i
sre. et

BASIC COURSE

.1
‫אתמול‬
‫רא‬
‫והיום‬
2
‫אתמול‬
‫רא‬
•3
‫והיום‬
A
‫אתמול‬
‫רא‬
‫והיום‬
‫ אתמול ר‬£
‫א והיום‬
‫אתמול‬
.‫ד‬
‫רא‬
‫והיום‬
a
‫אתמול‬
‫רא‬
2
‫והיום‬
‫אתמול‬
.
‫רא‬
‫והיום‬
1
‫אתמול‬
‫רא‬
0
‫והיום‬
‫אתמול‬
‫רא‬
‫והיום‬
‫אתמול‬
‫רא‬
‫והיום‬

344

BASIC
COURSE
HEBREW
E.

Expansion Drill
I live in the
second
house from
Student:
the corner.
I live in the
second house from
the corner, and
Hanna lives in
the third house.

345

UNIT £

ani ga
r
ani ga
r

UNIT 15 HEBREW

BASIC COURSE
.‫י נה‬5 ‫בבית השג י מה‬
.‫וחנה גרה כבית השלישי‬
.‫בבית הרביעי מהפינה‬

babait ha&eni mehapina. vexana gara
babait haSliSi.
babait harevii mehapina.

ani ga
r

vexana gara babait haxami&i.
babait haSiSi mehapina. vexana gara
babait haSvii.

ani ga
r

babait haSmini mehapina. vexana
gara babait hatSii.

ani ga
r

babait haasiri mehapina. vexana
gara babait haaxadasar.

.‫גרה בכית החמישי‬. ‫וחנה‬
.‫בבית הששי מהפינה‬
.‫וחנה גרה בבית השביעי‬
.‫בכית השמיני מהפינה‬
.‫וחנה גרה בבית התשיעי‬
.‫בבית העשירי מהפינה‬
.‫רעשר‬
‫וחנה גרה בבית האח ־‬
REVIEW
CONVERS
ATIONS

A : Sa16m avigdor.

matSy higSten!
1et4i av£v. ?: ‫א‬
‫שלום‬

.‫אביגרור‬
‫מחי הגעתם‬
‫לתל אביב‬
B:

HIG&NU

BEYOM

RIGON

.

.‫ הגענו‬:‫ב‬
‫דיום‬
‫ראשון‬
A:
cin

u
ro
cl

346

‫ג‬
‫ר‬
‫ג‬
‫ר‬

‫ אנ‬.
‫ י‬1
‫ אב‬2
‫י‬

‫ג‬
‫ו‬

‫אנ‬
‫י‬

2

‫ג‬
‫ר‬

‫אנ‬
‫י‬

A

‫ג‬
‫ר‬

‫אנ‬
‫י‬

2

BASIC
COURSE
m
leh
azm
in
otx
em
lea
rux
St
coh
orc
Lim
.

e

HEBREW

mat
'im
?
B:
ken
.
beh

B:

exl
nism

it.

&x
meod

C:

.

h&v

lema

a

tciy

nig

?

&S

A:

laS
leha

ulx

y6m.

an.

haim
Stey
mesr

D:

16,
tod

347

UNIT £

UNIT 15 HEBREW

BASIC COURSE
Sim

S.

'i,

kvSr

mir

meux

ySr
&r.
n.

C:

mer
eyx

nah

at6m

^re

yexo

t?

llm

F:

lesa

16.

r^v?

16

D:

kol
slix

k£x

ci.

.

cinu
muxr
axim

E:

E:

h&v
a

laru

nig

c.

SS
leb

348

BASIC
COURSE
rukl
in
b&r.
P:
tov.
hagl
xda
gSm
tov&
.

‫א‬
‫נ‬
‫ו‬
‫ר‬
‫ו‬
‫צ‬
‫י‬
‫ם‬
‫ל‬
‫ה‬
‫ז‬
‫מ‬
‫י‬
‫ן‬
‫א‬
‫ת‬
‫כ‬
‫ם‬
‫ל‬
‫א‬
‫ר‬
‫ו‬
‫ח‬
‫ת‬
‫צ‬
‫ה‬
‫ר‬
‫י‬
‫י‬
‫ם‬
.

:‫א‬
HEBREW

349

UNIT £

‫‪UNIT 15 HEBREW‬‬

‫‪BASIC COURSE‬‬

‫ל‬
‫ה‬
‫י‬
‫ו‬
‫ם‬
‫‪.‬‬
‫ה‬
‫א‬
‫ם‬
‫ש‬
‫ת‬
‫י‬
‫ם‬
‫־‬
‫ע‬
‫ש‬
‫ר‬
‫ה‬
‫מ‬
‫ז‬
‫י‬
‫י‬

‫‪350‬‬

‫נ‬
‫ש‬
‫מ‬
‫ח‬
‫מ‬
‫א‬
‫ו‬
‫ד‬
‫‪.‬‬
‫ל‬
‫נ‬
‫?‬
‫ת‬
‫י‬
‫?‬

‫‪UNIT £‬‬

‫‪HEBREW‬‬

‫‪BASIC‬‬
‫‪COURSE‬‬

‫ג‪:‬‬
‫ה‬

‫ם‬
‫?‬

‫ב‬
‫ה‬

‫כ‬
‫ן‬
‫‪,‬‬

‫ג‬

‫ב‬
‫ה‬
‫ח‬
‫ל‬
‫ט‬
‫‪.‬‬

‫נ‬
‫י‬
‫ש‬
‫ל‬
‫ש‬
‫ו‬
‫ל‬
‫ח‬
‫ן‬
‫‪.‬‬

‫‪351‬‬

‫‪UNIT 15 HEBREW‬‬

‫‪BASIC COURSE‬‬

‫ג‪:‬‬
‫ר‪:‬‬
‫א‬
‫י‬

‫ל‬

‫ך‬

‫א‬

‫א‬

‫‪,‬‬

‫ת‬
‫ם‬

‫ת‬

‫י‬

‫ו‬

‫כ‬

‫ר‬

‫ו‬

‫ה‬

‫ל‬

‫‪.‬‬

‫י‬
‫ם‬

‫כ‬

‫ל‬

‫ב‬

‫ס‬

‫ר‬

‫ר‬
‫ב‬

‫מ‬

‫?‬

‫א‬
‫ו‬
‫ח‬
‫ר‬
‫‪.‬‬

‫‪352‬‬

‫‪UNIT £‬‬

‫‪HEBREW‬‬

‫‪BASIC‬‬
‫‪COURSE‬‬

‫ל‬
‫ר‬

‫ד‪:‬‬

‫ו‬
‫ץ‬

‫כ‬

‫‪.‬‬

‫ל‬
‫ש‬
‫מ‬
‫ע‬
‫י‬
‫‪,‬‬
‫מ‬
‫ר‬
‫י‬
‫ם‬
‫‪,‬‬
‫א‬
‫ת‬
‫מ‬
‫מ‬
‫ה‬
‫ר‬
‫ת‬
‫?‬

‫י‬
‫ח‬
‫ה‬
‫‪,‬‬
‫א‬
‫נ‬
‫ו‬
‫מ‬
‫ו‬
‫כ‬
‫ר‬
‫ח‬
‫י‬
‫ם‬

‫‪353‬‬

‫‪UNIT 15 HEBREW‬‬

‫‪BASIC COURSE‬‬

‫ל‬

‫ל‬

‫נ‬

‫א‬

‫ר‬

‫‪.‬‬

‫ו‬
‫ק‬

‫ל‬

‫ל‬

‫א‬

‫י‬
‫ן‬

‫כ‬
‫ל‬

‫ב‬
‫ר‬

‫כ‬

‫‪.‬‬

‫ך‬
‫‪.‬‬

‫ט‬
‫ו‬

‫ה‬

‫ב‬

‫כ‬

‫‪.‬‬

‫ה‬

‫ה‬

‫נ‬

‫ג‬

‫י‬

‫ל‬

‫ג‬

‫י‬

‫ש‬

‫ד‬

‫‪354‬‬

BASIC
COURSE
HEBREW

‫ה‬
‫ש‬
‫ם‬
‫ט‬
‫ו‬
‫ב‬
‫ה‬
.

355

UNIT £

13.1

UNIT 15 HEBREW

BASIC COURSE

Friday Evening Dinner (cont'd)
MRS. WILLIAMS
The
fish
is
wonderful
, and so
is
the
chalah.
fish
wonderful
and so
chalah
(twist
bread)

Thank you very
much.

Mrs.
Caspi,
you must
give me
the
recipe
for the
fish.

toda
raba.

a
d
a
g
i
m
.

MRS.
WILLI
AMS

g
v
^
r
e
t

l
a
t
e
t
m
i
r
S
a
m
(
m
)

k
&
s
p
i
,
a
t

to give
recipe

Gladly.
I111 give
you the
recipe,
Mrs.
Williams.
desire,
willingly
I will
give

hadagim
nehedarim.
vex4n
haxalS.
dig (m)
nehedar
(m.s.)
vexSn

xali (f)
MRS. CASPI

M
R
S
.
C
A
S
P
I

m
u
x
r
a
x
a
be
ra
c6
n
et
en
la
x
et
ha
mi
rS
am
,
gv
er
et
Wi
ll
ia
ms
.

l
a
t
e
t
1
1
e
t
h
a
m
i
r
S
a
m
l

r

356

1‫ד‬
‫נהד‬
‫ר‬
‫וכן‬
‫חלה‬

‫לתת‬
‫מרש‬
‫ם‬

‫רצי‬
‫ן‬
‫ברצי‬
‫ן‬
‫אתן‬

‫‪BASIC‬‬
‫‪COURSE‬‬
‫‪UNIT £‬‬

‫‪HEBREW‬‬

‫)‪acon (m‬‬
‫‪berac6n‬‬

‫‪et§n (1‬‬
‫)‪s.‬‬

‫הדגים‬
‫נהדרים‪,‬‬
‫וכן החלה‪.‬‬

‫חררה רבה‪.‬‬

‫גברת כספי‪,‬‬
‫את מוכרחה‬
‫לחת לי את‬
‫המרשם‬
‫לדגים‪.‬‬

‫ביצר! אתך לר את‬
‫המרשם‪ ,‬גברת‬
‫וויליאמס‪.‬‬

‫‪357‬‬

UNIT 15 HEBREW

BASIC COURSE

‫דגים‬
‫ממול‬
.‫אים‬

It's
a
traditio
n in our
homes to
eat
on
Friday
evening
gefilte
fish.
i
t
,
t
h
i
s
t
r
a
d
i
t
i
o
n
f
i
l
l
e
d

zu
masoret
eclenu
babSit,
leexol
belel
SiSi
daglm
meroulai
m. zu

‫ז ו‬
‫מסיר‬
‫ת‬
‫ממי‬
‫לא‬

(f)

masoret
(f)
memulci

‫זו‬
‫מסורת‬
‫אצלנו‬
‫בבית‬
‫לאכול‬
‫בליל‬
‫שישי‬

358

BASIC
COURSE
HEBREW

MRS. WILLIAMS

UNIT £

Mrs.
Caspi,
please,
don't
give me
any
more to
eat.
more
food

gv4r
et
k&sp
i.
beva
kaSa
kl
titn
i li
yote
r
oxel
.
y
o
t
e
r
o
x
e
l
(
m
)

‫גברת‬
,‫כספי‬
‫בבקשה‬
‫אל‬
‫תחני‬
‫לי‬
‫יותר‬
.‫אוכל‬

‫י‬
‫ותר‬

‫אוכל‬

359

UNIT 15 HEBREW

BASIC COURSE
MRS. CASPI

But
y
o I ate
nothing
h
a a
x&l
ti
lo.
..k
lfi
m
MRS
.
WIL
LIA
MS

360

‫אכלתי‬
..‫לא‬
‫כלום‬.

‫הרי‬
‫לא‬
‫אכלת‬
‫ם‬
‫כלום‬
.

BASIC
COURSE

I'm on a
diet,
diet
HEBREW

Th
the
e
recipe
fo
.
Sheodwill
‫ה‬
wa
g
the
‫י‬
s
recipe‫ה‬
ve
.
‫ט‬
‫ע‬
We ry
will
‫י‬
de
g
the
li
recipe‫ם‬
ci
.
ou (m)
They
s, (f) w
They
wa
‫ת‬
w
s
very ‫ו‬
delic
delici
‫ד‬
ious,
ous.
‫ה‬
tasty
very
tasty.
‫ר‬
Thank you.

I'll start
on my diet
tomorrow.

ani bedieta.
dieta
(f)
UNIT
£

‫האוכל‬
‫היה‬
‫טעים‬
.‫מאד‬

‫ב‬

very
‫ה‬
tasty.
h
.
a
h
a
M

t

I M
willa
t
b
begin
a
t
13.2
AD
e
DI
t
e
TI
t
e
ON
t
e
AL
VO
t
e
CA
t
BU
h
t
LA
e
RY
h
t
He will
e
h
gi
t
ve
e
he
r

‫א‬
‫ת‬
‫ח‬
‫י‬
‫ל‬

361

‫אתחיל‬
‫בדיאטה‬
‫שלי‬
.‫מחר‬

‫דיאטה‬

‫אני‬
‫בדיאטה‬
.

‫‪BASIC COURSE‬‬

‫ל‬

‫א ה‬

‫ה‬

‫ו‬

‫א‬

‫ת א‬

‫ת‬

‫ת‬

‫ה‬

‫ן י‬

‫מ‬

‫ת‬

‫י‬

‫ל ן‬

‫ר‬

‫ה‬

‫ש‬

‫ל‬

‫ם‬

‫א ה‬

‫‪.‬‬

‫ת‬

‫ה‬

‫א‬

‫ם‬

‫ה ת‬

‫י‬

‫מ‬

‫ת‬

‫י ה‬

‫נ‬

‫ר מ‬

‫ו‬

‫ש י‬

‫ל‬

‫ם ר‬

‫ה‬

‫‪ .‬ש‬

‫א‬

‫ם‬

‫ת‬

‫נ ‪.‬‬

‫ה‬

‫י‬

‫מ‬

‫ת ה‬

‫י‬

‫ן י‬

‫‪362‬‬

‫‪UNIT 15 HEBREW‬‬

‫‪UNIT £‬‬

‫ה‬
‫ד‬
‫ג‬
‫י‬
‫ם‬
‫ה‬
‫י‬
‫ו‬
‫ט‬
‫ע‬
‫י‬
‫מ‬
‫י‬
‫ם‬
‫מ‬
‫א‬
‫ד‬
‫‪.‬‬

‫‪HEBREW‬‬

‫ר‬
‫ש‬

‫ם ם‬
‫‪. .‬‬
‫ה‬
‫א‬
‫ר ה‬
‫ו ן‬
‫ח‬
‫ה‬
‫ה ת‬
‫י י‬
‫ת‬
‫ה ת‬
‫ט נ‬
‫ע‬
‫י ה‬
‫מ‬
‫ה‬
‫ל‬
‫מ‬
‫א ה‬
‫ד‬
‫‪,‬‬
‫א‬

‫ה‬
‫ח‬
‫ל‬
‫ו‬
‫ת‬
‫ה‬
‫י‬
‫ו‬
‫ט‬
‫ע‬
‫י‬
‫מ‬
‫ו‬
‫ת‬
‫מ‬
‫א‬
‫ד‬
‫‪.‬‬

‫ת‬
‫ה‬
‫מ‬
‫י‬
‫ר‬
‫ש‬

‫‪363‬‬

‫‪BASIC‬‬
‫‪COURSE‬‬

13.3

UNIT 15 HEBREW

BASIC COURSE

Vocabulary Drills
The adjective /memulfi/ is similar to /nimcfi/ "is found" in the pattern
of its forms •
‫ממולא‬
f.s. memulet
m.s. memulfi
‫ממולא‬
‫ת‬
m.pl. memulaim
‫ממולאי‬
f.pl. memulaot
‫ם‬
Note that in the Hebrew spelling the third root consonant is ‫ א‬, a s
i n /nimcfi/ ‫נמצא‬.

‫ממולאו‬
‫ת‬

The adjective /nehedfir/ is also similar to /nimcfi/. The feminine
singular
has
a /-t/ suffix with change
m.s. nehedfir
f.s. nehederet
‫נהדר‬
of vowel.
m.pl. nehedarim
‫נהדר‬
‫נהדרי‬
f.pl. nehedarot
‫ם‬
‫ת‬

‫נהדרו‬
‫ת‬

A.Substitution Drill - Masculine Singular
The house is wonderful.

.‫הכית נהדר‬
‫המלון הים‬
‫בנין הדואר‬
‫אתה הוא‬
‫נמל התעופה‬

habfiit nehedar.
hamalon
hayfim
binyfin hadoar atfi hd
nemfil hateuffi
B.Substitution Drill - Peminine Singular
The chalah is wonderful,
haxalfi nehederet. haarec haglida ramat gfin hi
miryam dfilya sfat hayfim haaruxfi
C.Substitution Drill - Masculine Plural
The fish is wonderful.
hadagim nehedarim. atem
harexovot
hayeynot
habatim
ha§ulxanot
kulam
hayamim

.‫החלה נהדרת‬
‫הארץ הגלידה‬
‫רמת גן היא‬
‫מרים דליה‬
‫שפת הים‬
‫הארוחה‬

‫הרגים‬
‫ אתם‬.‫נהדרים‬
‫הרחובות‬
‫היינות‬
‫הבתים‬
‫השולחנות‬
‫כולם הימים‬

364

BASIC
D. COURSE

Substitution Drill -

HEBREW Feminine Plural

The chalahs are wonderful.
haxal6t nehedar6t.

hatocaot
aten
haarac6t hanaSlm hamiSpaxot haglid6t

Substitution - Agreement Drill - /nehedir/
E.

The country is wonderful.
ha&rec nehederet.
hamisrSd
haxala
hadagim
hay&in
atem
hatocaot
hamiSpaxck
haanaS £m
hamisradlm

habatim
haoni6t
hamlon6t
haarux6t

Substitution - Agreement Drill - /axalti/ "1 ate" I haven't
breakfast yet.
ad&in 16 axSlti aruxat boker.
Sta - at - anu - atem an! veigti at4n - ani

‫ערייך לא אכלתי‬
‫ארוחת בוקר‬
- ‫ אנו‬- ‫ את‬- ‫אתה‬
- ‫ני ואשתי‬.‫אתם ■ץ‬
‫ אני‬- ‫אתך‬

365

UNIT £

‫החלות‬
‫נהדרות‬
‫התוצאו‬
‫ת אתך‬
‫הארצ‬
‫ות‬
‫הנשי‬
‫ם‬
‫המשפ‬
‫חות‬
‫הגלי‬
‫ות‬
‫דא‬
‫ה‬
‫רץ‬
‫נה‬
‫דר‬
‫ת‬
‫המ‬
‫שר‬
‫ד‬
‫הח‬
‫לה‬
‫הד‬
‫גי‬
‫ם‬eaten
‫הי‬
‫ין‬
‫את‬
‫ם‬
‫התו‬
‫צאו‬
‫ת‬
‫המש‬
‫פחה‬
‫האנ‬
‫שים‬
‫הנד‬
‫שרד‬
‫ים‬
‫הבז‬
‫ים‬
‫האו‬
‫ניו‬
‫ת‬
‫המל‬
‫ונו‬
‫ת‬
‫האר‬
‫וחו‬
‫ת‬

UNIT 15 HEBREW

BASIC COURSE

GRAMMAR
NOTES 13.4 Consonant Alternation /k ~ x/
The consonant /k/ often alternates with /x/ when not initial in the
word.
/k£n/
/vexen/

so, yes1
'and so'
,

This alternation occurs in a number of forms and is characteristic of roots
in certain verb patterns. In other cases it is optional, with the /x/-form
usually the more formal in style.
/lekfin ~ lexfin/

"to here"

This alternation is similar to that of /b ~ v/ described in Grammar
Note 5.6. The alternation is always spelled in Hebrew with the ambiguous
letter ‫ כ‬, and not with ‫ ק‬and ‫ח‬
13.5 Formation of the Future Tense
As has been noted in the description of the gentle imperative, Grammar
Section 6.5, the second person future forms of verbs have a prefix of the
pattern /tV-/•
Examples ares
/tifnS/ "you will turn
/telex/ "you will go"
/tigmor/ "you will finish" /tedaber/ "you will speak"
/tamSix/ "you will continue"/tomcir/ "you will say"
/taav6r/ "you will pass"
(Some verbs have /u/ as the prefix vowel, though none have occurred in this
text so far.)
Compare now the first person plural forms which have occurred so far:
nimcfi et hamakom lelo koSi. hfiva nigfiS laSulxfin. niten lfi et
hamirSam.
Note that these all begin with a prefix of the pattern /nV-/. (By
coincidence the vowel of the prefix in the three examples is /-i-/.) Thus it may
be seen that the future tense of verbs consists of a stem plus prefixes to
distinguish person, gender, and number. Some of the forms have suffixes, also.
/titfin/
"you
(m.s.)
will
give" /titni/ "you (f.s.) will
give
/titnfi/
"you
(m.pl.)
will
give"
/titenna/
"you
(f.pl.) will give"
These second person formis have been described in the section on the gentle
imperatives. The forms of the entire future tense of this verb are shown in the
following table:

366

BASIC
COURSE

1 s.

et6n
HEBREW

1 Pi.

nit6n

2 m.pl.

titnfi
titenn
a
yitnu

2 m.s.

tit6n

2 f.s.

titni

2 f.pl.

3 m.s.

yit6n

3 m.pl.

3 f.s.

titSn

3 f.pl.

UNIT £

titenn
a

Extracting the stem /t6n/, the pattern of prefixes and suffixes in the
future tense is as follows s
[Note: The stem appears as /-tn-/ before the suffixes /-I, -6/. See
Grammar Note 6.9• ]
1. s.

e

1 Pi.

ni

2 m.s.

ti

2 m.pl.

ti

2 f.s.

ti_____i

2 f.pl.

ti

3 m.s.

yi

3 m.pl.

yi

3 f.s.

ti

3 f.pl.

ti

<
i
n
a
u
n
a

The following observations may be made which are characteristic of the
future tense of all verbs:
a.There is no gender distinction in the first person. (This is true of the
past tense forms, also. See Grammar Note 5.4)
b.The 2 m.s. and the 3 f.s. are identical in form.
c.The 2 f.pl. and the 3 f.pl. are identical in form. In some patterns
these two forms have a different stem vowel from that in the other
future tense forms - /tamSIxi, tamS£xna/; /tagli, tag&na/. See
Vocabulary Drill, Section 10.3.
The following are general comments about the future tense:
d.The first person singular prefix is simply a vowel. In some verb
patterns it is the same vowel as in the other prefixes. This is
always so when the vowel is /o/ or /u/.
In other verb patterns the vowel of the first person singular is
different from that of the other prefixes. At this point the student
will have to drill the verbs in order to memorize which ones have a
different vowel. Verbs showing possible alternations have occurred in
the text. Examples are:
Alternation

1 s.

2 m.s.

/e- ~ ti-/
egm6r
tigm6r
/ee- ~ taa-/
eev6r
taav6r
/a- ~ te-/
adab£r
tedab^r
Nevertheless, one frequently hears these first person singular forms with
the same prefix vowel as in the rest of the future tense - e.g., /edaber/ as
well as /adaber/.
When the first person singular prefix has a different vowel it will be
noted in the drills.
e.The suffixes /-i, -u/ are not stressed in the following cases:
1.When the stem vowel is /-1/: /tamSixi, tamSixu, yamSixu/

367

UNIT 15 HEBREW
BASIC COURSE
2.When the stem has the pattern /CuC/: /taguri. taguru, yaguru/ "will
reside"
3.In a small list of other verbs. Example: /tav6i, tavou, yavou/ "will
come"
,
f.Verbs such as /nimcfi/ "we will find" have an internal open juncture as
a third root consonant. At the end of a word it. is, of course, not
pronounced.
Before the suffixes /-i, -u/ it creates a
three-consonant cluster which is broken up by the insertion of /‫־‬
e/
‫־‬.
/timcfi/
"you
(m.s.)
will
find" /timce_j_i/ "you (f.s.)
will
find"
/timce'6/
"you
(m.pl.)
will
find"
/yimce'u/
"they (m) will find"
The juncture is usually replaced by a smooth transition in ordinary
speech. /timcei/, etc.
g. Some verbs have a n-.ore complicated future tense pattern, but these
have been described generally in the note on the gentle imperative. The full
set of future tense forms may be derived from the gentle imperative by
substitution of prefixes.
Example:
From 2 m.s. /tagia/ the following may be derived /agia, yagla, nagia/.
The 3 f.s. /tagia/ is identical in form with the 2 m.s.
From 2 m.pl. /tagiu/ the 3 m.pl. /yagiu/ may be derived.
The 3 f.pl. /tagfina/ is identical to the 2 f.pl., as in all verbs.
13.6 Use of the Future Tense
a. The future tense is used to indicate an occurrence later in time
than the present moment. This often corresponds to the English
construction "will_______".

368

b. The third person forms generally occur with an independent subject
unless
‫״‬We told him that he should
4. ameirnu lo
speak
Seyedaber
ivrit
UNIT 12
HEBREW Hebrew in Israel."
BASIC COURSE
beisrail.
one is stated in a closely preceding context.
hfi yitgn lei et hamirSSm. aroarti
16 Seyit6n lei et hamirScim.
Independent pronoun subjects may be used with the first and second person
forms for emphasis, contrast, etc. Compare this with the similar use of
independent pronouns with past tense forms. See Grammar Note 5•^•
ani el6x maxSr, veatS tel6x bey6m Seni.
‫״‬I'll go tomorrow,
and you'll go on Monday.'

c. The negative of the future tense is formed by using /16/ before the verb. In
UNIT 12

HEBREW

BASIC COURSE

the second person this will contrast with the negative imperative in
which /&1/ is used.
16 telxi hay6m.
Si telxi hay6m.
A . Substitution Drill - /e- ~ ti-/

1'11 give the recipe to Miriam.
ani eten et hamirScim lemiry&m.
atS tit§n
St titni
d6v yit&n
16a tit6n
Snu nit£n
atfem titnfi
atSn titenna
h6m yitnfi
h6n titenna
‫״‬You won't go today."
‫״‬Don't go today."

.‫אני אתן את המירשם למרים‬
‫אתה תיתן את תיתני רוב יתן‬
‫לאה תיתן אנו ניתן אתם‬
‫תיתנו אתן תיתנה הם יתנו‬
‫הן תיתנה‬

B.Substitution - Agreement Drill
UNIT 12

HEBREW

I won't let him speak English.
an! 16 eten 16 ledabgr anglit.
atci - dnu - yuec haSagrirut - hi
h6n - at£n - yaak6v ved6v - at£m
iSti veani - St - ani
C.Substitution Drill - /e- ~ ti-/
I will finish the meal.
ani egm6r et haaruxa.
at& tigm6r
cit tigmeri
hu yigm6r
hi tigm6r
Snu nigm6r
atem tigmertS
aten tigm6rna
hfem yigmeru
h6n tigm6rna

. ‫אבי לא אתו לו לדבר אנגלית‬

‫ היא‬- ‫ יועץ השגרירות‬- ‫ אנו‬- ‫אתה‬
‫ אתם אשתי‬- ‫ יעקב ודוב‬- ‫ אתן‬- ‫הן‬
‫ אני‬- ‫ את‬- ‫ואני‬

‫׳)!תה תגמור‬. .‫אני אגמור את הארוחה‬
‫נו‬:
‫את תגמרי הוא יגמור היא תגמור ־‬
‫ראתם תגמרו אתן תגמורנה הם יגמרו‬:‫־‬
‫הן תגמורנה‬

11
4

BASIC COURSE

UNIT 15 HEBREW

BASIC COURSE

D.Substitution - Agreement Drill
I'll finish the book by tomorrow.
egm6r et hasefer fid maxfir.
atem - mfir k6hen ‫אגמור אח הספר‬
finu - hi at6n hfim - fit - h£n
.‫עד מחר‬
iStexfi - atfi ‫ מר כהן‬- ‫אתם‬
baalex - ani

‫ היא‬- ‫ אנו‬‫ א ת‬- ‫ ה ם‬- ‫א ת ו‬E.Substitution Drill
- ‫ ה ן א ש ת ך‬-- /e- ~ ti-/
- ‫אתה ־ בעלך‬
I'll find the place
‫אני‬
without difficulty.
emcfi et hamak6m lel6 ko§i. timcfi timcei hti
yimcfi hi timcfi nimcfi timceu timcfina hem
yimceti h£n timcfina
F.Substitution-Agreement Drill
You'll find Moshe in the office.
timcfi et moS6 bamisrfid.
fit - hem - at6m - h£i ani - finu - at£n h£n hi - fit - at6m - atfi
G.Substitution Drill - /e- ~ ti-/
I'll go to the Brooklyn Bar to have ice
cream.

.‫אמצא את המקום ללא קושי‬
‫תמצא תמצאי הוא ימצא היא‬
‫תמצא נמצא תמצאו תמצאנה הם‬
‫ימצאו הן תמצאנה‬

.‫תמצא את משה כמשרד‬
‫ הוא אני‬- ‫ אתם‬- ‫ הם‬- ‫את‬
- ‫ הן היא‬- ‫ אתך‬- ‫ אנו‬‫ אתה‬- ‫ אתם‬- ‫את‬

372

BASIC
COURSE
HEBREW
egfig lebrtiklin bfir leexol glidfi.
tigfig
tigSi
david yigfig
atfira tigfig
nigfiS
tiggti
tigfiSna
h6m y'iggfi
hanagim tigfigna

‫אגש לנרוקליך כר‬
‫ תיגש‬.‫לאכול גלירה‬
‫תיגשי יוד יגש עטרה‬
‫תיגש ניגש תג ש ו‬
‫תגשנה הם יגשו הנשים‬
‫תגשנה‬

373

UNIT £

UNIT 15 HEBREW

BASIC COURSE

.‫אשמח מאור לראות אותם‬
‫תשמח תשמחי הוא ישמח היא‬
‫תשמח נשמח תשמחו תשמחנה‬
‫הם ישמחו הן תשמחנה‬

H.Substitution Agreement Drill
We'll go see Mr. Williams.
niqfig lir'6t et mfir Williams.
ani - fit - at€n - mo§£ baalex igt6 - atfi - h€n atem - d6v
veiStd - finu

.‫היא תשמח לגור שם‬
‫ היועץ החרש‬- ‫ אנו‬- ‫אתה‬
_ ‫ אתן‬- ‫ הוא ואשתו‬- ‫אתם‬
- ‫ הן‬- ‫ רמשפחה‬- ‫את אני‬
‫היא‬

I.Substitution Drill - /e- ~ ti-/
I'll be very happy to see them.
esmfix me6d lir'6t otfim.
tismfix
tismexi
h<i yismfix
hi tismfix
nismfix
tismexu
tismfixna
h6m yismexti
h6n tismfixna

‫ אתה‬.‫אני אפנה בפינה הזאת‬
‫תפנה את תפני הוא יפנה‬
‫תם‬,‫היא תפנה אנו נפנה א‬
‫תפנו אתן תפנינה הם יפנו‬
‫הן תפנינה‬

J. Substitution - Agreement Drill
She'll be happy to live there.
hi tismfix lag6r Sfim.
atfi - finu - hayoSc haxadfig
at6m - h<i vei§t6 - aten - fit
ani - hamiSpaxfi - h6n - hi
K. Substitution Drill - /e- ~ ti-/
I'll turn at this corner.
ani efn§ bapinfi haz6t.
atfi tifnS
fit tifni
hfi yifn€
hi tifnS
finu nifn6
at£m tifnti
at6n tifnSna
h6m yifnfi
h6n tifn§na

.‫ניגש לראות את מר וויליאמס‬

‫ אשתו‬- ‫ משה בעלך‬- ‫ אתן‬- ‫ את‬- ‫אני‬
‫ אנו‬- ‫ רוב ואשתו‬- ‫ הן אתם‬- ‫ אתה‬-

374

BASIC
COURSE
HEBREW

UNIT £

‫נפנה למר כהן‬
.‫בעברית‬
‫ אתן‬- ‫ אני‬- ‫הוא‬
‫ גברת כרמי אתם‬‫ אתה‬- ‫ הן‬- ‫ הם‬- ‫מר וויליאמס‬
‫ אנו‬- ‫את‬

L. Substitution - Agreement Drill
We'll address Mr. Cohen in
Hebrew.
nifn6 lemSr k6hen beivrit.
hu - ani - at6n - gv^ret kSrmi
at6m - h6m - h6n - atS mSr
Williams - it - Snu

375

UNIT 15 HEBREW

BASIC COURSE

Substitution Drill - /e- ~ ti-/
I'll open the door.

M.

ef tSx et hadSlet.
tiftSx
tiftexi
d6v yiftSx
xSna tiftSx
nif tSx
at&m tiftexd at6n
text! h6n tiftSxna

tiftSxna

h£m

y

if

‫אפתח את‬
.‫הדלת‬
Mr. Zahavi will open the office this morning.
‫תפתח‬
‫י‬
‫ח‬
‫תפת‬
mSr zahSvi yiftSx et hamisrSd hab6ker.
‫זהבי‬
‫מר דוב‬
ani - mirySm ved6v - gv6ret k6hen. at£m
‫יפתח‬
‫יפתח‬
- sSra vellsa - at6n - Snu St - atS ‫את חנה‬
‫המשרד‬
mSr zahSvi
‫ח‬
‫ת‬
‫תפ‬
.‫הבוקר‬
‫נפתח‬
Substitution Drill - /e- ~ ti-/
‫אתם‬
‫אני‬
‫ו‬
‫ח‬
‫ת‬
‫תפ‬
‫ם‬
‫י‬
‫ר‬
‫מ‬
I'll close the door.
‫ן‬
‫את‬
‫ודוב ־‬
‫ה‬
‫נ‬
‫ח‬
‫ת‬
‫פ‬
‫ת‬
‫גברת‬
ani esg6r et had^let.
‫ם‬
‫ה‬
‫כהן‬
atS tisg6r
‫יפתחו‬
‫ם‬
‫ת‬
‫א‬
St tisgeri
‫הן‬
‫שרה‬
dov yisg6r
‫ה‬
‫נ‬
‫ח‬
‫ת‬
‫פ‬
‫ת‬
‫ולאה‬
16a tisg6r
‫ אנו את‬- ‫ אתן‬Snu nisg6r
‫ מר זהבי‬- ‫ אתה‬at6m tisgerta
Substitution - Agreement Drill

N.

O.

at6n tisg6rna
h£m yisgerti
h6n tisg6rna
Substitution - Agreement Drill

‫אני אסגור את‬
‫ אתה תסגור‬.‫הדלת‬
‫את תסגרי רוב‬
‫יסגור לאה תסגור‬
‫אנו נסגור אתם‬
‫תסגרו אתן‬
‫תסגורנה הם יסגרו‬
‫הן תסגורנה‬

I'll close the office this evening.
ani esg6r et
david - atS
at6m - moS6
h6m - at6n -

hamisrSd hagrev.
- atSra - St
veani - h6n
ani

P.

‫את‬

376

‫אסגור‬
‫אני‬
.‫המשרד הערב‬

‫‪BASIC‬‬
‫‪COURSE‬‬
‫‪UNIT £‬‬

‫‪HEBREW‬‬

‫דוד ‪ -‬אתה ‪ -‬עטרה ‪ -‬את‬
‫אתם ‪ -‬משה ואני ‪ -‬הן‬
‫הם ‪ -‬אתן ‪ -‬אני‬

‫‪377‬‬

UNIT 15 HEBREW

BASIC COURSE

?‫׳‬: ‫נעבור על יד הבית‬
.‫הם‬

Q. Substitution Drill - /ee- ~ taa-/

‫ אתה ואשתך‬- ‫ שרה‬- ‫משה‬
- ‫ היא ואשתי‬- ‫ את‬- ‫אתך‬
‫ אנו‬- ‫אתה‬

I'll pass the embassy.
eev6r et haSagrirfit.
taav6r
taavri
h<i yaav6r
hi taav6r
naav6r
taavrti
taav6rna
h6m yaavrfi

‫גם אני אדבר‬
.‫עברית‬
‫אתה תדבר‬
‫את תדברי‬
‫הוא ידבר‬
‫היא תדבר‬
‫אנו נדבר‬
‫אתם‬
‫תדברו‬
‫אתך‬
‫תדברנה‬
‫הם ידברו‬
‫הך‬
‫תדברנה‬

h6n taav6rna
R. Substitution - Agreement Drill
We'll go past their house. naav6r
al yfid habfiit Selahgm.
mogfi - sfira - atfi veiStexfi - ani
‫אני‬
at6n - fit - hi veiSti - hi vebaalfi ‫היא ובעלה‬
atfi - finu
S. Substitution Drill - /a- ~ te-/
I'll speak Hebrew, too.
gfim ani adfiber ivrit. atfi tedaber fit
tedabri h<i yedab&r hi tedaber finu
nedabfer at6m tedabrfl at6n tedabSrna h6m
yedabrG h6n tedabSrna
‫ תעבור תעברי הוא יעבור היא תעבור‬.‫אעבור את השגרירות‬
‫נעבור תעברו תעבורנה הש יעברו הן תעבורנה‬

T. Substitution - Agreement Drill
I think you'll speak Hebrew on the phone.
ani xosfiv geatfi tedab6r ivrit b
‫שאני‬Seh6m
‫שהיועץ‬
‫שהם‬
.- ‫החדש‬
‫ ה‬- 5ehayo6c
‫ת‬
‫ א‬- ‫ש‬haxadfiS
‫ב‬- ‫ש‬
‫שאנו‬Seani
- ‫שהן‬Sehi
- ‫שאתם‬
-,‫שהיא‬- Sehfen - Seatem
Sefinu
‫ ן‬-‫שאת ו‬
Sefit
‫פ‬- ‫ומרים‬
‫ל‬vemiryfim
‫ ב שאתט‬- Sefit
‫ת‬
‫שאתה‬
- Seatfi

a

‫ו‬

‫ח‬

‫י‬

‫ר‬

378

t

6
‫י‬

‫ב‬

‫ע‬

1
‫נ‬

e

f

o

n

‫א‬
‫ר‬

‫ב‬

‫ד‬

‫ת‬

.

BASIC
COURSE
HEBREW
U. Substitution Drill
I'll go to the Eden Theater this evening.
el4x leko.ln6a £den ha€rev.
tel6x
telxi
moS6
yelSx
sSra
telfex
Snu
nel6x
telxti telSxna
kulSm
yelxQ
h6n tel6xna
V. Substitution - Agreement Drill
I'll go as far as the hotel and no further.
e!6x Sd lama!6n ve!6 yotgr.
Snu - hu - hi - atS St - at6m - h6m - h6n
at6n - ani

UNIT £

‫אלך עד למלון‬
.‫ולא יותר‬
- ‫ הוא‬- ‫אנו‬
‫ אתה‬- ‫היא‬
- ‫ אתם‬- ‫את‬
‫ הן אתן‬- ‫הם‬
‫ אני‬-

‫אשב כמשרד‬
‫ תשב‬.‫עד חמש‬
‫תשבי הוא‬
‫ישב שרה תשב‬
‫נשב תשב ו‬
‫תשבנה הם‬
‫ישבו הן‬
‫תשכנה‬

W. Substitution Drill
I'll sit in the office until 5:00.

‫נשב כאן עד‬
.‫שהוא יגיע‬
- ‫ אתה‬- ‫אני‬
‫אשתו‬
‫את‬
‫הן‬
1_‫כול‬
‫ אתן‬- ‫ אנו‬‫אביגדור‬
‫ אנו‬- ‫אתם‬

e§6v bamisrSd Sd xam63.
teS6v
teSvi
hu yeS6v
sSra te36v
neSev
tegvti
teS6vna
h6m ye§vu
h6n teSfevna
X. Substitution - Agreement Drill
We'll sit here until he arrives.
neSSv kSn Sd Sehfi yagia.
ani - atS - St - iSt6
kulSm - h6n - Snu - at6n
avigdor - atSm - Snu

‫ ח ל ו־‬. ‫א ל ך ל ק ו ל נ ו ע ע ד ן ה ע ר ב‬
‫ת ל כ י מ ש ה י ל ך ש ר ה ת ל ו־ א נ ו‬
‫נלר תלכו תלכנה כולם ילכו הן‬
‫תלכנה‬

379

UNIT 15 HEBREW

Y.

BASIC COURSE

‫מה אומר למשה? תאמר‬
‫תאמר י הוא יאמר‬
‫היא תאמר נאמר‬
‫תאמרו תאמרנה הם‬
‫יאמרו הך תאמרנה‬

Substitution Drill
What shall I say to Moshe?
mfi omfir lemoSe. tomfir
tomri hu yomfir hi tomfir
nomfir tomrfi tomfirna h6m
yomru h6n tomfirna
Substitution - Agreement

‫היא לא תאמר כלום‬
.‫למשה‬

Drill
She won't tell Moshe

- ‫ אנו‬- ‫ חנה‬- ‫אני‬
- ‫ אתם‬- ‫אתה בעלך‬
‫ רור‬- ‫ אני אתן‬- ‫הם‬
‫ היא‬- ‫ הן‬-

anything.
hi 16 tomfir klum lemo§6.
ani - xfina - finu - atfi
baalex - at6m - hem - ani
at£n - david - h6n - hi

380

BASIC
COURSE
HEBREW

UNIT £

AA. Substitution Drill
I'll start eating before 6:00.
atxil leexol lifney i=e£. tatxil tatxili moSe
tatxil
natxil tatxilu aten
tatxelna
hu veiSto yatxilu hen
tatxelna
xana

yatxil

‫הוא ואשתו‬
‫יתחילו הן‬
‫תתחלנה‬

‫ דוד‬- ‫כולם‬
- ‫ את‬- ‫גברת אלון‬
‫ אשתי ואני‬- ‫אתם‬
BB. Substitution Agreement Drill
I'll start
stroll'‫׳‬ng
after lunch.
atxil letayel
axarey aruxfit
hacohorfiim.
finu - atfi kulfim - david
gveret alon fit - at6n h6n at6m - iSti
veani - s&ra ani

‫בני‬1

‫ר‬3 ‫אתחיל ג‬
‫׳‬
‫׳‬.‫ל‬

‫תתחי‬
‫ל‬
‫מש‬
‫תתחי‬
‫ה‬
‫לי‬
‫חנ‬
‫יתחי‬
‫ה‬
‫ל‬
‫תתחי‬
‫אתך ל‬
‫נתחי‬
‫ל‬
‫תתחי‬
‫לו‬
‫תתחל‬
‫אתחיל לטיילנה‬
‫אחרי ארוחת‬
.‫הצהריים‬
- ‫אנו‬
‫אתה‬
‫ הן‬- ‫אתן‬
- ‫ שרה‬‫אני‬

381

UNIT 15 HEBREW

BASIC COURSE

CC. Substitution Drill
I'll arrive in Haifa on Tuesday.

- ‫ גברת זהבי‬- ‫ואני הם‬
‫ הן‬- ‫אתן‬

agia lexSyfa bey6m SliSi. tagia tag! i
mSr Williams yagia iSt6 tagia nagia tagiu
at6n tagSna h6m yagiu hen tagSna
DD. Substitution - Agreement Drill
I'll arrive in Tel Aviv tomorrow.
agia maxSr letfel aviv.
mSr k6hen - atS - hamigpaxS St - St vebaalex hu veani
h6m - gverSt zahSvi - at6n - h6n - ani
‫אני‬EE. Substitution Drill
I'll continue straight on this street.

.‫אמשיך ישר ברחוב הזה‬
‫תמשיר תמשיכי הוא‬
‫ימשיך היא תמשיך נמשיך‬
‫תמשיכו תמשכנה הם‬
‫ימשיכו הן תמשכנה‬

‫נמשיך ללכת לגיוון‬
.‫הנמל‬
- ‫ הן‬- ‫ את‬- ‫אני‬
- ‫ אתה‬- ‫הוא הם‬
- ‫ אתם אתך‬- ‫היא‬
‫אנו‬

am§ix yaSSr barexov haz£.
tam§ix
tamSixi
hu yam§ix
hi tam§lx
namSix
tam§ixu
tam§6xna
h6m yamSixu
h£n tamS6xna
FF. Substitution - Agreement Drill
We'll keep going towards the harbor,
namSix lalexet lekivun hanamSl.
ani - St - h6n - hu h6m - atS - hi - atem at6n Snu

‫ תגיע תגיעי‬.‫אגיע לחיפה ביום שלישי‬
‫מר דיילי אמס יגיע אשתו תגיע נגיע תגיעו אתן‬
‫תגענה הם יגיעו הן תגענה‬

.‫אגיע מחר לתל אביב‬
‫ הוא‬- ‫ את ובעלך‬- ‫ המשפחה את‬- ‫ אתה‬- ‫מר כהן‬

382

BASIC
COURSE
HEBREW

UNIT £

‫ ה א ו כ ל ה י ה ט־‬: ‫א‬

REVIEW
CONVERSATIONS

:‫ ב‬.‫לים מארד‬
‫ לא‬.‫תורה רבה‬

A: ha6xel hayS taim me6d. B: todS

:‫ א‬.‫אכלת כלום‬

rabS. 16 axSlt klum. A: an! bediita.

:‫ ב‬.‫אני בדיאטה‬

B: z£ davSr axer.

.‫זה דבר אחר‬

C: zd mas6ret eclinu leex61
bel6l SiSi daglm memulalm.

‫ זו מסורת‬:‫ג‬
‫אצלנו לאכול‬
‫בליל שישי דגים‬
.‫ממולאים‬

D: hadagim teimlm me6d.
C: St rocS et hamirSSm?

‫ הדגים טעימים‬:‫ד‬

D: k6n. tni li bevakaSS et hamirSSm.

.‫מאוד‬

C: berac6n.

‫ את רוצה את‬:‫ג‬
?‫המירשם‬
‫ תני לי‬.‫ כן‬:‫ר‬
‫בבקשה את‬
.‫המירשם‬
.‫ כרצון‬:‫ג‬

383

UNIT 15 HEBREW

E:

BASIC COURSE

bevakaSS. Si titni lSnu yot£r 6xel.

‫ אל תתני‬.‫ בבקשה‬:‫ה‬

F: lSma? at£m bedi6ta?

:‫ ו‬.‫לנו יותר אוכל‬

E: k6n.

?‫למה? אתם בדיאטה‬

F: tatxilu badifita maxSr.

.‫ כן‬:‫ה‬
‫ תתחילו בדיאטה‬:‫ו‬
.‫מחר‬

384

BASIC
COURSE
HEBREW

UNIT £

G: at6m rocim glidS?

Ks 16. t€n II et mispSr

H: 16 todS. Snu rocim ySin.

hatelefon SelS.

Gs moS6. mez6g bevakaSS ySin,

L: 6yn II et mispSr hatelefon.

H: mizgi St, mirySm. haySin al yadfex.

K: ani xoS4vet SeemcS et
hamak6m.

Is d6v roc£ lehazmin et mSr al6n
learuxSt 6rev. matSy h6 yagia.

M: xSna. matSy telxi letaySl.

J: hfi yagia ha6rev.

N: axarey Seegm6r et haaruxfi.

I: gSm gveret al6n tagia?

M: ani xoS6v SegSm ani el6x.

J: ken. ani xoS&v kSx.

?‫אתם רוצים גלידה‬

:‫ז‬

‫ אנו‬.‫לא תורה‬

:‫ח‬

.‫רוצים יין‬
‫ מזוג כבקשה‬.‫משה‬

:‫ז‬

.‫יין‬
.‫ מרים‬,‫מזגי את‬

:‫ח‬

.‫היין על ירך‬
‫רוב רוצה להזמין‬
:‫ט‬
‫את מר אלון לארוחת‬
?‫ מתי הוא יגיע‬.‫ערב‬
.‫ יגיע הערב‬,‫ הוא‬:‫י‬
?‫ גם גברת אלון תגיע‬:‫ט‬
.‫ אני חושב כך‬.‫כן‬
:‫י‬
K: hSva nigSS lir'6t et mirySm.
L: ySS lfix et hakt6vet SelS?

385

N: t6v. nelSx ySxad.

‫‪BASIC COURSE‬‬

‫כ‪:‬‬

‫‪UNIT 15 HEBREW‬‬

‫הכה ניגש לראות את‬

‫מריס‪.‬‬
‫ל‪:‬‬

‫יש לך את הכתובת‬

‫שלה?‬
‫כ‪:‬‬

‫לא‪ .‬תן לי את מספר‬

‫הטלפון שלה‪.‬‬
‫ל‪:‬‬

‫אין לי את מספר‬

‫הטלפון‪.‬‬
‫כ‪:‬‬

‫אני חושבת שאמצא את‬

‫המקום‪.‬‬
‫מ‪:‬‬

‫חנה‪ ,‬מתי תלכי‬

‫לטייל?‬
‫נ‪:‬‬

‫אחרי שאגמור את‬

‫הארוחה‪.‬‬
‫מ‪:‬‬

‫אני חושב שגם אני‬

‫אלך‪.‬‬
‫נ‪:‬‬

‫‪386‬‬

‫טוב‪ .‬נלך יחד‪.‬‬

BASIC
COURSE
HEBREW

UNIT £

‫ מרים תיגש לראות‬:‫ם‬

O: mirySm tigSS lir'6t et moS6 haferev. P:

:‫ ע‬.‫את משה הערב‬

beem6t? moS6 yismSx me6d lir'6t otS. O:

‫באמת? משה ישמח‬

h6m yismexti me6d lehitra6t.

.‫מאוד לראות אותה‬
‫ הם ישמחו מאור‬:‫ס‬
.‫להתראות‬

387

UNIT 15 HEBREW

BASIC COURSE

Q: zu masoret eclenu leexol xalot belel
R: zu masoret yafa meod. haxalot teim6t.
Q: toda raba. ata roce dag1m?
R: ken. eyx ani yaxol lesarev.
Q: amcfrta Seata bedieta.
Rs adain lo. atxil maxar.

‫זו מסורת אצלנו לאכול‬
.‫חלות בליל שישי‬
.‫זו מסורת יפה מאד‬
.‫החלות טעימות‬
‫ אתה רוצה‬.‫תורה רבה‬
?‫דגים‬
‫ איך אני יכול‬.‫כן‬
?‫לסרב‬
.‫אמרת שאתה בדיאטה‬
.‫ אתחיל מחר‬.‫עדיין לא‬

:‫פ‬
:‫צ‬
:‫פ‬
:‫צ‬
:‫פ‬
:‫צ‬

388

BASIC
COURSE
HEBREW
14.1 At the Grocery Store /bexanut mak61et/
STOREKEEPER /xenvani/
Good morning,
Mrs. Zahavi.
What can I do
for you?
t
o
d
o
f
o
r
boker tov,
gveret zahavi.
ma ani yax6l
laas6t biSvil^x.
l
a
a
s
o
t
b
i
S
v
i
l

,‫בוקר טוב‬
,‫! זהבי‬:
‫גבוי ־‬
‫מה אני יכול‬
?‫לעשות בשל ילך‬

‫ל‬
‫ע‬
‫ש‬
‫ו‬
‫ת‬
‫ב‬
‫ש‬
‫ב‬
‫י‬
‫ל‬

389

UNIT £

‫כחנות‬
.‫מכולת‬

BASIC
COURSE
HEBREW

UNIT £

MRS. ZAHAVI
Pleas
e
give
me
200
grams
of
chees
e.
tw
o
hu
nd
re
d
gr
am
ch
ee
se

‫מאתי‬
‫י ס‬
‫גרם‬
‫גבינה‬

ten li
bevakaSS,
matSim
grSm
gvinS.
ma
tS
im
gr
Sm
(m
)
gv
in
S
(f
)

‫תך לי‬
,‫כבקשה‬
‫מאתיים גרם‬
.‫גבינה‬

390

BASIC
COURSE
HEBREW

UNIT £

STOREKEEPER
Yellow
cheese
or
white
cheese?
y
e
l
l
o
w

‫גבינה‬
‫צהובה‬
‫או‬
‫גבינה‬
?‫לבנה‬

(
m
.
s
.
)

w
h
i
t
e
gv
in
S
ce
hu
bS
,
o
gv
in
S
le
va
nS
.

‫צהוב‬
‫לבן‬

c
a
h
o
v
(
m
.
s
.
)
l
a
v
S
n

391

BASIC
COURSE
HEBREW
Yellow
cheese. Are
the eggs
fresh? egg
fresh
MRS.
ZAHAVI

UNIT £

‫גבינה‬
.‫צהובה‬
‫הביצים‬
?‫טריות‬

gvinS
cehubS
.
habeyc
im
triot?
b
e
y
c
S
(
f
)
t
a
r
i
(
m
.
s
.
)

‫ביצ‬
‫ה‬
‫טרי‬

392

BASIC
COURSE
HEBREW

UNIT £

STOREKEEPER
Yes.
I received them
this morning.
I received
kSn.
kibSlti otSn
hab6ker.
kibSlti

‫קבלתי‬

393

.‫כד‬
‫קולת‬
‫;ותך‬:
‫י‬
.‫הב וקר‬

BASIC
COURSE
HEBREW

UNIT £

MRS. ZAHAVI
Then give me a
dozen.
dozen
Sz
ten
li
tre
ysS
r.
treysS
r (m)
STOREKEEPER

‫תריסר‬

394

‫תך‬
‫תרי‬

‫אז‬
‫לי‬
.‫ר‬0

BASIC
COURSE
HEBREW

UNIT £

Do you need
St crixS
any vegetables?
yerakot?
Fruits?
peyrot?
need, must, have to
vegetable fruit
carix (m.s.) yerek (m) pri (m)

‫צר‬
‫י ך‬
‫ירק‬
‫פרי‬

395

‫ת‬:
‫־‬
‫צריכה‬
?‫ירקות‬
‫•ירות‬?

UNIT

14

HEBREW

BASIC COURSE

MRS. ZAHAVI
N
o
,

how
many
owe
1
6
,

t
h
a
n
k

‫הכל‬
‫כמה‬
‫חיי‬
‫ב‬

t
o
d
a
.

y
o
u
.

z
&

T
h
a
t
'
s

h
a
k
6
1
.

a
l
l
.

k
c
i
m
a

H
o
w

a
n
i

m
u
c
h

x
a
y
e
v
e
t

d
o
I
o
w
e

l
e
x
S
.

y
o
u
?
eve
ryt
hin
g
how
muc
h,

396

hakol
kSma
xayav
(m.s.
)

,‫לא‬
.‫תודה‬
.‫זה הכל‬
‫כמה אני‬
‫חיינת‬
?‫לך‬

BASIC
COURSE
HEBREW

UNIT £

STOREKEEPER
T
h
a
t
w
i
l
l
c
o
s
t
y
o
u
e
i
g
h
t
y
t
h
r
e
e
a
g
o
r
o
t
.

z
e

l
i
x
S
m
o
n
i
m
v
e
S
a
l
o
g
agoro
t.
yaal
6 (3
m.s.
)
‫יעלה‬
gmon
im
‫שמונ‬
‫ים‬
agor
S
(f)
‫אגור‬
‫ה‬

will
cost,
go up
eight
y
agora
(1/10
0
lira)

y
a
a
l
£

397

‫זה‬
‫יעלה‬
‫לך‬
‫שמונים‬
‫ושלוש‬
‫אגורות‬
.

UNIT

14

HEBREW

Give
me
chang
e
from
a
lira.

e

t
o
d
a
y
sur .
plu
s xpe
Isr nsi
ael ve,
i dea
pou r
nd M
R
S
14.2
.
ADDIT
IONAL
Z
VOCAB
A
ULARY
H
A
The
V
veget
I
ables
are
t
cheap
6
today
n
.
c
l
h
i
e
a
6
p
d
T
e
h
f
e
v
m
e
i
g
l
e
i
t
r
a
a
b
.
l
e
s
a
r
e
e
x
p
e
n
s
i
v

398

BASIC COURSE

e

‫עור‬
‫ף‬
‫ליר‬
‫ה‬

‫זול‬
‫יקר‬

o
d
e
f
^
m
)
l
i
r
a

‫הירקות‬
‫זולים‬
.‫היום‬
‫הירקות‬
‫יקרים‬
.‫היום‬

BASIC
COURSE
HEBREW

UNIT £

s.)
(
f
)

h
a
y
e
r
a
k
o
t
z
o
l
i
m

‫תן לי‬
‫עודף‬
.‫מלירה‬

h
a
y
o
m
.
z6l
(m.
s.)
h
a
y
e
r
a
k
6
t
y
e
k
a
r
i
m
h
a
y
6
m
.
yak
cir
(m.

399

UNIT

14

HEBREW

[The
names of
vegetables
and fruits
in the
following
list are
given in
the
singular
or plural
depending
on how one
asks for
them in
the
question /
bekSma.../
‫״‬How much
is/are..."
]

400

BASIC COURSE

BASIC
COURSE
HEBREW

UNIT £

radishes
salt
How much are the
beans?
bekcima
haSuit.
beans
geuit (f)
‫שעועית‬
beet
selek (m)
‫סלק‬
cabbage
kruv (m)
‫כרוב‬
carrot
gezer (m)
‫גזר‬
cauliflower
kruvit (f)
‫כרובית‬
corn
tiras (m)
‫תירם‬
cucumbers
melafefonim m.pl.)
‫מלפפו כים‬
(
dill
gamir (m)
‫שמיר‬
eggplants
xacilim
‫חצילים‬
(m.pl
garlic
gum (m)
‫שום‬
kohlrabi
kolerSbi (m)
‫ק ו לרב י‬
lettuce
x£sa (f)
‫חסה‬
olives
zeytim
‫זיתים‬
)
(m.pl.
onion
bacSl (m)
‫כצל‬
parsley
petruzilia (f)
‫פטרוזיליה‬
peas
afunS (f)
‫אפו נח‬
potatoes
tapuxey
(m.pl.) ‫תפוחי אדמה‬
adamS
scallion
spinach
squash
tomatoes
turnip
I want
to buy fruit.
to buy
How much are the
apples? apple
bananas
canteloupe
cherries
dates
figs
fig
grapefruits
grapes
lemons
oranges
peaches
pears
plums
pomegranates
watermelons
watermelon
Give me two
kilos of flour.
flour

‫ככמה‬
?‫השעועית‬

sugar
How much is a bottle of
milk? cost bottle milk
oil
orange juice juice
How much is a can of
sardines?
can, box cans,
boxes
How much is a package of
butter? package butter
cnoni6t
(f.pl.)
bacSl
yarok
(m)
t6red
(m)
kiSuim (m.pl.)
agvani&t
(f.pl.)
cn6n
(m)
an! rocei likn6t
peyrot.
Iikn6t
bekcima hatapuxlm.
tapuax (m)
ban&not (f.pi.)
milon (m)

401

‫קמח‬
‫מלח‬
‫סוכ‬
‫ר‬

‫לקנות‬

‫תפוח‬

duvd
evan
im
(m.p
i.)
tmar
im
(m.p
l.)
teen
lm
(f.p
l.)
teen
S
(f)
eSko
liot
(f.p
l.)
anav
im
(m.p
l.)
limo
nlm
(m.p
l.)
tapu
zim
(m.p
l.)
afar
sekl
m
(m.p
l.)
agas
lm
(m.p
l.)
Sezi
fim
(m.p
l.)
rimo
nim
(m.p
l.)
avat
ixim
(m.p
l.)
avat
lax
(m)

UNIT 15 HEBREW

BASIC COURSE

‫תן לי שני קילו‬
.‫קמח‬

t6n 11
Sn6y
kilo
k6max.
kemax
(m)
m£lax
(m)
sukcir
(m)

‫כמה עולה בקב ו ק‬
?‫חלב‬

m
u
c
h

‫שמן‬
‫מיץ תפוזים מיץ‬

a

ol£
(m.s.pres.)
bakbuk (m)
xalciv (m)

‫כמה עולה קופסת‬
?‫סרדינים‬

j
a
r

gemen (m) mic
tapuzim m£c
(m)

‫כמה עולה חבילת‬
?‫־‬
‫ח מ־ה‬

o
f
g
r
a
p
e
s
.

kSm
a
olS
c
i
n
c
&
n
e
t

o
f
s
o
u
r
c
r
e
a
m
?

kufsfi (f)
‫ה‬0 ‫קופ‬
kufsa6t
(f.pl.)
‫קופסאות‬

j
a
r
sour
cream

‫חב י לה חמאה‬
‫צנרניות בצל ירוק‬
‫תרד‬
‫קשואים עגב נ י ו ת צב ר‬
‫ן‬

‫עו‬
‫לה‬
‫בקבו‬
‫ק‬
‫חלב‬

‫אני רוצה‬
.‫לקנות עירות‬
‫בכמה‬
?‫התפוחים‬
‫מילון‬
‫בננות‬
‫דוברבנ ים תמר‬
‫ים חאנים תאנה‬
‫אשכוליות ענבים לימונים‬
‫תפוז ים אפרסק י ם‬
‫אגסים שזיפים רימו ניס‬
‫אבטיחים אבטיח‬

k
i
l
o

i
s

k£ma 016
bakbuk
xalSv.

k&ma
olci
kufsfit
sardlnim
.

H
o
w

G
i
v
e

h
a
l
f
xavilci
(f) xem'
k (f)

402

a

cincen
et (f)
‫צנצנת‬
Samene
t (f)
‫שמנת‬

jelly
mustard

m
e

kima olfi
xavilSt
xem'k.

§
a
m
£
n
e
t
.

half
half
of

r
i
b
S
(
f
)
x
a
r
d

BASIC
COURSE
HEBREW

UNIT £

‫כמה ערלה‬
‫צנצנת‬
?‫שמנח‬

14.3 Vocabulary Drills

S
l
(
r
o
)

Transfo

‫ריב‬
‫ה‬
‫חרד‬
‫ל‬

rmation

t
d
n

Drill -

l
£

/ "for"

/biSvil

Instruc

x
a
c
i

tor: I
want

k
i
l
o

ice

a
n
a
v
i
m
.

ani
roc6
glida
. atS
roc6
ySin.
St
rocS
xalSv
. hu
roce
mic.
hi
rocS
riba.
Snu
rocim
tapuz
im.
atim
rocim
dagim
.
atin
rocot
gvinS
. him
rocim

cream.
Student: I'll have ice
cream, (lit. For me
ice cream.)

x6ci
(‫חצי‬
‫)ש‬
xaci
(cons
truct
) ‫חצי‬

Sam
ene
t.
h6n
roc
ot
kem
ax.
biSv
ili
glid
a.
biSv
ilxa
yain
.
biSv
ilex
xala
v.
bi&v
ilo
mfc.
bi^v
ila
riba
.
bi^v

403

ile
nu
tap
uzi
m.
biX
vil
xem
dag
im.
biS
vil
xen
gvi
na.
bi!‫־‬
vil
am
Sam
ene
t.
bi^
vil
an
kem
ax.
‫בשב‬

‫ילי‬
.‫גלידה‬
‫בשבילך‬
.‫יין‬
‫בעב י‬
‫לך‬
.‫חלב‬
‫בשבילו‬
.‫מיץ‬
‫בשבילה‬
,‫ריבה‬
‫בשבילנ‬
‫ו‬
‫תפוזים‬
.
‫בשבילכ‬
‫ם‬
.‫דגים‬
‫בשבילכ‬
‫ן‬
.‫גבינה‬
‫בשבילם‬
.‫שמנת‬
‫בשבילן‬
.‫קמח‬

‫אני‬
‫רוצה‬

‫ג‬
‫ל‬
‫י‬
‫ד‬
‫ה‬
.
‫א‬
‫ת‬
‫ה‬
‫ר‬
‫ו‬
‫צ‬
‫ה‬
‫י‬
‫י‬
‫ן‬
.
‫א‬
‫ח‬
‫ר‬
‫ו‬
‫צ‬
‫ה‬
‫ח‬
‫ל‬
‫ב‬
.
‫ה‬
‫ו‬
‫א‬
‫ר‬
‫ו‬
‫צ‬
‫ה‬
‫מ‬
‫י‬
‫ץ‬
.
‫ה‬
‫י‬

‫תן לי חצי‬
‫קילר‬
.‫ענבים‬

UNIT 15 HEBREW

BASIC COURSE

B.

‫הסלק‬
- ‫ הירקות‬- ‫הפירות‬
‫החסה‬
- ‫ הביצים‬- ‫התאנים‬
‫החלב‬

Subst

Subs

va

titu

ni

tion

a

u

-

-

t

Agre

ha

i

emen

se

t

le

Dril

k
ha
pe
yr
ot
ha
ye
ra
ko
t
ha
xS
sa
ha
te
ea
im
ha
be
vc
im
ha
xa
lS
v

l
/tar
i/
"fre
sh"
Is
the
milk
fres
h?
haim
haxa
lSv
tari
?

‫האם‬
‫החלב‬

haag

?‫טרי‬

vani

‫העגבני‬
‫ות‬

ot haag

i
t

o
n

-

A
g
r
e
e
m
e
n
t

D
r
i
l
l

‫העגבני‬
- ‫ה‬

-

404

BASIC
COURSE
HEBREW
/

Sabba

ca

th.

ri

ani carix liknot xaiot

x/

leSabSt.

"h

. ‫אני צריך לקנות חלות‬

av
e
to
,
ne
ed
"
I
ha
ve
to
bu
y
ch
C.

al
ah
s
fo
r

‫ב ת‬:
‫ל ־‬
iS
ti
he
n
ba
al
S
hi
Sn
u
hu
at
em
an
i
‫אשת‬
- ‫י‬
‫הן‬
‫בעל‬
- ‫ה‬
‫היא‬
‫אנו‬
‫הוא‬
‫אתם‬
‫אני‬

th
e

405

UNIT £

BASIC
COURSE

_____________________________
HEBREW
D. Substitution - Agreement Drill - / k i b S l t i /
_____________________________
UNIT 14
‫״‬I r e c e i v e d "
I received a bottle

of wine from Dov.
kibSlti bakbflk

ySin

midov..‫מרוב‬

‫יין‬

‫בקבוק‬

‫קבלתי‬

_ ‫ אתם‬- ‫את‬

at§m - St - Snu

‫אנו‬

atS - at6n - ani

_

‫אתה‬

‫אני‬

E. Substitution Drill - /ee- ~ taa-/

Endings are similar to /tifnS/.

I'll go up to the Embassy this morning.
eele laSagrirut haboker.
taale
taali
hu yaal£
hi taale
naal£
atem taalu
at6n taalena
hem yaalu
hen taalena
F. Substitution - Agreement Drill
Let's go up to Miriam's this evening.
hSva naale lemirySm ha&rev.
St - d6v veiSto - atS veiStexS ani atS - xSna - at&n avigdor - h6n - hSva
.‫אעלה לשגרירות הבוקר‬

‫תעלה תעלי‬
‫הוא יעלה היא תעלה נעלה‬
‫אתם תעלו אתן תעלינה הס יעלו הן תעלינה‬

.

‫הערב‬

‫למרים‬

‫נעלה‬

‫הבה‬

- ‫ חנה‬- ‫ אתה‬- ‫ אתה ואשתר אני‬- ‫ דוב ואשתו‬- ‫את‬
‫ הכה‬- ‫ הן‬- ‫אתן אביגדור‬

406

_

‫אתן‬

BASIC
COURSE
HEBREW

UNIT £

14.4 Cardinal Numbers. 20 - 1000
2-0
30
40
50
60
70
80
90

Numbers which are multiples of 10 do not show gender distinction.
esrim
‫עשרים‬
SloSim
‫שלושים‬
arbaim
‫ארבעים‬
xamiSim
‫חמישים‬
SiSim
‫שישים‬
Siv'im
‫שבעים‬
Smonim
‫שמונים‬
tiS'im
‫תשעים‬,

The numbers ,one' to ,nine' follow the multiples of ten and are preceded
.by /ve-/, These numbers show gender distinction
smonim vesaios agorot/ "83 agorot/"
/esrim vexamiss sfarim/ "25 books"

‫שמונים ושלוש אגורות‬
‫עשרים וחמשה ספרים‬

The form /meS/ "hundred" and its multiples are also used before both
.masculine and feminine nouns
meS 100
matSim 200

‫מאח‬
‫מאתיים‬

407

BASIC
COURSE

_____________________________
HEBREW
300
_____________________________
400
UNIT 14
500

600
700
800
900
1000

§16§ me6t
arbci me6t
xamiS meot
S^S me6t
Svi me6t
Sm6ne me6t
tSS me6t

‫שלוש מאות‬
‫ארבע מאות‬
‫חמש מאות‬
‫שש מאות‬
‫שבע מאות‬
‫שמונה מאות‬
‫תשע מאות‬
‫אלף‬

61ef

Numbers are given with the highest digit first, as in English. 1g65

/61e£ tSciireot SiSim vexamiS/
A. Read off the following numbers. Do not read the individual numerals.

1.
2.
3.
4.

6.
7.
8.
9.
10
.

82
73
64
‫שש‬
46
37
28
19
90
101

13•
14.
15•
16.
17•
18.
19•
20.
21.
22.

217
458
336
789
265
924
593
847
670
104
0

B. The instructor asks each student for the year of his/her birth.
In which year
were you born?
you were born
beiyze San&
nollideta.
nolcideta

‫נ ו‬
‫לדת‬

nolcideti
biSnit
elef tSa me6t arbaim
veSmone.
?‫כאיזה שנה נולדת‬
‫נולדתי כשנת‬
‫אלף תשע מאות ארבעים‬
.‫ושמונה‬

408

BASIC
COURSE
HEBREW

UNIT £

Conversational Response Drill
Instructor: How much are beets? Student: 30 agorot a kilo. Instructor:
Give me one and a half kilos. Student: That will be 45 agorot.
instructor: bek&ma hasgiek.
?‫ בכמה הסלק‬:‫המורה‬
student: siogim agor6t hakiio.
.‫ שלושים אגורות הקילו‬:‫תלמיד‬
instructor: ten 11 kilo vaxeci.
.‫ תן לי קילו וחצי‬:‫המורה‬
Student: zS yaalS lex5 arbaim vexamiS agordt.
.‫ זה יעלה לך ארבעים וחמש אגורות‬:‫תלמיד‬
The instructor and students may substitute other items, prices, and
quantities.

409

UNIT 15 HEBREW

BASIC COURSE

14.5 Colors
W
h
a
t
i
s
t
h
e
c
o
l
o
r
o
f
t
h
e
t
a

/
cvaim/
b
l
e
?
color
T
h
e
t
a
b
l
e
i
s
b
l
a
c
k
.
T

410

‫צבעים‬

BASIC
COURSE
HEBREW
h
e
b
o
x
i
s
b
l
a
c
k
.

m
f
i
h
a
c
6
v
a
S
£

UNIT £

1
h
a
S
u
l
x
&
n
.
c6va
(m)

‫צבע‬

h
a
S
u
l
x
i
n
S
a
x
6
r
.

411

‫מה‬
‫הצבע‬
‫של‬
‫השולח‬
‫?ולחן‬
‫ןש‬
‫ה‬
.‫שחור‬
‫הקופסה‬
.‫שהורה‬

UNIT 15 HEBREW

BASIC COURSE

h
a
k
u
f
s
S
S
x
o
r
S
.

412

BASIC
COURSE
HEBREW
The apple is red. The cherries
are red.

h

‫ה‬a
‫ת‬

413

UNIT £

UNIT 15 HEBREW

T
h
e

c
k
T
T
T
sky,
heav
en

c
a
r
r
o
t

T
h
e

‫ח‬
‫צ‬
‫ה‬

T
T
h
a
h
h
h
gamf
iim
(m.p
l.)

i
s
o
r
a
n
g
e
.

BASIC COURSE

‫ה‬
‫ג‬
‫ה‬
‫ה‬
‫ה‬

h
h

‫שסי‬
‫ס‬

p
a

414

BASIC
COURSE
HEBREW
GRAMMAR

UNIT £

NOTES

14.6 /o ~ u/ Alternation in Related Forms
Examine the following set of related

m.s.
f.s.
m.pl.
f.pl.

/yarok/
/yerukS/
/yerukim/
/yerukot/

forms:
"green"

‫ירוק‬
‫ירוק‬
‫ה‬
‫ירוק‬
‫ים‬
‫ירוקות‬

This pattern is similar to the pattern of
/raxok ~ rexoki/ except that in the suffixed
forms the vowel /u/ occurs instead of /o/. This
alternation occurs in a limited but fairly
frequently used set of forms. The student will
have to memorize them since there are sets of
related forms which have /o/ when suffixed, as
/rexoki, gdolS/, and sets which have /u/ whether
suffixed or not, as /xum, xumci/ "brown".
Now
compare the following
‫צהוב‬
/cahov/ forms.
pair of m.s.
"yellow"
f.s. /cehubi/
‫צהוב‬
‫ה‬

V

Forms which have this /o ~ u/ alternation
will also have the /v alternation, with the
/b/ occurring before the suffixes.
Similarly, the alternation /f ~ p/ occurs
in such forms, with /p/ occurring before the
suffixes.
The alternation /x ~ k/ may occur in related
forms with the /o ~ u/ alternation, with /k/
occurring in the
/arox/ forms.
‫ארוך‬
suffixed m.s.
"long"
f.s. /arukS/
‫ארוב‬
‫ה‬

415

UNIT 15 HEBREW

BASIC COURSE

However,
some
forms
have
/k/
throughout, as /yarok/ "green". These latter
forms are spelled with ‫ק‬, while those which
alternate /x ~ k/ are spelled with ~1 ‫ב י־‬.
A.

Subst
ituti
on -

haxavilot - hakufsS - hasefer
habatim - hay£in - hacincenet
hatapuxim

Agree
ment
Drill
The
apple
s are
red.
hatap
uxim
adumi
m.

.‫אדומים‬

‫התפוחים‬

‫ הספר‬- ‫ הקופסה‬- ‫החבילות‬
‫ הצנצנת התפו דים‬- ‫ היין‬- ‫הבתים‬

416

BASIC
COURSE
HEBREW

UNIT £

B. Progressive Substitution Drill
In this drill the instructor gives a
substitution first from one column and then from
the other.
The wine is red.
haySin ad6m. haagvanici

‫היין‬
.‫אדום‬
‫העגבניה‬
‫ירוקה‬
‫החפר‬
‫צהוב‬

yerukci
hatapuax
cah6v

habanSnot
xumot

hasefer
kat6m habakbukim

levanim
habinyfin
ad6m
haySin
Progressive Substitution Drill
The sky is blue.
C.

‫ת‬

‫הני‬

‫כתום‬
‫לבב‬
‫ים‬

‫נות‬
‫הספר‬

‫אדו ם‬

‫הבקנו‬
‫קי ם‬

hagamfiim kxulim. haSezif
seg6l

‫ר!נ נ‬
‫השמים‬
‫י ן‬
,‫כחולים‬
‫היין־םגול‬
‫ה^יי‬

haxacilim
gdolim
hacincenet
xum£

habakbuk
yarok

‫החצילים‬

hazfiit

‫גדול‬

Sax6r

‫הצנצ‬

‫ים‬

hakufsa6t
haSamfiim

‫ח‬

‫חומו‬

kxulot

14.7 Review of Negative Sentences
a. /16/ precedes past, present, and future verb
forms.
axfilti et haglida. ‫״‬I
ate the ice cream." lo

‫חומה‬

‫נת‬

‫ירוק‬

‫הב‬

‫שחור‬
‫כחולות‬

‫ו‬

‫קב‬
‫ק‬
‫הזית‬

‫הקופסא‬
‫ות‬
‫השמים‬

417

UNIT 15 HEBREW

BASIC COURSE

axfilti et haglida. ‫״‬I
didn't eat the ice
cream."
hi rocfi liknot per6t. ‫״‬She wants to buy
fruit."
hi lo rocS liknot
‫״‬She doesn't want
to buy
per6t.
fruit."

‫״‬H

hu yagia max&r.
hu lo yagia
maxSr.

e'11
tomorrow."

arrive
‫״‬He

won't arrive tomorrow."
This corresponds to the negative, usually with
-n't. of the verb auxiliary in English.

418

BASIC
COURSE
HEBREW
b./16/ occurs between the main elements of an
equational sentence.
h<i amerikfii.
hfi 16 amerikcii.
American."

‫״‬He's an American."
.‫הוא אמריקאי‬
‫״‬He's not an
.‫הוא לא אמריקאי‬

c./eyn/, usually with a pronoun suffix, may
negate a present tense verb form or an
equational sentence. The use of /6yn/ instead
of /16/ in these cases is more formal in
style.
ani medaber ivrit. ‫״‬I speak Hebrew."
.‫אני מדבר עברית‬
eynSni medabSr ivrit. ‫״‬I don't speak
Hebrew."
.‫אינני מדבר עברית‬
ani xadfiS bafirec.
‫״‬I'm new in the
country."
.‫אני חרש בארץ‬
eyn6ni xadfiS bafirec. ‫״‬I'm not new in the
c o u n t r y . "
. ‫א י נ נ י‬
‫ב א ר ץ‬
‫ח ר ש‬
Comparison of style:
ani 16 yod6a.
eyneni yodSa.
formal)

(casual, informal)
.‫אני לא יודע‬
(less casual,
.‫אינני יורע‬

The suffixed, or contracted forms of /eyn/ +
the pronouns are:

419

UNIT £

UNIT 15 HEBREW

BASIC COURSE

eyn ani

eynSni

‫אינני‬

6yn atfi

eynxfi

‫אינך‬

£yn fit

eyn6x

‫אינך‬

eyn hu

eynenu, eyno

‫ אינו‬,‫איננו‬

6yn hi

eyn6na, eynfi

‫ אינה‬,‫איננה‬

6yn finu

eynenu

‫איננו‬

Syn at&m

eynxem

‫אינכם‬

eyn at6n

eynxen

‫אינכן‬

4yn hem

eynfim

‫אינם‬

eyn hen

eynfin

‫אינן‬

/£yn finu/ is usually not contracted. The other
sequences may be used in
the uncontracted form, but this generally
results in a very
formal or stiff expression.
eyneni yod£a. (less casual, formal) .‫אינני‬
‫יודע‬
6yn ani yodea. (formal, stiff)
.‫אין אני‬
‫יורע‬
d./eyn/ is the negative of /y6S/ "there is."
yeS li gvinfi levanfi. ‫״‬I have white
cheese."
.‫ יש לי גבינה לבנה‬£yn li gvinfi
levanfi. ‫״‬I don't have white
c h e e s e . "
. ‫א י ן‬
‫ל ב נ ה‬
‫ג ב י נ ה‬
‫ל י‬
e./fil/ negates the imperative.
tifne sm6la. ‫״‬Turn left."
.‫תפנה שמאלה‬
fil tifne smola. ‫״‬Don't turn left."
.‫אל‬
‫תפנה שמאלה‬
A.Transformation Drill - Affirmative to Negative
....<'

420

‫א ן אני‬
‫י‬
‫א ד אתה‬
‫י‬
‫א ד את‬
‫י‬
‫א ו הוא‬
‫י‬
‫א ו היא‬
‫י‬
‫א ן אנו‬
‫י‬
‫א ו אתם‬
‫י‬
‫א ן אתן‬
‫י‬
‫א ן הם‬
‫י‬
‫א ד הן‬
‫י‬

BASIC
COURSE
HEBREW
Instructor: I was very impressed by the
house. Student: I wasn't very impressed by
the house.
1. (16) hitrassmti me6d mehab&it. .1. (‫לא( הת! שמתי‬
‫מארד מהבית‬
1
6
)
.
2
)
ax&item et haxaii. .2.
(‫לא( אכלתם את החלה‬
16) .3) yax61ti lehagia beSSva.
.3. (‫לא( יכרלתי‬
‫להגיע כשבע‬
1
6
)
.
4
)
kib&iti et hapeyr6t.
.4. (‫לא( קבלתי את הפירות‬
1
6
)
.
5
)
natsta 1i hizdamnut
ledabir.
.5. (‫לא( נתת לי הזדמנות לדבר‬
16) .6) sam&ti et hak61.
.6. (‫לא( שמעתי את הקול‬
7.ats (16) raita et hamisrSd Seianu.
.7
. ‫אתה )לא( ראית את המשרד שלנו‬
8.hadagim (16) hayfi teimim.
.8. ‫הדגים )לא( היו‬
‫טעימים‬
B.Transformation Drill - Negative to Affirmative
Repeat Drill A in reverse.
C.Transformation Drill - Affirmative to Negative
Instructor: I know where the Brooklyn Bar
is. Student: I don't know where the
Brooklyn Bar is.

1. ani

(16) yodea eyfo brukiin bar. .1. ‫אני )לא( יורע‬
‫איפה ברוקלין בר‬
2. gveret zahSvi (16) gara bet61 aviv. .2. ‫גברת זהבי‬
‫)לא( גרה בתל אביב‬
3. h6n (16) medabrot ivrit. .3. ‫הן )לא( מדברות עבריה‬
4. hi (16) mexinS dagim memulaim. .4. ‫היא )לא( מכינה‬
‫דגים ממולאים‬
5. haim haSrec (16). mocet x6n beeynexa? ?5. ‫האם הארץ‬
‫)לא( מוצאת חך בעיניך‬
6. hu (16) roce lehagia ladoar
h
a
m
e
r
k
a
z
i
.
.
.
6
.
‫א‬
‫ו‬
‫ה‬
‫ה‬
‫צ‬
‫ו‬
‫ר‬
(
‫א‬
‫ל‬
)
‫ר‬
‫א‬
‫ו‬
‫ד‬
‫ל‬
‫ע‬
‫י‬
‫ג‬
‫ה‬
‫ל‬
‫י‬
‫ז‬
‫כ‬
‫ר‬
‫מ‬
‫ר‬

421

UNIT £

UNIT 15 HEBREW

7. Snu
8. ani

BASIC COURSE

(16) medabrim ivrit. .‫ אנו )לא( מדברים עברית‬.‫ד‬
(16) carix et haSuixSn.
.8. ‫אני )לא( צריך את‬
‫השולחך‬

D.Transformation Drill - Negative to Affirmative
Repeat Drill D in reverse.
E.Transformation Drill - Affirmative to Negative
Instructor: We'll go to the movies
tonight. Student: We won't go to the
movies tonight.
1. (16) nelex lakoln6a hairev. 1• >'‫לי ל׳וי׳״י‬- (‫נ לא‬
‫™״‬
‫י׳ ־‬
1
6
)
.
2
)
nig&S lexana hay6m.
.2. (‫לא( ניגש לחנה היום‬
3.hti (16) yaav6r ai y^d hab^it Sei^nu. .3. (‫הוא )לא‬
‫יעבור על יד הבית שלנו‬
4.hem (16) yisgeru et haxanut beSeS. .111 4. (‫הם )לא‬
‫יסגרו את החנות‬
5.gveret k&rmi (16) tiftix et hamisr^d. .5. ‫גברת כרמי‬
‫)לא( תפתח את המשרד‬
6.sara vex&na (16) tagana max&r. .6. (‫ישרה וחנה )לא‬
‫תגענה מחר‬
7.£nu (16) natxii 1eex61 1ifn4y 868.
.(‫ אנו )לא‬.‫ד‬
8. (16 ‫ )נתחיל לאכול לפני שש‬emc& ot6 bemisrad6. .8.
(‫לא( אמצא אותו במשרדו‬

422

BASIC
COURSE
HEBREW

UNIT £

F. Transformation Drill - Negative to Affirmative
Repeat Drill E in reverse.G. Transformation Drill Affirmative to Negative.
Instructor: They're new in the country. Student:
They're not new in the country.

1
.

2
.
3

4
.

h6m (16) xadaSim
bafirec. iSti (16)
amerikSit. habfiit
Selahem (lo) yaf6.
haglidfi Sehi
mexinfi (16) tovfi.
nemfil hateuffi (16)
raxok mehair. haoxel
(16) hayfi taim.
‫הם )לא( חדשים‬.1
.‫כארץ‬
(‫אשתי )לא‬.2
.‫אמריקאית‬
(‫הכית שלהם )לא‬.3
.‫יפה‬
‫הגלידה שהיא מכינה‬.4
.‫)לא( טובה‬
(‫נמל התעופה )לא‬.5
.‫רחוק מהעיר‬
‫האוכל )לא( היה‬.6
.‫טעים‬

61

423

UNIT 15 HEBREW

BASIC COURSE

Transformation Drill - Affirmative to Negative In
this drill the sentences are negated by /£yn/.

ani (eyneni ) yodea et
hakt&vet SelS. atfi
(eynxfi) gfir kar6v
laSagrirut. fit (eynex)
yodfiat ledaber ivrit.
hu (eynenu) roce
lehazmin et mirySm. hi
(eyn4na) rocS lehazmin
oto. (eyn) finu yod'im
eyfo Sehem garim. atem
(eynx&m) xadaSim
bafirec. lfima aten
(eynx6n) bediita. h£m
(eynfim) xoSvim
Semeuxfir. hen (eynfin)
crix6t liknot dagim.
‫אני )אינני( יורע את‬.1
.‫הכתובת שלה‬
‫אתה )איבר( גר קרוב‬.2
.‫לשגרירות‬
‫את )איכר( יודעת לדבר‬.3
.‫עברית‬
‫הוא )איננו( רוצה‬.4
.‫להזמין את מרית‬
‫היא )איננה( רוצה‬.5
.‫להזמין אותו‬
‫)אין( אנו יודעים איפה‬.6
.‫שהם גרים‬
‫אתם )אינכם( חדשים‬.7
.‫בארץ‬
(‫למה אתן )אינכן‬.8
?‫בדיאטה‬
‫הם )אינם( חושבים‬.9
.‫שמאוחר‬
‫ הן )אינן( צריכות‬.10
.‫לקנות דגים‬

1
.

2
.
3.
4.

6.

7.
8.
5.

10
.

424

BASIC
COURSE
HEBREW

RE
VIEW CONVERSATIONS A: mfi ani

yax61 laasot biSvilex. B: ten
li bevakaSfi, gvinfi. A: eyze
gvinS St rocS. B: gvinS levanS.
?‫ מה אני יכול לעשות בשבילך‬:‫א‬
.‫ גבינה‬,‫ בבקשה‬,‫ תן לי‬:‫כ‬
?‫ איזה גבינה את רוצה‬:‫א‬
.‫ מינה לבנה‬:‫ב‬

425

UNIT £

UNIT 15 HEBREW

C:

BASIC COURSE

habeycim

triot?
D: ken,
gvirti. triot
meod.

C: kama 016
treysSr?
D: SiSim
agorot.
C: az ten li

Sney treysSr.
‫ הביצים‬:‫ג‬
?‫טריות‬
,‫ גברתי‬,‫ כן‬:‫ד‬
.‫טריות מאוד‬
‫ כמה עולה‬:‫ג‬
?‫תריסר‬
‫ שישים‬:‫ר‬
.‫אגורות‬
‫ אז תן לי‬:‫ג‬
.‫שני תריסר‬

426

BASIC
COURSE
HEBREW

E:

St crixS yerakot, gvirti?

F:

kin. ani crixS melafefonim.

E:

hamelafefonim zolim hayom.

UNIT £
Substitute other foods, prices,
etc.

?‫ גברתי‬,‫ את צריכה ירקות‬:‫ה‬
.‫ אני צריכה מלפפונים‬.‫כך‬:‫ו‬
.‫ המלפפונים זולים היום‬:‫ה‬

F: tov me6d. ten li kilo.

.‫ תן לי קילו‬.‫טוב מאור‬:‫ו‬
G: adoni, ata xaySv li kilo agvaniot.

‫ אתה חייב לי קילו‬,‫ארוני‬:‫ז‬

H. natSti lSx et haagvaniot etm6l.

.‫עגבניות‬

G: ken. Sx hen lo hayu tovot.

.‫ נתתי לך את העגבניות אתמול‬:‫ח‬

H: ze davSr axer. etin lax axerot.

:‫ ח‬.‫ אך הך לא היו טובות‬.‫ כך‬:‫ז‬

I: matSy kibSlta et hazeytim.
J:

.‫ אתך לך אחרות‬.‫זה רבר אחר‬

kibalti otSm etmol. at roca zeytim?

I: him teimim?

:‫ מתי קבלת את הזיתים? י‬:‫ט‬

J: k&n. teimim meod.

‫ את רוצה‬.‫קבלתי אותם אתמול‬
?‫ הם טעימים‬:‫זיתים? ט‬
.‫ טעימים מאוד‬.‫ כך‬:‫י‬

X: &z tin li arbS meot grSm.
K:

.‫ אז תך לי ארבע מאות גרם‬:‫ט‬

bekSma hakolerSbi.

L: esrim agorot hakilo.

‫ עשרים‬:‫ בכמה הקולרבי? ל‬:‫כ‬

K: ze yakSr meod.

.‫ זה יקר מאוד‬:‫ כ‬.‫אגורות הקילו‬

L: zl 16 yakSr. ze zol.

.‫ זה זול‬.‫ זה לא יקר‬:‫ל‬

M: bekfima haselek.

‫ חמישים אגורות‬:‫ בכמה הסלק? נ‬:‫מ‬

N: xamiSim agorot hakilo.

:‫ נ‬.‫ תך לי שלושה קילו‬:‫ מ‬.‫הקילו‬

M: ten 11 §lo§S kilo.

.‫לה לך לירה וחצי‬:‫זה יי‬

N: ze yaali lax lira vaxeci.

427

UNIT 15 HEBREW

BASIC COURSE

15.1 At a Coffee House /bebit kafi/
Hello,
David.
What's
new?

‫מה‬
‫נשמע‬

is
he
ar
d
ATA
RA
Sa
lo
m
da
vi
d.
mS
ni
Sm
S.
niS
mS
(m.
s.)

428

,‫שלרש‬
.‫דור‬
?‫נשמע‬

BASIC
COURSE
HEBREW

Let
's
get
a
cup
of
cof
fee
,
and
I'l
l
tel
l
you
eve
ryt
hin
g.

tel
l
DAV
ID

b
6
i

‫ל‬
‫ש‬
‫ת‬
‫ו‬
‫ת‬

l
i
S
t
o
t

‫כ‬
‫ו‬
‫ס‬

‫בוא‬
‫לשח‬
‫ו ת‬
‫כוס‬
asapir (1 s.fut.) ‫אספר‬
‫קפה‬

k
o
s
t
o
d
r
i
n
k
d
r
i
n
k
i
n
g
g
l
a
s
s
c
o
f
f
e
e
I
w
i
l
l

(m)

‫ב‬
‫ו‬
‫א‬
‫י‬

‫ק‬
‫פ‬
‫ה‬
,

k
a
f
e
.

‫ו‬
‫א‬
‫ס‬
‫פ‬
‫ר‬

v
e
a
s
a
p
e
r

‫ל‬
‫ך‬
‫א‬
‫ת‬

l
S
x

‫ה‬
‫כ‬
‫ל‬
.

e
t
h
a
k
o
l
.
b6
(m.
s.i
mv.
)
lig
tot
kos
(f)
kaf
i

429

UNIT £

UNIT 15 HEBREW

BASIC COURSE

ATARA
Good idea.
Where's the
coffee
house? idea
rayon tov.
eyfo bet
hakafe.
ra
yo
n
(m
)

‫רע‬
‫יו‬
‫ן‬
‫טו‬
.‫ב‬
‫אי‬
‫פה‬
‫בי‬
‫ת‬
‫הק‬
‫פה‬
?

‫רעיו‬
‫ן‬

430

BASIC
COURSE
HEBREW

UNIT £

DAVID
Here on the corner, here
(in the coffee house)

,‫מלצר‬
‫פעמיי‬
‫ם‬

Wa
it
er
,
tw
o
coffees,
please.

,‫ה‬.,‫ד‬
:‫ב‬
.‫ה‬.‫ק‬

w
a
i
t
e
r
w
a
i
t
r
e
s
s
tim
e
(oc
cur
ren
ce)
DAV
ID

po
bapina.

p
o

‫מה‬

‫מלצר‬
‫מלצר‬
‫ית‬
□ ys

melc&r paamSim
kafe
bevakaSa.
me
lc
ar
(m
)
me
lc
ar
it
(f
)
p&
am
(f
)

431

‫פה‬
.‫בפינה‬

UNIT 15 HEBREW

BASIC COURSE

With or without
milk?
with or
without
WAITER
im o bli xalav. im
o bli

‫עם‬
‫או‬
‫בל‬
‫י‬

432

‫עם או בלי‬
?‫חלב‬

BASIC
COURSE
HEBREW

I'll have

espres
so
with
milk.

bigvil
i
espres
o £w
xalav.

A
T
A
R
A

‫ב‬
‫ג‬
‫י‬
‫ב‬
‫י‬
‫ל‬
‫י‬
‫א‬
‫ס‬
‫פ‬
‫ר‬
‫ס‬
‫ו‬
‫ע‬
‫ם‬
‫ח‬
‫ל‬
‫ב‬
,

433

UNIT £

UNIT 15 HEBREW

BASIC COURSE

And I'll
have cafe
au lait.

reversed,
inverted
DAVID

vebigvili kafe
hafux.
hafux

434

(m.s.
)

‫הפוך‬

‫ונשב‬
‫ילי‬
‫קפה‬
.‫הפוך‬

‫‪BASIC‬‬
‫‪COURSE‬‬
‫‪UNIT £‬‬

‫‪HEBREW‬‬
‫‪WAITER‬‬

‫אתם רוצים‬
‫עוגות?‬

‫עוג‬
‫ה‬

‫איזה‬
‫עוגות‬
‫יש‬
‫לכם?‬

‫‪.‬‬
‫)‬
‫י‬
‫ת‬
‫ק‬
‫ר‬
‫ר‬

‫‪D‬‬
‫‪o‬‬
‫‪a‬‬
‫‪p‬‬
‫‪a‬‬
‫‪n‬‬

‫‪h‬‬
‫‪o‬‬
‫‪I‬‬
‫‪a‬‬
‫‪t‬‬
‫‪u‬‬
‫‪g‬‬
‫‪ATARA‬‬

‫יש לנו‬
‫עוגת‬
‫תפוחים‬
‫ועוגת‬
‫עגובגיתנ הת‪.‬פ ו ח י ם ‪,‬‬
‫בבקשה‪.‬‬

‫‪e‬‬
‫‪WAITER‬‬

‫גם‬
‫בשביל‬
‫י‪.‬‬

‫‪y‬‬
‫‪ATARA‬‬
‫‪u‬‬
‫‪DAVID‬‬

‫הקפה‬
‫חם‪.‬‬
‫הזהר‬
‫‪.‬‬

‫‪g‬‬
‫‪ATARA‬‬
‫‪h‬‬
‫‪a‬‬
‫‪xam‬‬
‫)‪(m.s.‬‬

‫ח‬
‫‪ hizaher‬ם‬
‫‪(m.s.im‬‬
‫)‪v.‬‬
‫הזהר‬

‫אחכה‬
‫קצת‪,‬‬
‫והקפ‬
‫ה‬
‫יתקר‬
‫ר‪.‬‬

‫‪DAVID‬‬
‫‪a‬‬
‫‪a‬‬
‫‪x‬‬

‫‪435‬‬

UNIT 15 HEBREW

BASIC COURSE

15 • 2 ADDITIONAL

VOCABUL
ARY
G
i
v
e
m
e
a
g
l
a
s
s
o
f
w
a
t
e
r
,
w
a
t
e
r
G
i
v
e
m
e
a
g
l
a
s
s
o
f
s
e
l
t
z
e
r
,
c
l
u
b
s

o
d ‫ת‬
T
T
T
T
L
e
restau
rant
t
i
m
f
s
o
h
h
h
h
b
o
m
i

‫מים‬
‫סוד‬
‫ה‬

‫מסער‬
‫ה‬

436

BASIC
COURSE
HEBREW

‫ד‬
‫ה‬
.
‫ה‬
‫ת‬
‫ה‬
‫ח‬
‫ם‬
.
‫ה‬
‫ת‬
‫ה‬
‫ק‬
‫ר‬
.
‫ה‬
‫ח‬
‫ל‬
‫ב‬
‫ה‬
‫מ‬
‫ו‬
‫ץ‬
.

437

UNIT £

UNIT 15 HEBREW

BASIC COURSE

15•3 Vocabulary Drills
A.Substitution Drill - /b6/ "come"
Come see our house‫׳‬.
boi
lir'ot
et

‫בואי לראות את‬
,‫הבית שלנו‬
habait gelSnu. b6u b6 bona

B.Substitution Drill - /al tav6/ "don't come"
Don't come in the afternoon.
al tavo axarey hacohorSim.
tavoi tavou tavona
C.Transformation Drill - Affirmative to Negative
Instructor: Come with Tamar.
Student: Don't come with Tamar.

‫בואו ברא בואנה‬

.‫אל תבוא אחרי הצהריים‬
‫תבו אי תבו או תבואנה‬

438

BASIC
COURSE
HEBREW

b6 im tamSr.
b6u im tamar.
b6i im tamSr.

bona
tamar.
Si
tavo
tamSr.
tavou
tamSr.
tav6i

tamSr.
tav6na

im
im
Si
im
Si
im
Si
im

tamSr.

‫עם‬
‫אל‬
‫עם‬

‫בוא‬
.‫תמר‬
‫תבוא‬
.‫תמר‬
‫בואו עם‬
‫ אל‬.‫תמר‬
‫תבואו‬
.‫עם תמר‬
‫בואי עם‬
‫ אל‬.‫תמר‬
‫תבואי‬
.‫עם תמר‬
‫בואנה‬
‫עם‬
‫אל‬.‫תמר‬
‫תבואנה‬
.‫עם תמר‬

439

UNIT £

UNIT 15 HEBREW

BASIC COURSE

D.Tranformation Drill - Negative to Affirmative
Repeat Drill C in reverse.
E.Substitution Drill - /avo/ ‫״‬I will come"

I'll come to her office tomorrow.
avo lemisrada maxar.
tavo
tavoi
david yav6

sSra tavo
navo
atem tavou
aten
tavona
kulSm
yavou hen
tavona
F.Substitution - Agreement Drill He'll come for
dinner.

hu yav6 learuxSt erev.
ani - hagveret umSr Williams
St veatSra - hen - atem Snu atS - iSto gel dov - St
- hu

.‫אבוא למצרדה מחר‬

‫תב וא תבואי דור יבוא שרה תבוא נבוא‬
‫אתם תבואו אתן תבואנה כולם יבואו הן‬
‫תבואנה‬

.‫הוא יבוא לארוחת ערב‬
‫ אתם‬- ‫ הן‬- ‫ הגברת ומר וויליאמם את ועטרה‬- ‫אני‬
‫ הוא‬- ‫ את‬- ‫ אשתו של דוב‬- ‫ אנו אתה‬-

440

BASIC
COURSE
HEBREW

UNIT £

G. Substitution Drill - /a- ~ te-/
I'll tell Atara everything.

asapir leatSra et hak61.
tesapir

‫אספר לעטרה‬
.‫או! הכל‬

tesapri
david yesapir

‫תספר תספרי רוד‬
‫יספר שרה תספר אני‬
‫ואשתי נספר אתם‬
‫תספרו אתן תספרנה‬
‫הם יספרו הן תספרנה‬

sSra tesaper
ani veiStf nesapir
atim tesapru
aten tesaperna
hem yesapru
hin tesaperna
H. Substitution - Agreement Drill - /asapir/ ‫״‬I will tell"

‫נספר להם‬
‫את החרשות‬
. ‫הטובות‬
- ‫ עטרה ודוד‬- ‫אתם‬
‫ אתן‬- ‫ הוא אני‬- ‫הן‬
- ‫ את אתה‬- ‫ שרה‬‫ אנו‬- ‫ הוא‬- ‫אביגדור‬

Moshe till 5:00.

axake lemoSe Sd xamiS.
texaki

texaki
dov yexaki
hi texaki
Snu nexake
atem texaku
atin texakena
hem yexaku

hen texakena

‫אחנה למשה‬
.‫עד חמש‬

‫תחכה תחכי‬
‫דב יחכה תחכה נחכה‬
‫ הם‬.‫תחכו תחכי נד‬
‫יחכו הן תחכינה‬

‫הי‬
‫א‬
‫אנ‬
‫ו‬
‫את‬
‫ם‬
‫את‬
‫ן‬

We'll tell them
the good news.

nesapir lahem et
haxadaSot
hatov6t.
atim - atSra
vedavid - hin hfi ani - atin sSra - St atS avigdor - hu Snu
I. Substitution Drill
- /a- ~ te-/
I'll wait for

441

UNIT 15 HEBREW

BASIC COURSE

J. Substitution - Agreement Drill - /axaki/ ‫״‬I will wait"
(Use the forms of the verb /e£dv/"sit" as cues.)
I'll sit in the hotel and wait for him.

eSev bamalon
neSev
teSvu
yeSiv
teSiv
14a teSiv
ye§vu
hin teSevna
teSvi
atin teSivna

veaxake 16.
(venexaki)
(vetexakti)
(veyexake)
(vetexaki)
(vetexaki)
(veyexaku)
(vetexakena)
(vetexaki)
(vetexakina)

‫אשב במלון ואחכה‬
‫נשב‬
‫ו‬
^
,‫לו‬

(‫נחכה‬
‫תשב‬
‫י‬
‫ו‬
(‫ותחכו‬
‫ישב‬
‫; ו י‬
‫תשב‬
‫חכה( י‬
‫לאה תשב ישבו‬
'‫הן תשבנה ותחכה‬
(‫לותחכינה‬
,
(‫^ ותחכי‬
‫תשבי‬
‫) ותחכ‬
‫אתן תשב נה‬
‫)ותחכינה(ה( ) ו‬
(‫יחכו‬

442

BASIC
COURSE
HEBREW

UNIT £

K. Substitution Drill - /hizahir/ "be careful"
Be careful; the cup is hot.

,‫הזהר‬
‫הכרם‬
.‫חמה‬

hizahir. hak6s xamfi.
hizahari
hizaharu
hizahirna

haxalfi
haytfi
ha6xel
hayfi
habeyci
m
hayu
haugfi
haytfi
hakafi
hayfi hayerak
6t
hayfi
haagvan
i6t
hayfi hamfiim
hayu
M. Substitution - Agreement Drill
- /kfir/ "cold"
The milk was cold.

‫הזהרי‬
‫הזהרו‬
‫הזהרנ‬
‫ה‬

haxalfiv
hayfi kfir.
h
a
g
l
i
d
a
h
a
y
t
f
i
h
a
d
a
g
i

443

UNIT 15 HEBREW

BASIC COURSE

m hayfi
haeSkoli6t
hayfi hamic hayfi
hagvinot
hayu haavatixim
hayu

h
a
k
a
f
i
h

In Grammar Section 6.9 it was pointed out that the final stem vowel is dropped
in verb forms beginning with a stressed vowel. However, when the second root
consonant is h . as in /hizahir/, the sequence /-hr-/ results, and the vowel /a/ is
inserted.
The /-h-/ is often replaced by a smooth
transition in ordinary speech - /hizaari, hizaaru/• Compare the forms of
/memahir/ "hurry" in Section 8.3.
In the following drills L to P the instructor supplies the verb form with the
noun substitution.

L. Substitution - Agreement Drill - /xam/ "hot" The
water was hot. hamfiim hayu xamim.

haSaminet
haytfi haxalfiv
hayfi
N. Substitution - Agreement Drill
- /mfir/ "bitter"
The coffee was bitter.
hakafi hayfi mfir.
hateenim
hayu hatiy hayfi
hayeyn6t
hayu haribfi
haytfi
haeSkolit
haytfi haanavim
hayu
hagvinot
hayu -

a
y
f
i

.‫המים היו חמים‬
‫ האוכל‬- ‫יתה‬
‫החלה ־‬
- ‫היה הביצים היו‬
‫העוגה היסה הקפה‬
‫ הירקות היו‬- ‫היה‬
- ‫העגבניות היו‬
‫המים היו‬

.‫החלב היה קר‬
- ‫הגלידה היתה‬
‫הדגים היו‬
- ‫האשכוליות היו‬
‫המיץ היה הגבינות‬
‫ האבטיחים‬- ‫היו‬
- ‫היו השמנת היתה‬

444

‫‪BASIC‬‬
‫‪COURSE‬‬
‫‪UNIT £‬‬

‫‪HEBREW‬‬
‫החלב היה‬

‫הקפה היה מר‪.‬‬
‫התאנים היו ‪ -‬התה היה היינות היו‬
‫ הריבה הי תה האשכולית היתה ‪-‬‬‫הענבים היו הגבינות היו ‪ -‬הקפה‬
‫היה‬

‫‪445‬‬

UNIT 15 HEBREW

BASIC COURSE

0. Substitution - Agreement Drill - /xamuc/ "sour" The
grapes were sour.
haanavim hayu xamucim.
haxalSv hayS - haSaminet haytS
hadagim hayu - hagvinS haytS
hay&in hayS - hateenim hayu
haug6t hayu - haanavim hayu

.‫הענבים היו חמוצים‬
‫ השמנת ה יתה‬- ‫החלב היה‬

‫ הגבינה היתה‬- ‫הרגי□ היו‬
‫ התאנים היו‬- ‫היין היה‬
‫ הענבים היו‬- ‫העוגות היו‬

P. Substitution - Agreement Drill - /mat6k/ "sweet"
The plums were sweet.
hagezifim hayu metukim.
hay&in hayS - haavatixim hayu
haribS haytS - hae§koli6t hayu
haxalot hayu - harim6n hayS
haxalS haytS - haSezifim hayu

. ‫;יו מתוקים‬
‫השזיפים ־‬

‫ האבטיחים היו‬- ‫היין היה‬
‫ האשכוליות היו‬- ‫הריבה היתה‬
‫ הרימון היה‬- ‫החלות היו‬
‫ השזיפים היו‬- ‫החלה הי תה‬

The instructor may vary the above drills by supplying only the noun
substitution, with the student making the necessary changes in the verb
/hayS, haytS, hayu/.
GRAMMAR NOTES
15.4 Roots
Examine the following sets of related forms and note that in each set
there is a sequence of consonants which recurs in all the forms;

1.

/ledaber/
/daber/
/adaber/
/medaber/

"to speak"
"speak"
‫״‬I will speak"
"speaks"

2.

/sameax/

"happy"

/nismcix/

"we will be happy"

/ slixS/

"pardon" (noun)

/tisl&x/

"you will pardon"

/sider/

"arrangement, order"

/yesudcir/

"it will be arranged"

3.

4.

‫לדבר‬
‫דבר‬
‫אדבר‬
‫מדבר‬
‫שמח‬
‫נשמח‬
‫סלי חח‬
‫תסלח‬
‫סדר‬
‫יסודר‬

In group 1 the sequence /d-b-r/ recurs, with the basic meaning "speak"; in group
2 the sequence /s-m-x/ recurs, with the basic meaning "happy"; in group 3 the
sequence /s-l-x/ recurs, with the basic meaning "pardon"; and in group 4 the
sequence /s-d-r/ recurs, with the basic meaning "arrange". Such sequences, called
roots. have been hinted at in the preceding units. Hebrew roots generally consist of
three consonants. Roots of four consonants, such as /t-r-g-m/ in /targim/
"translate", are fairly common. Roots with only one or two consonants, such as /b/
in /b&/ "come" and /r-c/ in /laruc/ "to run", are less frequent. Roots of five
consonants also occur, but infrequently, and they are generally technical, or slang
coinages, such as /letalgrif/ "to telegraph".
These root consonants are often called radicals. and dictionaries list verbs

446

HEBREW

BASIC COURSE

UNIT

according to these radicals. Roots of less than three radicals are "supplied" with
additional radicals to make three for purposes of listing. The particular
consonant supplied is usually based on the Hebrew spelling of one of the forms.
The patterns are rather regular but complicated, and they will be discussed as the
opportunity presents itself.

15.5

Patterns Occurring with Roots

Examine the following groups of forms and note that in each group there is a
recurring sequence of vowels, and, in some of the groups, of consonants also:

447

15

UNIT 15 HEBREW

6
.

BASIC COURSE

/xo§ev/
/omer/
/moce/
/roce/
/ole/
/ose/
/roe/

"thinks"
"says"
"finds"
"wants"
"costs"
"does"
"sees"

‫חושב‬
‫אומר‬
‫מוצא‬
‫רוצה‬
‫עולה‬
‫עושה‬
‫רואה‬

/medaber/

"speaks"

‫מדבר‬

/memaher/
/mekave/

"hurries"
"hopes"

‫ממהר‬
‫מקו ה‬

/lamfideti/
/amfirti/
/axfilti/
/Samfiti/
/natfiti/

‫״‬I
‫״‬I
‫״‬I
‫״‬I
‫״‬I

studied"
said"
ate"
heard"
gave"

‫למדתי‬
‫אמרתי‬
‫אכלתי‬
‫שמעתי‬
‫נתתי‬

/natxil/

"we will begin"

‫נתחיל‬

/namSix/

"we will continue"

‫נמשין־‬

In group 5 the sequence /-o-4-/ indicates the present tense, while in group 6
the sequence /me-a-i-/ carries this meaning.
In group 7 the sequence /-a-fi-ti/ carries the general meaning ‫״‬I _________
(past tense), with the root consonants indicating the basic verb meaning.
In group 8 the sequence /na—i-/ carries the meaning "we will _______________
and the radicals /t-x-1/ and /m-S-x/ indicate the basic verb meanings.
Thus it may be seen that the roots carry the basic meanings, and the patterns
of vowels, prefixes, and suffixes indicate the precise meanings of the forms as
they occur in sentences, such as present tense, etc.
Up to this point the emphasis in the grammatical drills has been on prefixing,
suffixing, and other changes which occur regardless of the pattern occurring with
the root. For example, the present tense verbs /xoSev/ and /medaber/ show similar
changes for the feminine and plurals.
m.s.
f.s.
m.pi.
f.pl.

/xoSev/
/xoSevet/
/xoSvim/
/xogvot/

/medabir/
/medaberet/
/medabrim/
/medabr6t/

‫חושכ‬
‫׳כ ת‬:‫־‬
‫׳כים‬:‫ו‬
‫ח ־־‬
‫חושבות‬

‫מדבר‬
‫ מדברת‬in
‫מדברים‬
‫מדברות‬

However, though the /-o-4-/ and /me-a-i-/ patterns both indicate present tense
they are of different verb patterns and the other tenses will show differences,
also. The future tense forms of these verbs are, for example, /taxSov/ and
/tedaber/.
If the student learns the various patterns with a few representative roots, he
will be able to derive all the forms of a new root by analogy from one or two
forms. For example, the following forms of the verb "to speak" have occurred:
infinitive:
m.s.imv.
f.s.imv.
1 s.fut.
3 m.pl.fut.
m.s.pres.

/ledaber/
/daber/
/dabri/
/adaber/
/yedabru/
/medaber/

448

"to speak"
"speak"
"speak"
‫״‬I will speak"
"they will speak"
"speaks"

‫לדבר‬
‫דבר‬
‫דברי‬
‫אדבר‬
‫ידברו‬
‫מדבר‬

HEBREW

BASIC COURSE

UNIT

Forms of two other roots with the same pattern have occurred so far: /asaper/
‫״‬I will tell" and /letayel/ "to walk about". From these the matching forms may be
derived: (The derived forms are listed to the right.)
infinitive m.s.imv. f.s.imv. 1 s.fut. 3 m.pl.fut. m.s.pres.
/
asaper/ /
yesapru/

/
mesaper/

/lesaper/
/
saper/
/sapri/

449

/
letayil/

/
tayel/
/tayli/ /
atayel/ /
yetaylu/
/metayel/

15

BASIC
COURS
E

HEBREW

UNIT £

As a further illustration, the root of /xoSev/, xSv. occurs with the pattern
of /dabir/ with the somewhat different meaning "to calculate" instead of "to think".
The corresponding forms ares
infinitive
m.s.imv.
f.s.imv.
1 s.fut.
3m.pl.fut.
m.s.pres.

/lexaSev/
/xaSev/
/xaSvi/
/axaSiv/
/yexagvti/
/mexaSiv/

"to calculate"
"calculate"
"calculate"
‫״‬I will calculate"
"they will calculate"
"calculates"

‫לחשב‬
‫חשב‬
‫תשבי‬
‫אחשב‬
‫י תשב י‬
‫מחשב‬

It is not all so simple as the above illustrations might make it appear. For one
thing, even the simplest pattern with an unvarying root may have over twenty
different forms of which the student must have automatic control. This requires a
tremendous amount of drill, and the student should not be lulled into a feeling of
confidence simply because he finds it easy to "encode" the correct form with some
reflection.
Second, there are quite a few different verb patterns alone, not counting
variations for phonological reasons. Mastery of these represents the major task for
the beginning Hebrew student. In the following units a great deal of attention will
be paid to it in the drills.
15.6 Alternating Radicals

1
.
2.

3.

/pni/

Compare the related forms in the following groups:
"turn"

/tifni/

"you will turn',"1

/ptax/

"open"

/tiftSx/

"you will open"

/b6/

"come"

/tav6/

"you will come"

‫פנה‬
‫תפנה‬
‫פתח‬
‫תפתח‬
‫בוא‬
‫תבוא‬

The first member of each group has a root varying slightly from the apparent root
of the second member. In the first two groups /p/ alternates with /f/, and in the
third /b/ alternates with /v/. In addition, some roots have /k/ alternating with /x/
as one of the radicals.
These alternations have been mentioned before, and they are quite frequent in
verbs. The patterns of alternation often depend on the pattern occurring with the
root, but a few generalizations may be made at this point.
a) At the beginning of a word the alternants /p/, /b/, and /k/ occur:
/pne/ "turn"
‫פנה‬
/b6/ "come"
‫בוא‬
/kin/ "yes, so"
‫כן‬
b)At the end of a word the alternants /f/, /v/, and /x/ occur:
/cahov/ "yellow"
/direx/ "way"
c)After a stressed vowel the alternants /f/, /v/, and /x/ occur:
/sefer/ "book"
/Seva/ "seven"
/6xel/ "food"
d) As the second consonant of an initial two-consonant cluster the
alternants /f/, /v/, and /x/ occur:
,
,
/sfarim/
b
o
o
k
s

450

‫צהוב‬
‫דרך‬
‫ספר‬
yX"
‫אוכל‬

HEBREW

BASIC COURSE

UNIT

‫״‬
/gvii/
‫״‬

‫ם‬

‫י‬

‫י‬

‫״‬s
‫ע‬

‫ר‬

e
‫י‬

£

v
‫ב‬

15

‫ס‬

e
‫ש‬

n

t

h

There is a close correspondence in the Hebrew spelling of radicals that alternate
and those which do not:
/k/ alternating with /x/ is spelled
‫ כ‬.
/k/ not alternating with /x/ is spelled P • /x/ not alternating with /k/ is
spelled ‫ ח‬.
Thus, for example, initial /x/ will be spelled always with ‫ ח‬. /xoUv/ ‫חושב‬
Final /k/ will be spelled with p .
/yar6k/
‫ירוק‬
/v/ alternating with /b/ is spelled ‫ ב‬. /v/ not alternating with /b/ is spelled ‫• ו‬
In listing the roots b, and k will be used for the alternating radicals. The
student should learn these roots by drilling the forms. Attention to the Hebrew
spelling will be of help in roots with /k/ and /x/.
Thus, the root of /sefer/ "book" will be listed as spr, the same as for /saper/
"tell".

15.7 Alternating Patterns
Patterns alternate in a number of ways, and some of these have been described
already. Alternations such as the /a/ in /memaharim/ m.pl.pres. "hurry" depend on the
particular consonants which comprise the root. Other pattern alternations are the
result of historical or phonological changes in Hebrew which leave forms similar in
one part of a pattern and different in other parts. For example, the future of the
roots /p-t-x/ "open" and /s-m-x/ "be happy" are very similar - /eftax/ ‫״‬I will open"
and /esmax/ ‫״‬I will be happy". However, the present tense of the former is /poteax/
and the corresponding form of the latter is /samiax/, which has been treated as an
adjective.
The student should not try to memorize a huge series of rules, but he should drill
the patterns as they occur and use the descriptions in the notes as an aid. Summaries
will be provided from time to time for further assistance.

15.8 Designation of Patterns
In previous units we have discussed patterns by using the symbols C for
"consonant" and V for "vowel". For ease in discussing patterns we will designate them
by using the arbitrary root p'1. The choice of this root is dictated by Hebrew
grammatical tradition. Other roots which are often used by grammarians for this
purpose are q t 1 and g m r.
The choice of p'1 has the disadvantage that the internal open juncture /'/ is
usually replaced by a smooth transition. The roots q t 1 is often used as a symbol for
the /k/ which never alternates with /x/) and Smr do not have this disadvantage;their
consonants do not vary. However, the use of p'1 will allow the student to be a bit
conversant in the traditional Hebrew description of Hebrew as taught in Israeli
schools.
An advantage in using p'1 is that the £ will occur as /f/ in the patterns where
it is called for and give the student an additional aid in deriving forms.
Thus, for example, the form /kibel/ will be said to be a pi'el form
(pronounced /pi'el/ or /piil/1. The form /slixa/ will be said to be a p'il& form
(pronounced /pe'ilS/ or /peilS/ since /p'/ is a non-permissible initial cluster).
NOTE: This section and the following one are not grammatical explanations. They are

451

BASIC
COURS
E

HEBREW

UNIT £

explanations of grammatical terms used in this text.
15.9 Designation of Radicals
The root p'1 consists, in the Hebrew spelling, of the letters ‫ פ‬/pey/, ‫ע‬
/iin/, a n d ‫ ל‬/ l a m e d /
. Since most Hebrew roots consist of three
consonants or can be spelled with three letters when they consist of less, the
radicals are named after these letters. The first radical is called the "/pey/" of
the root, the second is called the "/ain/", and the third is called the "/lSmed/".
We will use these traditional designations as well as C with subscript numerals in
discussion of roots and patterns .
In Grammar Note 8.4a the term /lamed hey/ was used. This means that some forms of
these roots are spelled in Hebrew with the letter ‫ ה‬/hey/ as the third consonant.
Actually, there is no third consonant in their pronunciation. The root consists of
two consonants with the second always followed by a vowel. The /hey/ is an instance
of a third "consonant" being added to regularize the designation.
More specifically, the dictionary listing of the root is usually the third person
masculine singular past tense form of the verb. The verb "to be" would be listed
under the root hyh since the 3 m.s. past is /hayS/ ‫ היה‬. This verb, also, is a lcimed
hey verb.
Below is a partial list of the roots which have occurred in the text and
some representative forms illustrating the root. Note that the internal open
juncture /'/ may function as a radical.
Verbs listed with h as the third radical may be assumed to be lamed hey verbs.
Verb roots in which the final radical is the consonantal aspirate /h/ are very few in
number and will be specifically designated when they occur. They are listed in
dictionaries in their normal alphabetical order.
The student need not memorize the following list. It is included here only for
illustration of the grammatical points discussed in this unit.
Root
dbr

‫דבר‬

/daber/

"speak"

/davar/ "thing"

mc1

‫מצא‬

/moc'im/

"find"

/nimca'im/ "are found"

Sm'

‫שמע‬

/gim'i/
/niSmci/

"hear"
s.imv.) /Sam&ti/ ‫״‬I heard"
(f.
"is heard"

mSx

‫משך‬

/hamSex/

r'h

‫ראה‬

/lir'ot/

"continu
e
"to see"

" /tamSix/ "you will continue"

‫ י‬sh ‫עשה‬

/laas6t/

"to do"

'kl

‫אכל‬

/leexol/

"to eat"

sgr

‫סגר‬

/ sgor/

"close"

/esgor/ ‫״‬I will close"

ptx

‫פתח‬

/ptax/

"open"

/eftax/ ‫״‬I will open"

/ro6/ "sees" /raiti/ ‫״‬I saw"
/ose/ "does" /asiti/ ‫״‬I did"
/ax&lti/ ‫״‬I ate" /6xel/ "food"

qzm

/tagzim/ "you will exaggerate"

gdl

/gad61/ "big"

sdr

/yesudfir/ "it will be arranged" /sider/ "order"

zhr

/hizaher/ "be careful"

452

HEBREW

BASIC COURSE

UNIT

kns

15

/lehikanes/ "to enter"

[Note: In this text abstracted root consonants are indicated by underlining.
Transcriptions of spoken forms are indicated by slash lines. Thus, for
example, the statement "b occurs as /v/" would mean that a radical b, which
alternates between /b/ and /v/, occurs as /v/ in the particular form being
discussed.
Root Sbr — 3 m.s. past /Savar/ "he broke" ‫] שבד‬

RAPID RESPONSE DRILL

‫איפה היה ביש הקפה? מה‬
‫איזה‬
‫איזה‬

?‫יתות‬-‫ל‬
?‫עטרה‬

‫הזמינו‬

‫רצתה‬

‫קפה‬

?‫• נגיש ר; !ה‬:‫י‬
‫עוגות ־‬
‫יחרה‬

‫עוגה‬

‫ו‬

‫ז‬

‫אי‬.‫ל‬

‫עטרה? באיזו עיגה נ הר‬
?‫דור‬
?‫מרוע דור אינו יכול ער י י י לשתות את הקפה‬
A:

bo nig&S liStot kos

‫ בוא ניגש לשתות כוס‬:‫א‬
.‫קפה‬

B: 6yfo bet hakafe.
A: g&m bapinci.
B: esmax meod.
REVIEW
CONVERSATIONS

?‫ איפה בית הקפה‬:‫כ‬
.‫ שם בפינה‬:‫א‬
.‫ אשמח מאור‬:‫כ‬

kafe.

453

BASIC
COURS
E

C:

HEBREW

hatiy x&m. hizahari.
D: hu 16 xctm. hu kvar kHr.
C: at rocS xalciv latey?
D: 16. ani rod limon vesukar.
.‫ הזהרי‬.‫ התה חם‬:‫ג‬
.‫ הוא כבר קר‬.‫ הוא לא חם‬:‫ד‬
?‫ את רוצה חלב לתה‬:‫ג‬
.‫ אני רוצה לימון וסוכר‬.‫ לא‬:‫ד‬

454

UNIT £

HEBREW

BASIC COURSE

UNIT

E: meicarit. tni 11 k6s maim karim, b
‫ם‬
‫ר‬
‫כ‬
‫י‬
‫ל‬
‫ם‬
‫י‬
‫ר‬
‫ק‬
‫ם‬
‫י‬

‫י‬
‫מ‬

e

‫נ‬

v

‫ת‬

a

k

,

a

‫ת‬

g

‫י‬

a

‫ר‬

.

‫צ‬

‫ל‬

,

‫מ‬

:

15

‫ה‬

• n l !‫ ל‬j 3
F: ata roce 6d magehu?
E :

k e n .

‫ס פ ל י ט‬
P :

b a n a n a

?‫ אתה רוצה עור משהי‬:‫ו‬
s p l i t .

. . ‫כ ן‬

: ‫ה‬

‫ב נ נ ה‬

t o v

‫ב ר צ ו ו‬

a d o n i .

b e r a c o n .

• ‫ט ו ב‬

: ‫ו‬

. ‫א ר ו נ י‬

K: tov. nexake lo kfin fid

G: matiy tavo lir'ot ot&nu. H: avo haerev, im atem rocim.

Seyagia.
G:

tov. bo im hamigpaxS.

H:

rayon tov. lehitraot haerev.

?‫אז חנה‬
‫־־־‬
»‫״‬:;‫ היכו ד‬,‫ ספר לי‬:‫ט‬
.‫ ראיתי אותה כרחוב אלנבי‬:‫י‬

?‫ מתי תבוא לראות אותנו‬:‫ז‬

?‫ מה היא עושה כתל אכיב‬:‫ט‬

.‫ אבוא הערב אם אתם רוצים‬:‫ח‬

.‫ היא יאה לכאן כל שבוע‬:‫י‬
‫ צריך להזמין אותה לארוחת‬,‫ אם כן‬:‫ט‬
.‫ערב‬

.‫ בוא עם המשפחה‬.‫ טוב‬:‫ז‬
.‫ להתראות הערב‬.‫ רעיון טוב‬:‫ח‬

?‫ האם משה יבוא הנה היום‬:‫כ‬

X: saper li. heyxSn raita et

.‫ אני חושב שיבוא כחמש‬:‫ל‬

xfina.

.‫ נחכה לו כאן עד שיגיע‬.‫ טוב‬:‫כ‬

J: raiti otfi birx6v filenbi.
I: mfi hi osfi betil aviv.
J: hi bfia lekfin kol Savua.
X: im ken, carix lehazmin otfi
learuxfit irev.
K: haim moSe yav6 hina hayom?
L: ani xoSev Seyavo bexamiS.

455

UNIT

15

HEBREW

BASIC

COURSE

16.1 Conversation in the Coffee House /sixfi bebit hakafi/

‫שיחה בבית הקפה‬
DAVID

I met
Moshe this morning.
I met

appointed
pagaSti
et moSe hab6ker.
pagfiSti
ATARA

Really? What did
he say to you?
he told

He
told
me
that
he
got
a
lett
er
from Mr. Williams.
he received
letter

From
wher
e
did
he
send
the
lett
er?
From
the
U.S.
?

bee
mit
?
mil
hu
sipir lexfi.
sipir (3
m.s.past)
DAVID
hu
sip
ir
li
Seh
u
kib
il
mix
tav
mimfir Williams.
kibel
(3.m.s.past)
mixtfiv (m)

h
u
n
i
t
m
a
n
a
l
e
y
o
e
c
haSagrirut
haamerik&it.
nitma
na (3
m.s.p
ast)
‫פגשתי‬
.‫את משה הבוקר‬

‫פגשתי‬

‫ב‬
‫א‬
‫מ‬
‫ת‬
?

ATARA

he sent

mefiin
hu
2ala:L
et
hamixt^
v,
meamiri
ka?

‫מ‬
‫ה‬
‫ה‬
‫ו‬
‫א‬
?alax(3
m.s.past)

‫ס‬
‫י‬
‫פ‬
‫ר‬

DAVID

No. From Tel Aviv.

lo. mitil aviv.
From Tel Aviv?
What is he doing there?

He was appointed
Counsellor of
the American Embassy.
he was

ATARA
mitil
aviv?
ma hu
ose
Sam.

‫סיפר‬

DAVID

456

‫ל‬
‫ך‬
?

‫‪HEBREW‬‬

‫‪UNIT £‬‬

‫לא‪ .‬מתל אביב‪.‬‬

‫מתל אביב? מה הוא עושה‬
‫שם?‬

‫הוא נתמנה ליועץ‬

‫השגרירות האמריקאית‪ .‬נתמנה‬

‫‪457‬‬

‫‪BASIC COURSE‬‬

‫הוא סיפר לי‬
‫קיבל‬
‫שהוא‬
‫מכתב‬
‫ממר וויליאמם‪.‬‬

‫ק יכל מכתב‬

‫מאין הוא שלח את‬
‫המכתב? מאמריקה?‬

‫שלח‬

UNIT

15

HEBREW

COURSE

When
did he arrive?
he
arr
ive
d
ATARA

higia

(3

m.s.past) DAVID
‫מתי‬
?‫הוא הגיע‬

‫ה‬
‫ג‬
‫י‬
‫ע‬

matfiy hu
higia.

458

BASIC

BASIC COURSE

HEBREW

UNIT £

beSavua Seavar.
he passed

avfir (3 m.s.past)

‫עבר‬

‫בשבוע שעבר‬

Last week.

459

UNIT

15

HEBREW

BASIC

COURSE

Moshe went
to Tel Aviv
and saw him.
he travelled
he saw
nasei (3 m.s.past)
‫נסע‬
ra& (3 m.s.past)
‫ראה‬

moSe nasi
letil aviv
veraS ot6.

460

‫משח נסע‬

‫לתל‬
,‫אגיב‬

.‫וראה אותו‬

BASIC COURSE

HEBREW

UNIT £

ATARA
How does he look?

is seen,
appears
eyx h(i nir1 4.
nir'£
(m.s.pres.
)

?‫איר הוא ניראה‬

‫נראה‬

461

UNIT

15

HEBREW

COURSE

Moshe said
that he
looks
good.
he
sai
d
DAV
ID
m
o
S
e
a
m
S
r
3
e
‫־‬
h
u
n
i
r
'
e
t
6
v
.
arr
iSr
(3
m.s
.pa
st)
‫א‬
‫מ‬
‫ר‬

‫משה אמר שהוא‬
.‫ניראה טוב‬

462

BASIC

BASIC COURSE

HEBREW

UNIT £

ATARA
Does
he
still
speak
Hebrew?

hti od
rredabir ivrit?
DAVID
Yes. He spoke Hebrew
with Moshe.
he spoke
kin.
hu
diber
ivrit
im
moSe.
dibir (3
m.s.past)
‫הוא עוד מדבר‬
?‫עברית‬

‫דיבר‬
‫הוא‬
.‫כן‬
.‫עברית עם משה‬

‫ד יכר‬

463

UNIT

15

HEBREW

COURSE

16.2 ADDITIONAL
VOCABULARY
She received a
letter. They (m)
received a letter.
They (f) received a
letter.
She sent a letter.
They sent a letter.
What did she say?
What did they say?
She went to Haifa.
They went to Haifa.
She arrived
yesterday. They
arrived yesterday.
She saw him. They saw
him.

.‫היא קבלה מכתב‬
.‫הם קבלו מכתב‬
.‫הן קבלו מכתב‬
.‫היא שלחה מכתב‬
.‫הם שלחו מכתב‬
‫י א אמרה? מה‬.‫מה ר‬
?‫הן אמרו‬
‫נסעה‬
‫היא‬
‫ הם נסעו‬.‫לחיפה‬
.‫לחיפה‬
.‫היא הגיעה אתמול‬
.‫הן הגיעו אתמול‬
.‫היא ראתה אותו‬
.‫הם ראו אותו‬
‫הוא הגיע‬
‫הנה בשנה‬
.‫שעברה‬

He arrived here last
year.
hi kiblS mixt&v. him
kiblu
mixt&v.
hin
kiblu mixtSv.
hi
galxa
mixteiv.
hem Salxu mixt&v.
mS hi amrS. mi hin
amrfi.
hi nas'a lexciyfa.
hem nas'u lex&yfa.
hi higia etm61. hin
higiu etmol.
hi raata oto.
hem rau oto.
hu higia hena
beSana SeavrS.

464

BASIC

BASIC COURSE

HEBREW

UNIT £

16.3 Vocabulary Drills

A. Response Drill - /pagaSti/ ‫״‬I met"
Instructor: When did you meet Atara?
Student:' I met her this morning.
matfiy pagfigta et atfira.
matfiy
pagagtem
et
atfira. matay pagfigten et
atfira. matay pagfiSt et
atfira.
pagfigti
otfi
haboker.
pagfignu otfi haboker.
pagfignu otfi haboker.
pagfigti otfi hab6ker.
‫מתי פגשת את עטרה? מתי‬
!‫פגשתם את עטרה? מתי פגשת‬
‫את עטרה? מתי פגשת את‬
?‫עטרה‬

465

UNIT

15

HEBREW

BASIC

COURSE

B. Substitution Drill - /nir'e/
When the present tense pattern has a /ni-/ prefix the feminine singular
ends in /-t/, even with lamed hey verbs. This is the exception to the general
lfimed hey present tense pattern.with /-a/ feminine mentioned in the note to
Grammar Section 8.4a.
hu nir'e t6v.
nir'et
nir"xm
nir 1 ot

He looks well.
.‫נראה טוב‬

"appears
"
C. Substitution - Agreement Drill

How does Moshe look?

eyx nir'e moge .
habfiit gel dov - gveret zahavi
haoniot haxadaSot - hamalon
hatapuxim - hayerakot haSagrirut haugot - migpaxat
kfirmi - moge
Individual Response Drill
Instructor: How does the new hotel look?
Student: It's very beautiful.
eyx nir'e hamalon haxadfig. hu
yafe meod.
eyx
eyx
eyx
eyx
eyx
eyx

nir
nir
nir
nir
nir
nir

et iSto Sel david.
im harexov&t.
e habfiit gel xana.
ot haagvaniot.
et sffit hayfim.
k. bet hakafe.
?‫איך נראה משה‬

‫ גברת זהבי האוניות‬- ‫הבית של רוב‬
- ‫ הירקות‬- ‫ המלון התפוחים‬- ‫החדשות‬
‫ משה‬- ‫ משפחת כרמי‬- ‫השגרירות העוגות‬

.‫איו נראה המלון החרש‬

.‫הוא יפה מאוד‬

466

‫נראי‬
‫ת‬
‫נראי‬
‫ם‬
‫נראו‬
‫ת‬

‫הו א‬

BASIC COURSE

HEBREW

UNIT £

‫איר‬

‫נראה‬

‫איר‬

.‫ איר נ־ אים הרחובות‬.‫תו של דור‬:
‫איך נראית א ־‬

.‫נראית שפת הים‬

‫איר‬

.‫נראות העגבניות‬

‫איר‬

.‫הבית של חנה‬

‫נראה בית הקפה‬.GRAMMAR NOTES

16.4 Third Person Past Tense Verb Forms
Examine the following verb forms:

hu kibel
hi kibli
hem kiblu
hen kiblu

"he received"
"she received"
"they (m) received"
"they (f) received"

hfi Salax
hi Salxa
hem Salxu
hin Salxu

"he sent"
"she sent"
"they (m) sent"
"they (f) sent"

hu aroar
hi amr&
hem amru
hen amru

"he said"
"she said"
"they (m) said"
"they (f) said"

Note, first of all, that the third person plural forms are the same for both genders.
This is true of all past tense verbs, regardless of conjugation.
Note further that the feminine singular has the suffix /-a/, and the plural has
suffix /-u/. The preceding vowel is dropped as with the /-i/ and /'-u/ suffixes in the
future.
In addition to these characteristics there are variations depending on the typ3 of root.
Some of these variations will be illustrated in the following drills. After the third person
forms are drilled the corresponding first and second person forms will be described and
drilled.
In the following drills the instructor gives a sentence with a 3 m.s. past tense verb.
The students repeat the sentence. The instructor then gives the substitution cues, and the
students give the sentence with the necessary changes.
Some of the verbs have not occurred in the third person past tense previously, but the
student should have no trouble recognizing them.
a. Ordinary Roots
These are roots whose final two radicals do not require any additional variations.
The consonants which may require variations in the third person pattern are /'/> /■h/> and
/x/. The possibilities of these variations will be described as they occur.
A. Substitution - Agreement Drill - /kibel/ "received" He received
a letter from Mr. Cohen.
hu kibel mixtav mimar kohen.

. ‫מר בהי‬, ‫■יי■ ל ניי״נ‬
‫הוא ־‬

xana — hem - moSe - hin
mSr karmi - hu veiSto - hi - hu

‫ הן‬- ‫ משה‬- cn — ‫חנה‬
‫ היא‬- ‫ היא‬- ‫ היא ואשתו‬- ‫מר כרמי‬

467

UNIT

15

HEBREW

BASIC

COURSE

B.Substitution

.‫הוא ספר למרים את החרשות‬

- Agreement Drill - /sipir/

‫ גברת כהן‬- ‫ הן‬- ‫ דור‬- ‫שרה‬
‫הוא‬- ‫ משה ודוב‬- ‫ רוב‬- ‫היא ובעלה‬

He told Miriam the news.

"spoke"

hu siper len-,jr ‫&״‬p■ et haxadagot.
s&ra - david - hen - gveret kohen hi vebaaladov - moSe vedov - hu
C.Substitution

.‫הוא רכר עברית נמשרר‬

‫ הם‬- ‫ דור‬- ‫ חבה‬- ‫הן‬
‫ הוא‬- ‫ גברת וויליאמם‬- ‫שרה ולאה‬

- Agreement Drill - /diber/

He spoke Hebrew in the office.

"sent"

hu diber ivrit bamisrad .
hen - xSna - david - hem

.‫הוא שלח חבילה לאמריקה‬

- ‫ הן‬- ‫ הס דוב‬- ‫ מרים‬- ‫משה ואשתו‬
‫ הוא‬- ‫עטרה‬

sara velea - gveret Williams - hu
D.Substitution

- Agreement Drill - /galax/

"forgave"

He sent a package to America.
hu Salax xavilci leamerika .
moSe veiSto - miryam - hem dov - hen - atara
- hu
E.Substitution

- Agreement Drill - /salax/

hu salax lemiryam al hamixtav .
x&na - kulcim - moSe - hi mcir k&spi - hen hu
- Agreement Drill - /amcir/

.‫הוא אמר שהיה קר אתמול‬

- ‫ הן גברת כרמי‬- ‫ דוד‬- ‫ שרה‬- ‫הם‬
‫ הוא‬- ‫היא‬

"passed"

He said it was cold yesterday.
hu amlir Sehayli k&r etmol .
hem - s&ra - davfd - hen gveret kSrmi - hi - hu
G.Substitution

- ‫י‬30 ‫ היא מר כ‬- ‫ משה‬- ‫ כולם‬- ‫חנה‬
‫ הוא‬- ‫הן‬

"said"

He forgave Miriam for the letter.

F.Substitution

.‫הוא סלח למרים על המכתב‬

- Agreement Drill - /avar/

He passed by the office this morning.
hu avar al yad hamisrcid haboker .
hem - avigdor - atara - hen moSe - hi - dov
veiSto - hu
"told"

468

.‫הוא עבר על יר המשרד הבוקר‬

- ‫ הן משה‬- ‫ עטרה‬- ‫ אביגדור‬- ‫הם‬
‫ הוא‬- ‫ רוב ואשתו‬- ‫היא‬

BASIC COURSE

HEBREW

UNIT £

H.Substitution - Agreement Drill - /xaS£v/ "thought"

He thought that today was Friday.

hu xaS&v Sehayom yom SiSi .
hi - him -gviret kohen hin
- yosif - s&ra - hu
I.Substitution - Agreement Drill - /patcix/ "opened"
He opened the door. hu
patax et hadilet.
hi - mo§i ved6v - hin s&ra - m&r kohen - him
.‫חרא חשב שהיום ירם ששי‬
h
u

‫ הוא‬- ‫ שרה‬- ‫ יוסף‬- ‫הן‬

‫ גברת כהן‬- ‫ הם‬- ‫היא‬

.‫חרא פחח את הרלת‬

‫ הוא‬- ‫ הם‬- ‫ מר כהן‬- ‫ הן שרה‬- ‫ משה ורב‬- ‫היא‬

469

UNIT

15

HEBREW

BASIC

COURSE

.‫הוא פגש ארחה באמריקה‬
J. Substitution - Agreement Drill - /sagSr/ "opened"

He closed the door.
hu sag&r et hadilet.
hen - david veatSra - hi mar
kcirmi - him - sira - hu

K. Substitution - Agreement Drill - /axal/ "ate"
He ate watermelon.
hu axal avatiax.
him - hi - s&ra vexana avigdor
- gviret kaspi - hu
L. Substitution - Agreement Drill /natan/ "gave1
He gave me all the food.
hu natan li et kol haoxel.
igto gel haxenvani - hamelc&r hem
- mogi - igtexa - hd
M. Substitution - Agreement Drill /pagSS/ "met"
He met her in America.
hu paqaS otk beamerika.
.‫חרא סגר את הרלת‬

‫ הוא‬- ‫ שרה‬- ‫ הם‬- ‫ היא מר כרמי‬- ‫ דוד ועטרה‬- ‫הן‬

.‫חרא אכל אבטיח‬

‫ הוא‬- ‫ גברת כספי‬- ‫ שרה והנה אביגדור‬- ‫ היא‬- ‫הם‬

.‫חרא נתן לי אח כל הארכל‬

‫ הוא‬- ‫ אשתך‬- ‫ משה‬- ‫ המלצר הם‬- ‫אשתו של ההנוני‬

470

BASIC COURSE

HEBREW

UNIT £

atSra - hin - m&r zahavi gviret zahSvi - him - hu ‫זהבי‬

-

471

‫מר‬
‫הם‬
‫הוא‬

‫עטרה‬
‫גברת‬
‫הן‬
‫זהבי‬

UNIT

15

HEBREW

BASIC

COURSE

N. Substitution - Agreement Drill /hitraSim/ "was impressed"
He was impressed by the new building.
hu hitraSim mehabinyfin haxadfiS .
gviret Williams - him - atfira
baalfi - hin - hi - hu

.‫היא התרשם מהבניך החיש‬
‫ עטרה‬- ‫ הם‬- ‫גברת וויליאמס‬
‫ הוא‬- ‫ הלא‬- ‫בעלה ־הן‬

0. Substitution - Agreement Drill - /lamfid/ "studied"
He studied in this school.
hfi lamfid bebit hasifer hazi .
xfina vebaalfi - baalix - lia
him - david - hi - hu

.‫הוא למר בנית הספר הזה‬
‫ לאה‬- ‫ כעלר‬- ‫חנה וכעלה‬
‫ היא ־היא‬- ‫ דוד‬- ‫הם‬

b. Verbs with Third Radical or x
There are two sub-classes of verbs whose third radical is or x. The and x
of one sub-class are spelled in Hebrew with ‫ א‬and ‫ כ‬, respectively, and the ^
and x of the other sub-class are spelled with ‫ יל‬and ‫ ח‬.
The first sub-class has the same general pattern as ordinary verbs.
Examples are: /maca/ "he found" ‫מצא‬/moce/ "finds" ‫ מוצא‬, /himSix/ "he
continued" ‫המשיך‬
In verbs of the latter sub-class the vowel /a/ must immediately precede the radical
when it is final in the word. This is true even in the case of ‫ י‬which is spelled
but not pronounced, as i n
/ y o d e a /
" k n o w s
‫־־‬
‫ י ו ד ע ״‬.
‫ ^׳‬/ / f ‫ ^״‬h e , 1®‫׳י‬0*‫ ׳‬precedes it anyway, then there is no problem. Examples are•
/yada/ "he knew" ‫ ידע‬,/pata'x/ "he opened" ‫ פתח‬,/Sala'x/ "he sent" ‫שלח‬
‫י‬
_

When f > ! P
‫ו‬
‫מ‬

,-, ‫ר‬
+

-4

‫ו‬

-

‫ו־‬
‫״‬

‫ו ר‬1 *‫ז־‬a
*
C

n
.

i

,

-

‫״‬

‫״‬

p. Substitution - Agreement Drill - /nasi/ "traveled" He went to see Haifa.
hfi nasfi 1ir6‫׳‬t et xfiyfa .

.‫יראות את חיפה‬:‫הוא נסע ׳‬

hi - him - moSi - sfira
d6v vemiryfim - hin - hu

‫ שרה‬- ‫ משה‬- ‫ הם‬- ‫היא‬
‫ הוא‬- ‫ הן‬- ‫דוב ומרים‬

Q. Substitution - Agreement Drill - /yadfi/ "knew"
He didn't know that Miriam is in Tel Aviv.
ha 16 yadfi Semiryfim betii aviv .
gviret k6hen - moSi - iSti
him - sfira - hin - hu

472

.‫הוא לא ירע שמרים בתל אביב‬
‫ משה ־אשתי‬- ‫גברת כהן‬
‫ היא‬- ‫ שרה ־הן‬- ‫הם‬

BASIC COURSE

HEBREW

UNIT £

R. Substitution - Agreement Drill - /macS/ "found"

He didn't find the bottle. hu 16 macS et
.‫הוא לא מצא את הבקבוק‬

habakbuk.
gviret k&hen - moSi - iSti
- hin him - yaak6v hi - hu
‫ אשתי‬- ‫ משה‬- ‫גברת כהן‬.
- ‫ היא‬- ‫ יעקב‬- ‫ הן הם‬‫הוא‬

473

UNIT

15

HEBREW

COURSE

S. Substitution - Agreement Drill - /SamS/ "heard"
He didn't hear the news this
evening.
hu 16 SamS et haxadaS6t
hairev .
iSt6 - d6v - him - yaak6v
hin - gviret 6ren - hti
c. lamed hey Verbs
Examine the pattern of the
following forms:

‫הוא לא שמע את החרשות הערב‬

‫ גברת‬- ‫ יעקב הן‬- ‫ הם‬- ‫ דוב‬- ‫אשתו‬
‫ הוא‬- ‫אורן‬

474

BASIC

BASIC COURSE

/hayS/
/hayt&/
/hayu/
The pattern of
the third
person
endings is: 3
m.s. /-&/ 3
f.s. /-tV3 ‫׳‬
Pi. /‫־‬
u/

HEBREW

UNIT £

‫היה‬
‫ה י‬
‫תה‬
‫היו‬

"he
was"
"she
was"
"they
were"

These endings follow the second radical
regardless of the conjugation of the verb. The
third radical is listed as h, but this is only a
spelling convention.
The 3 m.s. ending may be confusing at first
since it resembles the 3 f.s. of ordinary verbs in
pronunciation and spelling. It is also similar in
pronunciation to verbs with third radical \
T. Substitution - Agreement Drill /hayS/ "was"
He was in Jerusalem yesterday.
hu hay£ beyeruSal&im etm61 .
iSto Sel david - moSe ved6v - hin yaakov
- hi - hem - lea - hu
U. Substitution - Agreement Drill - /asS/ "did‫׳‬
What did he do in Jerusalim?
m& hu as& beyeruSalaim .
hi - him - iStexIL - hin gviret 6ren baalix - hu

?‫מה הוא עשה בירושלים‬

‫ הן‬- ‫ אשתך‬- ‫ הם‬- ‫היא‬
- ‫ בעלך‬- ‫גברת אורן‬
‫הוא‬

.‫הוא היה בירושלים אתמול‬

‫ הן‬- ‫ משה ודוב‬- ‫אשתו של דוד‬
‫ הוא‬- ‫ לאה‬- ‫ הם‬- ‫ היא‬- ‫יעקב‬

475

UNIT

15

HEBREW

BASIC

COURSE

V. Substitution - Agreement Drill - /pank/ "turned" He turned
left at the intersection.
hu pana smoia bahictaivut.

.‫הוא פנה שמאלה בהצטלבות‬
haiSa - hanaSim - moSe veraxil

‫ משה ורחל‬- ‫ הנשים‬- ‫האשה‬
hi - avigdor - hem - hu

‫ הוא‬- ‫ הם‬- ‫ אביגדור‬- ‫היא‬
W. Substitution - Agreement Drill - /kivi/ "hoped"
He hoped for a good result.
hu kiva letocaa tova.
gveret zah&vi - yosef - hem iSto Sel d6v - miryam velea - hu

X. Substitution - Agreement Drill - /raca/
"wanted
"

He didn't want to eat so early.
hu 16 racS leexol kol kctx mukdSm.

.‫הוא לא רצה לאכול בל בך מוקדם‬

him - scira - david veatira avigdor - hanagim - hi - hu

‫ דור ועטרה אביגדור‬- ‫ שרה‬- ‫הם‬
‫ הוא‬- ‫ היא‬- ‫ הנשים‬-

d. Verbs with Second Radical ]_ or h
Whenever the conjugation pattern or other verb
pattern wo1:7.d result in a second radical /'/ or /h/
occurring immediately before a consonant, the vowel /a/
is inserted between them. Other examples of this have
been drilled previously, such as /memaher "*memaharim/ and
/hizaher "hizahari/.

The root of the verb "to see" is r'h, a lamed hey verb.
Accordingly the third person past tense would be: 3 m.s. /ra'V
"he saw" 3 f.s. */ra'ta/ "she saw" 3 pi. /ra'u/ "they saw"
In the 3 f.s. the second radical /'/ occurs before a
consonant - the suffix /tk/. The form is then /ra'ata/.
In ordinary speech the /'/ is replaced by a smooth
transition, and the forms are:
3
m
.
s
.
/
r
a
a
/

476

BASIC COURSE

HEBREW

UNIT £

"
h
e
s
a
w
"
3
f
.
s
.
/
r
a
a
t
k
/
"
s
h
e
s
a
w
"
3
p
i
.
/
r
a
u
/
"
t
h
e
s
a
w
"
Y. Substitution - Agreement Drill - /raa/ "saw"

477

‫‪BASIC‬‬

‫‪15‬‬

‫‪HEBREW‬‬

‫‪UNIT‬‬

‫‪COURSE‬‬

‫‪He saw the new house.‬‬
‫‪hu rak et hab&it‬‬
‫‪iSti - hanaSim Selanu - david him‬‬
‫‪haxadaS .‬‬
‫‪- gviret kohen - hu‬‬
‫הוא ראה את הבית‬
‫החדיש‪.‬‬

‫אשתי ‪ -‬הנשים שלנו ‪ -‬דוד הס ‪ -‬גברת‬
‫כהן ‪ -‬הוא‬

‫הוא קיווה לתוצאה טובה ‪.‬‬

‫גברת זהבי ‪ -‬יוסף ‪ -‬הם‬
‫אשתו של דוב ‪ -‬סרים ולאה ‪ -‬הוא‬

‫‪478‬‬

BASIC COURSE

HEBREW

UNIT £

e. Verbs with Unstressed Third Person Suffixes

cases:

The 3 f.s. and the 3 pi. endings /-a, -u/ are unstressed
in the following
1)When the 3 m.s. is one syllable and the vowel is
/fi/. /rfic/ "he ran"
/
r
f
i
c
a
/
"
s
h
e
r
a
n
"
/
r
f
i
c
u
/
"
t
h
e
y
r
a
n
"
2)When the final vowel of the conjugation pattern is
/i/. /himSix/ "he continued"
/
h
i
m
S
i
x
a
/
"

479

UNIT

15

HEBREW

BASIC

COURSE

s
h
e
c
o
n
t
i
n
u
e
d
"
/
h
i
m
S
i
x
u
/
"
t
h
e
y
c
o
n
t
i
n
u
e
d
"
This latter conjugation is traditionally called the hif'il
Z. Substitution - Agreement Drill - /rfic/ "ran"
He ran after the bus.
hfl rac axarey haotobus.
‫י‬

‫ר‬

‫ח‬

‫י‬

‫א‬

‫ה‬

. CI 3

‫א‬

1
‫ץ‬

hi - hem - moge - raxil

‫ רחל‬- ‫ משה‬- ‫ חם‬- ‫היא‬
yosif veiSto - h e n - h u

‫הוא‬-‫הן‬- ‫יוסף ואשתו‬

480

"
‫ר‬

‫ר‬

‫ה‬
‫א‬

HEBREW

BASIC COURSE

UNIT £

AA. Substitution - Agreement Drill - /bfi/ "came"
He came to see the house.
cases:

hfl bfi 1ir'6t et hab&it.

.‫א בא לראות את הכית‬1 ‫ה‬
gviret zahfivi - y i c x f i k - h i

‫ היא‬- ‫גנות זהני ־יצחק‬
him - lia - h i n - h u

-‫הן‬- ‫ לאה‬- ‫הס‬

‫הוא‬

BB. Substitution - Agreement Drill - /himSix/ "continued"
He continued seeing her every day.
hfi himSix lir'ot otfi k6i yom.
‫תה כל י‬1 ‫ת א‬1 ‫ י ר לרא‬,-‫א המי‬

.ci 1 ‫ה‬

mfir kfirmi - sfira - d6v - hen

‫ הן‬- ‫ רוב‬- ,‫ שרר‬- ‫מר כרמי‬
iSti - him - gviret 6ren - hu

‫ הוא‬- ‫ גכרת אורן‬- ‫ הם‬- ‫אשתי‬
CC. Substitution - Agreement Drill - /hitxil/ "began"
He becja'i the diet this morning.
hu hitxil badieta haboker.

.‫הוא התחיל בדיאטה הבוקר‬
gviret kohen - moSi - iSti

‫ אשתי‬- ‫ משה‬- ‫גברת כהן‬
sfira veyosSf - hi - hin - hu

‫ הוא‬- ‫ הן‬- ‫ היא‬- ‫שרה ויוסף‬

481

UNIT

15

HEBREW

BASIC

COURSE

DD. Substitution - Agreement Drill - /hizmin/ "invited" He
invited them for dinner.
hu hizmin otam !earuxat erev.

.

‫הוא הזמין אותם לארוחת ערב‬
hi - dov veiSt6 - xSna - hen

‫ הן‬- ‫ הנה‬- ‫ דוב ואשתו‬- ‫היא‬
yaakov - yaak6v vemiryam - hu

‫ הוא‬- ‫ יעקב ומרים‬- ‫יעקב‬
The root of the verb /higia/ "arrived" is listed as
ng'. The vowel /a/ precedes the third radical whenever it is
final in the word. See Section 16.4b above. The third person
past tense forms are: 3 m.s. /higia/ for */higi'/
‫הגיע‬
3 f.s. /higia/ for /higi'a/
‫הגיעה‬
3 pi. /higiu/ for /higi'u/
‫הגיעו‬
By coincidence, therefore, the 3 m.s. and 3 f.s. are
identical in ordinary speech.
EE. Substitution - Agreement Drill
He arrived in Israel last week.

hu higia leisrael begavua Seavar .

.‫הוא‬

‫הגיע לישראל בשבוע שעבר‬

hi - hem - iSti - hanaSim
‫ הנשים‬- ‫ אשתי‬- ‫ הם‬- ‫היא‬
david - hamiSpaxa Selo - hu
‫ הוא‬- ‫ המשפחה שלו‬- ‫דוד‬
RAPID RESPONSE DRILL The following questions are based on the

conversation of this unit.
1.matSy pagis david et moSe.

?1. ‫מתי !גש דור את משה‬
2.siper moSe ledavid.

?‫ משה לדור‬TIG 2. ‫מה‬
3.mimi kibel moSe mixtSv.
4.meSin Salax
h

a

mhr
m

?3. ‫ממי קבל משה מכתב‬

Williams et
i

x

t

a

v

482

.

?

HEBREW

BASIC COURSE

4

.

‫ס‬

‫מ‬

‫ב‬

‫ת‬

‫ח‬

‫ל‬

‫ש‬

‫א‬

‫י‬

‫ל‬

‫י‬

‫כ‬

‫מ‬

‫ה‬

5.ma ose mar Williams betel aviv.

UNIT £

‫ן‬
‫ו‬

‫ו‬

‫ת‬

‫א‬

‫י‬

‫א‬

‫מ‬

‫ר‬

‫מ‬

?5. ‫מה עושה מר וויליאמכ בתל‬

‫אביב‬
6.matSy higia mar Williams leisrael.

?6. ‫מתי הגיע מר וויליאמם‬

‫לישראל‬
7.lecin nasa moSe.

?7. ‫ע משה‬2 ‫לאן נ‬

8.heyx&n raa mo2e et m&r Williams.

?8. ‫היכן ראה משה את מר‬

‫וויליאמס‬
9.eyx

nir'e mar Williams.

?

0

‫ך‬

‫י‬

‫א‬

‫ה‬

‫א‬

‫ר‬

‫נ‬

‫ר‬

‫מ‬

‫י‬

‫ל‬

‫י‬

‫ו‬

‫מ‬

‫א‬

9

.

‫ו‬

10.beeyze safS hem dibru.

?

1

0

.

‫ה‬

‫ז‬

‫י‬

‫א‬

‫ו‬

‫ר‬

‫ב‬

‫ד‬

‫כ‬

‫שפה הם‬

483

UNIT

15

HEBREW

BASIC

COURSE

REVIEW
CONVERSATIONS
‫א‬
‫ב‬
‫א‬
‫ב‬
.

A
A
B

484

BASIC COURSE

HEBREW

UNIT £

A. hfi siper li Sehti sagfir et hamisrfid
Sel6.

‫ הוא ספר לי שהוא‬.‫א‬
.‫סגר את המשרד שלו‬
.‫ג‬

C.Samfiti Semiryfim
gfira

‫שמע‬
betel

‫תי‬
aviv.

‫שמר‬
D.mimi

‫ים‬

Samfit

‫גרה‬

.

‫בזל‬

C.mimo

‫אכי‬

Se. hu

.‫ב‬

Samfi

.‫ר‬

et z6t

‫ממי‬

mid6v.

‫שמע‬

D.hu

?‫ת‬

natfin

.‫ג‬

lfix

‫ממש‬

et

.‫ה‬

hakt6v
et

‫הוא‬

Selfi?

‫שמע‬
‫את‬
‫זאת‬
‫מדו‬
.‫ב‬

485

UNIT

15

HEBREW

COURSE

.‫ד‬
‫הוא‬
‫נתן‬
‫לך את‬
‫הכתוב‬
‫ת‬
?‫שלה‬

486

BASIC

BASIC COURSE

HEBREW

UNIT £

c. 16. fix hu yiten li et haktovet
m
f
.
.

a
i

x
r
.

‫ג‬

‫ אך הוא יתן לי את‬.‫לא‬
‫זובת מחר‬,‫הב‬

E. axfilti glidfi

g

b

l

e

i

b

d

r

f

u

i

k
l

S

i

f

n

i

b

m

f

.

i
r

E

.

.

P
.

t

i

o

y

v

x

f

h

i

a

487

UNIT

15

HEBREW

BASIC

COURSE

v

‫ה‬

e

.

t

‫א‬

e

‫כ‬

i

‫ל‬

m

‫ת‬

f

‫י‬

i
.

‫ג‬
‫ל‬
‫י‬
‫ד‬
‫ה‬

‫ב‬
‫ב‬
‫ר‬
‫ו‬
‫ק‬
‫ל‬
‫י‬
‫ן‬

‫ב‬
‫ר‬
.

488

‫‪HEBREW‬‬

‫‪UNIT £‬‬

‫ו‬
‫‪.‬‬
‫א‬
‫י‬
‫ך‬
‫ה‬
‫ג‬
‫ל‬
‫י‬
‫ד‬
‫ה‬
‫ש‬
‫ם‬
‫?‬
‫ה‬
‫‪.‬‬
‫ט‬
‫ו‬
‫ב‬
‫ה‬
‫ו‬
‫ט‬
‫ע‬
‫י‬
‫מ‬
‫ה‬
‫‪.‬‬

‫‪489‬‬

‫‪BASIC COURSE‬‬

UNIT

15

HEBREW

BASIC

COURSE

F. gfim iSti axlfi Sfira veamrfi
Sehaglidfi tovfi.

‫ גם אשתי אכלה שם‬.‫ו‬
‫ואמרה שהגלידה‬
.‫טובה‬
G.d6v rafi et menaxim
haboker.
H.eyf6
hu rafi
oto.
G.
kSehCi
veiSto
tiyelfi
birxov
alenbi
him
pagSu
oto al
yfid
haSagrir
ut.

490

.‫ז‬
‫דוב‬
‫ראה‬
‫את‬
‫מנחם‬
‫הבוקר‬
.
.‫ח‬
‫איפה‬
‫הוא‬
‫ראה‬
?‫אותו‬
.‫ז‬
‫כשהוא‬
‫ואשתו‬
‫טיילו‬
‫ברחוב‬
‫אלנבי‬
‫הם‬
‫פגשו‬
‫אותו‬
‫על יד‬
‫השגרי‬
.‫רות‬

BASIC COURSE

HEBREW

UNIT £

.‫ט‬

I. aviva
hizmin
a
otfinu
learux
fit
irev
ley6m
SiSi.

‫אבי‬
‫בה‬
‫הזמ‬
‫ינה‬
‫אות‬
‫נו‬
‫לאר‬
‫וחת‬
‫ערב‬
‫ליו‬
‫ם‬
‫ששי‬
.

J. beemet?
hi
amrfi
Sehi
tazmin
gfim
et
yaakov
,

.‫י‬
‫באמ‬
?‫ת‬
‫היא‬
‫אמר‬
‫ה‬
‫שהי‬
‫א‬
‫תזמ‬
‫ין‬
‫גם‬
‫אז‬
‫יעק‬
.‫ב‬

I. nismfix
meod
lir'ot
ot6.
matfiy
hu
higia
lexfiy
fa.

.‫ט‬
‫נשמ‬
‫ח‬
‫מאו‬
‫ר‬
‫לרא‬
‫ות‬
‫אות‬
.‫ו‬
‫מתי‬
‫הוא‬
‫הגי‬
‫ע‬
‫לחי‬
?‫פה‬

‫ הוא יגיע‬.‫ הוא עוד לא הגיע‬.‫י‬
.‫מחר‬

J. hu od lo higia. hu yagia maxfir.

491

UNIT

15

HEBREW

BASIC

COURSE

K. x&na
vebaa
l&
avru
al
yad
hab&i
t
gel&n
u
habok
er.

Sel
&.

M.
atS
ra
hit
raS
ma
meo
d
meh
ab&
it
hax
ad&
S
gel
yos
ef.

L. beemit?
m&
hero
amru
lexa.
K. hem
sipru
li
Sedib
ru im
s&ra.

L. iyfo
nimce
t

N. g&m
ani
hit
ra
g&
mt
i.
ha
b&
it
ga
dol
ve
xa
dig
.
M.
ma

sSra?
K.
bex&y
fa.
hem
natnu
li et
misp&
r
hatel
efon

492

t&
y
rai
t et
ha
b&

BASIC COURSE

HEBREW

UNIT £

it.

lam

N. raiti

d&

et

g&m

hab&i

O.

t

mat

Silg6
&y
m.

hi

M. g&m
lam
at&ra

d&

raat&
g&m
et

.

hab&i
P.
t

ani
xog

SilSo
eve
m.

t

O.

Sel
ifn

lam&d

iy

iiv■

San

ivrit

&.

bebet

Q.

hasef
er
lesaf
6t.
P.

g&m
d&lya

493

hai
nu
ha
ga
vu
a
be
nat
&n
ya.

UNIT

15

HEBREW

BASIC

COURSE

R. beeyze
yom
haite
m
g&m.
Q. ani
haiti
beyom
geni
veyit
er
hamig
pax&
hayt&
beyom
SliSi
.

S.

david
nas&
leami
rika.

T.

mat&y.

S.

lifniy
gavua
.

T.

haim
iSto
g&m
ken
nas'&
?

S.

ken.
hem
nas'u
y&xad

494

.

‫‪HEBREW‬‬

‫‪UNIT £‬‬

‫נ‪ .‬גם‬
‫אני‬
‫התרשמ‬
‫תי‪.‬‬
‫הבית‬
‫גדול‬
‫וחדיש‬
‫‪.‬‬

‫כ‪ .‬חנה‬
‫ובעל‬
‫ה‬
‫עברו‬
‫על‬
‫יד‬
‫הבית‬
‫שלנו‬
‫הבוק‬
‫ר‪.‬‬

‫מ‪ .‬מתי‬
‫ראי‬
‫ת‬
‫את‬
‫הבי‬
‫ת?‬
‫נ‪.‬‬

‫ל‪ .‬באמת?‬
‫מה הם‬
‫אמרו‬
‫לך?‬

‫ראי‬
‫תי‬
‫את‬
‫הבי‬
‫ת‬
‫שלש‬
‫ום‪.‬‬

‫כ‪ .‬הם‬
‫□פרו‬
‫לי‬
‫שדברו‬
‫עש‬
‫שרה‪.‬‬
‫ל‪ .‬איפה‬
‫נמצאת‬
‫שרה?‬

‫מ‪ .‬גם‬
‫עטר‬
‫ה‬
‫ראת‬
‫ה‬
‫את‬
‫הבי‬
‫ת‬
‫שלש‬
‫ום‪.‬‬

‫כ‪.‬‬

‫בחיפ‬
‫ה‪.‬‬
‫הם‬
‫נתנו‬
‫לי‬
‫את‬
‫מספר‬
‫הטלפ‬
‫ון‬
‫שלה‪.‬‬

‫מ‪ .‬עטרה‬
‫התרש‬
‫מה‬
‫מאור‬
‫מהבי‬
‫ת‬
‫החרש‬
‫של‬
‫יוסף‬
‫‪.‬‬

‫‪495‬‬

‫‪BASIC COURSE‬‬

‫‪HEBREW‬‬

‫‪BASIC‬‬

‫‪15‬‬

‫‪UNIT‬‬

‫‪COURSE‬‬

‫פ‪.‬‬
‫אנ‬
‫י‬
‫הי‬
‫ית‬
‫י‬
‫בי‬
‫ום‬
‫שנ‬
‫י‬
‫וי‬
‫תר‬
‫המ‬
‫שפ‬
‫חה‬
‫הי‬
‫תה‬
‫בי‬
‫ום‬
‫של‬
‫יש‬
‫י‪.‬‬

‫ס‪.‬‬
‫למדנו‬
‫עברית‬
‫בבית‬
‫הספר‬
‫לשפות‪.‬‬
‫ע‪ .‬גם‬
‫דליה‬
‫למדה‬
‫שם‪ .‬ס‪.‬‬
‫מתי היא‬
‫למדה‬

‫ק‪ .‬דור‬

‫שם? ע‪.‬‬

‫נסע‬

‫אני‬

‫לאמ‬

‫חושבת‬

‫ריק‬

‫שלפני‬

‫ה‪.‬‬

‫שנה‪.‬‬

‫ר‪.‬‬

‫פ‪.‬‬
‫מתי‬

‫היינו‬

‫?‬

‫השבוע‬
‫בנתניה‪.‬‬

‫ק‪.‬‬

‫צ‪.‬‬
‫לפנ‬
‫באיזה‬
‫י‬
‫שבו‬
‫ע‪.‬‬

‫יום‬
‫הייתם‬
‫שם?‬

‫‪496‬‬

‫‪HEBREW‬‬

‫‪UNIT £‬‬

‫ר‪ .‬האם‬
‫אשתו‬
‫גם כן‬
‫נסעה?‬
‫ק‪ .‬כן‪.‬‬
‫הם‬
‫נסעו‬
‫יחד‪.‬‬

‫‪497‬‬

‫‪BASIC COURSE‬‬

UNIT

15

HEBREW

COURSE

17.1 At the Post Office

I
want
to
send
this
lett
er
to
the
Unit
ed
Stat
es,
to
send
lett
er

?

By
regu
lar
mail
or
by
air
mail
?

a
n
i

m
i
x
t
a
v

W
I
L
L
I
A
M
S

r
o
c
e
usu
al,
hab
itu
al
air

By
air
mail.

It
will
cost
you
thirt
yfive
agoro
t.
ago
ra
(IL
0.0
1)

How
long
will
it
take

l
i
S
l
o
a
x

time
(dura
tion)
it
will
take
he
took
M
R
.

l
i
S
l
o
a
x
e
t
h
a
m
i
x
t
a
v
h
a
z
e
l
e
a
m
e
r
i
k
a
.

(
m
)
C
L
E
R
K

b
e
d
o
a
r
r
a
g
i
l
o
b
e
d
o
a
r
a
v
i
r
.

r
a
c
[
1
1
(
n
i
.
s
.
)

498

BASIC

HEBREW

BASIC COURSE

a
v
i
r
(
m
)

v
e
x
a
m
e
S

M

a
g
o
r
6
t
.

R
.
W
I
L
L

A

S

ar
avir

L
E
R
K

z
e
y
a
a
l
e
l
e
x
a
S
l
o
s
l
m

‫מ‬
‫כ‬
‫ת‬
‫ב‬

‫ב‬
‫ד‬
‫ו‬
‫א‬
‫ר‬

W
I
L
L
I
A
M
S

bedo

C

a
g
o
r
a

‫ר‬
‫ג‬
‫י‬
‫ל‬
‫א‬
‫ו‬

k
a
m
a

‫ב‬
‫ר‬
‫ו‬
‫א‬
‫ר‬

z
m
a
n
z
e
y
i
k
f
i
x
.

‫אני‬
‫רוצה‬
‫לשלוח‬
‫את‬
‫המכתב‬
‫הזה‬
‫לאמריקה‬
.

‫ל‬
‫ש‬
‫ל‬
‫ו‬
‫ח‬

M
R
.

M

.

fut.
)
laka
x

(
f
)

I

UNIT £

‫ר‬
1
‫י‬
‫ל‬

z
m
a
n
(
m
)
yika
x

‫א‬
‫ו‬
‫ו‬
‫י‬
‫ר‬
?

‫א‬
‫ו‬
‫ו‬
‫י‬
‫ר‬

(3

m.s.

499

‫‪BASIC‬‬

‫‪15‬‬

‫‪HEBREW‬‬

‫‪UNIT‬‬

‫‪COURSE‬‬

‫בדוא‬
‫ר‬
‫אווי‬
‫ר‪.‬‬

‫זה‬
‫יעל‬
‫ה‬
‫לך‬
‫שלו‬
‫שים‬
‫וחמ‬
‫ש‬
‫אגו‬
‫רות‬
‫‪.‬‬

‫אגו‬
‫רה‬

‫כ‬
‫מ‬
‫ה‬
‫ז‬
‫מ‬
‫ן‬
‫ז‬
‫ה‬
‫י‬
‫ק‬
‫ח‬
‫?‬

‫ז‬
‫מ‬
‫ן‬
‫י‬
‫ק‬
‫ח‬
‫ל‬
‫ק‬
‫ח‬

‫‪500‬‬

HEBREW

BASIC COURSE

l
e
g
r
a
m
,

I
d
o
n
'
t

T
h
a
t
'
s

a
w
e
e
k
.

That's a

i
d
e
a
.

u
l
a
y

W
h
e
r
e

MR.
WILL
IAMS

i
s
the
t
e
l
e
g
r
a
p
h
o
f
f
i
c
e
?
i
d
e
a

y
o
d
e
a
.

S
a
v
u
a
.

g
o
o
d

A
week?

l
o

u
l
a
y

a

ma
yb
e,
pe
rh
ap
s

If
it
's
so
ur
ge
nt
,
se
nd
a
te

a
n
i

urgent
send
telegram

M
a
y
b
e

lo
ng
ti
me
,
mu
ch
,
ma
ny

telegra
ph
office
CLERK

i
f

k
n
o
w
.

UNIT £

ze

S
a
v
u
a
?
h
a
r
b
e
z
m
a
n
.
h
a
r
b
e
CLERK

501

UNIT

15

HEBREW

BASIC

COURSE

b
e
i
m

ivrak
(m)
MR■
WILL
IAMS

z
e

z
e

k
o
l

r
a
y
o
n

k
a
x

t
o
v
.

d
a
x
u
f
,

h
e
y
x
a
n

S
l
a
x

h
a
m
i
v
r
a
k
a
.
rayon
(m)
mivraka
(f)

m
i
v
r
f
i
k
.
b
e
i
m

d
a
x
u
f
(
m
.
s
.
)
S
l
a
x
(
m
.
s
.
i
m
v
.
'
m

‫א‬
‫נ‬
‫י‬
‫ל‬
‫א‬
‫י‬
‫ו‬
‫ד‬
‫ע‬
.
‫א‬
‫ו‬
‫ל‬
‫י‬
‫ש‬
‫ב‬
‫ו‬
‫ע‬
.

‫ש‬
‫ב‬
‫ו‬
‫ע‬
?
‫ז‬
‫ה‬
‫ה‬
‫ר‬
‫ב‬
‫ה‬
‫ז‬
‫מ‬
‫ן‬
.

‫אולי‬

‫הרכה‬

‫כאם‬
‫דחו‬
‫ף‬
‫שלח‬
‫מבר‬
‫ק‬

‫רעי‬
‫ון‬
‫מבר‬
‫קה‬

502

HEBREW

BASIC COURSE

‫באם‬
‫זה‬
‫כל‬
‫כך‬
‫דחו‬
‫ף‬
‫שלח‬
‫מבר‬
.‫ק‬

CLERK
H
e
r
e
.
O
n
t
h
e

‫זה‬
‫רעי‬
‫ון‬
‫סוב‬
.
‫היכ‬
‫ן‬
‫המכ‬
‫רקה‬
?

UNIT £

s
e
c
o
n
d
f
l
o
o
r
.
story

m
a
(
f
)
M
R
.
W
I
L
L
I
A
M

T
h
a
n
k
y
o
u
v
e
r
y
m
u
c
h
.
k
a
n
.
b
a
k
o
m
a
h
a
S
n
i
a
.
k
o

S
t
o
d
a
r
a
b
a
.

‫כ‬
‫א‬
‫ן‬
.
‫ב‬
‫ק‬
‫ו‬
‫מ‬
‫ה‬
‫ה‬
‫ש‬
‫נ‬
‫י‬
‫ה‬
.
‫ק‬

503

UNIT

15

HEBREW

COURSE

‫ו‬
‫מ‬
‫ה‬

‫ק‬
‫ו‬
‫ר‬
‫ה‬
‫ר‬
‫ב‬
‫ה‬
.

504

BASIC

HEBREW

BASIC COURSE

17.2
ADDITIONA
L
VOCABULAR
Y
Give me
five
postal
cards.

‫ת‬
‫ן‬
(f

‫של‬
‫ח‬
‫את‬
‫המ‬
‫כת‬
‫ב‬
‫אק‬
‫ספ‬
‫רס‬
.

‫ל‬
‫י‬

‫ח‬
‫מ‬
postal ‫ש‬
)

card
Give me
five
envelope
s•

‫א‬
‫ג‬
‫ר‬
‫ו‬
‫ת‬
envelope
ig

er

Give me
five air
letters.
Give me
five
tenagora
stamps.
Send the
letter
special
delivery
.
Send the
letter
by
register
ed mail.

ten
li
xameS
gluyot.
ten
li
xameS
maatafot.
ten
li
xarrte!!‫־‬
igrot
avir.

gluya (f)

‫א‬
‫ו‬
‫ו‬
et
letter
‫י‬
‫ר‬
.
‫א‬
(f ‫ג‬
‫ר‬
‫ת‬
stamp
)

‫ת‬
‫תן ןלי‬
‫ל‬
‫גלויו‬
‫י‬

‫ג‬
‫ל‬
‫ו‬
‫י‬
‫ה‬
reco
rded
,
list
ed‫מ‬

‫ע‬
‫ט‬
‫פ‬
‫ה‬

UNIT £

‫ר‬
‫ש‬
‫ו‬
‫ם‬

‫של‬
‫ח‬
‫את‬
‫המ‬
‫כת‬
‫ב‬
‫בר‬
‫וא‬
‫ר‬
‫רש‬
‫ום‬
. ten li xamiSa bulim 2el
eser agorot.
bul (m)
8lax et hamixtav
ekspres.
iilax et hamixtav
bedoar raSum.
raSum (m.s.)

‫ח‬
‫מ‬
‫י‬
‫ש‬
‫ה‬
‫תן בלי‬
‫ו‬
‫מעטפו‬
‫ל‬
‫י‬
‫ם‬
‫ש‬
‫ל‬
‫ע‬
‫ש‬
‫ר‬
‫א‬
‫ג‬
‫ו‬
‫ר‬
‫ו‬
‫ת‬
.
‫ב‬
‫ו‬
‫ל‬

maatafa

505

UNIT

15

HEBREW

COURSE

I7.3 Vocabulary Drills

A.Substitution-

y
i
k
a
x

Agreement Dri 11
- /ragil/
"habitual"
He is used to
eating on time.
hu ragil leexol
bazman. xana - kulam
sara veatara ani - hu
B.Substitution
Drill /e - ~ti /
‫־‬
I'll take the
package.
e
k
a
.
c
e
t
h
a
x
a
v
i
l
a
.
a
t
a
t
i
k
a
x
a
t
t
i
k
x
f
h
u

h
i
t
i
k
a
x
a
n
u
n
i
k
a
x
a
t
e
m
t
i
k
x
u
a
t
e
n
t
i
k
a
x
n
a
h
e
m
y
i
k
x
u
h
e
n
t
i

506

BASIC

‫‪HEBREW‬‬

‫‪UNIT £‬‬

‫תקחו אתן‬
‫הס‬
‫תקחנה‬
‫י ק ח ו‬
‫הן ת ק ח‬
‫ב ה‬

‫‪BASIC COURSE‬‬

‫הוא רגיל‬
‫לאכול בזמן ‪.‬‬
‫חכה ‪ -‬משה ‪-‬‬
‫כולם ‪ -‬שרה‬
‫ועטרה ‪ -‬אני ‪-‬‬
‫הוא‬

‫אקח את‬
‫החבילה‪.‬‬
‫א‬
‫ת‬
‫ה‬
‫ת‬
‫ק‬
‫ח‬
‫א‬
‫ת‬
‫ת‬
‫ק‬
‫ח‬
‫י‬
‫ה‬
‫ו‬
‫א‬
‫י‬
‫ק‬
‫ח‬
‫ה‬
‫י‬
‫א‬
‫ת‬
‫ק‬
‫ח‬
‫א‬
‫נ‬
‫ו‬
‫כ‬
‫ק‬
‫ח‬
‫א‬
‫ת‬
‫ם‬

‫‪507‬‬

‫‪k‬‬
‫‪a‬‬
‫‪x‬‬
‫‪n‬‬
‫‪a‬‬

UNIT

15

HEBREW

BASIC

COURSE

.‫שלח לו גלויה‬

C.Substitution-Agreement Drill

‫שלחי‬
‫שלחו שלחנה‬
We'll take Miriam as far as Haifa.
nikax et miryam ad xayfa.
mar oren - ani - hem - aten raxel - hen
- atem - at gveret kohen - ata - anu
D.Substitution Drill /Slax/ "send" Send
him a post card.
Slax 16 gluya.
Silxx
Silxu
Slaxna

. ‫ניקח את מרים ער חיפה‬

‫ הן‬- ‫ אוזן רחל‬- ‫ הם‬- ‫ אני‬- ‫מר אורן‬
‫ אנו‬- ‫ אתה‬- ‫ אוז גברת כהן‬- ‫ אתם‬-

508

HEBREW

BASIC COURSE

UNIT £

GRAMMAR NOTES
17-4 Past Tense of pi'el
The complete past tense pattern of ordinary pi'el verbs with three- consonant
roots is as follows: (dashes indicate root consonants).

1s. /-i-a-ti/
2m.s./-i-i-ta/
2f.s.
3m.s.
/-!— a /

3
f.s.

/

spr
siparti
siparta
sipart
siper
sipra

s^r
1pi• /-i-a-nu / siparnu
2m.pl. /-i-a-tem/ sipartem
2f.pl. /-i-a-ten/ siparten
3pi•
/-i—u / sipru
Note that the 3 m.s. has the vowels /-i-e-/ and the first and second person
forms have the vowels /-i-a-/.
A. Substitution-Agreement Drill /siper/ "told"
He told me about the dinner.
hu siper li al aruxat haerev.

xana - atem - moSe vedov at - ata - sara hu
B.Substitution-Agreement Drill - /kibel/ "received"

‫ר לי על ארוחת‬5 ‫י‬0 ‫הוא‬
. ‫הערב‬
- ‫ משה ודוב את‬- ‫ אתם‬- ‫חנה‬
‫ הוא‬- ‫ שרה‬- ‫אתה‬

I received a telegram this morning.

. ‫קבלתי מברק הנוקר‬

kibalti mivrak haboker.
hem - atem - david anu - gveret karmi - ani

‫ דוד‬- ‫ אתם‬- ‫הם‬
‫ אני‬- ‫ גנווז כרמי‬- ‫אנו‬

C.Substitution-Agreement Drill /miher/ "hurried"

. ‫היא מיהרה למברקה‬

She hurried to the telegraph office, hi mihara

‫ אשתי וגברת כספי‬- ‫ אתה‬- ‫אני‬
‫ היא‬- ‫ יהודה‬- ‫ אתם‬- ‫אנו‬

lamivraka.
ani - ata - iSti vegveret kaspi anu - atem - yehuda - hi
D. Substitution-Agreement Drill /tiyel/ "strolled"
We took a walk on Allenby Road.

. ‫טיילנ׳ ברחוב אלנבי‬

tiyalnu berexov alenbi.
aten - avigdor veatara - ani at vedov - ata - anu

17.5

‫ אני‬- ‫ אביגדור ועטרה‬- ‫אתן‬
‫ אנו‬- ‫ אתה‬- ‫את ודוב‬

Past Tense of kal (pa'al)

The complete past tense pattern of ordinary kal verbs
with three-consonant roots is as follows:

/-a-a-ti/
/-a-4-t /
/-a-a /

1s.
2m. s.
2f.s.
3m.s.
3 f.s.

/-a-a-ta/
/-a-a- /

1pi.
/-a-anu /
2m. pi. /-a-atem/
Mix
2f. pi.
Salaxti
/-a-a-ten/ Salaxta
3pl/‫־‬
a Salaxt
—u /
Salax

Six
Salaxnu
Salaxte
m
Salaxte
n Salxu

Salxa

509

UNIT

15

HEBREW

BASIC

COURSE

E.Substitution-Agreement Drill /Salax/ "sent"

When did they sent the package?
matay hem Salxu et haxavila .
atem - haxenvan£ - at xana hen - ata - mar kaspi
- hem
F.Substitution-Agreement Drill /mazag/ "poured"

I poured the wine into the glasses.
mazagti et hayain lakosot.
iSti - at - ata moSe anu - baalex hen - ani
?‫מתי הם שלחו את החבילה‬
-

‫אתה‬

-

‫הן‬

‫חנה‬

-

‫את‬

-

‫ החנווני‬- ‫אתם‬
‫ הם‬- ‫מר כסעי‬

. ‫מזגתי את היין לכוסות‬
-

‫בעלך‬

-

‫אנו‬

‫משה‬

-

‫אתה‬

-

‫ את‬‫אני‬

510

‫אשתי‬
- ‫הן‬

HEBREW

BASIC COURSE

UNIT £

G. Substitution-Agreement Drill /maca/
"found" She found the package on the third
h! mac‫׳‬a
g
£
‫ה‬
‫מ‬
‫ת‬
‫י‬

et haxavii^ bakoma
t
.
.
‫ת‬
‫ו‬
‫ק‬
‫ב‬
‫ה‬
‫ש‬
‫י‬
‫ל‬
‫ש‬
‫ה‬

floor.
h
a
‫א‬
‫ל‬
‫י‬

ani - hem - ata - avfgdor at iSto - hu - hi
-

‫אתה‬
‫אשתו‬

-

‫חם‬
‫אני‬
‫את‬
‫אביגדור‬
‫ היא‬- ‫הוא‬

511

S
‫ה‬
‫ב‬

i
‫א‬
‫ח‬

!
‫צ‬
‫ה‬

‫מ‬

‫א‬

‫י‬

‫ה‬

UNIT

15

HEBREW

COURSE

j

512

BASIC

HEBREW

BASIC COURSE

UNIT £

Verbs such as /rac/ "ran" are traditionally listed as pa'al conjugations. They resemble
the ordinary pa'al verbs in the past tense in that the same vowel /a/ occurs in all forms:

1s.
2m.s.
2f.s.
3m.s.
3 f.s.

/racti/
/racta/

/ra;ct7
/
rac/
/raca/

"I ran" "you
"you ran" "he
"she ran"

ran"
ran"

1pi.
/racnu/
2m. pi.
/ractem/
2f. pi.
/racten/
3pi.
/racu/ we
ran "you ran" "you
ran" "they ran"

513

UNIT

15

HEBREW

COURSE

Note that the stress remains on the infixed /a/ in the 3 f.s. and the 3 pi.: /raca/ "she
ran"

/racu/ "they ran"

Verbs such as /rac/ have only two consonants in the root, but are listed in dictionaries
with vav ( ‫ ) ו‬or yud (‫ ) י‬as the second root consonant. Thus, /rac/ ‫ ר ץ‬will be listed
alphabetically under ‫ר ו ץ‬
The verb /ba/ "he came" is listed under ‫ בוא‬. its pattern is similar to /rac/ except that
it has only one consonant. All forms, though, are spelled with ‫ א‬.

Substitution-Agreement Drill /rac/ "ran"

Dov ran to the office this morning.

H.

dov rac haboker lamisrad .
anf - ata - mar kaspi - at anu - raxel - raxel
vesara - dov
.‫דוב רץ הנוקר למשרד‬
- ‫ רחל ושרה‬- ‫ רחל‬- ‫ את אנו‬- ‫י‬50 ‫ מר כ‬- ‫ אתה‬- ‫אני‬
‫דוב‬

514

BASIC

BASIC COURSE

HEBREW

UNIT £

Substitution-Agreement Drill /ba/ "came"

David came to the office yesterday.
david ba etmol lamisrad•

ata - at - hanaSim - ani hem - anu atem -hi - david
. ‫דוד נא אתמול למשרד‬
‫ דוד‬- ‫ היא‬- ‫ אתם‬- ‫ אנו‬- ‫ הנשים ־אני הם‬- ‫ את‬- ‫אתה‬

I.

515

UNIT

15

HEBREW

BASIC

COURSE

17.6 Past Tense of hitpa'el
The hitpa'el is characterized by a prefix of the pattern
the prefix is usually /h/ in the past tense.

/cit-/.

The first consonant of

The hitpa'el resembles the pi'el in that the second stem vowel is /e/ in the 3 m.s.
and /a/ in the first and second person in verbs with three root consonants.
/hitraSamti/ /hitraSem/
The first stem vowel is either /a/ or

/of.
/hitraSem/ /hitkonen/

" I was impressed" "
he was impressed"

" he was' impressed"
" he planned"

516

HEBREW

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UNIT £

The complete past tense pattern of the hitpa'el is as follows:
/hit-a-a-ti/
f.s
.

m.s.
f.s
.

/hit-a-a-ta/
/hit-a-at / /hit-ae- / /hit-a
—a /

hitraSamtl
hitraSamta
hitraSamt
hitraSem
hitraSma

1.
2.

2f.pl. /hi
t-a-a-ten/
3pi.
/hi
t-a—u/

hitraSamnu
hitra¥amtem
hitra&amten
hitraSmu

517

UNIT

15

HEBREW

COURSE

J. Substitution-Agreement Drill
/hitraSem/ "‫י‬
We were impressed by the new
stamps.
hitraSamnu mehabulim haxadaSim .
haamerikaim - atem - an! - iSti
at - baala - ata - gveret kohen

K. Substitution-Agreement Drill
/hitkonen/
He got ready to move to a new
house.
hu hitkonen laavor lebait xadaS.
ata - anu - miSpaxat zahavi
hayoec haxadaS - ani - him
- cit

as impressed"

.‫התרשמנו מהבדלים החרשים‬

- ‫ אני‬- ‫ אתם‬- ‫האמריקאים‬
- ‫ אתה‬- ‫ בעלה‬- ‫אשתי את‬
‫גברת כהן‬.

"got ready"

.‫הוא התבונן לעבור לבית חרש‬

‫ משפחת זהבי‬- ‫ אנו‬- ‫אתה‬
‫ את‬- ‫ הם‬- ‫ אני‬- ‫היועץ החרש‬

518

BASIC

HEBREW

BASIC COURSE

UNIT £

17.7 Past Tense of hif'il.
The hif'il conjugation is characterized in the past
tense by the prefix /hi-/, /he-/, or /ho-/.
Verbs whose first root consonant is x (spelled with
but not x when spelled with ‫ ) כ‬or will have the prefix
/he-/.

‫ח‬

,

/hexlit/ "he decided"
- root xlt ‫הלט‬
/he'evir/ "he brought
over" - root 'vr ‫עבר‬
The full pattern of the past tense

as an example).
s.
m.s
.
f.s
.
m.s
.
f.s
.

mSx

two root
These verbs
( ‫ ) י‬or yud

himSaxti
himSaxta
him&axt
himSix
himSixa

The prefix /he-/ also occurs
with some verbs whose first root
consonant is ‫ג‬:.

Verbs with only
consonants also have the prefix /he-/.
are listed in the dictionary with vav
(‫ ) י‬as the second root consonant.
/heric/ "he caused to
run" - root r-c ‫רוץ‬
/hekim/ "he set up" root k-m
‫קום‬

Roots listed with yud ( ‫ ) י‬as the first consonant will have the prefix
/ho-/, with a vav replacing the yud of the root.
/hodia/ "he informed" - root yd'
/ho%lv/ "he seated" - root y§v ‫ישב‬

‫ידע‬

The root hlx "go" also has the prefix /ho-/ in the hif'il , with the
vav replacing the h of the root.
/holix/ ‫״‬he led" - root hlx

‫הלר‬

All other verbs have the prefix /hi-/.
/himSix/ "he continued" - root mSx
‫משך‬
/hizmin/ "he invited"
- root zmn ‫זמן‬
/higzim/ "he exaggerated" - root gzm ‫גזם‬.
If the first of the three consonants is n, then the n
will be dropped in the hif'il conjugation.
/hikir/ " he recognized" - root nkr
/higia/ "he arrived"
- root ng'

/hi—a-ti/
/hi—ata/ /hi—a-t/

1pi.
2m.pl.
2f.pl.

/hi—17 ‫־‬
/hi—£-a/

519

/hi-a-nu/
/hi—a-tem/
/hi—a-ten/

‫נכר‬
‫נגע‬

UNIT

15

HEBREW

BASIC

COURSE

3pi.

/hi—£-u/

is as follows: (The prefix /hi-/ is used
m£x
himSaxnu
himSaxtem
himSaxten
himSfxu

520

HEBREW

BASIC COURSE

UNIT £

Note that the stress remains on the infixed vowel in the third person
forms:
/himSixa/ "she continued" /him&ixu/
"they continued"

L. Substitution-Agreement Drill /him!‫־‬
£x/"continued".
He continued studying in Israel.

hu himS£x nimod baarec.

.‫הוא‬

‫המשיר ללמוד באריז‬

‫גברת‬

gveret Smith - yonatan - hem

‫ הם‬- ‫ יונתן‬- ‫ממית‬

- ‫ את‬- ‫אני‬

ani - at - anu - kulam - atem

‫ אתם‬- ‫ כולם‬- ‫אנו‬

‫אשתי‬

i£t£ veani - ata' - hu

‫ הוא‬- ‫ אתה‬- ‫ואני‬

.‫יוסף התחיל לאכול לפני שעה‬

M. Substitution-Agreement Drill

- ‫ אני‬- ‫ משה‬- ‫רחל‬
- ‫ הם‬- ‫ אתם‬- ‫אתה אנו‬
- ‫ את‬- 7 ‫ את‬- ‫חנה הן‬
‫יוסף‬

/hitxil/ "began"
Yosef started eating an hour ago.

yosef hitxil leexol lifney Saa .
raxel - moSe - ani - ata anu - atem
- hem - xana hen - aten - at - yosef

N. Substitution-Agreement Drill
/hizmin/ "invited" Mr. Zahavi
invited them for dinner.
mar zahavi hizm£n otam learuxat erev.
‫אותם לארוחת ערב‬

.‫מר זהיי הזמין‬

hen - anu - iSto - ani

- ‫הן‬

yaakov - atem - at - hi

‫יעקב‬

‫ אני‬- ‫ אשתו‬- ‫אנו‬
‫ היא‬- ‫ את‬- ‫ אתם‬-

- ‫אתן‬

aten - ata - hem - mar zahavi

‫ מד זהבי‬- ‫ הם‬- ‫אתה‬

521

BASICL COURSE_HEBREW________________________________UNIT 17

0. Substitution-Agreement Drill /hikir/ "recognized, knew" He was introduced to her
in the Brooklyn Bar.
hu hikxr ota bebrukiin bar.
xana - at - ata - anu
dov - ani - hen -hu

.‫הוא הכיר ארחה בברוקלין גר‬
‫ אנו‬- ‫ אתה‬- ‫ את‬- ‫חנה‬
‫ הוא‬- ‫ הן‬- ‫ אני‬- ‫נ‬1 ‫ו‬

P. Substitution-Agreement Drill /higia/ "arrived"
The counsellor arrived in Tel Aviv this morning.
hayoec higia letei aviv haboker.

.‫הי ו עין הגיע לתל אי י כ הנוקר‬

anu - atem - sara veyosef
hi - ata - hem - at - hayoec

‫ שרה ויוסף‬- ‫ אתם‬- ‫אנו‬
‫ היועץ‬- ‫ את‬- ‫ הם‬- ‫ אתה‬- ‫היא‬

Q. Substitution-Agreement Drill /higzlm/ "exaggerated" He exaggerated his
story.
hu higzlm basipur geio.

.‫הוא הגזים כסיפור שלו‬

hem - ata - ani - at
menaxem - atara - atem - hu

‫ את‬- ‫ אני‬- ‫ אזה‬- ‫הם‬
‫ הוא‬- ‫ אתם‬- ‫ עטרה‬- ‫מנחם‬

R. Substitution-Agreement Drill /hexlit/ "decided"
(Note: In the first and second person forms an /e/ is inserted before the
suffix - /hexlateti/.)
He decided not to go by ship.
hu hexlit 16 Unsoa beonia.

.‫הוא החליט לא לנסוע באוניה‬

‫ היא‬- ‫ החנווני‬- ‫ אני‬- ‫אתם‬
‫ הוא‬- ‫ את‬- ‫ אנו‬- ‫ הם‬- ‫אתה‬

atem - ani - haxenvani - hi
ata - hem ‫־‬anu - at - hu

S. Substitution-Agreement Drill /heric/ "caused to run" He had us running the
whole morning.
hu herlc otanu koi haboker.

.‫הוא הריץ אותנו כל הבוקר‬

hi - atem - at - yonatan
ata - hem - atara - hu

‫ יונתן‬- ‫ את‬- ‫ אתם‬- ‫היא‬
‫ הוא‬- ‫ עטרה‬- ‫ הם‬- ‫אתה‬

T. Substitution-Agreement Drill /hodia/ "informed"

He told Yonatan that he didn* t get the telegram.
hu hodia !eyonatan Seio kibei et hamivrak. .‫הוא הודיע ליונתן שלא קבל את המברק‬
ani - atara - atem - at
‫ את‬- ‫ אתם‬- ‫ עטרה‬- ‫אני‬
sara veani - hem - ata - hu
‫ הוא‬- ‫ אתה‬- ‫ הם‬- ‫שרה ואני‬

522

HEBREW

BASIC COURSE

UNIT £

17*8 Past Tense of lamed hey verbs
Regardless of the conjugation (binyan) these verbs have the following
similarities:
a)The vowel before the 1st and 2nd person suffixes is /-£-/ or /-e-/. In
the kal and pi'el the vowel is /-£-/• In the other binyanim it is /-e-/.
b)The 3rd person forms are a^ described in Grammar Section 16.4c. 3 m.s.
-a
3 f.s
ta
3 pi-u
A cora^leie past. ten^e is ao follow^: (The verb
illustrated /xika/ ‫חכה‬
s. /-V-1ti/
m.s. /-V-1ta/
f.s. /-V-£t /
m.s. /-V-a /
f.s. /-V-ta /
/-V

£nu/
£ten/ /-V-d/

xik£ti
xik£ta
xik£t
xika
xikta

‫חנית‬
‫י‬
‫חכית‬
‫חכ‬
‫ית‬
‫חכה‬
‫חכתה‬

1 pi.
2m.pl
.
2
f.pl.
3Pi.

"vvai i.ed")
/-V-£tem/

523

xikmu
xikitem
xikiten
xiku
/-V-

‫י‬
‫ו‬
‫י‬

‫חב‬
‫נ‬
‫חב‬
‫תם‬
‫חב‬
‫יתן‬
‫חכו‬

U • Subdtitucion-Agreement Drill /kiva/ "hoped"
I hoped to go to Haifa.
kiviti linsoa le^ayfa.
yonatan - ra.^el - hen - at anu - ata - aten
- ani
. ‫קוריתי לנסוע לחייפה‬
‫ אני‬- ‫ אתן‬- ‫ אתה‬- ‫ את אנו‬- ‫ הן‬- ‫ רחל‬- ‫יונתן‬

524

BASIC COURSE

HEBREW

UNIT £

V• Substitution-Agreement Drill /xika/ "waited"
I waited and waited for Friday to come.
xikiti vexikiti leyom Sifa£ Seyavo.
anu - ata - hem - h£ moSe - at - aten - sara atem
- dov vexana - am

. ‫חב יחי וחביתי ליום ששי שיבוא‬

‫ שרה‬- ‫ אתן‬- ‫ את‬- ‫ היא משה‬- ‫ הם‬- ‫ אתה‬- ‫אנו‬
‫ אני‬- ‫ דוב וחנה‬- ‫אתם‬

525

W. Substitution-Agreement Drill /raca/ "wanted" I
wanted to go to the tourist office. rac£ti
lalexet lemisrad hatayarut.
aten - at - iSt£ veani - m£
ata - avigdor - atara - hem
mar Williams - atem - ani
. ‫רציתי ללבח למשרר החיירווח‬
- ‫ עטרה‬- ‫ אביגדור‬- ‫ מי אחה‬- ‫ אשתי ואני‬- ‫ את‬- ‫אתן‬
‫ אני‬- ‫ אתם‬- ‫הם מר וויליאמם‬

526

BASIC COURSE

HEBREW

UNIT £

X. Substitution-Agreement Drill /asa/ "made, did" I did
well to get here early.
toy as£ti Sehigati mukdam .
at - dav£d - ata - lea anu hem - aten - ani
. ‫טוב עשיתי שהגעתי מוקרם‬
‫ אני‬- ‫ אתן‬- ‫ הם‬- ‫ לאה אנו‬- ‫ אתה‬- ‫ דוד‬- ‫את‬

527

Y. Substitution-Agreement Drill /kana/ "bought" ‫קנה‬
He bought a new house.
hu kana bait xadaS .
anu - xana vebaala - anf
gveret kohen - atem - hf ata yosef - hem - hu

.‫הוא קנה בית חיש‬

‫ הוא‬- ‫ הם‬- ‫ יוסף‬- ‫ היא אתה‬- ‫ אתם‬- ‫גברת כהן‬. ‫ אגי‬- ‫ חנה וכעלה‬- ‫אנו‬

528

HEBREW

BASIC COURSE

UNIT £

Z. Substitution-Agreement Drill / raa/ "saw" He saw
her this morning, hu raa ota haboker.
L - at - h£
aten - hen - yonatan ata ‫־‬
iSto - hu

.‫הוא ראה אותה הבוקר‬

‫ הוא‬- ‫ אשתו‬- ‫ יונתן אתה‬- ‫ הן‬- ‫ אנו אתן‬- ‫ היא‬- ‫ את‬- ‫אני‬
‫רא‬
‫ה‬
a
n

an
u

529

AA. Substitution-Agreement Drill /pana/ "turned"
He addressed him in English.
hu pana elav beanglit .
at - hayoec haxadaS -^ata ani
-gveret kaspi - hem - hu
‫פנה‬

. ‫הוא פנה אליו באנגלית‬
‫ אתה‬- ‫ היועץ החדש‬- ‫את‬
‫ הוא‬- ‫ הם‬- ‫ גברת כספי‬- ‫אני‬

530

BASIC COURSE

HEBREW

UNIT £

BB. Substitution-Agreement Drill /Sata/ "drank" ‫שתה‬
I didn't drink the water.
lo Satiti et hamaim .
anu - atem - hem - dov aviva hen - sara - ata haamerikaim at - ani

. ‫לא שתיתי את המים‬

‫ אני‬- ‫ את‬- ‫ אתה האמריקאים‬- ‫ שרה‬- ‫ הן‬- ‫ דב אביבה‬- ‫ הם‬- ‫ אתם‬- ‫אנו‬

531

CC• Substitution-Agreement Drill /ala/ "went up" ‫עלה‬
We went up to the third floor.
allnu lakoma haSliSit.
ani - kulam - atem - at mar
alon - l&texa - hem ata - aten
- hu - anu

.‫עלינו לקומה השלישית‬

‫ אנו‬- ‫ הוא‬- ‫ אתן‬- ‫ הם אחה‬- ‫ אשתר‬- ‫ את מר אלון‬- ‫ אתם‬- ‫ כולם‬- ‫אני‬

532

BASIC COURSE

HEBREW

UNIT £

DD. Substitution-Agreement Drill /nitmana/ "was appointed"

‫ נתמנה‬We were

appointed as advisers in the foreign office.

nitmanenu keyoacim bemisrad haxuc.

.2 ‫ ביועצים במשרד החוץ‬1 ‫ י נ‬3 ‫תמ‬

atem - hem - mar kohen . ‫ י י‬t
/. / hen - hi - at - anu
- ‫ היא‬- ‫ אני הן‬- ‫ מר כהן‬- ‫ הם‬- ‫אתם‬
‫ אנו‬- ‫את‬

an
i

533

UNIT

15

HEBREW

BASIC

COURSE

EE. Substitution-Agreement Drill /haya/ "was"
The verb /haya/ poses problems other than the lamed hey pattern. In ordinary
speech the /h/ is often dropped, and the /y/ is often a very slight glide between
the surrounding vowels. A spelling consistent with other lamed hey verbs would be
as in the left-hand column.
Transcriptions of frequently heard pronunciations are in the middle and
right hand columns.
hay£ti

s.
m.s

f.s
.
m.
s •
f.s
.

hayita
hayit
haya
hayta

/ha£ti/ or
/haita
o
' /ha£t/ r
o
r

/a£ti/
/aita/
/ay a/
/ayta/

/a£nu/
/aitem
/
/aiten
/
/ayu/
In previous units the transcriptions in the middle column have been used
since they represent the most generally acceptable pronunciation.
1pi. hayfnu
2m.pl.
hayitem
2f.pl.
hayiten
3pi. hayu

/hainu/
or /haitem/
or /haiten/
or

I was in Haifa a week ago.
haiti bexayfa lifney Savua.
hem - baala - moSe anu aten - xana - ata at hi - hen - dov - an£

.‫הייתי בחיפה לפני שכרע‬

- ‫ אנו אתן‬- ‫ משה‬- ‫ בעלה‬- ‫הם‬
- ‫ הן‬- ‫ את היא‬- ‫ אתה‬- ‫חנה‬
‫ אני‬- ‫רוב‬

534

BASIC COURSE

HEBREW

UNIT £

FF. Substitution-Agreement Drill /nir'a/ "seemed, was seen"
This binyan, nif'al, will be discussed in detail in Unit 19• However, the
forms of /nir a/ may be drilled here as an example of a lamed
hey
verb. The prefix /ni-/ is the same in all forms.
You looked well yesterday, nir'et
tov etmol.

‫נראית טרב‬
.‫אתמרל‬

ata - sara - hu - am anu
- xana vemoSe - hi david
- atem - hem - at
- ‫ אני אנו‬- ‫ הוא‬- ‫ שרה‬- ‫אתה‬
- ‫ אתם‬- ‫וור‬
‫ היא ־‬- ‫חנה ומשה‬
‫ את‬- ‫הם‬

535

‫‪BASIC‬‬

‫‪HEBREW‬‬

‫‪15‬‬

‫‪UNIT‬‬

‫‪COURSE‬‬

‫‪RAPID RESPONSE DRILL‬‬

‫‪.1‬מה רוצה מר וויליאמם לשלוח ?‬
‫‪.2‬לאן הוא רוצה לשלוח את המכתב ?‬
‫‪.3‬האם הוא ישלח את המכתב בדואר אוויר‬
‫או כדו אד רגיל?‬
‫‪.4‬כמה יעלה לו לשלוח את המכתב ?‬
‫‪.5‬כמה זמן יקח למכתב להגיע לאמרי קהי?‬
‫‪.6‬הם המכתב דחוף?‬
‫‪.7‬האם מד וויליאמם ישלח מברק?‬
‫‪.8‬היכן נמצאת המכרקה?‬

‫‪536‬‬

BASIC COURSE

HEBREW

UNIT £

.9 REVIEW CONVERSATIONS
A: ani roce ligloax et haxavila hazot letel
aviv.
B: eyx ata roce ligloax ota. ragil o
expres.
A: kama zman yikax bedoar ragil, vekama
beekspres.
B: ragil yikax xamiga yamim, beekspres
yomaim.
A: in kax, glax et haxavila ragil. ze lo kol
kax daxuf.
.‫ אני רוצה לשלוח את החבילה הזאת לתל אביב‬:‫א‬
?‫ רגיל או אקספרס‬,‫ איך אתה רוצה לשלוח אותה‬:‫ב‬
?‫ וכמה באקספרס׳‬,‫ כמה זמן יקח בדואר רגיל‬:‫א‬
.‫ באקספרס יומיים‬,‫ רגיל יקח חמישה ימים‬:‫כ‬
‫ זה לא כל כך‬.‫ שלח את החבילה רגיל‬,‫ אם כך‬:‫א‬
.‫דחוף‬

537

UNIT

15

HEBREW

COURSE

ten li bevakaSa, xameg. igrot avir.
ken. bevakaSa. kama ze ole.
Sloslm vexameS agorot kol axat.
yaxad lira veslv'1m vexameS agorot.
.‫ חמש אגרות אוויר‬,‫ תן לי בבקשה‬:‫ג‬
.‫ בבקשה‬.‫ כן‬:‫ד‬
? ‫ כמה זה עולה‬:‫ג‬
‫ יחד לירה ׳שבעים‬.‫ שלושים וחמש אגורות כל אחת‬:‫ר‬
.‫וחמש אגורות‬

538

BASIC

HEBREW

BASIC COURSE

kibainu haboker giuya mimi^paxat z
‫ר‬
‫ק‬
‫ו‬
‫ב‬
‫ת‬
‫ח‬
‫פ‬
‫ש‬
ma hem kotvim. ‫י‬
‫ב‬
‫ה‬
‫ז‬

UNIT £

a

‫ה‬
‫מ‬

h

a

v

i
‫ו‬
‫ה‬

‫מ‬

.
‫נ‬
‫י‬

.
‫ב‬
‫ל‬

‫ל‬
‫ו‬

‫ק‬
‫ג‬

‫ה‬
:

? ‫ו כותבים‬

hem kotvim Seyavou lir'ot otanu b
‫ו‬

‫א‬

‫ו‬

‫ב‬

‫י‬

‫ו‬

‫נ‬

‫ת‬

‫ו‬

‫א‬

‫ב‬

‫ו‬

‫ר‬

‫ק‬

‫כ‬

y

a

v

‫ם‬

‫ה‬

‫ם‬

‫ה‬

‫ש‬

‫ו‬

‫א‬

‫ו‬

e

k

a

‫ש‬

‫ם‬

tov

o

u

meod.

hem

.

g

e

y

a

‫י‬

‫נ‬

‫פ‬

‫ל‬

‫ו‬

‫ע‬

‫י‬

‫ג‬

‫ב‬
g

‫ת‬

‫י‬
i

lo.
u

.

.
‫ק‬

‫י‬

‫מ‬

‫ר‬

ax

hem

‫ם‬

‫ה‬
‫ב‬

‫ש‬

G: ani carix bul£m. eyfo ani yaxol liknot
otam.
H: bulim efgar liknot badoar.
G: eyfo hadoar?
H: hadoar nimca birxov alenbi, lo raxok
mikan.
G: ad eyze £aa hadoar patuax.

H: ad xameS.
‫ איפה אני יכול לקנות‬.‫ אני צריך בולים‬:‫ז‬
?'‫אותם‬
.‫ בולים אפשר לקנות בדואר‬:‫ח‬
?‫ איפה הדואר‬:‫ז‬
.‫ לא רחוק מכאן‬,‫ הדואר נמצא ברחוב אלנכי‬:‫ח‬
?‫ עד איזה שעה הדואר פתוח‬:‫ז‬

.‫ עד חמש‬:‫ח‬

539

o

-

‫ ם‬:

‫ב‬

‫ת‬

‫ו‬

‫ה כ‬

‫ת‬

‫ו‬

‫א‬

‫ר‬

‫ ל‬:

matay
‫ב‬

‫ו‬

‫ ט‬:

‫ר‬

‫ו‬

‫א‬

‫ה מ‬

‫ו‬

‫ב‬

‫ת‬

‫ כ‬:

yiSlexu

‫ה‬

Sehem ‫ו‬

?

mivrak
‫ך‬

‫מ‬

v

‫י‬

katvu

?

‫י‬

r

‫מה הם‬

lifney

‫א‬
‫ו‬

‫ח‬

.

‫א‬

‫ל‬

‫ל‬

‫ש‬

‫י‬

UNIT

15

HEBREW

BASIC

COURSE

NOTE ON TRANSCRIPTION
In the remainder of the book the stress mark _ is used only when a syllable other than the last in
a a word is stressed.

540

BASIC COURSE

HEBREW

UNIT £

541

‫‪BASIC‬‬

‫‪HEBREW‬‬

‫‪15‬‬

‫‪UNIT‬‬

‫‪COURSE‬‬

‫הייתי רוצה להגיע הצי שעה ל ‪5‬ני הזמן‪...‬‬

‫‪542‬‬

BASIC COURSE

HEBREW

UNIT £

18.1 Telling Time
DOV ma
What
time
is
it?

hour

haSaa.

Saa
(f)
AVIVA

‫שעה‬

?‫מה השעה‬

It1 s
a
quarte
r to
seven.
quarter
haSaa
reva
le&eva
.

‫יעה‬-‫ה‬
.‫רבע לשבע‬

‫רבע‬

rev
a
(m)

D
O
V

543

UNIT

15

HEBREW

BASIC

COURSE

Whe
n
are
(yo
ur)
par
ent
s
sup
pos
ed
to
arr
ive
?

‫מתי עומרים‬
?‫ההורים להגיע‬

he stood

m
a
t
a
y
o
m
d
i
m
h
a
h
o
r
i
m
l
e
h
a
g
1
a
.

amad
‫עמד‬
horim
(m.pl
)
‫הורים‬
A
V
I
V
A

544

BASIC COURSE

HEBREW

UNIT £

I
a
n
S
e
nidme
(m.s.
pres.)
‫נדמה‬

‫אני לא י ורעת‬
‫ נרמה לי‬.‫בדיוק‬
.‫שבשמונה וחצי‬

545

UNIT

15

HEBREW

BASIC

COURSE

P
l
e
a
s
e

ia
xa
ci
Sa
a
li
fn
ey
ha
zm
an
.

c
h
e
c
k
w
h
e
n
the
pla
ne
wil
l
arr
ive
.
I'd
lik
e
to
get
(th
ere
) a
hal
f
hou
r
ahe
ad
of
tim
e.

bada
k
mato
s
(m)

‫בירק י בבקשה‬
‫מתי‬
.‫שהמטוס יגיע‬
‫הייתי רוצה‬
‫להגיע חצי שעה‬
.‫לפני הזמן‬

‫ברק‬
‫מטו‬
‫ס‬

DOV

he
examine
d
airplan
e

bidki
bevak
a&a,
matay
Seham
atos
yagia
.
hayit
i
roce
lehag

546

BASIC COURSE

HEBREW

UNIT £

AVIVA
Al
l
ri
gh
t.
I
wa
nt
to
go
wi
th
yo
u,
to
o.
t
o
t
r
a
v
e
l
h
e
t
r
a
v
e
l
e
d
w
i
t
h
m
e
b
e
r
a
c
o
n
.

o
c
a
l
i
n
s
o
a
i
t
x
a
.
linsoa
nasa
‫ב‬
‫ר‬
‫צ‬
‫ו‬
‫ן‬
.
‫ג‬
‫ם‬
‫א‬
‫נ‬
‫י‬
‫ר‬
‫ו‬
‫צ‬
‫ה‬
‫ל‬
‫נ‬
‫ס‬
‫ו‬
‫ע‬
‫א‬
‫ת‬
‫ר‬
.

g
a
m
a
n
i
r

547

‫לנסו‬
‫ע‬
‫נסע‬
‫אתי‬
‫י‬

UNIT

15

HEBREW

BASIC

COURSE

DOV
1
'
1
1
t
a
k
e
h
a
v
e
t
o
th
ey
cl
ea
r
yo
u.

he
ne
ed
ed
,
ha
d
to
cu
st
om
s
to
v,
ek
ax
ot
ax
.
ni
ct
ar
ex
le
xa
ko
t
a
d

S
e
h
e
m
y
a
a
v
r
u
e
t
h
a
m
e
x
e
s
.

.‫טוב‬
‫אקח‬
‫אותך‬
.
‫נצטר‬
‫ך‬
‫לחכו‬
‫ת‬
‫ער‬
‫שחש‬
‫י;לב‬
‫ר ו‬
‫את‬
‫המכס‬
.

Good
,
We'
11
wait
customs.
unti
l

‫ה‬
‫צטרך‬
‫מכס‬

548

HEBREW

BASIC COURSE

UNIT £

We have
enough time.

AVIVA

enough
he made it in time

‫מספי‬
‫ק‬
‫הספי‬
‫ק‬

ye£ lanu maspik zman.
maspik hispik

549

‫יש לנו‬
.‫מספיק זמן‬

UNIT

15

HEBREW

BASIC

COURSE

I hope so.
Call up right
away.
he got in touch
immediately
DOV
ani mekave
kax.
hitkasSri
miyad.
hitkaSer miyad
.‫אני מקווה כך‬
.‫התקשרי מיד‬

‫התקש‬
‫ר‬
‫מיד‬

550

HEBREW

BASIC COURSE

UNIT £

18.2 ADDITIONAL VOCABULARY
The following are several of the expressions for
telling time. The feminine numbers are used with /dakot/
"minutes", and the masculine numbers with /regaim/
"minutes".
/haSaa/ may be omitted in the reply.
What
time
you have?

do

T
h
e

t
i
m
e

t
i
m
e

i
s
t
e
n

i
s
t
e
n

m
i
n
u
t
e
s

m
i
n
u
t
e
s

a
f
t
e
r

b
e
f
o
r
e

s
e
v
e
n
.

s
e
v
e
n
.
mi
nu
te

T

The
time
is

7: 1
0.
The
time is
7:15.

The time is
ten to
seven.
The time is
ten to
seven.

h
e

le
ss

I11
‫י‬
meet
her
at
9:00
A.M.

1*1
1
mee
t
her
at
3:0
0
P.M
.
I1
1 ‫י‬
mee
t
her
at
8:0
0
P.M
.
1'11 arrive at
mid
nig
ht.
mid
nig
ht
It'
11
tak
e
us
24
hou
rs
to
get
the
re.

24
hour
period

Wait a
minute.
minute
,
moment
ma

551

UNIT

15

HEBREW

BASIC

COURSE

.‫שבע‬

haSaa
eclexa?

‫השעה‬

haSaa
eser dakot
lifney
Seva.
daka (f)

‫עשרה‬
.‫לשבע‬
‫השעה‬
‫שבע פחות‬
.‫עשרה‬

haSaa
asara

‫השעה‬
‫עשר‬
‫רקות‬
‫אחרי‬
.‫ישבע‬

leSeva.
haSaa
Seva paxot
asara.
paxot

‫השעה‬

haSaa
eser dakot
axarey
Seva.

‫ישבע‬
.‫ועשרה‬

ha£aa
Seva

‫דקה‬

‫השעה‬

veasara.
hagaa
Seva vareva.

‫אפגוש‬
‫אותה‬
‫בתשע‬
.‫בבוקר‬

efgoS ota

‫אפגוש‬
‫אותה‬

efgoS ota
beSmone
baerev.
agia bexacot.
xacot
yikax lanu
yemama
lehagia.
a

‫י‬

c

‫ר‬

o

‫ח‬

h

‫א‬

o

r

‫ש‬

a

‫ו‬

i

‫ל‬

m

‫ש‬

.

‫ב‬

‫פחות‬

.‫ורבע‬

efgoS ota
beteSa
baboker.

beSaloS axarey h
‫ה צ ה ר י י‬

‫שבע‬

.

‫אגיע‬
.‫בחצות‬

yemam
a (f)

xake rega.

‫אפגוש‬
‫אותה‬
‫כשמונה‬
.‫כערב‬

rega

‫י קח‬
‫לנו‬
‫יממה‬
.‫להגיע‬

‫חצות‬

.‫חכה רגע‬

;‫מה השילה אצ‬
‫יממה‬
‫השעה‬
‫עשר רקות לפני‬

‫רגע‬

552

HEBREW

BASIC COURSE

UNIT £

My watch is slow.
retarded
My watch is fast.
The big hand is on
the five, and the little
hand is on the three.
dial hand
(plural)

haSaon Seli
mefager.
mefager
(m.s
haSaon Seli
memaher.

hamaxog hagadol
al xameS,
vehamaxog hakatan
al SaloS.
maxo
g
mexu
gim

.
pres)
‫מפגר‬

‫השעון שלי‬
‫מפגר‬.

‫השעון שלי ממהר‬.

‫מחוג‬
‫מחוגי‬
‫ם‬

‫המחוג‬
‫הגרול על‬
,‫חמש‬
‫והמחוג‬
‫הקטן על‬
‫שלוש‬.

553

UNIT

15

HEBREW

COURSE

18.3 Vocabulary Drills

A. Substitution-Agreement Drill /omed/ "stand" (pres.) He is
standing next to the movie. hu omed al yad hakolnoa .
at - hem - sara vebaala - hi ani - hanaSim ata - hu

. ‫הוא עומד על יד הקולנוע‬

‫ הוא‬- ‫ אתה‬- ‫ הנשים‬- ‫ היא אני‬- ‫ שרה ובעלה‬- ‫ הם‬- ‫את‬

554

BASIC

BASIC COURSE

HEBREW

UNIT £

B. Substitution-Agreement Drill /amad/ "stood" (past)
He stood on the corner all morning.
hu amad bapina kol haboker .
hem - ani - atem at hi - moSe - anu
- hu

.‫הוא עמר בפינה כל הבוקר‬

‫ הוא‬- ‫ אנו‬- ‫ משה‬- ‫ את היא‬- ‫ אתם‬- ‫ אני‬- ‫הם‬

555

UNIT

15

HEBREW

BASIC

COURSE

C. Substitution Drill /bdok/ "examine" (imv.)
Check all the doors.
bdok et kol hadlatot. bidki bidku bdokna

D. Transformation Drill - Negative to Affirmative
(The first column may be done as a substitution drill first.)
Don't examine the packages.
al tivdok et haxavilot. bdok et haxavilot. al tlvdeki
et haxavilot. bidki et haxavilot. al tivdeku et
haxavilot. bidku et haxavilot. al tivdokna et
haxavilot.bdokna et haxavilot.
‫ אל תג‬.‫ דק י את החבילות‬:‫ אל ת‬.‫אל תבדוק את החבילות‬
.‫ אל תברוקנה את החבילות‬.‫רקו את החבילות‬

.‫בדוק את כל הדלתות‬

‫בדקי‬
‫בדקו‬
‫בדוקנ‬
‫ה‬

556

BASIC COURSE

HEBREW

UNIT £

E. Transformation Drill - Affirmative to Negative Do Drill D in reverse.

557

UNIT

15

HEBREW

COURSE

F. Substitution Drill /e - ~ti -/
1'11 check his phone number.
evdok et mispar hatelefon Selo. ata
tivdok at tivdeki dov yivdok hi
tivdok nivdok tivdeku tivd6kna hem
yivdeku hen tivdokna
.‫פר הטלפון שלו‬0 ‫אבדוק את מ‬

‫אתה תבדוק את‬
‫תבדקי רוב יבדוק‬
‫היא תבדוק נבדוק‬
.‫תבדקו תבדוק נר‬
‫הם יבדקו הן תבדוק‬
‫נה‬

558

BASIC

BASIC COURSE

HEBREW

UNIT £

G. Substitution-Agreement Drill

David will check the mail.
david yivdok et hadoar.
ani - xana - hem - ata anu at - atem - mi aten - hen - hi
- david
.‫דוד יבדוק את הדואר‬

‫ את‬- ‫ אתה אנו‬- ‫ הם‬- ‫ חנה‬- ‫אני‬
- ‫ היא‬- ‫ הן‬- ‫ מי אתן‬- ‫ אתם‬‫דור‬

559

UNIT

15

HEBREW

BASIC

COURSE

H. Substitution-Agreement Drill /badak/ "examined" He checked the address in the phone book.

hu badak et haktovet besefer h
‫ר‬

‫פ‬

‫ס‬

‫ב‬

‫ם‬

‫י‬

‫נ‬

‫ו‬

‫פ‬

‫ת‬

‫ב‬

‫ו‬

‫ל‬

‫ט‬

‫ה‬

a
‫ת‬

t
‫כ‬

e

i

‫ה‬

e
‫ת‬

hi - ata - anu - ani hem yosef - at - hu

‫ אני‬- ‫ אנו‬- ‫ אתה‬- ‫היא‬
‫ הוא‬- ‫ את‬- ‫ יוסף‬- ‫הם‬

560

f
‫א‬

o

n
‫ק‬

i
‫ר‬

m
‫ב‬

.

.
‫א‬

‫ו‬

‫ה‬

BASIC COURSE

HEBREW

UNIT £

I. Substitution Drill /e - ~ti -/
I'll have to get to Lydda by five o'clock.
ectarex lehagia lelud ad xameS.
tictarex
at tictarxi hu
yictarex
hi
tictarex
nictarex
atem
tictarxu
aten
tictarexna hem
yictarxu
hen
tictarexna
.‫אצטרך להגיע ללוד עד חמש‬

‫תצטרך את תצטרכי הוא יצטרך היא‬
‫תצטרך נצטרך אתם תצטרכו אתן‬
‫תצטרכנה הם יצטרכו הן תצטרכנה‬

561

UNIT

15

HEBREW

BASIC

COURSE

J. Substitution-Agreement Drill
He'11 have to send the letter special delivery.
hu yictarex uSioax et hamixtav e
‫ח‬
‫ו‬
‫ל‬
‫ש‬
‫ל‬
‫ר‬
‫ס‬
‫ר‬
‫פ‬
‫ס‬
‫ק‬
‫א‬
anu - aten - raxel - hem
at - ata - ani - hen - hi
atem - mar kaspi - hi - hu

k

s
‫י‬
‫ב‬

p
‫י‬
‫ת‬

r
‫ט‬
‫כ‬

e
‫צ‬
‫מ‬

s
‫י‬
‫ה‬

.

.
‫א‬
‫ת‬

‫ו‬
‫א‬

‫ה‬
/

‫ הם‬- ‫ רחל‬- ‫ אתן‬- ‫אנו‬
‫ היא‬- ‫ הן‬- ‫ אני‬- ‫ אתה‬- ‫את‬
‫ הוא‬- ‫ היא‬- ‫ מר כספי‬- ‫אתם‬

K. Substitution-Agreement Drill /hispik/ "he had the time to" Dov
didn't have time to eat breakfast.
dov lo hispik leexol aruxat boker.

.‫רוב לא הספיק לאכול ארוחת בוקר‬

ani ‫־‬ata - iSto - baala hem - anu - at - dov

‫ כעלה‬- ‫ אשתד‬- ‫ ארזה‬- ‫אני‬
‫ רוב‬- ‫ את‬- ‫ אנר‬- ‫הס‬

562

HEBREW

BASIC COURSE

UNIT £

L. Substitution Drill
I won't get a chance to see the whole city.
lo aspik lir'ot et kol hair, lo taspik lo
tasplki hu lo yaspik hi lo taspik lo naspik lo taspiku
aten lo taspekna hem lo yaspiku hen lo taspekna
.‫לא אספיק לראות את כל העיר‬

‫לא תספיק לא תספיקי הרא לא‬
‫יספיק היא לא תספיק לא נספיק‬
‫לא תספיקו אתן לא תספקנה הם‬
‫לא יספיקו הן לא תספקנה‬

563

UNIT

15

HEBREW

COURSE

M. Expansion Drill
Instructor: I didn't get a chance to see
Student : I didn't get a chance to see

him.

him, I'11 have to come tomorrow.
lo hispakti lir'ot oto.
lo hispciknu lir'ot oto.

ectarex lavo maxar.

.‫לבוא מחר‬

nictarex lavo maxar.

.‫לבוא מחר‬

xana lo hispika lir'ot oto.
hi tictarex lavo maxar..

.‫לבוא מחר‬

ata lo hispakta lir'ot oto.
tictarex lavo maxar.

.‫לבוא מחר‬

hem lo hispiku lir'ot oto.
yictarxu lavo maxar.

.‫לבוא מחר‬

lo hispakta lir'ot oto.

tictarex lavo maxar.

.‫לבוא מחר‬

aten lo hispakten lir'ot oto.
tictarexna lavo maxar.

.‫לבוא מחר‬

/

hen lo hispiku lir'ot oto.
tictarexna lavo maxar.
at lo hispakt lir'ot oto.
‫אצסרך‬

.‫לבוא מחר‬

tictarxi lavo maxar.
.‫לבוא מחר‬
.‫לא הספקתי לראות אותו‬

‫נצטרך‬

.‫לא הספקנו לראות אותו‬

‫ היא תצטרך‬.‫חנה לא הספיקה לראות אותו‬
.‫אתה לא הספקת לראות אותו‬
‫תצטרך‬
.‫הש לא הספיקו לראות אותו‬
‫יצטרכו‬
‫תצטרך‬

.‫לא הספקת לראות אותו‬

‫ תצטרכנה‬.‫אתן לא הספקת! לראות אותו‬
‫ תצטרכנה‬.‫הן לא הספיקו לראות אותו‬
.‫את לא הספקת לראות אותו‬
‫תצטרכי‬

564

BASIC

HEBREW

BASIC COURSE

UNIT £

Substitution Drill

.‫ זה דחוף‬.‫התקשר מיד‬

Call right away; it's urgent.

‫התקשרי‬
‫התקשר‬
‫ו‬
‫התקשרנ‬
‫ה‬

hitkaSer miyad. ze daxuf.
hitkaSri
hitkaSru
hitkaSerna

0• Substitution Drill

/e- ~ ti ‫־‬
/

‫יתקשרו הן‬
‫תתקשרנה‬

I'll get
in touch
with Mr.
Caspi.
ani
etkaSer
im mar
kaspi.
ata
titkaSer
at
titkaXri
hu
yitkaSer
hi
titkaSer
anu
nitkaSer
atem
titkaSru
aten
titkaSer
na
hem
yitkaSru
hen
titkaSer
na
‫אני‬
‫אתקשר עם‬
.‫מר כספי‬

‫אתה‬
‫תתקש‬
‫ר את‬
‫תתקש‬
‫רי‬
‫הוא‬
‫יתקש‬
‫ר‬
‫היא‬
‫תתקש‬
‫ר‬
‫אנו‬
‫נתקש‬
‫ר‬
‫אתם‬
‫תתקש‬
‫רו‬
‫אתן‬
‫תתקש‬
‫רנה‬
‫הם‬

565

UNIT

15

HEBREW

COURSE

it

P. SubstitutionAgree

am

ment

ha

Drill

ga
vu

1
'
1
1
c
a
l
l
t
h
e
m
t
h
i
s
w
e
e
k
.
e
t
k
a
S
e
r

a.
mo
Se
ve
iS
to
do
v
sa
ra
at
a
at
en
an
u
hi
at
he
n
at
em
an
i

‫א‬
‫ת‬
‫ק‬
‫ש‬
‫ר‬
‫א‬
‫ת‬
‫ם‬
‫ה‬
‫ש‬
‫ב‬
‫ו‬
‫ע‬
.

‫מ‬
‫ש‬
‫ה‬
‫ו‬
‫א‬
‫ש‬
‫ת‬
‫ו‬

566

BASIC

‫‪HEBREW‬‬

‫‪UNIT £‬‬

‫‪BASIC COURSE‬‬

‫‪-‬‬

‫דוב‬
‫‬‫שרה‬
‫אתה‬
‫‬‫אתן‬
‫‬‫אנו‬
‫‬‫היא‬
‫את ‪-‬‬
‫הן ‪-‬‬
‫אתם‬
‫‬‫אני‬

‫‪567‬‬

UNIT

15

HEBREW

COURSE

Substitution-Agreement Drill
/hitkaSer/ "he contacted" He got in
touch with Mrs. Cohen this morning.

hu hitkaSer
im gveret
kohen
haboker.

s
e
f

a
n
i

-

a
t
h
e
m
s
a
r
a

h
e
n
h
u
‫הוא התקשר‬
‫עם גברת‬
.‫כהן הבוקר‬

‫ את‬- ‫אני‬
- ‫ הם‬‫שרה אתה‬
- ‫ אתם‬- ‫אשתו‬
‫היא אנו‬
- ‫ יוסף‬‫הוא‬- ‫הן‬

a
t
a
a
t
e
m
i
S
t
o
h
i
a
n
u
y
o

568

BASIC

BASIC COURSE

S. Expansion Drill
/ "with me"

HEBREW

UNIT £

/iti

I
n
s
t
r
u
c
t
o
r
:
I
'
1
1
g
o
t
o
s
c
h
o
o
l
.
S
t
u
d
e
n
t
:
1
'
1
1
g
o
t
o
s
c
h
o
o
l
,
a

569

UNIT

15

HEBREW

COURSE

n
d
M
o
s
h
e
w
i
l
l
g
o
w
i
t
h
m
e
.

570

BASIC

HEBREW

BASIC COURSE

ani elex lebet hasefer,

UNIT £

vemoSe yelex iti.

ata telex
dov yelex

itxa.
ito.

xana telex
anu nelex
hem yelxu
atem telxu
at telxi
aten telexna
hen telexna

ita.
itanu.
itam.
itxem.
itax.
itxen.
itan.

.‫ילר אתי‬

‫אלר‬

‫אני‬

.‫אתך‬
.‫אתו‬

‫תלר‬

‫אתה‬
‫רוב‬

.‫אתה‬
.‫אתנו‬
.‫אתם‬
.‫אתכם‬
.‫אתך‬
.‫אתכן‬
.‫אתן‬

‫תלר‬
‫נלר‬
‫ילכו‬
‫תלכו‬
‫תלכי‬
‫תלכנה‬
‫תלכנה‬

‫לבית הספר ומשה‬

‫ילר‬

‫חנה‬
‫אנו‬
‫הם‬
‫אתם‬
‫את‬
‫אתן‬
‫הן‬

The unsuffixed form of this preposition is /et/, identical to the preposition /et/ indicating
a direct object. The unsuffixed form /et/ is used with the mean- ing "with" only in special
literary styles. In ordinary Hebrew the preposition /im/ is used, and /et/ is used for the direct
object. With the pronominal suffixes all three are in common use: /oti/ "me", /iti/, /imi/ "with
me".

T. Substitution Drill /iti ~ imi/
The student repeats the sentence, substituting the preposition /im-/. The drill
may then be done in reverse.

telex ita lakolnoa.
(ima)
tikxu et moSe itxem.

Yonatan will go with me this evening.
yonatan yelex iti haerev.
yonatan yelex imi haerev. axeilti
ito aruxat cohoraim. (imo)
mi hitkaser itxa haboker. (imxa)

(imaxem)
hen lo tikaxna et hasfarim itan.
(iman)
haim hem lamdu itax bebet hasefer? (imax)
haim hen garot itxen bebait exad? (imaxen)

Salaxnu et haxavila itam.
(imam)
hu roce linsoa itanu lexayfa.

(imanu) iSti

571

‫‪BASIC‬‬

‫‪15‬‬

‫‪HEBREW‬‬

‫‪UNIT‬‬

‫‪COURSE‬‬

‫)עמי(‬

‫יונתן ילך אתי הערב‪.‬‬
‫יונתן ילך עמי הערב‪ .‬אכלתי אתו‬
‫ארוחת צהריים‪.‬‬

‫)עמר(‬

‫מי התקשר אתר הבוקר?‬
‫שלחנו את החבילה אתם‪.‬‬

‫)עמם (‬

‫הוא רוצה לנסוע אתנו לחיפה‪.‬‬

‫)עמב י(‬

‫אשתי תלר אתה לקולנוע‪.‬‬
‫תקחו את משה אתכם‪.‬‬

‫)עמה(‬

‫)עמכם(‬

‫הן לא תקחנה את הספרים אתן‪.‬‬

‫)עמן(‬

‫)עמר(‬

‫האם הם למדו אתר כבית הספר?‬
‫האם הן גרות אתכם בכית אחד?‬

‫)עמכן(‬

‫‪572‬‬

BASIC COURSE

HEBREW

UNIT £

18.4 Clock Drills
A. The students cover this page, and the time
on the clocks.

instructor asks at random for the

What time is it on clock____________.

‫מה השעה על שעון‬

ma haSaa al Saon ___•

573

UNIT

15

HEBREW

BASIC

COURSE

‫א‬
‫כ‬
‫ג‬

‫ד‬
‫ה‬
‫ו‬
‫ז‬
‫ח‬
‫ס‬
‫י‬
‫כ‬
‫ל‬
‫מ‬
‫נ‬
‫ס‬
‫ע‬
‫פ‬
‫צ‬

‫ק‬
‫ר‬

haSa
a
haSa
a
haSa
a
haSa
a
haSa
a
haSa
a
haSa
a
haSa
a
haSa
a
haSa
a
haSa
a
haSa
a
haSa
a
haSa
a
haSa
a
haSa
a
haSa
a
haSa
a
haSa
a
haSa
a

esrim dakot lifney axat.

.‫עשרים דקות לפני אחת‬

Staim vareva.

.‫שתיים ורבע‬

Smone vaxec i.

.‫שמונה וחצי‬

reva leeser.

.‫רבע לעשר‬

xameS dakot lifney SaloS.

.‫חמש רקות לפני שלוש‬

eser dakot axarey arba.

.‫עשר רקות אחרי ארבע‬

esrim dakot lifney Staim.
xameS (bediyuk).
esrim vexameS dakot lifney
xameS.
axat'esre vareva.

.‫עשרים רקות לפני שתיים‬
.(‫חמש )בדיוק‬
‫עשרים וחמש רקות לפני‬
.‫חמש‬
.‫אחת עשרה ורבע‬

reva leteSa.
esrim vexameS dakot axarey
Seva.
xameS dakot leaxat'esre.

.‫רבע לתשע‬
‫עשרים וחמש דקות אחרי‬
.‫שבע‬
.‫חמש דקות לאחת עשרה‬

xameS vexamiSa.

.‫חמש וחמישה‬

eser veasara.
Sm6ne veesrim.

.‫עשר ועשרה‬
.‫שמונה ועשרים‬

teSa.
asara leSmone.
eser dakot axarey SeS.

.‫תשע‬
.‫לשמונה‬. ‫עשרה‬
.‫עשר רקות אחרי שש‬

Staim vaxeci.

.‫שתיים וחצי‬

574

‫השע‬
‫ה‬
‫השע‬
‫ה‬
‫השע‬
‫ה‬
‫השע‬
‫ה‬
‫־‬: ‫ה‬
‫עה‬
‫השע‬
‫ה‬
‫השע‬
‫ה‬
‫השע‬
‫ה‬
‫השע‬
‫ה‬
‫השע‬
‫ה‬
‫השע‬
‫ה‬
‫השע‬
‫ה‬
‫השע‬
‫ה‬
‫השע‬
‫ה‬
‫השע‬
‫ה‬
‫השע‬
‫ה‬
‫השע‬
‫ה‬
‫השע‬
‫ה‬
‫השע‬
‫ה‬
‫השע‬
‫ה‬

‫א‬
‫ב‬
‫ג‬
‫ר‬
‫ה‬
‫ו‬
‫ז‬
‫ח‬
‫ט‬
‫י‬
‫כ‬
‫ל‬
‫מ‬
‫נ‬
‫ס‬
‫ע‬
‫פ‬
‫צ‬

‫ק‬
‫ר‬

BASIC COURSE

HEBREW

UNIT £

GRAMMAR NOTES
18-5

The Expected Future
Note the following sentence from the Basic Conversation of this units

matay omdim hahorim lehagia. "when are your parents supposed to arrive?"
The construction /omdim lehagia/ (literally "stand to arrive") may also be translated
"expect to arrive". It is a paraphrase of the future with the added meaning of expectation.
The first verb, "stand" may occur in the past tense /amad/ in this construction. It then may
be translated "was supposed to have", and usually implies that the second verb did not
occur. hem amdu liknot bait, (velo kanu). "They were supposed to have bought a house.
(but didn't)" With the present tense it may mean "about to".
/hu omed lehagia./ "He is about to arrive."
A. Substitution-Agreement Drill
He's supposed to go to America, hu omed linsoa leamerika.
gveret zahavi - anu - hen ani dov - xana - hu

‫הוא עומר לנסוע‬
.‫לאמריקה‬

‫ חנה‬- ‫ דוב‬- ‫ הן אני‬- ‫ אני‬- ‫גברת זהבי‬
‫ הוא‬-

575

UNIT

15

HEBREW

COURSE

B. Transformation Drill
Instructor: She'll receive a letter today.
Student: She's supposed to received a letter today.
.‫היא תקבל מכתב היום‬

.‫היא עומדת לקבל מכתב היום‬

.‫משה ואשתו יקנו בית‬

.‫משה ואשתו עומרים לקנות בית‬

.‫המשפחה תגיע כעוד הורש‬

‫המשפחה עומדת להגיע בעוד חודש‬

.‫מר וויליאמס ישלח את החבילה‬
hi tekabel^mixtav hayom.
hi omedet lekabel mixtav
hayom. moSe veiSto yiknu bait.
moSe veiSto omdim liknot
bait. hamiSpaxa tagia beod
xodeS.
hamiSpaxa omedet lehagia beod
xodeS. mar Williams yiSlax et
haxavila.

‫ הנשים‬mar Williams omed liSloax et haxavila .‫מר וויליאמס עומד לשלוח את ה חב י לח‬
hanaSim tagana lifney .
.‫תגענה לפני חמש‬
xameS
hanaSim omdot lehagia lifney xameS .
.‫הנשים עומדות להגיע לפני חמש‬

576

BASIC

BASIC COURSE

HEBREW

UNIT £

C. Transformation Drill
Instructors I sent him a telegram. Student: I was supposed to
have sent him a telegram, but I didn't.
Salaxti lo mivrak.
amadeti liSloax 10 mivrak, velo Salaxti. kibalti et hagluya.
amadeti lekabel et hagluya, velo kibalti. hu kibel xavila haboker.
hu amad lekabel xavila haboker, velo kibel. ‫הוא עמד לקבל חבילה הב ו קר ולא קבל‬
kaninu bait benatanya.
3
.‫יה‬P
3
!
‫ל‬
‫׳‬
‫ו‬
‫נ‬
‫י‬
‫נ‬
‫ב‬
‫ת‬
‫י‬
‫ב‬
amadnu liknot bait benatanya, velo kaninu. ‫ עמדנו לקנות בית בנתניה ולא קנינו‬hem
higiu leiud etmoi.
.‫הם הגיעו ללוד אתמול‬
hem amdu^lehagia lelud etmol, velo hig£u .‫ הם עמדו להגיע ללוד אתמול ו לא הגיעו‬sara
avra lebait xadaS.
.‫שרה עברה לבית חרש‬
sara amda laavor lebait xadaS, velo avra.. ‫ שרה ענזרה לעבור לבית חדש ולא עברה‬david
axal itanu haerev. ‫ ׳‬/ .‫ דוד אכל אתנו הערב‬david amad leexol itanu haerev,
velo axal.. ‫דוד עמר לאכול אתנו הערב ולא אכל‬

.‫שלחתי לו מברק‬

.‫עמדתי לשלוח לו מברק ולא שלחתי‬

.‫קבלתי את הגלויה‬

.‫עמדתי לקבל את הגלויה ולא קבלתי‬

.‫הוא קבל חבילה הבוקר‬

577

UNIT

15

HEBREW

BASIC

COURSE

18.6 /matay Se- /
Compare the following sentences:

/matay yagia hamatos./ "when will the plane arrive?"
/bidki matay Sehamatos yagia/ "check [as to] when the plane will arrive."
This is another example of an included sentence. [See Grammar Note 10.4 ] in this case the
included sentence is a question beginning with the interrogative /matay/"when". When the subject
is an independent noun, as /hamatos/ in the example above, the word order in the included
sentence, may differ from that of the original sentence.

/matay tagia hamiSpaxa Selxa./ "When will your family arrive?"
/emor li matay Setagia hamiSpaxa Selxa./ llm ‫ י‬, , , ., .‫ ״ וי‬or / , .
* ‫ ׳ י‬/ Tell me when your family will arrive.
J
/emor 11 matay sehamispaxa selxa tagia./

v ‫י‬- ■ v
1

A. Transformation Drill /matay ~ matay Se - /
In the following drill the instructor will ask a guestion beginning with /matay/
"When?". The student will respond by paraphrasing the same question with a sentence
beginning with /emor li matay Se-/ "Tell me when..."
Example: Instructor: matay tagia hamiSpaxa Selxa. "When will your family Student:
emor li matay Setagia ha;.:iSpaxa Selxa. "Tell me when yc
family will arrive".

arrive?"
your

The instructor may vary this drill by having the students respond with the feminine
form /imri/ or with a plural form /imru/ or /emorna/.

1.matay tavo.

?1. ‫מתי תבוא‬

‫אמור לי מתי שתבוא‬.
2.matay nigaS lemoSe.

?2. ‫מתי ניגש למשה‬
3 .‫•אמור לי מתי שניגש למשה‬
a
d
a
S
a
.
‫מ‬
‫ו‬
‫א‬
‫ר‬
‫ל‬

matay neiex lir'ot et haxanut h
a
x
?
3
.
‫ך‬
‫ל‬
‫נ‬
‫י‬
‫ת‬
‫ת‬
‫ו‬
‫נ‬
‫ח‬
‫ה‬
‫ת‬
‫א‬
‫ת‬
‫ה‬
‫ש‬
‫ד‬
‫ח‬
‫ה‬
4 .‫אמור לי מתי שנלך לראות את החנות החדשה‬. matay
lamadeta ledaber ivrit.
?4. ‫מתי למרת לדבר‬
‫עברית‬
5

.‫•אמור לי מתי שלמדת לדבר עברית‬

matay tatxii bedieta.
‫בדיאטה‬

?5. ‫מתי תתחיל‬

‫אמור לי מתי שתתחיל בדיאטה‬.
6.matay raita et miryam.
3.matay ata roce

?6. ‫מתי ראית את מרים‬

usioax mivrak.

‫אמור לי מחי שראית את מרים‬.
? ‫לשלוח מברק‬

‫ מתי אתה רוצה‬.‫ד‬

‫אמור לי מתי שאתה רוצה לשלוח מברק‬.

RAPID RESPONSE DRILL

578

BASIC COURSE

HEBREW

UNIT £

REVIEW
CONVERSATIONS
A: ma haSaa. B: haSaa
Se£ bediyuk. A: toda

:‫ מה השעה? ב‬:‫א‬
.‫השעה שש בדיוק‬
.‫ תורה רכה‬:‫א‬

raba.

C:

lins
oa

matay

itxa

hahori

lexa

m

yfa.

Selxa

F:

omdim

tov.

lehagi

bera

a.

con.

D: beod

E:

yomaim

beey

.

ze

C: hem

Saa

hitka&

tisa

ru

. F:

itxa

beSe

telefo

va

nit?

vare

D: lo,

va.

hem
Salxu

G:

mixtav

mata

.

y
cari

E: ani

x

roca

moSe

579

UNIT

15

HEBREW

BASIC

COURSE

lehagi

e.

a. H:

Is yeS

ani lo

lexa

yodaat

maspi

bediyu

k

k. G:

zman.

hu lo
hitkaS
er
itax?

H: lo,
hu
amar
SeyiSl
ax
mivrak
.

Is ata
nosea
lelud
haboke
r? J:

Ks
ani

meka
ve
Selo

nictar
ex
lexa
kot
harb
e
zman
.

L:
gam
ani
meka
va
kax.
K:
kama
zman
yikax
lahem
laavo
r et
hame
xes.
Ls

ken.

kexa
ci
Saa.

Is
beeyze
Saa
ata
nosea.

Ks
xaci
Saa?
ze lo
harbe
zman.
:‫ג‬

J:
beSmon

580

‫מתי‬

‫‪HEBREW‬‬

‫‪UNIT £‬‬

‫ורבע‬

‫ההורים‬

‫‪.‬‬

‫שלך‬
‫עומדים‬

‫ז‪:‬‬

‫להגיע?‬

‫מתי‬

‫ד‪:‬‬

‫צריר‬
‫בעוד‬

‫משה‬

‫יומיים‬

‫להגי‬

‫‪.‬‬

‫ע?‬

‫ג‪ :‬הם‬

‫ח‪:‬‬

‫התקשרו‬

‫אני‬

‫אתר‬

‫לא‬

‫טלפוני‬

‫יודע‬

‫ת?‬

‫ת‬

‫ד‪ :‬לא‪.‬‬

‫בדיו‬

‫הם‬

‫ק‪.‬‬

‫שלחו‬

‫ז‪:‬‬

‫מכתב‪.‬‬

‫הוא‬
‫לא‬

‫ה‪ :‬אני‬

‫התקש‬

‫רוצה‬

‫ר‬

‫לנסוע‬

‫אתר?‬

‫אתר‬

‫ח‪:‬‬

‫לחיפה‪.‬‬

‫לא‪.‬‬

‫ו‪ :‬טוב‪.‬‬

‫הוא‬

‫ברצון‪.‬‬

‫אמר‬

‫ה‪:‬‬

‫שישל‬
‫ח‬

‫באיזה‬

‫מברק‬

‫שעה‬

‫‪.‬‬

‫תיסע‪.‬‬
‫ו‪ :‬בשבע‬

‫‪581‬‬

‫‪BASIC COURSE‬‬

‫‪HEBREW‬‬

‫‪BASIC‬‬

‫‪15‬‬

‫‪UNIT‬‬

‫‪COURSE‬‬

‫זמן‪.‬‬

‫ט‪ :‬אתה‬
‫נוסע‬
‫ללוד‬
‫הבוקר?‬
‫י‪ :‬כן‪.‬‬
‫ט‪:‬‬
‫באיזה‬
‫שעה‬
‫אתה‬
‫נוסע?‬
‫י‪:‬‬
‫בשמונה‬
‫‪ .‬ט‪:‬‬
‫יש לר‬
‫מספיק‬
‫זמן‪.‬‬

‫כ‪ :‬אני‬
‫מק ו ה‬
‫שלא‬
‫נצטרר‬
‫לחכות‬
‫הרבה‬
‫זמן‪.‬‬
‫ל‪ :‬גם‬
‫אני‬
‫מקוה‬
‫כר‪.‬‬
‫כ‪ :‬כמה‬
‫זמן‬
‫יקח‬
‫להם‬
‫לעבור‬
‫את‬
‫המכס?‬
‫ל‪:‬‬
‫כחצי‬
‫שעה‪.‬‬
‫כ‪ :‬חצי‬
‫שעה?‬
‫זה לא‬
‫הרבה‬

‫‪582‬‬

BASIC COURSE

HEBREW

UNIT £

:‫מ‬

M:

‫ברקי‬

bidki

‫מתי‬

matay

‫שהמט‬

Sehama

‫וס‬

tos

‫עומד‬

omed

.‫להגיע‬

lehagi

:‫נ‬

a.

N: ken.

.‫כן‬

etkaSe

‫אתקש‬

r

‫ר‬

miyad.

.‫מיד‬

M: ani

:‫מ‬

xoSev
‫אני‬

SebeSa

‫חושב‬

a SeS.

‫שבשע‬

N: gam

‫ה‬

ani

.‫שש‬

xoSeve

‫ גם‬:‫נ‬

t kax.

‫אני‬
‫חושב‬
‫ת‬
.‫כך‬

583

UNIT

15

HEBREW

BASIC

COURSE

O:

matay

‫ מתי‬:‫ס‬

omedet

‫עומדת‬

hamiSpaxa
Selxa
lehagia.

P:

‫המשפחה‬
‫שלך‬
.‫להגיע‬
:‫ע‬

hamiSpaxa

‫המשפחה‬

Seli tagia

‫שלי תגיע‬

beod xodeS

‫בעוד‬

yamim.

‫חורש‬

O: heyxan

.‫ימים‬

taguru?

‫ היכן‬:‫ם‬

P: yesudar

?‫תגורו‬

avurenu bait

‫ יסודר‬:‫ע‬

beramat gan.

‫עבורנו‬

O: ramat gan

‫בית ברמת‬

hi ir yafa
meod.

.‫גן‬
‫ רמת‬:‫ם‬
‫גן היא‬
‫עיר יפה‬
.‫מאור‬

584

BASIC COURSE

HEBREW

UNIT £

Q: ma

lo
t
yi
ka
x
Sa
a,
Sa
at
ai
m.

at
xo
Se
ve
t?
yi
ka
x
le
mo
Se
ha
rb
e
zm
an
la
av
or
et
ha
me
xe
s?

R:

ke
n.
ki
ye
S
lo
ha
rb
e
xa
vi
lo
t.

Q: O

ke
n.
na
xo
n.
ad
Se
yi
vd
ek
u
et
ko
l
ha
xa
vi

585

‫‪BASIC‬‬

‫‪15‬‬

‫‪HEBREW‬‬

‫‪UNIT‬‬

‫‪COURSE‬‬

‫פ‪ :‬מה‬
‫את‬
‫חו‬
‫שב‬
‫ת?‬
‫יק‬
‫ח‬
‫למ‬
‫‪:‬־ה‬
‫הר‬
‫בה‬
‫זמ‬
‫ן‬
‫לע‬
‫בו‬
‫ר‬
‫את‬
‫המ‬
‫כס‬
‫?‬
‫צ‪:‬‬

‫פ‪:‬‬

‫‪586‬‬

‫כך‬
‫‪.‬‬
‫כי‬
‫יש‬
‫לו‬
‫הר‬
‫בה‬
‫חב‬
‫יל‬
‫ות‬
‫‪.‬‬
‫אה‬
‫‪,‬‬
‫כך‬
‫‪.‬‬
‫נכ‬
‫ון‬
‫‪.‬‬
‫ער‬
‫שי‬
‫בד‬
‫קו‬
‫את‬
‫כל‬
‫הח‬
‫בי‬
‫לו‬
‫ת‬
‫יק‬
‫ח‬
‫שע‬
‫ה‬
‫‬‫שע‬
‫תי‬
‫ים‬
‫‪.‬‬

HEBREW

BASIC COURSE

UNIT £

1 9 1 ‫ ׳‬Calling Long Distance

A
t
a
r
a
,
d
o
y
o
u
k
n
o
w
t
h
e
t
e
l
e
p
h
o
n
e
n
u
m
b
e
r
o
f
U
n
c
l
e
R
e
u
v
e
n
?

C
a
l
l
i
n
f
o
r
m
a
t
i
o
n
.
D
i
a
l
"
z
e
r
o
"
.
information(servic
e)
he
dialed
zero
Y
O
N
A
T
A
N

a
t
a
r
a
.
a
t
y
o
d
a
a
t
e
t

N
o
.

m
i

s
p
a
r
h
a
t
e
l
e
f
o
n
S
e
l
h
a
d
o
d
r
e
u
v
e
n
?

dod (m)
doda (f)
ATARA

l
o
.
h
i
t
k
a
S
e
r
i
m
m
o
d
i
i
n
.
x
a
y
e
g
e

587

‫‪HEBREW‬‬

‫‪BASIC‬‬

‫‪15‬‬

‫‪UNIT‬‬

‫‪COURSE‬‬

‫‪fes.‬‬

‫‪mo‬‬
‫‪di‬‬
‫‪in‬‬
‫‪(m‬‬
‫‪.s‬‬
‫)‪.‬‬
‫‪xi‬‬
‫‪ye‬‬
‫‪g‬‬
‫‪ef‬‬
‫‪es‬‬
‫עטרה‪ ,‬את‬
‫י ר רעת‬
‫מספר‬
‫את‬
‫הטלפון‬
‫הדור‬
‫של‬
‫ראובן?‬

‫דור‬
‫דידה‬

‫מודיעי‬
‫ן חייג‬
‫אפס‬

‫לא‪.‬‬
‫התקשר‬
‫עם‬
‫מודיעין‬
‫‪ .‬חייג‬
‫אפס‪.‬‬

‫‪588‬‬

HEBREW

BASIC COURSE

H
e
l
l
o
,

R
e
u
v
e
n

i
n
f
o
r
m
a
t
i
o
n
?

D
u
v
d
e
v
a
n
i
,

P
l
e
a
s
e
g
i
v
e
m
e

J
a
f
f
a
S
t
r
e
e
t
7
6
.

a
n
u
m
b
e
r
i
n
H
a
i
f
a
.
T
h
e
n
a
m
e
i
s

T
h
e
n
u
m
b
e
r

d
i
a
l
d
i
r
e
c
t
o
r
t
h
r
o
u
g
h
l
o
n
g
d
i
s
t
a
n
c
e
,
n
u
m
b
e
r
1
9

YON
ATA
N

i
s
2
7
6
4
0
.
Y
o
u
c
a
n

UNIT £

direct
conversation

h
a
l
o
,
m
o
d
i
i
n
?

589

UNIT

15

HEBREW

COURSE

t
n
i
l
i
b
e
v
a
k
a
S
a
m
i
s
p
a
r
b
e
x
a
y
f
a
.
h
a
&
e
m
h
u
reuven
duvdevani
. rexov
yafo
Siv 1 im
veSeS.
Sem (m)
Semot
(m.pl.)

‫ש‬
‫ם‬
‫ש‬
‫מ‬
‫ו‬
‫ח‬

.s.
)
six
a
(f)
.‫הלו‬
‫מודיעין‬
‫? תני‬
‫לי‬
‫בבקשה‬
‫מספר‬
.‫בחיפה‬
‫השם הוא‬
‫ראובן‬
‫דובדבני‬
‫ רחוב‬,
‫יפו‬
‫שבעים‬
.‫ושש‬

‫י‬

‫המספר‬
‫הוא‬
‫שתיים‬
‫שבע שש‬
‫ארבע‬
.‫אפס‬
‫אתה‬
‫יכול‬
‫לחייג‬
‫ישירות‬
‫או דרר‬
-‫שיחות‬
,‫חוץ‬
‫מספר‬
-‫תשע‬
.‫עשרה‬

INFORMA ‫ש‬
TION
‫י‬

hamispar
hu
Staim
Seva SeS
arba
efes. ata
yaxol
lexayeg
yeSirot o
derex
sixot xuc
mispar
t&a'esre.

‫ר‬
‫ש‬
‫י‬
‫ח‬
‫ה‬

y
a
S
i
r
(
m

590

BASIC

HEBREW

BASIC COURSE

T
h
a
n
k
y
o
u
.
I
'
l
l
m
a
k
e
t
h
e
c
a
l
l
t
h
r
o
u
g
h
n
u
m
b
e
r
1
9

‫ת‬
‫ו‬

e
m

UNIT £

‫ן‬
‫א‬
‫ת‬
‫ה‬
‫ש‬
‫י‬
‫ח‬
‫ה‬
‫ב‬
‫מ‬
‫ס‬
‫פ‬
‫ר‬
‫ת‬
‫ש‬
‫ע‬
‫ע‬
‫ש‬
‫ר‬
‫ה‬
.

YONA
TAN

t
o
d
a
r
a
b
a
.
a
z
m
i
n
e
t
h
a
s
i
x
a
b

591

UNIT

15

HEBREW

COURSE

LONG DISTANCE sixot xuc.
Long
distance.
Hello.

.‫ שלום‬.‫שיחות חוץ‬

Salom.
P
l
Y
O

t
L
O

m
S
‫ת‬e
‫נ‬

‫ר‬

‫ע‬
‫ש‬
‫מ‬
‫ו‬
‫נ‬
‫ה‬
‫ש‬
‫ל‬
‫ו‬
‫ש‬
.

What is your number?

592

BASIC

BASIC COURSE

One moment.

HEBREW

.‫ הקו תפוס‬.‫חכה רגע‬

The line is
busy.
LONG DISTANCE
xake
rega.
hakav
tafus.

UNIT £

line
occupied

‫קר‬

‫תפוס‬

kav
(m)
tafus
(m.s.
)

593

UNIT

15

HEBREW

BASIC

COURSE

reads
Hello, Haifa
27640?
Tel Aviv
calling. Go
ahead please.

halo - xayfa
‫ חיפה‬,‫הלו‬
Staim
Seva
SeS
arba
e
f
e
s
‫ם‬
‫פ‬
‫א‬
‫ע‬
‫ב‬
‫ר‬
‫א‬
‫ש‬
‫ש‬
koret.
.‫תל אביב קוראת‬
dabru bevakaSa.
.‫דברו בבקשה‬
kore (m.s. pres.)
‫קורא‬

?

?
‫ע‬

19-2 ADDITIONAL VOCABULARY
calls,

A call from a phone booth
costs 20 "grush",
booth
(old name for agora)
Tokens are sold
in every post office.
token
is
sold
he
sold

lehitkaSer im xuc
laarec xayeg
Smone'esre.
‫שיחה מתא טלפון‬
.‫עולה עשרים גרוש‬
‫תא‬
‫גרוש‬
‫אסימונים נמכרים‬
.‫ככל משרד דואר‬
‫אסימון‬
‫נמכר מכר‬

In order to find out what
time it is dial 15•
To call
outside the country dial
18.
sixa mita telefon ola
esrim gruS.
ta (m) in order to
he
found
out
When the phone is out of order dial
16.
xayeg

‫כדי לברר מה‬
‫חייג‬
‫השעה‬
.‫עשרה‬-‫חמש‬
‫כדי ב ירד‬
‫כשהטלפון מקולקל‬
.‫עשרה‬-‫חייג שש‬
‫מקולקל קלקל‬
‫עם‬
‫להתקשר‬
‫לארץ‬
‫חוץ‬
-‫חייג שמונה‬
.‫עשרה‬

out of
order he
damaged
gruS
(ittj)

asimonim nimkarim
bexol misrad doar.
asimon (m)
nimkar (m.s.)
maxar
kedey levarer ma
haSaa
xayeg xameS 1 esre.
kedey
birer
kSehatelefon mekulkal
esre.
mekulkal (m.s.) kilkel

594

‫ם‬
‫ב‬

‫י‬
‫ש‬

‫י‬

‫ח‬
‫ש‬
tei aviv

BASIC COURSE

19.3

HEBREW

UNIT £

Vocabulary Drills

A. Substitution-Agreement Drill
This drill may be done as a substitution drill using either verb as a
cue and also as an expansion drill.
Dial 15 and check the time.
xayeg xameS 1 esre ubdok ma haSaa.
xaygi vebidki
xaygu vebidku
xayegna ubdokna
(Both /u-/ and /ve-/ have been used

‫חייג חמ ש־עשרה ובדוק מה השעה׳‬
. ‫עשרה ובדקי מה השעה‬-‫מש‬,‫־‬, ‫חייגי‬
. ‫עשרה ובדקו מה השעה‬-‫חייגו חמש‬
. ‫עשרה וברוקנה מה השעה‬-‫וד^גדה חמש‬
to illustrate possible variations).

595

BASIC COURSE_________________________________HEBREW ________________________________________UNIT

19

B. Substitution Drill / a - ~ te - /
I'11 dial direct to Rehovot.
axayeg yeSirot lerexovot.
at
hu
hi

.‫אחייג ישירות לרחובות‬

texayeg
texaygi
yexayeg
texayeg
nexayeg
texaycju

‫תחייג‬
‫תחייגי‬
‫יחייג‬
‫תחי יג‬
‫נחי יג‬
‫תחי יגו‬

at
em
at texayegna
en
hem yexaycju
hen texayegna

C. Substitution-Agreement Drill /xiyeg/ "he dialed"
He didn't dial the right number.
hu lo xiyeg et hamispar hanaxon . hi - ani
- at - hu hem - anu - ata - hi atem - hen hu

.‫הוא לא חייג אח המספר הנכון‬

- ‫ אתה‬- ‫ אנו‬- ‫ הוא הם‬- ‫ את‬- ‫ אני‬- ‫היא‬
‫ הוא‬- ‫ הן‬- ‫היא אתם‬

596

‫את‬
‫הוא‬
‫היא‬
‫אתם‬

‫תחי יג נח‬

‫אתן‬

‫יחייגו‬
‫תחי יג נה‬

‫ה ש‬
‫הן‬

HEBREW

BASIC COURSE

UNIT £

D. Substitution-Agreement Drill
The root of this verb is kr'
Miriam is calling us. Hurry.
miryam koret lanu. maharu.
"
k
o
r
e
/

dov - hem - hi - hen moSe
veiSto - hu - miryam

"
c
a
l
l
s
/
and it is conjugated like ‫" מצא י‬find ".
‫ קרא‬, c

.‫ מהרו‬.‫מרים קוראת לנו‬

- ‫ הוא‬- ‫ הן משה ואשתו‬- ‫ היא‬- ‫ הם‬- ‫דוב‬
‫מרים‬

597

E. Substitution-Agreement Drill /birer/

"he found out" We found

out Mrs. Zahavi"s address.
birarnu et haktovet Sei gveret zahavi.
atem - at - hu - hi
hem - ani - moSe - ata
xana - hen - anu

F. Substitution Drill

.‫בררנו את הכתובת של גברת זהבי‬

‫ היא‬- ‫ הוא‬- ‫ את‬- ‫אתם‬
‫ אתה‬- ‫ משה‬- ‫ אני‬- ‫הם‬
‫ אנו‬- ‫ הן‬- ‫חנה‬

/a - ~ te -/

I' 11 find out if the bus goes to Lydda.

tevarer

avarer im haotobus nosea leiud.

.‫אברר אם האוטובוס נוסע ללוד‬

‫תברר‬
tevareri
‫תבררי‬
hu yevarer
hi

‫יברר‬

‫הוא‬

‫תברר‬

‫היא‬

tevarer
nevarer
‫נברר‬

ate
m

tevareru
‫תבררו‬

‫אתם‬

‫תבררנה‬

‫אתן‬

‫יבררו‬

‫הם‬

‫תבררנה‬

‫הן‬

aten tevarerna
he
m

yevareru

he
n

tevarerna

G. Substitution-Agreement Drill
She'll find out if Miriam is going.
hi tevarer im miryam nosaat .
ani - anu - hen - hu ata at - hem - hi

. ‫היא תברר אם מרים נוסעת‬

- ‫ הם‬- ‫ את‬- ‫ הוא אתה‬- ‫ הן‬- ‫ אנו‬- ‫אני‬
‫היא‬

598

HEBREW

BASIC COURSE

UNIT £

H. Substitution-Agreement Drill

‫משה מברר מתי שהמטוס‬
‫ שרה מבררת אנו‬.‫מגיע‬
‫מבררים הך~ מבררות‬

Moshe is checking when the plane arrives.
moSe mevarer matay Sehamatos megia. sara
mevareret anu mevarerim hen mevarerot
GRAMMAR NOTES
19.4 Adverbs

Adverbs or adverbial phrases are of several types.
(a)

The masculine singular form of the adjective is often used,
/at medaberet yafe./ "You speak beautifully •" /tov asita./
"You did well •"
This was discussed earlier in Grammar Note 10.5•

(b)

The /t/ feminine singular of some adjectives ending in / - i / is used.
This is so with the ordinal numbers.
/Senit/ "secondly"
/SliSit/ "thirdly"
Note that the feminine singular form of the adjective "second" is /Snia/. There are some
adverbs of this type which have no corresponding masculine singular form.
/reSit/ "first" (cf. /riSon/)

(c)

The feminine plural adjective is sometimes used,
/xayeg yeSirot./ "Dial directly."

(d)

(e)

Some adverbs have unique forms, though with recognizable roots,
/kodem/ "early, preceding" (cf. /mukdam/) /heytev/
"well"
(/cf. /tov/)

The preposition /be-/ is often used with a corresponding noun.
/bekol/
"loudly"
/beemet/
"really"
/bediyuk/
"exactly"
/beracon/
"willingly"
/behexlet/ "decidely"
/bekarov/ "shortly"

(f)

Other prepositions are sometimes used,
/miyad/ "immediately"

19.5 The nif'al Conjugation - Present and Past Tenses
Compare the following forms.
/moxer/ "sells"

/nimkar/ "is sold"

599

/moce/ "find"
/roe/ "sees"

/nimca/ "is found"
/nir'e/ "is seen, seems"

Note that the meaning of the forms on the right is the passive or
intransitive of the verbs on the left.
Most nif'al verbs have a counterpart in the pa'al with the
corresponding active meaning. A few have active counterparts in the pi'el or
hif'il. The correspondence of form is sometimes remote in the English
translations, but the Hebrew speaker has a definite feeling for the basic
meaning of the root.
1. Prefix of the nif'al:
The present and past tenses of the nif'al have a prefix to the root. The
prefix is / ni - / except in the following cases:
(a) If the first consonant of the root is / x / ( ‫ ) יי‬then the prefix is
/ne-/.
/nex¥av/ "is considered"

‫נחשב‬

b)If the first consonant of the root is / ‫ י‬/ ( ‫ א‬or ‫ ) ע‬then the form begins
/ne'e-/ with the /'/ usually replaced by a smooth transition.
/ne'exal/ or /neexal/ "eaten"

‫נאכל‬

c)If the first consonant is /'/ represented by ‫ ע‬, the form may begin /na'a
or, with smooth transition, /naa-/.
/naase/ "done, made"

‫נעשה‬

d)If the first consonant of the root is /h/ then the form begins /nehe-/.
/nehedar/ "wonderful" ‫נהיר‬

(e) If the f irst consonant of the root is y; ‫׳‬
coalesce to /no-/, spelled _‫ נ_ו‬. compare this with
informed" in Grammar Note 17*7•
/yada/ "he Knew"
‫י׳ל‬
/yalda/
/noda/ "known"
‫נייע‬
/nolda/

then the prefix and the y
the comment on /hodia/ "he
"she gave birth"
"she was born"

‫ילדה‬
‫נולדה‬

2. Alternation of root consonants in the nif'al:'
(a) If the first radical is n , then it is dropped in the present and past
tenses•
/natan/ "he gave"
/nitan/ "was given" for */nintan/
(b)If the first radical is b or £ , then it

occurs as /v/ or /f/, respectively.

/badak/ "he checked"
/nivdak/ "was checked"
/patax/ "he opened"
/niftax/ "was opened"

600

‫ביק‬
‫נכילו‬
‫פתח‬
‫נפתח‬

HEBREW

BASIC COURSE

UNIT £

[Note the designation /nif*al/ itself.]
(c)If the first radical is k, spelled ‫כ‬, then it occurs as /x/. However, the prefix is /ni-/, not
/ne-/ as with /x/ spelled ‫• ח‬
‫נכנס‬
/nixnas/ "he entered"
but /nex^av/ "is considered" ‫נחשב‬
(d)If the second radical is b or £ , then it occurs as /b/ or /p/,
respectively.

/niSbar/ "was broken"
/niSpax/ "was spilled"

‫נשבר‬
‫נשפך‬

(e)If the second radical is k, spelled ‫ כ‬, then it occurs as /k/.
/nimkar/ "is sold"

‫נמכר‬

There is an exception to rules (d) and (e). If the second radical is preceded by /nee/ or
/no/ then the variants /v/, /f/, and /x/ occur.
/neevad/ "lost"
/neefe/ "baked"
/neexal/ "eaten"

‫נאבי‬
‫נאפה‬
‫נאכל‬

There are other relatively minor features of the present and past tense
forms of the nif'al which should be learned by the student as they are met, but
which need not be discussed here. A more complete description of the consonant
alternations is given in Unit 23•
19-6 The Present Tense of the nif'al

The pattern of the present tense is as follows: (The prefix is given as /ni-/ since this is the
most frequent form.)
m.s.
/ni - f.s.
/ni - m.pl. /ni - f.pl. /ni - -

a
e
a
a

-

/ nimkar
et/ nimkeret
im/ nimkarim
ot/ nimkarot

‫נמכר‬
‫נמכרת‬
‫נמכרים‬
‫נמכרות‬

The feminine singular always ends in /-t/, even in lamed hey verbs.
m.s. /nir'e / "seems"
f.s. /nir'et/

‫ראה‬
‫נ‬
‫נראית‬

This is the exception to the f.s. /-a/ endings mentioned in Grammar Note
8.4a and section 16.3, Drill B. It avoids confusion with the 3 m.s. past tense
form /nir'a/ "he seemed".
When the third root consonant is
(V ) or x (‫ ) ח‬the feminine singular
has
the suffix / - at/. Cf. m.s. /Somea/ f.s. /Somaat/ "hears"
m.s. /niSma/ "is heared"
‫נשמע‬
f.s. /ni&maat/
‫נשמעת‬

601

UNIT

15

HEBREW

BASIC

COURSE

) the feminine singular ends in /-et/.
When the third root consonant is (‫א‬
m.s. /nimca/ "is located"
f.s. /nimcet/

‫ אסימונים‬- ‫ גלויה‬- ‫כול‬
‫נמצא‬

‫נמצאת‬

‫ ״‬is eaten" ‫נאכל‬

A. Substitution-Agreement Drill /nimkar/

.‫חלה נאכלת בשבת‬
‫ כשר‬- ‫ עוגות‬- ‫דגים ממולאים‬
‫ חלה‬- ‫ מלפפונים‬- ‫ביצים‬

Tokens are sold in the post office.
asimonim nimkarim badoar .
bulim - gluyot - igrot avir maatafa - bul - gluya
- asimonim

is heard"

B• Substitution-Agreement Drill /neexal/ Chala is

Ml 1

. ‫הוא נשמע טוב כטלפון‬
‫ אתן‬- ‫ אתה‬- ‫ הם‬- ‫אשתי‬
‫ הוא‬- ‫ אתם‬- ‫ שרה‬- ‫יונתן‬

eaten on the Sabbath.
xala neexelet beSabat .
dagim memulaim - ugot - basar beycim melafefonim - xala

"is considered" ‫נחשב‬

C• Substitution-Agreement Drill /niSma/ ‫י‬

‫היא נחשבת למורה טוכה‬.

He is heard well over the phone.

- ‫ שרה ועטרה אשתך‬- ‫ כולם‬- ‫אתה‬
‫ היא‬- ‫ הוא‬- ‫אנו‬

hu niSma tov batelefon .
iSti - hem - ata - aten yonatan - sara - atem hu
,

,

s e e m s

‫״‬

‫נ ר א ה‬

D.Substitution-Agreement Drill /nexSav/ She is
. ‫הם לא נראים טוב היום‬

considered a good teacher.
hi nexSevet lemora tova.
ata - kulam - sara veatara iStexa - anu - hu - hi

E.Substitution-Agreement Drill /nir'e/ They don 1 t
look well today.
hem lo nlr'im tov hayom .
at - s£ra vexana - ata baalex - hi - aten - hem

‫״‬is s

o

l

d

‫״‬

‫ר‬

‫כ‬

‫מ‬

‫נ‬

‫אסימונים נמכרים כרואר‬.
- ‫ אגרות אייר מעטפה‬- ‫ גלויות‬- ‫בולים‬

602

- ‫ אתה בעלך‬- ‫ שרה וחנה‬- ‫את‬
‫ הס‬- ‫ אתן‬- ‫היא‬

BASIC COURSE

HEBREW

UNIT £

Substitution-Agreement Drill /nimca/ "is located" The books are in my house.

hasfarim mmcaim bebeyti.
.‫הספרים נמצאים בביתי‬
haoxel - haSulxanot - haxala - habakbuk
‫ הבקבוק‬- ‫ החלה‬- ‫ השולחנות‬- ‫האוכל‬
hateenim - hakufsa - haxavilot - hasfarim ‫הספרים‬- ‫ החבילות‬- ‫ הקופסה‬- ‫התאנים‬

The following drills require the student to transform a sentence with the verb in the kal
(pa'al) conjugation into a more-or-less eguivalent sentence with the verb in the nif'al
conjugation. The drills should also be done in reverse.
The native English speaker is often stunned when the Hebrew speaker assumes, for example,
that the meaning of
/histadirnu tov./
"we got along wel] "
should be clear from /seder/ "order". The astonishment is increased when he adds, " You know
/yesudar/ ,will be arranged) don't you'" The point is that the Hebrew speaker is primarily aware
of the consonant sequence s-d-r, and the English speaker is not.
English has only a few comparable patterns (sing - sang - sung - song), but each of these is
unigue. (There is the pattern ring-rang-rung, but not rong.) Similarities of spelling tram the
English speaker to be unaware of others, such as democrat - democracy , which do not share a
single vowel in pronunciation in corresponding syllables.
It cannot be emphasized too strongly that the student must learn to handle the roots,
conjugations, and paradigms with great ease. Most students will learn to "encode" the forms
without much trouble, but drilling should be continued until correct forms and sentences are
produced rapidly and automatically.

G. Transformation Drill
Instructor: [They] sell tokens at the post office. Student: Tokens are sold at the post
office.

.‫(מוכרים אגרות אויר כדואר‬g
.‫אגרות אויר נמכרות בדואר‬

1.moxnm asimonim badoar.
asimonim nimkar1m badoar.

.‫(מוכרים מעטפה בדואר‬h
.‫מעטפה נמכרת בדואר‬

2.moxrim gluyot badoar.
gluyot nimkarot badoar.

.‫(מוכרים בול כדואר‬i
.‫כול נמכר בדואר‬

3• moxrim igrot avir badoar.
lgrot avir nimkarot badoar.

.‫(מוכרים גלויה בדואר‬j
.‫גלויה נמכרת בדואר‬

moxrim maatafa badoar. maatafa
nimkeret badoar.

.‫(מוכרים בולים בדואר‬k
.‫בולים נמכרים בדואר‬

5• moxrim bul badoar.
bul nimkar badoar.
6. moxrim gluya badoar.
gluya nimkeret badoar.
7• moxrim bulim badoar.
bulim nimkar1m badoar.

.‫(מוכרים אסימונים בדואר‬e
.‫אסימונים נמכרים כדואר‬
.‫(מוכרים גלויות כדואר‬f
.‫גלויות נמכרות בדואר‬

603

UNIT

15

HEBREW

BASIC

COURSE

H.Transformation

Drill

Instructor: We eat chala on the Sabbath.
Student: chala is eaten on the Sabbath.
I.anu oxiim xaia beSabat.
xala neexelet beSabat.
2.

.1. ‫אנו אוכלים חלה בשבת‬
.‫חלה נאכלת בשבח‬

anu oxiim basar beSabat.
basar neexal beSabat.

3• anu oxiim dagim memuiaim beSabat.
beXabat. .‫נאכלים בשבת‬

. 2.

‫אנו אוכלים בישר בשיבת‬

.‫בשר נאכל בשבת‬

.3. ‫ אנו אוכלים דגים ממולאים בשבת‬dagim memuiaim neexalim

‫דגים ממולאים‬

4. anu oxiim ugot beSabat.
ugot neexalot beSabat.

.4. ‫אנו אוכלים עוגות בשבת‬
.‫עוגות נאכלות בשבת‬

5• anu oxiim perot beSabat.
perot neexalim beSabat.

.5. ‫אנו אוכלים פירות בשבת‬
.‫פירות נאכלים בשבת‬

6. anu oxiim beycim be&abat.
beycim neexalot beSabat.

.6. ‫אנו אוכלים ביצים כשבת‬
.‫ביצים נאכלות בשבת‬

19-7 The Past Tense of the nif'al
1.s. /ni—a-ti/ niSlaxti
2.m.s. /ni—a-ta/ niSlaxta
f.s. /ni—a-t / niSlaxt
m.s. /ni--a- / ni&lax
f.s,. /ni
a / niSlexa

The pattern of the past tense is as follows: Six
"I was sent"
"you were sent" 2.
"you were sent" 3•
"he was sent" 3•
"she was sent"

1 . pi. /ni—a-nu/
2 . m.pl./ni—a-tem/

niSlaxnu'
ni^laxtem
f.pl./ni—a-ten/ niSlaxten
3•pi. /ni
u/
ni&lexu

"we were sent"
"you were sent" 2.
"you
were
sent"
"they were sent.

There are no surprises at all in the above chart. The first and second person forms differ
only in the suffixes, as described back in Grammar Note 5*4. The pattern of the third person
forms is quite regular, as described in Grammar Note C.9 and 16.4. The / - e - / in 3 f.s. and
3 Pi• /niSlexa , niSlexu/ is introduced to break up the three-consonant cluster which results
in these forms.
The past tense of lamed hey verbs has the vowel / e / before the suffix.
/nir'eti/ "I was seen"

A. Substitution-Agreement Drill /niSlax/

"was sent" ‫ נשלח‬I was sent to the grocery store.

niSiaxti lexanut hamakoiet.
hem - moSe - dalya - anu
ata - at - atara - ani

.‫נשלחתי לחנות המכולת‬

‫ אנו‬- ‫ דליה‬- ‫ משה‬- ‫הם‬
‫ אני‬- ‫ עטרה‬- ‫ את‬- ‫אתה‬

B. Substitution-Agreement Drill /nifgaS/ "met" ‫ נפגש‬We got together with
Dov this morning.
. ‫הנוקר‬

nifgaSnu im dov haboker.
ani - aviva - baali - hen

‫ רוב‬cy

‫נפגשנו‬

‫ הן‬- ‫ כעלי‬- ‫ אביבה‬- ‫אני‬

604

HEBREW

BASIC COURSE

UNIT £

‫ אנו‬- ‫ הם‬- ‫ אתם‬- ‫אתה‬

ata - atem - hem - anu

C. Substitution-Agreement Drill /nigaS/ "approached" ‫ניגש‬
(This verb is irregular in that in the present and past tenses it is conjugated in the nif'al , but in
the imperative and future it is conjugated in the pa'al . The future was drilled in Grammar
Section 13.6, Drills G & H.)
I went to the main post office.
n i g a S t i
‫ה מ ר כ ז י‬

l a d o a r

h a m e r k a z i .

hi - dov - atem - anu
at - david veyonatan -ani

.

‫לרואר‬

‫נ ג ל י ת י‬

‫ אנו‬- ‫ אתם‬- ‫ דוב‬- ‫היא‬
‫ אני‬- ‫ ווו ויונחן‬- ‫את‬

The following drills should be done in reverse, also. D. Transformation Drill /niSlax/ "was sent" ‫נ‬
‫לח‬1
Instructor: They sent me to the store. Student: I was sent to the store.

605

UNIT

15

HEBREW

BASIC

COURSE

Salx
u
Salx
u
Salx
u

oti laxanut.

.‫לחנות‬

niSlaxti laxanut.
otxa laxanut.

.‫נשלחתי לחנות‬

niSlaxta laxanut.

.‫נשלחת לחנות‬

.‫לחנות‬

et moSe laxanut.

otanu laxanut.

otxem laxanut.

.‫לחנות‬

.‫ה לחנות‬:

lea niSlexa laxanut.
otax laxanut.

Salx
u

otan laxanut.

Salx
u

otam laxanut.

Salx
u

otxen laxanut.

Salx
u

oti laxanut.

‫שלח‬
‫ו‬
‫או‬
‫זנו‬
‫שלח‬
‫ו‬
‫אי־‬
‫יכם‬

‫שלח‬
‫ו‬

.‫נשלחתם לחנות‬

et lea laxanut.

Salx
u

‫שלח‬
‫ו‬
‫שלח‬
‫ו‬

.‫נשלחנו להבות‬

niSlaxtem laxanut.
Salx
u

‫אות‬
‫ך‬

.‫משה נשלח לחנות‬

.‫י לחנות‬

niSlaxnu laxanut.
Salx
u

‫שלח‬
‫ו‬

.‫את מ״ה לחנות‬

moSe niSlax laxanut.
Salx
u

‫אות‬
‫י‬

.‫לאה בשלחה לחנות‬

.‫לחנות‬

niSlaxt laxanut.

.‫בשלחת ■לחכות‬

.‫לחנות‬

hen niSlexu laxanut.

.‫ה ן בשלחו לחנות‬

.‫לחנות‬

hem niSlexu laxanut.

.‫הם בשלחו לחבות‬

.‫לחנות‬

niSlaxten laxanut.

.‫נשלחתן לחנות‬

.‫לחנות‬

niSlaxti laxanut.

‫את‬
‫׳‬,‫ל‬

.‫כשלחתי לחבות‬

‫אות‬
‫ר‬
‫או‬
‫תן‬
‫אות‬
‫ם‬
‫אתכ‬
‫ן‬
‫אות‬
‫י‬

:
‫׳לח‬
‫ו‬
‫שלח‬
‫ו‬
‫שלה‬
‫ו‬
‫שלח‬
‫ו‬
‫שלח‬
‫ו‬

E. Transformation Drill /nifgaS/ "met"‫ נפגש‬Instructors I met Yael the day
before yesterday.
Student: I got together with Yael the

day before yesterday.

pagaSti et yaei SiiSom.
.‫פגשתי את יעל שלשום‬
nifga&ti im yael SilSom.
.‫נפגשתי עם יעל שלשום‬
i§ti pagSa et yaei SiiSom.
.‫אשתי פגשה את יעל שלשום‬
i S t i n i f g e S a i m y a e l S i l S o m . .‫אשתי נפגשה עם יעל שלשום‬
hu pagaS et yaei SiiSom.
.‫הוא פגש את יעל שלשום‬

606

HEBREW

BASIC COURSE

UNIT £

hu nifgaS im yael SilSom.
.‫הוא נפגש עם יעל שלשום‬
pagaSta et yaei S
i
i
S
o
m
.
.
‫ל‬
‫ע‬
‫י‬
‫ת‬
‫א‬
‫ת‬
‫ש‬
‫ג‬
‫פ‬
‫ם‬
‫ו‬
‫ל ש‬
‫ש‬
nifgaSta im yael SilSom.
.‫נפגשת עם יעל שלשום‬
atem pagaStem et yaei SiiSom.
.‫אתם פגשתם את יעל שלשום‬
a t e m n i f g a S t e m i m y a e l S i l S o m . .‫אתם נפגשתם עם יעל שלשום‬

pagaSnu et yaei^SiiSom.

nifgaSnu im yael SilSom.
pagaSt e t y a e i S i i S o m .
‫ם‬
‫ו‬
‫ל ש‬
‫ש‬

.‫פגשנו את יעל שלשום‬

.

‫ל‬

‫ע‬

‫י‬

‫ת‬

mi nifgaS im yael S i l & o m .
p a g S u
e t
y a e i
S u S o m . . ‫ש ל ש ו ם‬
hem nifge&u im yael Sil&om.
pagaSten et yaei S
i
i
S
o
m
.
.
‫ם‬
‫ו‬
‫ש‬
‫ל‬
‫ש‬
‫״‬
‫ל‬
‫ע‬
‫י‬
‫ ׳‬nifgaSten im yael SilSom.
pagaSti e t y a e i ^ i i S o m .
n i f g a S t i i m y a e l SilSom.

.‫נפגשנו עם יעל שלשום‬
‫ת‬

‫ש‬

‫ג‬

‫פ‬

. ‫נפגשת עם יעל שלשום‬
?‫מי פגש את יעל שלשום‬

nifgaSt im yael SilSom.
mi pagaS et yaei SiiSom.
h e m

‫א‬

‫י ע ל‬
‫ת‬

‫א‬

?‫מי נפגש עם יעל שלשום‬
‫א ת‬

‫פ ג ש ו‬

‫ה ם‬

.‫הם נפגשו עם יעל שלשום‬
‫ן‬

‫ת‬

‫ש‬

‫ג‬

‫פ‬

.‫נפגשתן עם יעל שלשום‬

.‫פגשתי את יעל שלשום‬

.‫נפגשתי עם יעל שלשום‬

F. Transformation Drill /niSma/ "was heard" ‫נשמע‬
Instructor: We heard well over the
phone. Student: We were heard well over
the phone.

Samanu tov batelefon.
niSmanu tov batelefon.
Samatem tov batelefon.
niSmatem tov batelefon.
Samati tov batelefon.
ni&mati tov batelefon. moXe
Sama tov batelefon.
moSe niSma tov batelefon. hem
Sam'u tov batelefon.
hem niSme'u tov batelefon.
Samat tov batelefon.
niSmat
tov
batelefon.
iStexa Sam 1 a tov batelefon.
iStexa niSme'a tov batelefon.
Samaten tov batelefon.
niSmaten tov batelefon.
Samata tov batelefon.
ni&mata tov batelefon.
.‫שמענו טוב בטלפון‬

.‫נשמענו טוב בטלפון‬

.‫שמעתם טוב כטלפון‬

.‫נשמעתם טוב בטלפון‬

.‫שמעתי טוב בטלפון‬

.‫נשמעתי טוב בטלפון‬

.‫משה שמע טוב כטלפון‬

.‫משה נשמע טוב בטלפון‬

.‫הם שמעו טוב בטלפון‬

.‫הם נשמעו טוב בטלפון‬

.‫שמעת טוב בטלפון‬

.‫נשמעת טוב בטלפון‬

.‫אשתך שמעה טוב בטלפון‬

‫אשתך נשמעה טוב בטלפון‬

.‫שמעתן טוב בטלפון‬

607

.‫נשמעתן טוב בטלפון‬

.‫שמעת טוב כטלפון‬

.‫נשמעת טוב בטלפון‬

UNIT

15

HEBREW

BASIC

COURSE

G. Transformation Drill /nir'a/ "was seen"
Instructor: He saw me in the Dan Hotel.
Student: I was seen in the Dan Hotel.
hu raa oti bemalon dan.
nir'eti bemalon dan.
hu raa otxd bemalon dan.
nir"eta bemalon dan.
hu raa otanu bemalon dan.
nir'enu bemalon dan.
hu raa otax bemalon dan.
nir'et bemalon dan.
hu raa et moSe bemalon dan.
moSe nir'a bemalon dan.
hu raa otan bemalon dan.
hen nir'u bemalon dan.
hu raa et sara bemalon dan.
sara nir'ata bemalon dan.
hu raa otxem bemalon dan.
nir'etem bemalon dan.
hu raa otxen bejnalon dan.
nir'eten bemalon dan.
hu raa otam bemalon dan.
hem nir'u bemalon dan.

‫נראה‬

.‫הוא ראה אותי כמלרך דך‬
.‫נראיתי במלון דן‬
.‫הוא ראה אותר במלון דך‬
.‫נראית במלון רן‬
.‫הוא ראה אותנו במלון דן‬
.‫נראינו במלון דן‬
.‫הוא ראה אותר במלו ך דן‬
.‫נר א י ת במלון רן‬
.‫הוא ראה את משה במלו ך דך‬
.‫משה נראה כמלון דן‬
.‫הוא ראה אותך במלוך רך‬
.‫הן נראו במלון דן‬
.‫הוא ראה את שרה במלו ך רך‬
,‫שרה נראתה כמלון דן‬
.‫הוא ראה אתכם במלו ך רך‬
.‫נראיתם במלון דן‬
.‫הוא ראה אתכך במלו ך רך‬
.‫נראיתן במלון דן‬

608

.‫הוא ראה אותם במלו ך דך‬
.‫הם נראו במלון דן‬

BASIC COURSE

HEBREW

UNIT £

H. Transformation Drill /nivdak/ "was checked" ‫ניבדלן‬
Instructor: The doctor examined us. Student:
We were examined by the doctor.
harofe badak otanu.
.‫הרופא בדק אותנו‬
nivdaknu al yedey harofe.
.‫נבדקנו על ידי הרופא‬
harofe badak et baalex.
.‫הרופא בדלן את ב׳ללר‬
‫ י‬baalex nivdak al yedey h
a
r
o
f
e
.
‫ך‬
‫ל‬
‫ע‬
‫ב‬
‫א‬
‫פ‬
‫י‬
‫ר‬
‫ה‬
‫י‬
‫ד‬
‫י‬
‫ל‬
‫ע‬
‫ק‬
^
‫ו‬
‫כ‬
‫נ‬
harofe badak otxem.
.‫הרופא ברק אתכם‬
nivdaktem al yedey harofe.
.‫נבדקת□ על ידי הרופא‬
harofe badak oti.
.‫הרופא בדק אותי‬
nivdakti al yedey harofe.
.‫נבדקתי על ידי הרופא‬
harofe badak otax.
.‫הרופא בילו איתר‬
nivdakt al yedey harofe.
.‫נבדקת על ידי הרופא‬
harofe badak otxa.
.‫הרופא בדק אותר‬
nivdakta al yedey harofe.
.‫נבדקת על ידי חרו=א‬
harofe badak et kulam.
.‫א בדק את כולם‬5 ‫־ו‬
1‫ה‬
kulam nivdeku al yedey harofe..‫ כולם נבדקו על ידי הרופא‬harofe badak et
isto.
.‫הרופא בדק את אישתו‬
iSto nivdeka al yedey 1
^
0
*
6
.
‫ו‬
‫ת‬
‫ש‬
‫א‬
‫א‬
‫פ‬
‫ו‬
‫ר‬
‫ה‬
‫י‬
‫ד‬
‫י‬
‫ל‬
‫ע‬
‫ה‬
‫ק‬
‫ד‬
‫ב‬
‫נ‬
harofe badak otxen.
.‫הרופא בדק אתכן‬
nivdakten al yedey harofe.
.‫נבדקתן על ירי הרופא‬
harofe badak otan.
.‫הרופא בדק אותו‬
hen nivdeku al yedey h
a
r
o
f
e
.
.
‫ן‬
‫ה‬
‫א‬
‫פ‬
‫ו‬
‫ר‬
‫ה‬
‫י‬
‫ד‬
‫י‬
‫ל‬
‫ע‬
‫ו‬
‫ק‬
‫ד‬
‫ב‬
‫נ‬

609

UNIT

15

HEBREW

BASIC

COURSE

I. Transformation Drill /nisgar/ "was closed" ‫נסגר‬
Instructors They locked me in the office.
Student: I was locked in the office.

.‫אותי במשרד‬
.‫נסגרתי כמשרד‬
.‫אותך ואת דוב במשרד‬
dov veata nisgartem bamisrad. sagru et baala Sel
.‫במשרד‬
□‫דוב דאתה נסגרת‬
xana bamisrad.
.‫את ביללה של חנה במשרד‬
baala Sel xana nisgar bamisrad. sagru otanu
.‫ישרד‬:‫בעלה של חנה נסגר ב‬
bamisrad.
.‫אותנו במשרד‬
nisgarnu bamisrad. sagru otax bamisrad.
.‫נסגרנו במשרד‬
nisgart bamisrad. sagru otxen bamisrad.
.‫אותר במשרד‬
nisgarten bamisrad. sagru et moSe veet david
.‫נסגרת במשרד‬
bamisrad.
.‫אתכן במשדר‬
moSe vedavid nisgeru bamisrad. sagru ota
.‫נסגרתן במשרד‬
bamisrad.
.‫במשרד‬
‫דור‬
‫את כלשה ואת‬
hi nisgera bamisrad. sagru oto bamisrad.
.‫משה ודוד נסגרו במשרד‬
hu nisgar bamisrad.
.‫אותה בששדד‬
.‫היא נסגרה במשרד‬
.‫אותו במשרד‬
.‫הוא נסגר במשרד‬
J. Transformation Drill /nexSav/ "was considered"

sagru oti bamisrad.

nisgarti bamisrad. sagru otxa veet dov bamisrad.

‫סגרו‬
‫סגרו‬
‫סגרו‬
‫סגרו‬
‫סגרו‬
‫סגרו‬
‫סגרו‬
‫סגרו‬
‫סגרו‬

‫נחשב‬

Instructors They considered you a good teacher.
Students You were considered a good teacher.

xaSvu otxa lemore tov.
nexSavta lemore tov.
xaSvu otax lemora tova.
nexSavt lemora tova.
xaSvu otam lemorim tovim.
hem nexSevu lemorim tovim.
xaSvu otxen lemorot tovot.
nexSavten lemorot tovot.
xaSvu otxem lemorim tovim.
nexSavtem lemorim tovim.
xaSvu ot^nu lemorim tovim.
nexSavnu lemorim tovim.
xaSvu oto lemore tov.
hu nexSav lemore tov.
xaSSvu et i§ti lemora tova.
iSti nexSeva lemora tova. xaSvu et
sara veet raxel lemorot tovot.
sara veraxel nexSevu lemorot tovot.
xaSvu oti lemore tov.
nexSavti lemore tov.

610

.‫חשבו אותר למורה טוב‬
.‫נחשבת למורה טוב‬
.‫חשבו אותר למורה טובה‬
.‫נחשבת למורה טובה‬
.‫חשבו אותם למורים טובים‬
.‫הם נחשבו למורים טובים‬
.‫חשבו אתכן למורות טובות‬
‫ חשבו‬.‫נחשבתן למורות טובות‬
.‫אתכם למורים טובים‬
.‫נחשבתם למורים טובים‬
.‫חשבו אותנו למורים טובים‬
.‫נחשבנו למורים טונים‬
.‫חשבו אותו למורה טוב‬
.‫הוא נחשב למורה טוב‬
.‫חשבו את אשתי למורה טובה‬
.‫אשתי נחשבה למורה טובה‬
‫חשבו את שרה ואת רחל למורות‬
.‫טובות‬
.‫שרה ורחל נחשבו למורות טובות‬
.‫חשבו אותי למורה טוב‬
.‫נחשבתי למורה טוב‬

RAfiIC COURSE

HEBRE
W

R
E
V
I
E
W

C
O
N
V
E
R
S
A
T
I
O
N
S

‫ את‬:‫א‬
‫יודעת את‬
‫מספר‬
‫הטלפון של‬
A: ? ?‫דוד‬
at yodaat et
mispar
hatelefon
Sei david

‫ קח‬.‫ לא‬:‫ב‬
‫אסימון‬

611

UNIT

19

UNIT

15

HEBREW

COURSE

‫והתקשר עם‬
. .‫מודיעין‬
B:
10•

K AX

ASIMON
VEHITKASER IM
MODIIN

‫ אין‬:‫א‬
‫כאן ספי‬
?‫טלפונים‬
A: ?
eyn kan
sefer
telefonim

‫ אני לא‬:‫ב‬
‫רואה ספר‬
.‫טלפונים‬
B: .
ani 10 roa
sefer
te1ef6nim

C:

x
o

ma
haS
aa.

D:
ani

S
e
v
e
t

612

BASIC

SeS

r

eS.

i

C:

i

xay
egi
xam
eS'
esr
e
veb
idk
i.
D:

m
S
e
S
'
e
s
r
e
.

E;

ama
rti
lax
Seh
aSa
a
SeS
.

E:

h
i
t
k
a
S
a
r
t

hat

i

ele

a

fon

v

mek

a

ulk

l

al.

h

F:

a
k

hit
kaS

a
v

613

UNIT

15

HEBREW

COURSE

taf
us.

F:

e
f
S
a

xay

r

gi

l

od

e

hap

h

aam

i

.

t

G;

k
a

hiz

S

man

e

ti

r

six

y

a

e

lex

S

eyf

i

a.

r

Hs
lam
a
lo
hit
ka&
art
a
ye&
iro
t?

Gs

o
t
l
e
x
e
y
f
a
?

H
:

614

BASIC

e
ken

y

,

m

beh

o
S

exl

e

et.

l

I:

k

lea
n

i
n
o
t

ata

x

hol

a

ex?

l
a

J:

v

niS

.

lax

K

ti

:

lex
anu
t

m
a

ham
ako
let
.
I:
mi

a
s
i
t
a

Sal
ax
otx
a?

JS

h
a
b

niS

o

lax

k

ti
al
yed

e
r

615

UNIT

15

HEBREW

COURSE

?

n
i

L

f

:

g
a

n

S

i

t

f

a

g
a

i

S

t

t

o

i

?

i

L

m

:

d

n

a

i

v

f

i

g

d

a

.

S
t

K

i

:
i
e

t

y

o

f
o

b
e

616

BASIC

k

t

a

e

f

v

e

.

N
a

:

t

i

a

m

r

m

a

i

.

d

M:

hit
kaS
arn
u
etm
ol
im
xay
fa.

N:
eyx
hem
niS
meu
?
M:

Sam
anu
ota
m
hey

i
b
a
r
t
e
m
?
M
:

d
i
b
a
r
n
u
i
m
k
o
l

617

‫‪BASIC‬‬

‫‪15‬‬

‫‪HEBREW‬‬

‫‪UNIT‬‬

‫‪COURSE‬‬

‫ר‬
‫ת‬
‫י‬
‫ל‬
‫ך‬
‫ש‬
‫ה‬
‫ש‬
‫ע‬
‫ה‬
‫ש‬
‫ש‬
‫‪.‬‬
‫ה‬
‫‪:‬‬
‫ה‬
‫ט‬
‫ל‬
‫פ‬
‫ו‬
‫ן‬
‫מ‬
‫ק‬
‫ו‬
‫ל‬
‫ק‬
‫ל‬
‫‪.‬‬
‫ו‬
‫‪:‬‬

‫‪ham‬‬
‫‪iSp‬‬
‫‪axa‬‬
‫‪.‬‬

‫‪:1‬‬
‫מה‬
‫הש‬
‫עה‬
‫?‬
‫ד‪:‬‬
‫אנ‬
‫י‬
‫חו‬
‫שב‬
‫ת‬
‫שש‬
‫ש‪.‬‬
‫ג‪:‬‬
‫חי‬
‫יג‬
‫י‬
‫חמ‬
‫ש‪-‬‬
‫עש‬
‫רה‬
‫וב‬
‫רק‬
‫י‪.‬‬
‫ד‪:‬‬
‫אמ‬

‫‪618‬‬

‫ה‬
‫ז‬
‫מ‬
‫נ‬
‫ת‬
‫י‬
‫ש‬
‫י‬
‫ח‬
‫ה‬
‫ל‬
‫ח‬
‫י‬
‫פ‬
‫ה‬
‫‪.‬‬
‫ח‬
‫‪:‬‬
‫ל‬
‫נ‬
‫ד‬
‫ז‬
‫ל‬
‫א‬
‫ה‬
‫ת‬
‫ק‬
‫ש‬
‫ר‬
‫ת‬
‫י‬
‫ש‬
‫י‬
‫‪619‬‬

‫הת‬
‫קש‬
‫רי‬
‫עם‬
‫שש‬
‫‬‫עש‬
‫רה‬
‫‪.‬‬
‫ה‪:‬‬
‫הת‬
‫קש‬
‫רת‬
‫י‬
‫אב‬
‫ל‬
‫הק‬
‫ו‬
‫תפ‬
‫וס‬
‫‪.‬‬
‫ו‪:‬‬
‫חי‬
‫יג‬
‫י‬
‫עו‬
‫ד‬
‫הפ‬
‫עם‬
‫‪.‬‬
‫ז‪:‬‬

‫‪BASIC‬‬

‫‪15‬‬

‫‪HEBREW‬‬

‫‪UNIT‬‬

‫‪COURSE‬‬

‫ל‬
‫ח‬
‫נ‬
‫ו‬
‫ת‬
‫ה‬
‫מ‬
‫כ‬
‫ו‬
‫ל‬
‫ת‬
‫‪.‬‬
‫ט‬
‫‪:‬‬
‫מ‬
‫י‬
‫ש‬
‫ל‬
‫ח‬
‫א‬
‫ו‬
‫ת‬
‫ך‬
‫?‬
‫י‬
‫‪:‬‬
‫נ‬
‫ש‬
‫ל‬
‫ח‬
‫ת‬
‫י‬
‫ע‬
‫ל‬
‫י‬

‫‪620‬‬

‫רו‬
‫ת‪.‬‬
‫ז‪:‬‬
‫אפ‬
‫שר‬
‫לה‬
‫תק‬
‫שר‬
‫יש‬
‫יר‬
‫ות‬
‫לח‬
‫יפ‬
‫ה?‬
‫ח‪:‬‬
‫כן‬
‫‪.‬‬
‫בה‬
‫חל‬
‫ט‪.‬‬
‫ם‪:‬‬
‫לא‬
‫ן‬
‫את‬
‫ה‬
‫הו‬
‫לך‬
‫?‬
‫י‪:‬‬
‫נש‬
‫לח‬
‫תי‬

‫די‬
‫מש‬
‫ה‬
‫לק‬
‫נו‬
‫ת‬
‫חל‬
‫ב‪.‬‬

‫ה‬
‫ם‬
‫נ‬
‫ש‬
‫מ‬
‫ע‬
‫ו‬
‫מה‬
‫כ‪:‬‬
‫?‬
‫עשית‬
‫מ‬
‫הבוקר?‬
‫‪:‬‬
‫ש‬
‫נפגשתי‬
‫מ‬
‫עם דוד‪.‬‬
‫ע‬
‫כ‪ :‬איפה‬
‫נ‬
‫נפגשת‬
‫ו‬
‫אתו? ל‪:‬‬
‫א‬
‫נפגשתי‬
‫ו‬
‫ת‬
‫בקפה‬
‫ם‬
‫עטרה‪.‬‬
‫ה‬
‫מ‪:‬‬
‫י‬
‫הת‬
‫ט‬
‫קש‬
‫ב‬
‫רנ‬
‫‪.‬‬
‫ו‬
‫נ‬
‫את‬
‫‪:‬‬
‫מו‬
‫ע‬
‫ל‬
‫ם‬
‫עם‬
‫מ‬
‫חי‬
‫י‬
‫פה‬
‫ד‬
‫‪.‬‬
‫ב‬
‫נ‪:‬‬
‫ר‬
‫איר‬
‫ת‬
‫‪621‬‬

UNIT

15

HEBREW

COURSE

?‫ם‬
:‫מ‬
‫דב‬
‫רנ‬
‫ו‬
‫עם‬
‫כל‬
‫המ‬
‫שפ‬
‫חה‬
.

622

BASIC

.
O:
nod
a
lan
u
Sea
t
nim
cet
bet
el
avi
v.
Ps

mea
in
nod
a
lax
em?
O:

a
n
i
g
a
r
a
S
a
m
.
Qs
ey
fo
ha
it
a
et
mo
l
ba
la

nir

yl

'et

a.

bem

R:

alo
n
dan
.
P:

ni
sg
ar
ti
ba

ken

mi

623

‫‪BASIC‬‬

‫‪15‬‬

‫‪HEBREW‬‬

‫‪UNIT‬‬

‫‪COURSE‬‬

‫ד‬

‫‪sra‬‬

‫ן‬

‫‪d.‬‬

‫‪.‬‬

‫‪Q:‬‬

‫ע‬
‫‪:‬‬

‫‪eyx‬‬
‫‪ze‬‬

‫כ‬
‫ן‬

‫‪kar‬‬
‫?‪a‬‬

‫‪.‬‬
‫א‬

‫ם‪:‬‬

‫נ‬

‫נ ר‬

‫י‬

‫דע‬

‫ג‬

‫לנו‬

‫ר‬

‫שאת‬

‫ה‬

‫נמצ‬

‫ש‬

‫את‬

‫ם‬

‫ברז‬

‫‪.‬‬

‫ל‬

‫פ‬

‫אבי‬

‫‪:‬‬

‫ב‪.‬‬

‫א‬

‫ע‪:‬‬

‫י‬
‫פ‬
‫ה‬
‫ה‬
‫י‬
‫י‬
‫ת‬

‫מאי‬
‫ן‬
‫נרר‬
‫ע‬
‫לכם‬
‫?‬
‫ס‪:‬‬

‫א‬

‫‪624‬‬

‫ת‬

‫נרא‬

‫מ‬

‫ית‬

‫ר‬

‫נמל‬

‫ל‬

‫רן‬

‫אי‬

‫בלי‬

‫ר‬

‫לה?‬

‫ז‬

‫צ‪:‬‬

‫ה‬

‫נסג‬

‫ק‬

‫רתי‬

‫ר‬

‫במש‬

‫ה‬

‫רד‪.‬‬

‫?‬

‫פ‪:‬‬

‫‪hade let‬‬
‫‪nisgera velo‬‬
‫‪yaxoiti nftoax‬‬
‫‪o‬‬
‫‪t‬‬
‫‪a‬‬
‫‪.‬‬
‫‪:‬‬
‫צ‬
‫ד‬
‫ה‬
‫ת‬
‫ל‬
‫ס‬
‫נ‬
‫ר‬
‫ג‬
‫ה‬
‫ל‬
‫ו‬
‫א‬
‫כ‬
‫י‬
‫ל‬
‫ו‬
‫י‬
‫ת‬
‫פ‬
‫ל‬
‫ו‬
‫ת‬
‫ח‬
‫ו‬
‫א‬
‫ה‬
‫ת‬
‫‪T‬‬
‫‪S‬‬
‫‪T‬‬
‫‪S‬‬

‫‪S:‬‬

‫‪nexSa‬‬
‫ק‬
‫ר‬
‫ק‬
‫ר‬
‫ק‬

‫‪625‬‬

‫‪R:‬‬

‫‪vti‬‬
‫‪lemor‬‬
‫‪e‬‬
‫‪tov.‬‬

HEBREW

BASIC COURSE

UNIT £

20.1 Hot weather
W
h
a
t
a
h
o
t
d
a
y
I

A
xom (m)

hea
t

hitraxe
c
YONATAN

‫התרחץ‬

ze
raayon
mecuyan

‫זה‬
‫רעיון‬
.‫מצוין‬

lisxo
t
saxa

to
swim
he
swam

‫איזה‬
! ‫חום‬

‫זה‬
‫לבטח‬
‫חמסין‬
.

‫בטח‬
‫לבט‬
‫ח‬
‫חממ‬
‫י ן‬

betax
lavetax
xamsin
(m)

Y
e
s
.
I
t
'
s
f
o
r
s
u
r
e
a
c
h
a
m
s
i
n
.

‫חום‬

‫לשחו‬
‫ת‬
‫שחה‬

D
sure for sure
desert heat wave

DAVID
bo nelex
lehitrax
ec
bayam.

Come let" s
go
bathing
in the ocean.
he bathed

T
h

idea
excellent

r
a
m
e

D
o
D
A

626

‫בוא‬
‫נלך‬
‫להתרחץ‬
.‫בים‬

BASIC
COURSE

HEBREW

UNIT

£
xy
an
(m
)
sa
xy
an
it
(f
)

Y
e
Y
O
N
A
T
A
N
W
h
a
t

ur
op
in
io
n
we
wi
ll
go
(b
y
ve
hi
cl
e)

d
o
y
o
u
t
h
i
n
k
Fine.
T
h
e

a
b
o
u
t

b
e
a
c
h

g
o
i
n
g

t
h
e
r
e

t
o
H
e
r
z
l
i
y
a
h
?

i
s
v
e
r
y
p
i
n
i
o
n
y
o

o

n
i
c
e
.

.‫כן‬
.‫קצת‬
?‫ואתה‬

‫שחי י ן‬
‫שחי י נ‬
‫י ת‬

swimme
r
swimme
r

beac
h,
shor
e,

627

‫ אני‬.‫ן‬:
‫שחיין‬
.‫טוב‬

HEBREW

BASIC COURSE

YONATA
N
ma daatxa
Menisa
leherceli
ya?

c
o
a
s
t
b
e
a
c
h
e
s
,
s
h
o
r
e
s
,
e
t
c
.

UNIT £

atxa
nisa
DAV
ID
b
e
r
a
c
o
n
.
h
a
x
o
f
S
a
m
y
a
f
e

d
e
a
(
f
)
d
a

m
e
o
d
.

xof
(m)
xupi
m
(m.p
l)

‫דעה‬

‫דעת‬
‫ך‬
‫ניס‬
‫ע‬

‫חוף‬
‫חופי‬
‫ם‬

628

‫מה‬
‫דעתך‬
‫שניסע‬
‫להרצלי‬
?‫ה‬

.‫כרצון‬
‫החוף שם‬
‫יפה‬
.‫מאוד‬

BASIC

20.2

COURSE

weather

cold

i
s
RUT
H
k
YOS

v
a
r

‫קר‬
.‫היום‬

h
i
g
i
a winte
.r
xoref (m)

.‫כן‬
‫החורף‬
‫כבר‬
.‫הגיע‬

‫חירף‬

RUT
H

EF
k
e
D
o
e
s

‫יר‬
‫ד‬
‫של‬
1

i
m
y
o
r
e
d

s
n
o
w

k
a
n

f
a
l
l
h
e
r
e
?

At times.
When
it's
very
cold.

UNIT

£

I
t

h
a

HEBREW

descend
ed snow

S
e
l
e
g
?
yar
ad

Sele
g

(m)

Y
O
S
E
time times F

at times

629

‫האש‬
‫יורד‬
‫כאן‬
?‫שלג‬

UNIT

15

HEBREW

BASIC

COURSE

l
e
i
t
i
m
.
k
S
e
k

a
r

I

t
i
f
u
l

l
i
k
e
s
n
o
w
v
e
r
y
m
u
c
h
.

he
liked,
loved

Yes.
I
t
"
s
a
b
e
a
u

m
e
o
d
.

et (f)

itim

leitim

s
i
g
h
t
.

sight,
vision
lovely,
nice

‫עח‬
‫עתי‬
‫ם‬
‫לעת‬
‫ים‬

H
a
v
e
y
o
u
e
v
e
r
s
e
e
n
s
n

630

.‫לעתים‬
‫כשקר‬
.‫מאוד‬

BASIC

o
w
?

COURSE

RU
TH

ani
meo
d
ohe
vet
Sel
eg.
ahav
YO
SE
F
ken.

ze
mar 1
e
nex
mad
.
mar' e
nexmad

R
U
T
H

HEBREW

UNIT

£

h
a
i
m
r
a
i
t
a
S
e
l
e
g
?
Y
O
S
E
F

3D
K

‫מרא‬
‫ה‬
‫נחמ‬
‫ד‬

‫אני‬
‫מאוד‬
‫אוהבת‬
.‫׳שלג‬
.‫כן‬
‫זה‬
‫מראה‬
‫נחמד‬
.
‫האם‬
‫ראית‬
?‫שלג‬

631

UNIT

15

HEBREW

BASIC

COURSE

Sure. Once.
In Jerusalem.

betax. paam
axat.
beyeruSalai
m.

20.3
ADDITIONAL

VOCABULARY

The

sun

is

‫רוח‬
‫נשב‬
‫ה‬

shining.
sun
it shined
The wind is blowing.
wind (it)
blew
haSemeg zoraxat.
SemeS (f)
zarax
haruax noSevet.

‫שמש‬
‫זרח‬

ruax (f)
naSva(3f<s•)

632

.‫בטח‬
‫פעם‬
.‫אחת‬
‫השמש‬
‫בי־‬
.‫זורחת‬
‫ושלים‬
.
‫הרוח‬
.‫נושכת‬

BASIC
COURSE

HEBREW

UNIT

£

The sky is clouding up.
The sky is cloudy.

The clouds are gray.

haananim afurim.
a
n
a
n

clo
ud
gra
y

(m.s.)

‫העננים‬
.‫אפורים‬
‫ע‬
‫נ‬
‫ן‬

In a little while it
will rain.
a little, few
rain
It's bitter cold.
col
d
dog
The weather is
strange.
temperament weather
odd, strange
It's very hot
here in the
summer.

(
m
)
haSamaim
mit'anenim.

‫א‬
‫פ‬
‫ו‬

.‫השמים מתעננים‬

‫ר‬

haSamaim
meunanim.

a
for

od meat
yered
geSem.
kor klavim.

‫השמים‬
.‫מעוננים‬

meat
geSem
(m)

kor (m)
kelev
(m)

summer
mezeg haavir meSune.
mezeg (m) mezeg
avir ‫מזג אויר‬
meSune (m.s.)
‫משונה‬

‫מעט‬
‫קיגשם‬
‫ר‬
‫כלב‬

.‫מזג האויר משונה‬

‫מזג‬

kan xam meod bakaic.
kaic (m)

‫כאן חם מאור‬
.‫בקיץ‬
‫קיץ‬

633

‫עור מעט‬
.‫ירד גשם‬
.‫כלבים‬
‫קור‬

HEBREW

UNIT

15

BASIC

20.4 VOCABULARY DRILLS

In the following drills verbs are presented in tenses other thanCOURSE
those of the Basic Sentences. The student should learn to assimilate consonantal
root patterns. A resume of the tenses of each binyan will be given later. In the
meantime the student should thoroughly drill the verbs as they occur.

(a)

/hitraxec/ "he bathed"

‫התרחץ‬

The root of this verb is rxc ‫ רחץ‬, and in the kal it means "to wash something".
In the hitpa'el it is reflexive and means "to wash oneself, bathe, etc.," In ordinary
speech it is completely regular. In deliberate speech some forms have an inserted /a/:
/hitraxci ~ hitraxaci/ (f.s. imv.)

A. Substitution Drill
Get washed. It's latel

B.

hitraxec. haSaa meuxeret".
hitraxci
hitraxcu
hitraxecna

1 ‫ השעה מאוחרת‬.‫התרחץ‬
‫התרחצי התרחצו התרחצנה‬

Substitution Drill /e - ~ ti - /
I'11 bathe in the ocean tomorrow.

etraxec bayam maxar.
titraxec
.‫ אתרחץ בים מחר‬titraxci
‫ תתרחץ תתרחצי‬hu yitraxec
‫ הוא יתרחץ היא‬hi titraxec
‫ תתרחץ נתרחץ‬nitraxec
‫ אתם תתרחצו אתן‬atem titraxcu
‫ תתרחצנה הם‬aten titraxecna
‫ יתרחצו הן‬hem yitraxcu
‫ תתרחצנה‬hen titraxecna
veraxel - hu - ani

C. Substitution-Agreement Drill

7 ‫בו‬

I bathe in cold water every day.

‫אני מתרחץ במים קרים בל‬

.‫!ר‬

‫ כל המשפחה שרה ורחל‬- ‫ אביבה‬- ‫הם‬
‫ אני‬- ‫ הוא‬-

ani mltraxec bemalm karim kol boker.
hem - av£va - kol hamiSpaxa sara

D. Substitution-Agreement Drill
We bathed in the ocean when we were in Herzliah.
.‫בהרצליה‬

hitraxacnu bayam kSehay£nu behercelia.
kSehaiti - kSehu haya - kSehait
klehaita - k^ehayta - k^ehayu
kSehaiten - k£eha£tem - kSehainu
- ‫ כשהיית כשהיית‬- ‫ כשהוא היה‬- ‫כשהייתי‬
- ‫ כשהייתם‬- ‫ כשהיו כשהייתן‬- ‫כשהיתה‬
‫כשהיינו‬

634

‫התרחצנו בים כשהיינו‬

HEBREW

BASIC COURSE

20
/mecuyan/ "excellent" ‫מצוין‬

haoxel Sam mecuyan.
haglida - hadagim - haugot
haxala - haavir - haxof

E. SubstitutionAgreement Drill

. ‫מ צ ו י ן‬

The food there is excellent.

‫ש ם‬

‫ה א ו כ ל‬

- ‫ העוגות החלה‬- ‫ הדגים‬- ‫הגלידה‬
‫ החוף‬- ‫האוויר‬

F.Substitution-Agreement Drill /nexmad/ "nice" ‫נחמד‬
Miriam's husband is very nice.
h a b a a l

S e l

m i r y a m

n e x m a d

m e o d .

‫ש ל מרים נחמד מאוד‬
iSto - kulam - kol hanaSim
hayoec haxadaS - hadod Selax

. ‫ה ב ע ל‬

‫ כל הנשים‬- ‫ כולם‬- ‫אשתו‬
‫ הדוד שלך‬- ‫היועץ החדש‬

G.Substitution-Agreement Drill /afor/ "gray" ‫אפור‬
The building is gray. habinyan afor.
haSamaim - haonia - hamaatafot habulim - habait Sela hakelev

H. Transformation Drill
Instructor: What do you think of the weather?
Student: What is your opinion about the weather?

. ‫הי נין אפור‬
‫האוניה‬
‫השמים‬
‫ הבית‬- ‫המעטפות הבולים‬
‫ הכלב‬- ‫שלה‬

‫ מה אתה חושב על מזג האוירן‬.1

1.ma ata xoSev al mezeg haavir.
ma daatxa al mezeg haavir.
2.ma hem xoSvim al mezeg haavir.
ma daatam al mezeg haavir.
3• ma hi xoSevet al mezeg haavir.
ma daata al m£zeg haavir.
ma aten xoSvot al mezeg haavir.
ma daatxen al mizeg haavir.
5• ma hen xoSvot al mizeg haavir.
ma daatan al mizeg haavir.

?‫מה דעתך על מזג האויר‬

‫ מה הם חושבים על מזג האוירי‬.2

‫מה דעתם על מזג האויוי‬

?‫ מה היא חושבת על מזג האויר‬.3

?‫מה רעתה על מזג האויר‬

?‫ מה אתן חושבות על מזג האויר‬.4

?‫מה דעתכן על מזג האויר‬

?‫ מה הן חושבות על מזג האויר‬.5

?‫מה דעתן על מזג האויר‬

?‫ מה את חושבת על מזג האויר‬.6

6. ma

at xoSevet al mezeg haavir.
ma daatex al mezeg haavir.
7. ma atem xoSvim al mizeg haavir.
ma daatxem al mizeg haavir.
8• ma hu xoSev al mezeg haavir.
ma daato al mezeg haavir.

?‫מה דעתך על מזג האויר‬

?‫ מה אתם חושבים על מזג האויר‬.‫ד‬

?‫מה דעתכם על מזג האויר‬

?‫ מה הוא חושב על מזג האויר‬.8

?‫מה רעחו על מזג האויר‬

‫ מה חושבת אשתך על מזג האוירן‬.9

9. ma xoSevet iStexa al mizeg haavir.

ma daat iStexa al mezeg h
‫ך‬
‫ת‬
‫ש‬
‫א‬
‫ת‬
‫ע‬
‫ר‬
‫י‬
‫ד‬
‫א‬
‫ה‬
‫ג‬

a

‫ר‬
‫ז‬

635

a

v
‫מ‬

‫ה‬

i

‫מ‬
‫ל‬

r

*
‫ע‬

UNIT

UNIT

BASIC

HEBREW

22

COURSE

GRAMMAR NOTES

20-5 Further Remarks on lamed hey Verbs
It has been noted in previous units that lamed hey verbs
have many features in common regardless of the binyan. The
following are other characteristics of this type of verb.
(a) Infinitives
Compare these two columns:
"

‫לגמור‬

/l i r ' o t /

,,

to

finish"

see"

pi' el

‫ ל ד ב ר‬/l e x a k o t / " t o w a i t

‫לראו‬
/ledaber/"to

hif' il
/lehazmin/"to invite" ‫ להזמין‬/lehar
‫י‬o t / " t o s h o w "

kal

‫ת‬

speak"

‫לחכו‬
‫ת‬
‫להרא‬

/ligmor/ "to

‫ו ת‬
hitpa'el /lehitraxec/"to bathe" ‫ להתרחץ‬/lehitmanot/"to be
appointed"‫להתמנו ת‬
Note that the lamed hey verb infinitives on the right
resemble other infinitives of the same binyan except that
they have the ending /-ot/ after the second root consonant.

A. Transformation Drill
Instructor: He sees the
building. Student: He wants
to see the building.
1 . hu

roe et habinyan.
hu roce lir'ot et habinyan.
2 . hu pone eiav beivrit.
hu roce lifnot elav beivrit.

.1. ‫הוא רואה את הב נ י ן‬
.‫הוא רוצה לראות את הבנין‬

.2. ‫הוא פונה אליו בעברית‬
.‫הוא רוצה לפנות אליו בעברית‬

3• ani nitmaneti laSagrirut betel aviv.
ani roce lehitmanot laSagrirut betel

.3. ‫אני נתמניתי לשגרירות בתל אביב‬
aviv. ‫אני רוצה להחפנות לשגויווח‬

‫כ ת ל א ב י ב‬.

4. h e m

s o x i m b a y a m h a y o m .
. 4 . ‫ה ם ׳ ש ו ה י ם‬
‫ב י ם ה י ו ם‬
h e m r o c i m l i s x o t b a y a m h a y o m . .‫הם רוצים לשחות בים היום‬

5• a l i n u l a a r e c h a S a n a .

.5. ‫עלינו לארץ השנה‬

anu rocim laalot laarec haSana.

6. hu her‫׳‬a 1i et hasefer h

a

x

.‫אנו רוצים לעלות לארץ השנה‬

a

d

636

a

S

.

.

6

.

HEBREW

BASIC COURSE

20
‫ת‬
‫א‬
‫י‬
‫ל‬
‫ה‬
‫א‬
‫ר‬
‫ה‬
‫א‬
‫ו‬
‫ה‬
‫ש‬
‫ד‬
‫ח‬
‫ה‬
‫ר‬
‫פ‬
‫ס‬
‫ה‬
hu roce lehar'ot li et hasefer
haxada§. ‫ה ו א ר ו צ ה ל ה ר א ו ת ל י א ת ה ס פ ר ה ח ד ש‬
7• ani lo axake ad Sehem yagiu.
.7. ‫אני לא אחכה עד ״שהם יגיעו‬
ani lo r o c e l e x a k o t a d S e h e m y a g i u . . ■ ‫א נ י ל א ר ו צ ה ל ח כ ו ת‬
‫עד שהם יגיעו‬

8.a n u n i t r a e m a x a r b e S t a i m .
.8. ‫אנו נתראה מחר כשתיים‬
a n u r o c i m l e h i t r a o t m a x a r b e S t a i m . .‫אנו רוצים להתראות מחר‬
‫בשתיים‬

9.ma at kona?
m a
‫ל ק נ ו ת‬

a t

r o c a

l i k n o t ?

637

?9. ‫מה את קונה‬

? ‫ר ו צ ה‬

‫א ת‬

‫מ ה‬

UNIT

UNIT

(b) y .

BASIC

HEBREW

22

as

COURSE

third radical of lamed hey verbs.

In earlier grammar notes lamed hey verbs were treated as verbs with only two root
consonants. Since the 3 m.s. past tense form of these verbs always ends in hey (‫)ה‬
traditional Hebrew grammar treats it as the third radical. However, note the following
pair of forms:
‫שחה‬
/saxa/
"he I
‫שחי י‬
swam /saxyan/"s w I
I
‫ן‬
imme r
The latter form has a third consonant /y/ before the suffix /-an/. In derived
forms of lamed hey verb roots the consonant /y/ is often used as a third radical.
The first and second person past tense forms are spelled with a yud
though it represents a vowel in pronunciation, e.g., /kaniti/ ‫ קניתי‬.

( ‫)י‬,

B. Transformation Drill
Instructor: He swims well. Student: He is a good swimmer.
.‫טוב‬

‫ הוא שוחה‬.1

‫הוא שחיין טוב‬
2. haim at soxa tov?

?‫ האם את שוחה טוב‬.2

haim at saxyanit tova?

‫האם את שחיינית‬
?‫טובה‬

.‫ אתם שוחים טוב מאור‬.3

3• atem soxim tov meod.
atem saxyanim tovim meod.
4. atara vexana soxot tov meod.
atara vexana saxyaniot tovot m
e
o
d
‫ה‬
‫נ‬
‫ח‬
‫ו‬
‫ה‬
‫ת‬
‫ו‬
‫ב‬
‫ו‬
‫ט‬
‫ר‬
‫ו‬
‫א‬
‫מ‬

‫אתם שחיינים טובים‬
.‫מאוד‬
.
‫ר‬
‫ת‬

.
‫ט‬
‫ו‬

638

‫ע‬
‫י‬

‫ עטרה וחנה שוחות טוב מאוד‬.4
‫נ‬

‫י‬

‫י‬

‫ח‬

‫ש‬

1. hu soxe tov.
hu saxyan tov

HEBREW

BASIC COURSE

UNIT

20
20 .6 Verbs with Initial Radical ^
Some of the verbs whose first root consonant is have irregular characteristics in the infinitive, imperative and future tense of the kal. In these forms
the y does not occur, and the prefix and stem vowels are /e/.
/yered geSem./ (literally) "Rain will come down".
(The /y/ in this example is the 3 masc. prefix, not part of the root.) The
stark imperative of this verb is simply:
m.s. /red/
f.s. /redi/
m.pl. /redu/
f.pl. /redna/
The infinitive of these verbs has this pattern:
la C2e C3et /laredet/ "to go down"
The rest of the kal conjugation is regular:
present: /yored/
past : /yarad/
Other verbs of this type which have occurred so far are:
ySv "sit " - infinitive: /laSevet/ yld "give birth" - infinitive:
/laledet/
The verb hlx "go" is similar to these, except that in the present and past
tenses the first radical is h, rather than y : Infinitive /lalexet/
The verb yd' "know" is similar to these, also, except that the stem vowel
is /a/ because of the third radical which is spelled with ‫ ע‬.
Imperative: /da/ ‫ רע‬Infinitive: /ladaat/ ‫לרעת‬
[Remember - these verbs have vav (‫ )י‬in other binyanim : ]
11
/nolad/ "was born"
brought"

II II
/horid/ "brought down" /hoSiv/ "caused to sit /holix/ "led,
II

/hodia/ "informed"

A. Substitution Drill
Go down there, and don't come up.

‫נולר‬

‫הוו‬
‫יד‬
‫הר‬
‫׳׳יב‬
‫הולי‬
‫ך‬
‫הודי‬
‫ע‬

/1 _ ‫ ב‬/ _ / 11 • _ I _____________3 11
I

.‫ ואל תעלה‬,‫רד שמה‬
‫)תעלי‬
‫רדי‬
‫רדו רדנה‬

639

(‫)תעלי‬
(‫)תעלו‬
‫)!־‬
(‫עלינה‬

red Sama, veal taale.

UNIT

BASIC

HEBREW

22

B. Response Drill
Instructor: Come down with me.
Student: I don't want to go down
red iti. ,
ani lo roce laredet itxa.
.‫אתך‬
redi iti, /
ani lo roca laredet itxa.
.‫אחר‬
redu iti. .‫רדי אתי‬
anu lo rocim lare'det itxa.
.‫אתך‬
redna iti. ^
anu lo rocot lare'det itxa.
•‫אתר‬

COURSE

with you.
. ‫רד אתי‬

‫אני לא רוצה לרדת‬

.‫רדי אתי‬

‫אני לא רוצה לרדת‬
‫׳‬

‫אנו לא רוצים לרדת‬

. ‫רדנה אתי‬

‫אנו לא רוצות לרדת‬

C. Response Drill
Instructor: Where will you sit? Student: I like to sit near the door.
eyfo teSev.
‫ ׳‬, ?‫איפה תשב‬
ani ohev laSe'vet al yad hade'let. .‫ אני אוהב לשבת על יד הדלת‬eyfo
t e S v i . , , , ? ‫א י פ ה ת ש ב י‬
ani ohevet laSe'vet al yad hade'let. .‫אני אוהבת לשבת על יד הדלת‬
eyfo^teSvu.
‫איפה תשבו ? ׳‬
anu ohavim laSevet al yad hade'let. .‫אנו אוהבים לשבת על יד הדלת‬
eyfo^teSevna. ‫ איפה תשבנה? ׳ ׳‬anu ohavot laSevet al yad hadelet.. ‫אנו אוהבות‬
‫לשבת על יד הדלת‬

D. Response Drill
Instructor: When are they going? Student: They have to go right now.
? ‫מתי הם הולכים‬

.‫הם צריכים ללכת מיד‬

matay hem holxim.
hem
crixim
lalexet
miyad. matay hi hole'xet.
hi crixa lalexet miyad.
matay ata holex.
ani carix lalexet miyad.
matay hen holxot.
hen crixot lalexet miyad.
E.

? ‫מתי היא הולכת‬

.‫היא צריכה ללכת מיד‬

? ‫מתי אתה הולך‬

.‫אני צריך ללכת מיד‬

?.‫מתי הן הולכות‬

.‫הן צריכות ללכת מיד‬

Substitution Drill
da lifney mi ata omed.
de'i (at omedet)
de'u (atem omdim]
dana (aten omdot)

.‫מי אתה עומד‬

(‫לאת עומדת‬
(‫נ אתם עומדים‬
(‫)אתן עומדות‬

Know before whom you are standing.
‫דע לפני‬
‫דעי דעו דענה‬

F. Substitution-Agreement Drill
I'11 know the results

tomorrow .
ani eda et hato caot
640

HEBREW

BASIC COURSE

20
maxar. &ta - hu - at ‫־‬kulam inu
- aten - atem - hen hayoec iSto Sel dov - ani
. ‫אני ארע את התוצאות מחר‬

‫ כולם‬- ‫ את‬- ‫ הוא‬- ‫אתה‬
‫ הן‬- ‫ אתם‬- ‫ אתן‬- ‫יאנו‬
- ‫ אשתו של דוב‬- ‫היועץ‬
‫אני‬

641

UNIT

UNIT

BASIC

HEBREW

22

COURSE

20.7 Loss of n before consonants
Compare these two columns:
/natan/ "he gave"
/yiten/ "he will give"
/nasanu/"we travelled" /nisa/ "we will travel"
The forms on the right illustrate a frequent occurrence - namely the loss of n
immediately before another consonant. The rule may be formulated thus:
*-VnCV- ‫ י־•־‬-VCVThis loss of n most frequently occurs in verbs whose first root consonant is
n. For example, the forms on the right might have been expected to be
*/yinten/ and */ninsa/.
(In the first and second person past tense forms of /natan/, the
radical n is lost: /natati/, instead of */natanti/. However, this
only verb in which a third radical n is dropped before a suffix. In
infinitive /latet/ both n's have been lost.;

third
is the
the

This loss does not generally occur in the infinitive of these verbs:/linsoa/ "to
travel" and it does not occur if the second root consonant is h or : /yinhag/ "he
will drive".
The n is missing in the stark imperative of some of these verbs:
m.s. /sa/ "travel"
f.s. /se'i/ m.pl. /se ‫י‬u/
f»pl. /sana/
[This loss of n has been noted earlier. In Grammar Note 17^7 it was noted
for hif'il forms: - /hikir/ "he recognized",from the root nkr . In Grammar Note 195 it was noted for nif'al forms: /nitan/ "was given", instead of */nintan/. ]
A. Substitution-Agreement Drill
We'11 go to Safed if the weather will be hot.
nisa liefat im m^zeg haavir yihye xam.
‫ג‬

‫ז‬

‫מ‬

‫ר‬

‫י‬

‫ר‬

‫ם‬

‫ח‬

‫י‬

‫ם‬
‫א‬

‫ה‬

‫ה‬

‫י‬

‫נ‬
ani - atem - hem - gveret kohen
aten - at - hem - hen
hu - dov veiSto - hi - anu

.

‫ת‬5

‫צ‬

‫ל‬

‫א‬

‫ה‬

‫י‬

y

0

‫ גברת כהן‬- ‫ הם‬- ‫ אתם‬- ‫אני‬
‫ הן‬- ‫ הם‬- ‫ אח‬- ‫אתן‬
‫ אנו‬- ‫ היא‬- ‫ דוב ואשתו‬- ‫הוא‬

B. Substitution Drill

Go to Safed. The air there
is excellent.

642

‫‪UNIT‬‬

‫‪HEBREW‬‬

‫‪BASIC COURSE‬‬

‫‪20‬‬

‫‪. 1‬מה אמר יונתן על מזג‬
‫האדיר?‬
‫‪. 2‬לאן ררצה רדד ללכת?‬
‫‪. 3‬מה חושב יד נתן על זה?‬
‫‪. 4‬האם יונתן יורע לשחות?‬
‫‪. 5‬האם גם רור יורע‬
‫לשחות?‬
‫‪. 6‬האם החוף בהרצליה הוא‬
‫יפה? ד‪ .‬מתי יורד שלג?‬
‫‪. 7‬למה אוהב יוסף את‬
‫השלג?‬
‫‪. 8‬כמה פעמים ראה יוסף‬
‫שלג? ‪ .10‬היכן הוא ראה‬
‫את השלג?‬

‫‪sa licfat. haavir Sam mecuyan. se' i se' u sana‬‬
‫סע לצפת‪ .‬האויר שם מצוין‪.‬‬
‫סעי סעו מענה‬
‫‪RAPID RESPONSE PRILL‬‬

‫?‪1.ma amar yonatan al mezeg haavir‬‬
‫‪2.lean roce david lalexet? 3• ma‬‬
‫?‪xoSev yonatan al ze‬‬
‫?‪haim yonatan yodea lisxot‬‬
‫?‪5• haim gam david yodea lisxot‬‬
‫?‪6. haim haxof beherceliya hu yafe‬‬
‫?‪7• matay yored Seleg‬‬
‫?‪8. lama ohev yosef et haSeleg‬‬
‫?‪9• kama peamim raa yosef Seleg‬‬
‫?‪10. heyxan hu raa et haSeleg‬‬

‫‪REVIEW CONVERSATIONS‬‬

‫א‪ :‬חם מאר היום‪.‬‬
‫ב‪ :‬כך‪ .‬אני מקורה לגשם‪.‬‬
‫א‪ :‬גם אני‪ .‬אם ירר גשם אז מזג האוויר יתקרר קצת‪.‬‬
‫כ‪:‬‬

‫יהיה חם גם מחר‪.‬‬

‫א‪ :‬אך מחר אנו נוסעים להרצליה לשחות כים‪.‬‬
‫ב‪ :‬רעי ו ך סוב‪ .‬החוף שם יפה מאר‪.‬‬
‫ג‪:‬‬

‫רור‪ ,‬מהר‪ .‬אנו רוצים לטייל קצת והשמים כבר מתעננים‪.‬‬

‫ד‪ :‬חכו רגע‪ ,‬עור לא התרחצתי‪.‬‬
‫ג‪:‬‬

‫*‬

‫כמה זמן יקח לך להתרחץ?‬

‫ד‪ :‬חמש דקות‪.‬‬
‫ג‪:‬‬

‫טוב‪ .‬נחכה לך‪.‬‬

‫‪643‬‬

‫‪BASIC‬‬
‫‪COURSE‬‬

‫‪HEBREW‬‬

‫ה‪ :‬האם את יודעת לשחות?‬
‫ו‪ :‬כן‪ ,‬אני שחיינית טובה‪ .‬אני מאד אוהבת לשחות‪ .‬ה‪ :‬גם אני אוהב לשחות אך אני לא שחיין טוב‪.‬‬
‫ז‪ :‬האב יורד כאן שלג?‬
‫ח‪ :‬כך‪ .‬בחורף‪.‬‬
‫ז‪ :‬תורה‪ .‬האם יורד שלג לעתים קרובות בחורף?‬
‫ח‪ :‬לא‪ .‬לעתים רחוקות כי לא כל כך קר כאך בחורף‪.‬‬
‫ט‪ :‬ירושלים היא עיר יפה‪ .‬י‪ :‬כך‪ .‬כשיורד שלג היא עיר יפה מאד‪.‬‬
‫ט‪ :‬הייתי בירושליים בחורף אך לא ירד שלג‪ .‬י‪ :‬לא היה מספיק קר בחורף שעבר‪.‬‬
‫מ‪ :‬השמים מתעננים עכשיו‪.‬‬
‫נ‪ :‬השמים לא היו מעוננים כל היום?‬
‫מ‪ :‬לא י י‪ .‬וקר זרחה השמש ‪ ,‬ועב‪.‬יו ה ;־ידו להתענך‪.‬‬
‫נ‪ :‬עוד מעט ירד גשם ויתקרר קצת‪.‬‬
‫מ‪ :‬אתה יודע‪ ,‬מזג האויר כאך משונה מאד‪.‬‬

‫‪644‬‬

‫‪UNIT‬‬

‫‪22‬‬

HEBREW

BASIC COURSE

20
21.1 Going to the Theater
YONATAN
Hello, Atara
Hello David.
How are you?

Salom
atara,
Salom
david. ma Slomxem.
DAVID

Thank you.
We're
fine.
How
are you?

toda raba. Slomenu tov.
ma Slomxa ?

‫שלום‬
,‫עטרה‬
.‫שלום דוד‬
‫מה‬
?‫שלומכם‬
.‫תודה רכה‬
.‫שלומנו טוב‬
?‫מה שלומך‬

YONATAN
Fine,
thank
s.
What
are
your
plans
for
Satur
day
night
?
tov
toda.
ma
hatox
niyot
Selax
em
lemoc
aey
Sabat
?

‫ט‬
‫ו‬

645

UNIT

UNIT

HEBREW

22

DAVID
I
t
h
i
n
k

a
n
i

showed
film,
ribbon

x
o
S
e
v

w
e
'
1
1
g
o
to
the
Mugra
bi
Theat
er.
They'
re
showi
ng a
good
film
there
.

S
e
n
e
l
e
x
lekol
noa
mugra
bi.
mecig
im
Sam
seret
tov.
mecig
show
(m.s.p
res.)

hicig
seret
(m)

‫לקו‬
‫לנו‬
‫ע‬
‫מוג‬
‫רכי‬
.
‫מצי‬
‫גים‬
‫שם‬
‫סר‬
‫ט‬
‫טוב‬
.

‫אני‬
‫חושב‬
‫שנלר‬

‫מ‬
‫צ‬
‫י‬
‫ג‬
‫ה‬
‫צ‬
‫י‬
‫ג‬
‫ס‬
‫ר‬
‫ט‬

ATARA
J
u
s
t

ust,
it
so
happ
ens
show
,
pres
enta
tion
a
n
i
d
a
v
k
a

w
a
n
t
t
o
s
e
e
a
s
h
o
w
.

i
r
'
o
t
h
a
c
a
c
j
a
.
davka
hacaga (f)

r
o
c
a
j

l

646

BASIC
COURSE

HEBREW

BASIC COURSE

20
‫אני‬

‫דווק‬
‫א‬
‫רוצ‬
‫ה‬
‫לרא‬
‫ות‬
‫הצג‬
.‫ה‬

‫ו‬
‫ו‬
‫ק‬
‫א‬

c
a

‫צ‬

‫ד‬

‫ה‬
‫צ‬
‫ג‬
‫ה‬

YONATAN
Y
o
u
'
1
1

decided
informed
because,
that he
joined

d
e
c
i
d
e

t
a
hexlit
hodia
ki
hietaref

a
n
d
l
e
t
m
e
k
n
o
w
w
h
e
r
e
y
o
u
'
r
e

‫ה‬
‫חה‬

‫תח‬
‫לי‬
‫טו‬
‫ות‬
‫וד‬
‫יע‬
‫ו‬
‫לי‬
‫לא‬
‫ן‬
‫תל‬
‫כו‬
,
‫כי‬
‫אנ‬
‫י‬
‫רו‬
‫צה‬
‫לה‬
‫צט‬
‫רף‬
.

g
o
i
n
g
b
e

647

UNIT

UNIT

HEBREW

22
‫ט‬
‫ר‬
‫ף‬

648

BASIC
COURSE

HEBREW

BASIC COURSE

20
DAVID
Gladly.

beracon.

.‫ברצון‬
649

UNIT

UNIT

BASIC

HEBREW

22

COURSE

ATARA
ani xoSevet
Senelex lebet
hab£ma.

I think
we'11
go
to the
Habima.

habim
a

Hab
ima
{Te
l
Avi
v
the
ate
r)

m
y
h
o
u
s
e
a
n
d
c
a
l
l
f
o
r
m
e
.

i
v
r
u
a
l

e
k

he
called,
read

y
a
d
b
e
y
t
l
v

650

‫הבימה‬

‫קרא‬

YONATAN
Come past

‫אני חושבת‬
‫ש נ ל ן־‬
.‫לבית הבימה‬

‫עברו‬
‫על יד ביתי‬
.‫וקראו לי‬

HEBREW

BASIC COURSE

UNIT

20
l
i

.
kara
D

.‫טוב‬
.‫בסדר‬

AVID
tov.
bese
der.
Y

ONATAN
W
h

hour
value
appr ox

b
e

tely

D
A
V
I
D

b
e
t
a
a
l
Saa ( f )
erex(m)
beerex

‫באיזה שעה‬
‫בערר תעברו‬
?‫על יד ביתי‬

‫בשעה‬
.‫שמונה‬

‫שעה‬
‫עיר‬
‫בער‬
‫ך‬

beSaa
Smone.
Y
O
N
A
T
A
N
See you

S
a

651

‫להתראות‬
.‫במוצאי שבת‬

UNIT

HEBREW

22

BASIC
COURSE

DAVID
he forget Saxax
a
l

21.2
VOCABUL
ARY
DRILLS
E
xplanat
ory
notes
are
include
d in
the
followi
ng
drills
to
point
out to
the
student
s
various
feature
s of
the
verbs.
However
, the
student
should
not try
to
memoriz
e these
notes,
but to
drill
the
verbs
until
he does
not
need
the
explana
tion.

652

‫שכח‬

,‫אל תשכח‬
‫מוצאי שכת‬
‫בשעה‬
‫שמונה‬
.‫בערר‬

HEBREW

BASIC COURSE

20
(a)/ka
ra/
"he
cal
led
,
rea
d"
‫קרא‬
The
roo
t
of
thi
s
ver
b
is
kr'
‫קרא‬
,
and
it
is
con
jug
ate
d
lik
e
mc'
‫מצא‬
"fi
nd"
.
A.
Su
bs
ti
tu
ti
on
Dr
il
l
Ar
a/

653

UNIT

UNIT

22

HEBREW

"r
ea
d,
ca
ll
"
‫קר‬
‫א‬
Re
ad
th
e
ne
w
bo
ok
.

kir'
u et
has
efer
hax
ada
S. .
‫קרא‬
‫ו את‬
‫הספ‬
‫ר‬
‫החד‬
‫ש‬
kir
'i
‫קרא‬
‫י‬

654

BASIC
COURSE

HEBREW

BASIC COURSE

UNIT

20
kra
‫קרא‬
kra
na
‫קרא‬
‫נה‬

/e -

‫־‬/‫׳‬

B.

Sub
sti
tut
ion
Dri
ll
X'1
1
rea
d
the
let
ter
thi
s
eve
nin
g.

ekra et
ham
ixt
av
hae
rev
.
tikra
tikre'i
hu
yik
ra
hi
tik
ra
anu
nik
ra
tikre'u
aten
tik
ran
a
hem
yik
re ‫י‬
u
hen
tik
ran
a
(So
me
spe
ake

655

~ ti
.‫אקרא את המכתב הערב‬
‫חקרא תקראי הוא יקרא‬
‫היא תקדא אנו נקרא‬
‫תקראו‬
‫אתן תקראנה הס יקראו‬
‫הן תקראנה‬

UNIT

BASIC

HEBREW

22

COURSE

rs
say
/ti
kre
na/
for
2
and
3
f.p
l.)
C.

Exp
ans
ion
Dri
ll
In
st
ru
ct
or
:
I'
ll
go
pa
st
hi
s
ho
us
e.
St
ud
en
t:
I'
11
go
pa
st
hi
s
ho
us
e
an
d
ca
ll
hi
m.

.‫ואקרא לו‬
.‫ותקרא לו‬
‫ותקראי‬
‫ ויקרא‬.‫לו‬
‫ ותקרא‬.‫לו‬
.‫לו‬
.‫ ונקרא לו‬,‫אנו נעבוד על יד ביתו‬
.‫ותקראו לו‬
‫ותקראנה‬
‫ ויקראו‬.‫לו‬
.‫לו‬
.‫ותקראנה לו‬,‫תעבורנה על יד ביתו‬
‫הן‬

‫ת‬
‫ע‬

‫א‬
‫ע‬
In
the
above
drill

656

e
e

HEBREW

BASIC COURSE

20
the
imper
ative
forms
may
be
used
in
the
secon
d
perso
n
subst
ituti
ons.

taavor al yad
beyto vekra
lo.

D.
Substi
tution
Agreem
ent
Drill
/kore/
"reads
" ‫קורא‬
H
e
r
e
a
d
s
H
e
b
r
e
w
l
i

657

UNIT

UNIT

22

HEBREW

k
e
h
e
s
p
e
a
k
s
H
e
b
r
e
w
w
i
t
h
d
i
f
f
i
c
u
l
t
y

658

BASIC
COURSE

HEBREW

BASIC COURSE

20
.
h
u
k
o
r
e
i
v
r
i
t
k
m
o
g
e
h
u
m
e
d
a
b
e
r
i
v
r
i

659

UNIT

UNIT

22

BASIC

HEBREW

COURSE

t
.
b
e
k
o
g
i
.

‫ה‬
‫ו‬

‫ה‬

660

h
i

UNIT

21 _HEBREW ____________________________BASIC COURSE

E. Substitution-Agreement Drill

/kara/ "he read, called" ‫ קרא‬He read Moshe's telegram.

hu kara et hamivrak mimoSe .

. ‫הוא קרא אח המברק ממשה‬

ani ‫־‬atem - iSti - at
anu - ata - hem - dov
aten - kulam - hi - hu

‫ את‬- ‫ אשתי‬- ‫ אתם‬- ‫אני‬
‫ רוב‬- ‫ הם‬- ‫ אחה‬- ‫אנו‬
‫ הוא‬- ‫ היא‬- ‫ כולם‬- ‫אתן‬

(b) /Saxax/ "he forgot" ‫שכח‬
The root of this verb is Skx ‫שכח‬, Three things should be noted about it at this
point:
1) The second radical, k ‫ כ‬, has the k/x alternation in the various tenses. In the
future it is /k/; in the present and past it is /x/; and in the stark imperative it
varies in some of the forms.

2) The third radical is x ‫ ח‬. Therefore, the vowel /a/ must precede it when the x is
at the end of the word. See Grammar Note 16.4b. In the infinitive /liSkoax/ ‫לשכוח‬
and the m.s. pres. /Soxeax/ ‫ שוכח‬an unstressed /a/ is inserted. Similar verbs
are /patax/ "open", /salax/ "forgive", and/£alax/"send".

3) Whenever the sequence /-xx-/ would otherwise occur in the conjugation the vowel
/e/ is inserted to break up the cluster, e.g., /Saxexa/ "she forgot".
F. Substitution Drill
Forget what he said.

sxax ma Sehu amar.
Sixexi
Sixexu
Sxaxna

.‫שכה מה שהוא אמר‬

‫שכחי‬
‫שכחו‬
‫שכחנה‬

(/Skax/ and /Skaxna/ are often heard for the m.s. and f.pl.)
G. Transformation Drill - Affirmative to Negative.
Instructor: Forget what you heard. Student: Don't forget what you heard.

Sxax ma SeSamata. ai tiSkax ma S
e
S
a
‫ל‬
‫א‬
.
‫ת‬
‫ע‬
‫מ‬
‫ש‬
‫ש‬
‫ה‬
‫ח‬
‫ע‬
‫מ‬
‫ש‬
‫ש‬
‫ה‬
‫מ‬
‫ח‬
‫כ‬
Sixexi ma SeSamat. ai tiSkexi ma S
e
S
‫ל‬
‫א‬
.
‫ת‬
‫ע‬
‫מ‬
‫ש‬
‫ש‬
‫ת‬
‫ע‬
‫מ‬
‫ש‬
‫ש‬
‫׳‬
‫ה‬
‫מ‬
Sixexu ma SeSamatem.
al tiSkexu ma S
e
‫ל‬
‫א‬
.
‫ם‬
‫ת‬
‫ע‬
‫מ‬
‫ש‬
‫ש‬
‫ם‬
‫ת‬
‫ע‬
‫מ‬
‫ש‬
‫ש‬
‫ה‬
‫מ‬
‫ו‬
Sxaxna ma SeSamaten.
ai tiSkaxna ma S
e
‫ל‬
‫א‬
.
‫ן‬
‫ת‬
‫ע‬
‫מ‬
‫ש‬
‫ש‬
‫ה‬

661

m
a
t
a
.
.
‫מ‬
‫ח‬
‫כ‬
‫ש‬
‫ש‬
‫ת‬
a
m
a
t
.
.
‫ה‬
‫מ‬
‫י‬
‫ח‬
‫כ‬
‫ש‬
‫י‬
‫ח‬
‫כ‬
‫ש‬
‫ת‬
S
a
m
a
t
e
m
.
‫ה‬
‫מ‬
‫ו‬
‫ח‬
‫כ‬
‫ש‬
‫ח‬
‫כ‬
‫ש‬
‫ת‬
S
a
m
a
t
e
n
.
‫מ‬
‫ה‬
‫נ‬
‫ח‬
‫כ‬
‫ש‬

UNIT

22

‫ן‬

‫ה‬
‫ת‬

‫נ‬
‫ע‬

‫ח‬
‫מ‬

‫כ‬
‫ש‬

‫ש‬
‫ש‬

‫ת‬

HEBREW

The drill should also be done in reverse.

662

BASIC

‫ה‬

‫מ‬

COURSE

HEBREW

BASIC COURSE

20

/e - ~ ti -/

H. Substitution Drill
I won't forget the Hebrew that I learned.

‫א‬
‫ש‬
‫כ‬
‫ח‬
‫א‬
‫ת‬
‫ת‬
‫ש‬
‫כ‬
‫ח‬
‫ת‬
‫ש‬
‫כ‬
‫ח‬
‫י‬
‫י‬
‫ש‬
‫כ‬
‫ח‬
‫ת‬
‫ש‬
‫כ‬
‫ח‬
‫נ‬
‫ש‬
‫כ‬

‫ח‬
‫תשכ‬
‫חו‬
‫תשכ‬
‫חנה‬
‫ישכ‬
‫חו‬
‫תשכ‬
‫חנה‬
‫העברית‬
‫ש‬
‫ל‬
‫מ‬
‫ד‬
‫תי‬
.
)
‫ש‬
‫ל‬
‫מ‬
‫ד‬
(‫ת‬
)
‫ש‬
‫ל‬
‫מ‬

I. SubstitutionAgreement Drill
We won't
forget to come
tomorrow.
lo niSkax lavo
maxar.
ata
hem

(‫דת‬
‫)שלמד‬
(
‫)שלמד‬
(‫ה‬
‫)שלמד‬
(‫נו‬
‫)שלמד‬
(‫תם‬
‫)שלמד‬
(‫תן‬
‫)שלמד‬
(‫ו‬
‫)שלמד‬
(‫ו‬

ivrit
Selamadeti.
(Sel
amad
eta)
(Sel
amad
et)
(Sel
amad
)

(Selam
da)
(Selam
adnu)
(Selam
adetem
)
fSelam
adeten
)
(Selam
du)
(Selam
du)
ani lo eSkax
et ha ata lo
tiSkax at lo
tiSkexi hu
lo yiSkax hi
lo tiSkax lo
niSkax lo
tiSkexu lo
tiSkaxna hem
lo yiSkexu
hen lo
tiSkaxna
a
n
i
d
a
v
i
d
h
e
n

663

‫אני‬
‫לא‬
‫אתה‬
‫לא את‬
‫לא הוא‬
‫לא היא‬
‫לא לא‬
‫לא‬
‫ה לא‬
‫םלא לא‬
‫ה‬
‫ן‬

UNIT

UNIT

22

atar
a
at atem
hu aten
anu

HEBREW

BASIC

‫ הם‬- ‫אתה‬
- ‫ אני‬- ‫דוד הן‬
‫עטרה‬
‫ אתם‬- ‫את‬
‫הוא‬
‫אתן‬
‫אנו‬

. ‫לא נשכח לבוא מחר‬

J. Substitution
Drill
He forgets
what he is
told.
hu Soxeax
ma Seomrim
lo.
hi Soxaxat
(la),
hem Soxexim

hen
Soxexot
(lahen)

‫שוכח‬

‫הוא‬
‫מה‬
‫שאומרים‬
‫היא‬
.‫לו‬
(‫שוכחת )לה‬
‫הם שוכחים‬
(‫)להם‬
‫הן שוכחות‬
(‫)להן‬

(lahem)
a
t
e
m
a
t
m
o
S
e
s
a
r
a
h
a
t

K• SubstitutionAgreement
Drill
I forgot
to read
the book.
Saxaxti
likro et
hasefer.
ata anu -

664

COURSE

‫‪UNIT‬‬

‫‪HEBREW‬‬

‫‪BASIC COURSE‬‬

‫‬‫אתם‬
‫את משה‬
‫ שדה ‪-‬‬‫התלמידי‬
‫ם אתן ‪-‬‬
‫‬‫הוא‬
‫‬‫היא‬
‫אני‬

‫‪20‬‬
‫‪almidim‬‬
‫ ‪aten‬‬‫ ‪hu‬‬‫ ‪hi‬‬‫‪ani‬‬

‫שכחתי לקרוא‬
‫את הספר ‪.‬‬
‫אתה ‪ -‬אנו ‪-‬‬

‫‪665‬‬

UNIT

22
(c)

/hodia/
informed1

HEBREW

BASIC

"he

I
I

COURSE

The root of this
verb
is
yd'
‫ידע‬
"know". In the hif'il
it means "to cause to
know",
i.e.,
"to
inform,
tell,
etc."
Two things should be
noted here:

(1) The first

radical y is
replaced in the
hif'il with vav ‫ן‬
and is
pronounced /o/
throughout the
binyan. See Grammar
Note 17-7

(2) The

third
radical is ‫ ע‬. This
is never pronounced
when the pattern
calls for it to be
at the end of the
verb
form,
but
nevertheless
the
vowel
/a/
will
occur
after
the
stem vowel /!/ in
such cases, e.g.
/hodia/
for
/hodi'/. This verb
will, therefore, oe
similar to /higia/
"arrived".
For
example:
Future
:
2
m.s. /
tagia/
2 f.s.
/tagii
/
2
f.pl.
/tagan
a/

666

/todia/
/todii/
/todana
/
/hodati/
/hodia/
/hodia/

HEBREW

BASIC COURSE

20

Past:
/
3 m.s.
/higia
/
3
f.s. /
higia/

1

UNIT

s.
/higati

The student will
now realize more fully
the need to master
completely and
automatically the verb
paradigms which have
occurred so far in the
course. If there is
any hesitation on the
part of the student in
responding with the
correct form, the
instructor should not
hesitate to go back to
earlier units and to
do the pertinent
drills again.

‫אודיע לדוב את הכתובת‬
‫החדשה‬

L. Substitution-Agreement
Drill
I'll tell Dov the new
address.
odia ledov et haktovet
haxadaSa.
ata - sara - yonatan - at
atem - anu hen - hem

aten - david
- hi - ani

‫א‬

M. Substitution-Agreement
Drill
He told Mr. Alon
that he got the

667

‫הוא הוריע למר אלון שקבל את המכתב‬

UNIT

22

HEBREW
letter. hu hodia
lemar alon Sekibel
et hamixtav.

(The verb/kibel/ should also be changed.)

668

BASIC
COURSE

HEBREW

BASIC COURSE

UNIT

20
GRAMMAR NOTES
21. 3 Generalizations
Study the following sentences:
/eyx omrim table beivrit./
"How do you say , table' in Hebrew?"
/moxrim asimonim badoar./
"Tokens are sold in the post office."
/mecigim Sam seret tov./

"They're showing a good film there."

In these sentences the subject is not expressed and the verb is in the
masculine plural present tense. This is the most frequent way in which generalized
statements and questions are made in Hebrew.
The English translations are varied in structure.
In the first sentence the English has an unstressed 'you' as the subject.
In the second sentence the Hebrew is translated as a passive.
In the third sentence the English has an unstressed ‫ י‬they' as the subject.
There are other ways of expressing generalizations in English, and the
student should be aware of the alternate possibilities in translating. For example
the first sentence may also be translated as "How does one say ‫ י‬table' in
Hebrew?" or "How do they say ‫ י‬table' in Hebrew?" (with unstressed , they').
The inclusion of a pronoun subject in the Hebrew will often be taken to mean
that a particular statement is being made rather than a generalized one.
medabrim anglit beisrael. "English is spoken in Israel."
hem medabrim anglit beisrael."They (in particular)speak English in Israel.
A. Translation Drill
The English translations given here are intended as examples. The instructor
should accept alternate possibilities as described above. When doing the drill in
reverse, i.e., from English to Hebrew, the instructor should be careful not to stress
the pronoun subjects of the verbs.
1.English is spoken throughout the c o u n t r y .
.
1
.
‫ל‬
‫ץ‬

‫כ‬
‫ר‬

‫כ‬
‫א‬

‫ת‬

‫י‬

‫ל‬

‫ג‬

‫נ‬

‫א‬

‫ם‬

‫י‬

‫ר‬

‫ב‬

‫ד‬

‫מ‬

‫ה‬

2.cheese is sold in grocery stores. . 2. 3 ‫ •מוכרים גבינה בחנות מכולת‬what
time do they start to perform? ? 3.
‫כאיזה שעה מתחילים להציג‬
One doesn't swim when it's r
‫ם‬

‫ש‬

‫ג‬

‫ר‬

‫ר‬

‫ו‬

‫י‬

5• People stroll a lot along the b

a
‫ש‬

i

n

‫כ‬
e

i
‫ם‬

a

669

n
‫י‬
c

g
‫ח‬

.
‫ו‬

h

.

4

.

‫א‬

‫ש‬
.

.

5

.

‫ל‬

UNIT

BASIC

HEBREW

22

‫י‬

‫ל‬

‫י‬

‫ם‬

‫י‬

‫ה‬

‫י‬

‫ט‬

‫מ‬

‫ת‬

‫פ‬

‫ם‬
‫ש‬

6.There is no traveling on S

a

‫ת‬

‫נ‬

‫ב ש ב‬

‫ס ע י ם‬

COURSE

‫ו‬

7.They eat big lunches in I

‫ל‬
t u

r d

s

r

‫ע‬
a
a

‫ה‬

y .
e

.

‫ב‬

‫ר‬

‫ה‬

6 .
l

‫ך‬
.

.

‫י‬
7

‫א‬
.

‫ •אוכלים ארוחת צהריים גדולה‬They're
sending me to H
a
i
f
a
.
.
8
.
9 ‫•שולחים אותי לחיפה‬
YOU forget the language if you don't speak it. . 9.‫שוכחים את השפה אם לא מדברים‬
8

‫ץ‬

‫ר‬

‫א‬

‫ב‬

21.4 The pi'el Conjugation

[ In this section and in following units a resume of the binyanim will be
given. The examples will illustrate the major types of verbs, and irregular but
frequently occurring verbs will also be included. In order to test the student's
mechanical control of the conjugations new roots will be included in drills. The
student need not memorize their meanings at this point, though there is no objection
to this, since the verbs occur in later units.
The order of forms will be as follows: infinitive, stark imperative, future,
present and past tenses.Various ways are used to indicate the root consonants with the
patterns of prefixes, infixes and suffixes. If there is any question as to which root
consonant is meant, then the designation C1C2C3 will be used. Occasionally traditional
grammatical terms will be introduced, e.g., lamed hey 1 ‫ ל״ה‬.
(a) The pi'el is traditionally listed as the third binyan after the kal and nif'al.
It is drilled first here because in modern Hebrew there are fewer consonant
alternations in the tenses of this binyan. The vowel patterns are also simpler to
memorize. Except for the past tense the infixed stem vowels are /-a-e-/. Remember that
the /e/ is dropped before certain suffixes. If ■.he sequence /-hC3-/ or /-'C3-/ would
result, then /a/ is inserted: /mahari/.
In order to illustrate the pattern of the pi'el the stems in the following !art
are printed in capital letters and the prefixes and suffixes are separated.

670

HEBREW

BASIC COURSE

20

Forms with vowel
Infinitive:

l
e

Imperative:

DABER

m. s

f.s.
m.pl.
f.pl
.
s.

Future: 1

2 m.s.

3 m.s.
f.s.

1 pi.

2 f.pl
.

3 f.pl
.
m.
s.
f.s.

Present:

a

DABER

t
e

DABER

y
e
t
e
n
e
t
e
t
e
m
e
m
e

U

t
e

DABR

i

2 m.pl.

t
e

DABR

u

3 m.pl.

y
e

DABR

u

DABER
DABER
DABER

DAB1£R

na

na

DAB^R
DABER
DABFJR

et

the distinguishing feature is the

s.
m.s.
f.s.
m.
s.

DIBXR

1 pi.
2 m.pl

DIBAR

.
2 f.pl
.

i

DABR

2 f.s.

f.pl.

1
2
2
3

DABR

na

DAB^R

m.pl.

In the past tense

suffix

DABER

m DABR im
e
m DABR ot
e
stem vowel /i/•

ti
ta
DIBAR t
DIBER
DIBAR

DIBAR

nu
tem

DIBAR

ten

3 f-s.

DIBR a

.

3 pi•

DIBR u

In the following drills the instructor will give a sentence containing a time
word such as /maxar/ "tomorrow", /axSav/ "now", /etmol/ "yesterday".
The class repeats this sentence. The instructor then supplies either a
substitution for the time-word or for the subject. When the instructor supplies a
time-word, the student then changes the verb to the suitable tense form.
Example: Instructor: moSe kibel mixtav etmol. "Moshe got a letter yesterday"
Student: moSe kibel mixtav etmol.

671

UNIT

UNIT

22

HEBREW

BASIC

Instructor: maxar.
"tomorrow" COURSE
Student: moSe yekabel mixtav maxar."Moshe will get a letter tomorrow".
When the instructor supplies a new subject the student responds by changing the
verb form to the correct person while maintaining the tense.
Example: Instructor: moSe yekabel mixtav maxar."Moshe will get a letter tomorrow"
Student: moSe yekabel mixtav maxar.
Instructor: miryam.
"Miriam".
Student: miryam tekabel mixtav maxar."Miriam will get a letter

tomorrow".

These drills require the students to pay very close attention because the
shifts are quick. If the student gives correct sentence but not the response called
for by the cue, then the instructor should give the cue again without discussion.
This will keep the drills moving rapidly. The entire responses of some drills are
given below in Hebrew. These sentences may be used as a reading drill, also.
A. hu medaber axSav im haxenvani. "He's speaking with the storekeeper now."

.‫הוא מדבר עכשיו עם החנווני‬

672

‫‪UNIT‬‬

‫‪HEBREW‬‬

‫‪BASIC COURSE‬‬

‫‪.‬‬
‫‪1‬‬

‫רחל‬

‫רחל מדברת עכשיו עם החנווני‪.‬‬

‫‪.‬‬
‫‪2‬‬
‫‪.‬‬
‫‪3‬‬

‫אתמול‬

‫רחל דברה אתמול עם החנווני‪.‬‬

‫אתן‬

‫אתן דברתן אתמול עם החנווני‪.‬‬

‫עכשי ו‬
‫הם‬
‫מחר‬
‫הן‬
‫אתמו ל‬
‫הוא‬
‫מחר‬

‫א־!ן מדברות עכשיו עם החנווני‪.‬‬
‫הס מדברים עכשיו עם החנווני‪.‬‬
‫הם ידברו מחד עם החווני‪.‬‬
‫הן תדברנה מחר עם החנווני‪.‬‬
‫הן דברו אתמול עם החנווני‪.‬‬
‫הוא דבר אתמול עם החנווני‪.‬‬
‫הוא ידבר מחר עם החנווני‪.‬‬

‫אנו‬

‫אנו נדבר מחר עם החנווני‪.‬‬

‫עכשי ו‬

‫אנו מדברים עכשיו עם החנווני‪.‬‬

‫‪axSav‬‬

‫דליה‬

‫דליה מדברת עכשיו עם החנווני‪.‬‬

‫‪dalya‬‬

‫•‪13‬‬

‫אתמול‬

‫דליה דברה אתמול עם החנווני‪.‬‬

‫‪etmol‬‬

‫‪14.‬‬

‫אתם ‪.‬‬

‫אתם דברתם אתמול עם החנווני‪.‬‬

‫‪atem‬‬

‫•‪15‬‬

‫עכשי ו‬

‫אתם מדברים עכשיו אם החנווני‪.‬‬

‫‪axSav‬‬

‫‪16‬‬
‫‪.‬‬

‫מר כספי‬

‫מר כספי מדבר עכשיו עם החנווני‪.‬‬

‫‪mar kaspi‬‬

‫•‪17‬‬

‫אתמו ל‬

‫מר כספי דיבר אתמול עם החנווני‪,‬‬

‫‪etmol‬‬

‫‪.‬‬
‫‪19‬‬

‫חנה‬

‫חנה דברה אתמול עם החנווני‪.‬‬

‫‪xcina‬‬

‫‪18‬‬
‫‪.‬‬
‫‪19‬‬
‫•‬

‫‪.‬‬
‫‪20‬‬
‫‪.‬‬
‫‪21‬‬
‫‪.‬‬
‫‪22‬‬
‫׳‪,‬‬
‫‪.2‬‬
‫‪.‬‬
‫‪24‬‬
‫‪.‬‬
‫‪25‬‬
‫‪.‬‬
‫‪26‬‬

‫מחד‬

‫חנה תדבר מחר עם החנווני‪.‬‬

‫‪maxar‬‬

‫‪20.‬‬

‫הם‬

‫הם ידברו מחר עם החנווני‪.‬‬

‫‪hem‬‬

‫‪21.‬‬

‫עכשיו‬

‫הס מדברים עכשיו עם החנווני‪.‬‬

‫‪axSav‬‬

‫‪22.‬‬

‫היא‬

‫היא מדברת עכשיו עם החנווני‪.‬‬

‫‪hi‬‬

‫•‪23‬‬

‫אתמול‬

‫היא דברה אתמול עם החנווני‪.‬‬

‫‪etmol‬‬

‫‪24.‬‬

‫אתה ומשה‬

‫אתה ומשה דברתם אתמול עם החנווני‪.‬‬

‫‪ata vemoSe‬‬

‫•‪25‬‬

‫מחד‬

‫אתה ומשה תדברו מחד עם החנווני‪.‬‬

‫‪maxar‬‬

‫‪26‬‬
‫‪.‬‬

‫הוא ואשתו‬

‫הוא ואשתו ידברו•מחר עם החנווני‪.‬‬

‫‪hu veiSto‬‬

‫•‪27‬‬

‫עכשי ו‬

‫הוא ואשתו מדברים עכשיו עם החנווני‪.‬‬

‫‪axSav‬‬

‫‪28.‬‬

‫אנו‬

‫אנו מדברים עכשיו עם החנווני‪.‬‬

‫‪anu‬‬

‫•‪29‬‬

‫‪.4‬‬
‫‪.5‬‬
‫‪.6‬‬
‫ד‪.‬‬
‫‪.8‬‬
‫‪.9‬‬
‫‪.‬‬
‫‪10‬‬
‫‪.‬‬
‫‪11‬‬
‫‪.‬‬
‫‪12‬‬
‫‪.‬‬
‫‪13‬‬
‫‪.‬‬
‫‪14‬‬
‫‪.‬‬
‫‪15‬‬
‫‪.‬‬
‫‪16‬‬
‫‪.‬‬
‫‪17‬‬
‫‪.‬‬
‫‪18‬‬

‫‪.‬‬
‫‪27‬‬
‫‪.‬‬
‫‪28‬‬
‫‪.‬‬
‫‪29‬‬

‫'‪raxel‬‬

‫‪1.‬‬

‫‪etmol‬‬

‫‪2.‬‬

‫‪aten‬‬

‫•‪3‬‬

‫‪axSav‬‬
‫‪hem‬‬
‫‪maxar‬‬
‫‪hen‬‬
‫‪etmol‬‬
‫‪hu‬‬
‫‪maxar‬‬

‫‪4.‬‬
‫•‪5‬‬
‫‪6.‬‬
‫•‪7‬‬
‫‪8.‬‬
‫•‪9‬‬
‫‪10.‬‬

‫‪anu‬‬

‫‪11.‬‬
‫‪12.‬‬

‫‪20‬‬

‫‪[fiote: /axSav/^occurs with the future and past tenses, also, but with a change‬‬
‫"‪of meaning, /dibarti ito axSav./ "I have just spoken with him.‬‬
‫‪/adaber ito axSav. / "I'll soeak with him now." However, in these drills‬‬
‫]‪/axsav/ is used only as a cue for the present tense.‬‬

‫‪673‬‬

‫‪BASIC‬‬

‫‪UNIT‬‬

‫‪HEBREW‬‬

‫‪COURSE‬‬

‫‪22‬‬

‫"‪B. hu meSalem lo axSav et hakesef. "He's paying him the money now.‬‬

‫נשלם לו מחר בבוקר את הכסף‪.‬‬
‫שלמנו‬
‫אנו‬
‫‪ .8‬כשבוע שעבר‬
‫שעבר את הכסף‪.‬‬

‫‪ .9‬אני‬
‫‪ .10‬עכשיו‬
‫‪ .11‬הם‬
‫‪ .12‬בעור חורש‬
‫‪ .13‬את‬
‫‪ .14‬לפני יומיים‬
‫‪ .15‬הוא‬
‫‪ .16‬עכשיו‬
‫‪ .17‬אתן‬
‫‪ .18‬כשבוע הבא‬
‫‪ .19‬אתה‬
‫‪ .20‬לפני שעה‬
‫‪ .21‬אני‬
‫‪ .22‬ברגע זה‬
‫‪ .23‬רחל‬
‫‪ .24‬בלוד שעה‬
‫‪ .25‬משפחת זהבי‬
‫‪ .2.6‬שלשום‬
‫‪ .27‬יעל‬
‫‪ .28‬עכשיו‬

‫לו‬

‫בשבוע‬

‫הכש‬
‫ו‬

‫אני שלמתי לו בשבוע שעבר את הכסף‪.‬‬
‫אני משלם לו עכשיו את הכסף‪.‬‬
‫הם משלמים לו עכשיו את הכסף‪.‬‬
‫הם ישלמו לו בעור חורש את הכסף‪.‬‬
‫את תשלמי לו בעוד חורש את הכסף‪.‬‬
‫את שלמת לו לפני יומיים את הכסף‪.‬‬
‫הוא שלם לו לפני יומיים את הכסף‪.‬‬
‫הוא משלם לו עכשיו את הכסף‪.‬‬
‫אתן משלמות לו עכשיו את הכסף‪.‬‬
‫אתן תשלמנה לו בשבוע הבא את הכסף‪.‬‬
‫אתה תשלם לו בשבוע הבא את הכסף‪.‬‬
‫אתה שלמת לו לפני שעה את הכסף‪.‬‬
‫אני שלמתי לו ל^ני שעה את הכסף‪.‬‬
‫אני משלם לו ברגע זה את הכסף‪.‬‬
‫רחל משלמת לו ברגע זה את הכסף‪.‬‬
‫רחל תשלם לו בעוד שעה את הכסף‪.‬‬
‫משפחת זהבי תשלם לו בעוד שעה את הכסף‪,‬‬
‫משפחת זהבי שלמה לו שלשום את הכסף‪.‬‬
‫יעל שלמה לו שלשום את הכסף‪.‬‬
‫יעל משלמת לו עכשיו את הכסף‪.‬‬

‫הוא ‪ R,;:‬לו ‪:/‬כשיו‬
‫‪1.‬‬

‫‪sara‬‬
‫‪etmol‬‬
‫‪2.‬‬
‫‪yaakov‬‬
‫•‪3‬‬
‫‪axSav‬‬
‫‪4.‬‬
‫‪hen‬‬
‫•‪5‬‬
‫‪maxar baboker‬‬
‫‪6.‬‬
‫‪anu‬‬
‫•‪7‬‬
‫‪baSavua Seavar‬‬
‫‪8.‬‬
‫‪ani‬‬
‫•‪9‬‬
‫‪10. axSav‬‬
‫‪11. hem‬‬
‫‪12. beod xodeS‬‬
‫‪13• at‬‬
‫‪14. lifney yomaim‬‬
‫‪15• hu‬‬
‫‪16. axSav‬‬
‫‪17• aten‬‬
‫‪18• baSavua haba‬‬
‫‪19• ata‬‬
‫‪20. lifney Saa‬‬
‫‪21. ani‬‬
‫‪22. berega ze‬‬
‫‪23• raxel‬‬
‫‪24. beod Saa‬‬
‫‪25• mlSpaxat zahavi‬‬
‫‪26. SilSom‬‬
‫‪27. yael‬‬
‫‪28• axSav‬‬
‫שרה‬
‫‪ .1‬שרה‬
‫את‬
‫עכשיו‬
‫לו‬
‫משלמת‬
‫הכסף‪.‬‬
‫שרה‬
‫‪ .2‬אתמול‬
‫את‬
‫אתמול‬
‫לו‬
‫שלמה‬
‫הכסף‪.‬‬
‫יעקב‬
‫‪ .3‬יעקב‬
‫את‬
‫אתמול‬
‫לו‬
‫שלם‬
‫הכסף‪.‬‬
‫יעקב‬
‫‪ .4‬עכשיו‬
‫את‬
‫עכשיו‬
‫לו‬
‫משלם‬
‫הכסף‪.‬‬
‫הן‬
‫‪ .5‬הן‬
‫משלמות לו עכשיו את‬
‫הכסף‪.‬‬
‫הן‬
‫‪ .6‬מחר כבוקר‬
‫תשלמנה לו מחר כבוקר‬
‫את הכסף‪.‬‬
‫אנו‬
‫‪ .7‬אנו‬

‫"‪C. hu mekabel et haxavila axSav. "He's receiving the package now.‬‬

‫הוא מקנ י איו ההי״ילה עכשיו‪.‬‬

‫‪674‬‬

‫‪UNIT‬‬

‫‪HEBREW‬‬

‫‪BASIC COURSE‬‬

‫‪.1‬‬

‫ה י‬
‫א‬
‫בשנה שעברה‬

‫‪.3‬‬
‫‪.4‬‬

‫את‬
‫עכשי‬
‫ו‬
‫הם‬
‫בעוד חודש‬
‫הן‬

‫‪.2‬‬

‫‪.5‬‬
‫‪.6‬‬
‫‪.7‬‬
‫‪.8‬‬
‫פ‪.‬‬
‫‪.‬‬
‫‪10‬‬
‫‪.‬‬
‫‪11‬‬
‫‪.‬‬
‫‪12‬‬
‫‪.‬‬
‫‪13‬‬
‫‪.‬‬
‫‪14‬‬
‫‪.‬‬
‫‪15‬‬
‫‪.‬‬
‫‪16‬‬
‫‪.‬‬
‫‪17‬‬
‫‪.‬‬
‫‪18‬‬
‫‪.‬‬
‫‪19‬‬
‫‪.‬‬
‫‪20‬‬
‫‪.‬‬
‫‪21‬‬
‫‪.‬‬
‫‪22‬‬
‫‪.‬‬
‫‪23‬‬
‫‪.‬‬
‫‪24‬‬
‫‪.‬‬
‫‪25‬‬
‫‪.‬‬
‫‪20‬‬
‫‪.‬‬
‫‪27‬‬

‫לפג‬
‫י‬
‫משה‬

‫שב ו ע‬

‫עכשי‬
‫ו‬
‫לאה‬
‫מחר‬
‫אתה‬
‫לפני חורש‬
‫אתם‬
‫עכשי‬
‫ו‬
‫אני‬
‫בקרו‬
‫ב‬
‫אתן‬
‫לפני יומיים‬
‫יעקב‬
‫עכשי‬
‫ו‬
‫מר י‬
‫ם‬
‫כעוד יומיים‬
‫גב י 'ונם‬
‫ג‬
‫אתמו‬
‫ל‬
‫אתה‬

‫הי‬
‫א‬
‫הי‬
‫א‬
‫את‬
‫את‬
‫הם‬
‫הם‬
‫הן‬
‫הן‬

‫מקבלת את החבילה עכשיו‪.‬‬
‫קבלה את החבילה כשנה‬
‫•עעברה‪.‬‬
‫קבלת את החבילה בשנה שעברה‪.‬‬
‫מקבלת את החבילה עכשיו‪.‬‬
‫מקבלים את החבילה עכשיו‪.‬‬
‫יקבלו את החבילה כעוד חודש‪.‬‬
‫תקבלנה את החבילה בעור‬
‫חורש‪.‬‬
‫קבלו את החבילה לפני שבוע‪.‬‬
‫קבל את החבילה לפני שבוע‪.‬‬

‫מש‬
‫ה‬
‫מש מקבל את החבילה עכשיו‪.‬‬
‫ה‬
‫לא מקבלת את החבילה עכשיו‪.‬‬
‫ה‬
‫לא תקבל את החבילה מחר‪.‬‬
‫ה‬
‫את תקבל את החבילה מחר‪.‬‬
‫ה‬
‫את קבלת את החבילה לפני חורש‪.‬‬
‫ה‬
‫את קבלתם את החנילה לפני חודש‪.‬‬
‫ם‬
‫את מקבלים את החבילה עכשיו‪.‬‬
‫ם‬
‫אנ מקבל את החבילה עכשיו‪,‬‬
‫י‬
‫אנ אקבל את החבילה בקרוב‪.‬‬
‫י‬
‫את תקבלנה את החבילה בקרוב‪.‬‬
‫ן‬
‫את קבלתן את החבילה לפני‬
‫יומיים‪,‬‬
‫ן‬
‫יעקב קבל את החבילה לפני‬
‫יומיים‪.‬‬
‫יעקב מקבל את החבילה עכשיו‪.‬‬
‫ם מקבלת את החבילה עכשיו‪.‬‬

‫מר‬
‫י‬
‫מרים תקבלאת החבילה כעור‬
‫יומיים‪.‬‬
‫גב גיונם תקבל את החבילה בעור‬
‫יו‬
‫י‬
‫גב ג י ו נ ם קבלה את החבילה‬
‫אתמול‪.‬‬
‫י‬
‫את קבלת את החבילה אתמול‪.‬‬
‫ה‬

‫‪675‬‬

‫‪20‬‬

‫‪hi‬‬
‫‪baSana Seavra‬‬
‫‪at‬‬
‫‪axSav‬‬
‫‪hem‬‬
‫‪beod xodeS‬‬
‫‪hen‬‬
‫‪lifney Savua‬‬
‫‪mo&e‬‬
‫‪axSav‬‬
‫‪lSa‬‬
‫‪maxar‬‬
‫‪ata‬‬
‫‪lifney x6deS‬‬
‫‪atem‬‬
‫‪axSav‬‬
‫‪ani‬‬
‫‪bekarov‬‬
‫‪aten‬‬
‫‪lifney yomaim‬‬
‫‪yaakov‬‬
‫‪axSav‬‬
‫‪miryam‬‬
‫‪beod yomaim‬‬
‫‪gveret jones‬‬
‫‪etmol‬‬
‫‪ata‬‬

‫‪1.‬‬
‫‪2.‬‬
‫•‪3‬‬
‫‪4.‬‬
‫•‪5‬‬
‫‪6.‬‬
‫•‪7‬‬
‫‪8.‬‬
‫•‪9‬‬
‫‪10.‬‬
‫‪11.‬‬
‫•‪12‬‬
‫•‪13‬‬
‫‪1^.‬‬
‫•‪15‬‬
‫‪16.‬‬
‫•‪17‬‬
‫•‪18‬‬
‫•‪19‬‬
‫‪20.‬‬
‫‪21.‬‬
‫‪22.‬‬
‫•‪23‬‬
‫‪24.‬‬
‫•‪25‬‬
‫‪26.‬‬
‫•‪27‬‬

BASIC COURSE_________________________HEBREW ____________________________UNIT

21

(b) Alternating first radicals
When the first root consonant Is b, or k (spelled ‫ ) כ‬the consonant will
vary. Xn prefixed forms the consonant is /v/,/f/, and /x/ respectively. In other
forms it is /b/, /p/, and /k/. The chart below illustrates this alternation.
Prefixed forms
Infinitive: le VakeS
Imperative:
BakeS etc.
Future: a vakeS

te vakeS etc.

Present: me VakeS etc.
Past: BikaSti
BikaSta etc.

Some roots have /v/ (spelled ‫ ) י‬throughout the conjugation:/viter/ "he
conceded" ‫ויתר‬. There are not many of these verbs, and no verbs have /b/ throughout.
Some slang verbs have /f/ throughout the conjugation: /fisfes/ "he missed (the
target)".
The k/x alternation poses a problem, although once the student has learned to
read he can use the spelling to help fix the alternation, or lack of it, in his speech
habits.
Some verbs have /k/ in all forms of the binyan. /lekabel/ "to receive".
These are spelled with ‫ ק‬.
Some have /x/ in all forms: /xilek/ "he
distributed". These are spelled with ‫ח‬

(c) Verbs with four radicals
Verbs with four root consonants occur in the pi'el. The pattern is similar to the
regular verbs but with the two middle consonants taking the place of the second
consonant of the three-consonant verb roots.
m.s. imv. / ta rg em/ "translate" / da
b er/ "speak"
In one respect these four-consonant verbs are simpler than the three- consonant
verbs. In the forms with a vowel suffix the dropping of the precedinc vowel would cause
a three-consonant cluster to result. The /e/ would then occui anyway. Thus, the stems of
these verbs are constant throughout the tenses.
2 m.s. /tetargem/ "you will translate"
2 f.s. /tetargemi/
|jtn the following drill the time word is put first in order to avoid an ambiguity J)
D. ax¥av hu mevakeS midavid lavo bazman. "NOW he's asking David to come on time."

676

‫‪.‬‬
‫‪1‬‬

‫‪.‬עכשיו הוא מבקש מרוד לבוא בזמן‬

‫רחל‬

‫עכשיו רחל מל קשת מרוד לבוא כזמן‪.‬‬

‫‪.2‬‬
‫‪.3‬‬

‫אתמול‬
‫אתם‬
‫עכשי ו‬
‫הם‬
‫מחר‬
‫הן‬
‫אתמו ל‬
‫הוא‬
‫מחר‬

‫אתמול רחל ביקשה מדור לבוא בזמן‪.‬‬
‫אתמול אתם ביקשתם מרוד לבוא בזמן‪.‬‬
‫עכשיו אתם מבקשים מרוד לבוא כזמן‪.‬‬
‫עכשיו הש מבקשים מרוד לבוא בזמן‪.‬‬
‫מחר הם יבקשו מרור לבוא בזמן‪.‬‬
‫מחר הן תבקשנה מרור לבוא בזמן‪.‬‬
‫אתמול הן ביקשו מרור לבוא בזמן‪.‬‬
‫אתמול הוא ביקש מדוד לבוא בזמן‪.‬‬
‫מחר הוא יבקש מדוד לבוא בזמן‪.‬‬

‫‪.‬‬
‫‪11‬‬
‫‪.‬‬
‫‪12‬‬

‫אנו‬

‫מחר אנו נבקש מדור לבוא בזמן‪.‬‬

‫עכשי ו‬

‫עכשיו אנו מבקשים מרור לנוא בזמן‪.‬‬

‫דליה‬

‫עכשיו דליה מבקשת מדור לבוא בזמן‪.‬‬

‫אתמו ל‬

‫אתמול דליה בקשה מרור לבוא בזמן‪.‬‬

‫‪.4‬‬

‫‪.5‬‬
‫‪.6‬‬
‫‪.7‬‬

‫‪.8‬‬
‫‪.9‬‬
‫‪.‬‬
‫‪10‬‬

‫‪.‬‬
‫‪13‬‬

‫‪raxel‬‬

‫‪1.‬‬

‫‪etmol‬‬
‫‪atem‬‬
‫‪axSav‬‬
‫‪hem‬‬
‫‪maxar‬‬
‫‪hen‬‬
‫‪etmol‬‬
‫‪hu‬‬
‫‪maxar‬‬

‫‪2.‬‬

‫‪anu‬‬

‫‪.‬‬
‫‪HEBREW 14‬‬
‫‪UNIT 21‬‬
‫אתמול אתן בקשתן מרוד לבוא כזמן‪.‬‬
‫‪ .‬אתן‬
‫‪15‬‬
‫‪is a list of substitutions to be used in drilling the sentences‬‬
‫עכשיו אתן מבקשות מדוד לבוא בזמן‪.‬‬
‫‪ .‬עכשיו‬

‫‪16‬‬

‫‪.‬‬

‫‪etmol‬‬

‫שושנה‬

‫אתמול שושנה בי קשה מרוד לבוא‬
‫כזמן‪.‬‬

‫מחר‬

‫מחר שושנה תבקש מדוד לבוא בזמן‪.‬‬

‫הם‬

‫מחר הם יבקשו מדור לבוא בזמן‪.‬‬

‫עכשי ו‬

‫עכשיו הם מבקשים מדוד לבוא בזמן‪.‬‬

‫משפחת אלון‬

‫עכשיו משפחת אלון מבקשת מדוד לבוא כזמן‪.‬‬

‫‪miSpaxat alon‬‬

‫כזמן‪.‬‬

‫‪etmol‬‬

‫‪SoSana‬‬
‫‪maxar‬‬
‫‪hem‬‬
‫‪ax&av‬‬

‫אתמו ל‬

‫אתמול משפחת אלון בי קשה מרוד‬
‫לבוא‬

‫אתה ומשה‬

‫אתמול אתה ומשה ביקשתם מרוד לבוא בזמן‪.‬‬

‫‪ata vemo&e‬‬

‫‪.‬‬

‫‪maxar‬‬

‫מחר‬

‫מחר אחה ומשה תבקשו מדור לבוא‬
‫בזמן‬

‫החיילים‬

‫מחר החיילים יבקשו מרור לבוא‬
‫בזמן‪.‬‬

‫עכשי ו‬

‫עכשיו החיילים מבקשים מרור לבוא בזמן‪.‬‬

‫‪haxayalim‬‬
‫‪axSav‬‬

‫‪maxar hu yefahek bakita.‬‬
‫"‬

‫‪/‬‬

‫שרה‬

‫מחר שרה תפהק בכיתה‪.‬‬

‫אתמו ל‬
‫י עקב‬
‫עכשי ו‬
‫מחר בבוקר‬
‫אנו‬
‫אתמול בערב‬
‫אני‬
‫עכשי ו‬

‫אתמול שרה פיהקה ככיתה‪.‬‬
‫אתמול יעקב פיהק ככיתה‪.‬‬
‫עכשיו יעקב מפהק ככיתה‪.‬‬
‫עכשיו הן מפהקות ככיתה‪.‬‬
‫מחר בבוקר הן תפהקנה ככיתה‪.‬‬
‫מחר בבוקר אנו נפהק בכיתה‪.‬‬
‫אתמול כערב אנו ‪;:‬יהקנו בכיתה‪.‬‬
‫אתמול בערב אני פ י הקת י ככיתה‪.‬‬
‫עכשיו אני מפהק בכיתה‪.‬‬

‫‪.‬‬
‫‪11‬‬

‫‪ .‬הם‬

‫עכשיו הם מפהק ים בכיתה‪.‬‬

‫‪.‬‬
‫‪12‬‬
‫‪.‬‬
‫‪13‬‬

‫מחר‬

‫מחר הם יפהקו בכיתה‪.‬‬

‫‪maxar‬‬

‫את‬

‫מחר את תפהקי בכיתה‪.‬‬

‫‪at‬‬

‫לפני‬
‫יומיים‬
‫הוא‬

‫לפני יומיים את ‪!:‬יה ק ת בכיתה‪.‬‬
‫לפני יומיים הוא פיהק בכיתה‪.‬‬

‫עכשי ו‬

‫עכשיו הוא מפהק בכיתה‪.‬‬

‫אתן‬

‫עכשיו אתן מההקות בכיתה‪.‬‬

‫מחר‬

‫מחר אתן תפהקנה ככיתה‪.‬‬

‫אתה‬

‫מחר אתה תפהק בכיתה‪.‬‬

‫לפני שעה‬

‫לפני שעה אתה פיה ק ת בכי ת־‪.‬‬

‫אנו‬

‫לפני שעה אבו פיהק נו ככיתה‪.‬‬

‫כרגע זה‬

‫ברגע זה אנו מפהקים ככיתה‪.‬‬

‫רחל‬

‫ברגע זה רחל מפהקת בכיתה‪.‬‬

‫כעור שעה‬

‫כעור שעה רחל תפהק ככיחה‪.‬‬

‫‪.5‬‬
‫‪.6‬‬
‫‪.7‬‬
‫‪.8‬‬
‫‪.9‬‬
‫‪.‬‬
‫‪10‬‬

‫‪.‬‬
‫‪14‬‬

‫‪.‬‬
‫‪15‬‬
‫‪.‬‬
‫‪16‬‬
‫‪.‬‬
‫‪17‬‬
‫‪.‬‬
‫‪16‬‬
‫‪.‬‬
‫‪19‬‬
‫‪.‬‬
‫‪20‬‬
‫‪.‬‬
‫‪21‬‬
‫‪.‬‬
‫‪22‬‬
‫‪.‬‬
‫‪23‬‬
‫‪.‬‬

‫‪sara‬‬

‫‪1.‬‬

‫‪etmol‬‬
‫‪yaakov‬‬
‫‪axSav‬‬
‫‪hen‬‬
‫‪maxar baboker‬‬

‫‪2.‬‬
‫•‪3‬‬

‫‪anu‬‬
‫‪etmol baerev‬‬
‫‪ani‬‬
‫‪axSav‬‬

‫‪hem‬‬

‫‪677‬‬

‫‪11‬‬
‫‪.‬‬

‫‪18‬‬
‫‪.‬‬
‫‪19‬‬
‫•‬
‫‪20‬‬
‫‪.‬‬
‫‪21‬‬
‫‪.‬‬
‫‪22‬‬
‫‪.‬‬
‫‪23‬‬
‫•‬
‫‪24‬‬
‫‪.‬‬
‫‪25‬‬
‫•‬
‫‪26‬‬
‫‪.‬‬
‫‪27‬‬
‫•‬
‫‪28‬‬
‫‪.‬‬
‫‪E.‬‬
‫‪1‬‬

‫‪.‬‬
‫‪18‬‬
‫‪.‬‬
‫‪19‬‬
‫‪.‬‬
‫‪20‬‬
‫‪.‬‬
‫‪21‬‬
‫‪.‬‬
‫‪22‬‬
‫‪.‬‬
‫‪23‬‬
‫‪.‬‬
‫‪24‬‬
‫‪.‬‬
‫‪25‬‬
‫‪.‬‬
‫‪26‬‬
‫‪.‬‬
‫‪27‬‬
‫‪.‬‬
‫‪28‬‬

‫ין‬

‫‪10‬‬
‫‪.‬‬

‫‪.‬‬

‫אתמול‬

‫‪.4‬‬

‫‪8.‬‬
‫•‪9‬‬

‫‪mar kaspi‬‬

‫‪.‬‬
‫‪17‬‬

‫‪.‬‬
‫‪1‬‬
‫‪.2‬‬
‫‪.3‬‬

‫•‪5‬‬
‫‪6.‬‬
‫•‪7‬‬

‫‪17‬‬
‫•‬

‫מר כספי‬

‫‪II‬‬

‫‪4.‬‬

‫‪12 axSav‬‬
‫‪.‬‬
‫‪13 dalya‬‬
‫•‬
‫‪14 etmol‬‬
‫‪BASIC .COURSE‬‬
‫‪15 aten‬‬
‫‪• The following‬‬
‫‪ axSav‬־‬
‫‪1‬‬
‫‪6‬‬

‫עכשיו מר כספי מבקש מרור לבוא‬
‫בזמן‬
‫אתמול מר כספי ביקש מרור לבוא‬
‫בזמן‬

‫‪Tomorrow he'11 be yawning in‬‬
‫‪class‬‬
‫מחר הוא יפהק ככיתה‪.‬‬

‫•‪3‬‬

‫•‪5‬‬
‫‪6.‬‬
‫•‪7‬‬
‫‪8.‬‬
‫•‪9‬‬
‫‪10‬‬
‫‪.‬‬
‫‪11‬‬
‫‪.‬‬
‫‪12‬‬
‫‪.‬‬
‫‪13‬‬
‫•‬

‫‪lifney yomaim‬‬

‫‪hu‬‬
‫‪axSav‬‬
‫‪aten‬‬

‫‪maxar‬‬
‫‪ata‬‬
‫‪lifney Saa‬‬

‫‪anu‬‬
‫‪berega ze‬‬

‫‪raxel‬‬
‫‪Saa‬‬

‫‪beod‬‬

‫‪15‬‬
‫•‬
‫‪16‬‬
‫‪.‬‬
‫‪17‬‬
‫•‬
‫‪18‬‬
‫‪.‬‬
‫‪19‬‬
‫•‬
‫‪20‬‬
‫‪.‬‬
‫‪21‬‬
‫‪.‬‬
‫‪22‬‬
‫‪.‬‬
‫‪23‬‬
‫•‬
‫‪24‬‬

Some of the substitutions will produce sentences which may seem strange out of
context. It should be remembered that the translations of the three Hebrew tenses need
not be simple and rigid. Thus, the sentence /lifney Savua hu gidel perot banegev/ may
be translated "A week ago he was growing fruit in the Negev. [This week he's working in
an office in the city}", rather than the awkward "A week ago he grew fruit in the
Negev." In any case,the goal is to control automatically and with ease all the forms of
the binyan with any root.

‫עכשיו‬
‫אתמול‬
‫מחר‬
‫עכשיו‬
‫לפני‬
‫יומיים‬
‫נעור‬
‫יומיים‬
‫כרגע‬
‫אתמול‬
‫בקרוב‬
‫עכשיו‬

‫הו‬
‫א‬
‫הו מכוון את‬
‫ מקלקל‬.‫א השעונים‬
.‫את התוכנית‬
‫הו עירב לאכול את‬
‫ וויתר‬.‫א וארוחה‬
.‫הו על הגלידה‬
‫א‬
.‫הו מנגב את הכוסות‬
.‫א מסדר את הבית‬
‫הו‬
‫א‬
.‫הו טלפן למר כספי‬
‫א סיפר לו את‬
.‫הו האמת‬
‫א‬
‫ לא‬.‫הו בייש את משה‬
.‫א ניקר בביתו‬
‫הו‬
‫א‬
.‫הו מטייל על החוף‬
.‫א לא ממהר למשרד‬
‫הו‬
‫א‬
‫הו מתרגם מאנגלית‬
‫ משדר את‬,‫א לעברית‬
‫הו החרשות לרדיו‬
‫א‬
‫הו מגדל פירות‬
‫ מנהל את‬.‫א בנגב‬
.‫הו בית הספר‬
‫א‬
‫הו מקפל את‬
‫ מחלק‬.‫א המכתבים‬
.‫הו את הדואר‬
‫א‬

‫א‬
.
‫ב‬
.
‫ג‬
.
‫ד‬
.
‫ה‬
.
‫ו‬
.
‫ז‬
.
‫ח‬
.
‫ט‬
.
‫י‬
‫כ‬
.
‫ל‬
.
‫מ‬
.
‫נ‬
.
‫ס‬
.
‫ע‬
.
‫צ‬
!

‫אתה‬
‫אתם‬
‫ה ז‬
‫אנו‬
‫הוא‬

‫אתמול‬
‫מחר‬
‫עכשיו‬
‫אתמול‬
‫כעוד חורש‬

‫אני‬
‫דוד‬
‫אשתו‬
‫אתך‬
‫הם‬

‫את‬

‫ברגע זה‬

‫הד‬

‫אתו‬
‫כולם‬
‫היא‬
‫אני‬

‫ני שבוע‬-‫לפ‬
‫מחר‬
‫עכשיו‬
‫שלשום‬

‫רב ואתה‬
‫אנו‬
‫את‬
‫אתה‬

A.He is setting the clocks.
B.He* s ruining the program.
C.He refused to eat the meal.
D.He passed up the ice cream.
E.He's wiping the glasses.
F.He's straightening the house.
G.He telephoned Mr. ^aspi.
H.He told him the truth.
I.He embarrassed Moshe.
J. He didn't visit his house.
K. He's strolling on the beach. L. He's not
hurrying to the office.
M. He translates from English to Hebrew. N.
He broadcasts the news on the radio.
O. He grows fruit in the Negev. P. He runs
the school.

678

HEBREW

BASIC COURSE

UNIT

Q. He folds the letters. R. He distributes the mail.
For further drill the instructor should combine sentences to make an expansion drill.
For example:
Instructor: hu nigev et hakosot. Student: hu nigev et
hakosot vesider et habait. Instructor: hi nigva et hakosot. Student:
hi nigva et hakosot vesidra et habait. Other suggestions for
combinations are:
.‫ הוא קלקל אותם‬.‫הוא לא נירוז את השעונים‬
.‫הוא סירב לאכול את הארוחה אכל הוא לא וויתר על הגלידה‬

21-5 lamed hey verbs in the pi'el conjugation

The following chart illustrates the conjugation of a lamed hey, verb in the pi'el.
Note that the stem is / xak/ in all forms except in the past where it is /xik-/. To
these stems are added the regular prefixes (if any) and the endings characteristic of
all lamed hey verbs.
Infinitive: le xak OT
Imperative: m.s. xak E f.s. xak I
Future: I s - a xak E 2 m.s. te xak
E
2f.s. te xak I
3m. s. ye xak E 3 f.s.
te xak E
Present: m.s. me xak E f.s. ne xak A

Past: 1 s. xik ITI 2 m.s. xik fTA
2"f.s. xik IT

3m.s. xik A 3 f-s. xik
i

TA

m.pl. xak U f.pl. xak
£NA
1pi. ne .:ak E
2m.pl. te xak U
2f.pl. te xak 1£nA
3m.pl. ye xak U
3 f.pl. te xak £NA
m.pl. me xak IM f.pl.
me xak OT
1pi. xik fNU
2m.pl. xik fTEM
2f.pl. xik fTEN
3pi. xik U

The list of substitutions from the preceding page should be used with the following
drill sentences:
A.He's waiting for a letter from the government.
B.He's hoping for good news.
C.He changed his mind.

.‫הוא מחכה למכתב מהממשלה‬
.‫הוא מקווה לחדשות טובות‬
.‫הוא שינה את דעתו‬

This last drill may be varied by having /daato/ changed to agree with the subject or
not.
/ani Sinlti et daati/ " I changed my mind." /ani Siniti

679

21

et daato/ " I changed his opinion."
21.6 Stem Vowel Variations in the pi'el
a)In the past tense of some pi'el verbs whose second root consonant is
or r the first stem vowel is /e/ rather than /i/, and the 3 m.s. stem has the
vowels /-e-a-/ instead of /-i-e-/.
/berarti/ "I found out"
/berar/ "he found out"
This usage is more like classical Hebrew, and some instructors will insist on it as
more "correct" than the regularized form /birer/. The latter, however, is commonly used
and has been cited in this text.
b)Some pi'el verbs have /of as the first stem vowel throughout the binyan. These verbs
are listed under roots with second radical vav (‫ )ו‬or yud (‫ ) י‬or under roots whose
second and third radicals are the same.
/komem/ "he re-established"
/Sorer/ "he sang"
/sovev/ "he circled"

root kvm
root Syr
root sbb

Some roots have two pi'el types with different meanings:
The root kvm ‫ קום‬has the pi'el form /kiyem/ "he fulfilled" ‫ קיים‬as well as /komem/
‫" קומם‬he re-established".
The root k v n ? ‫ כ י‬has the pi'el form /konen/ ‫ "כ ו נ ן‬h e
a s / * k i v e n / ‫ " כ י י ן‬h e directed".

established" as well

The list of substitutions in section 21.4 should be used with the following
sentences:

‫ הוא סובב אח‬.‫א‬
.‫הכנין‬
.‫ הוא שורר בהצגה‬.‫ב‬
‫ הוא עודר את‬.‫ג‬
.‫התלמידים‬

A.He circled the building.
B.He sang in the show.
C.He encouraged the students.

c) When the third radical is (spelled ‫ ) א‬the /'/ is dropped at the end of a word or
before a consonant. The first and second person past tense forms have the stem vowels
/-i-e-/.

680

HEBREW

BASIC COURSE

Imperative:

Past:

1

2
2
3

m. s

f.s.

male

‫מלא‬

mal' i

‫מלאי‬

s.
m.s.
f.s.
m.s.
f.s.

mileti
mileta
milet
mile
mil' a

‫מלאוזי‬
‫מלאת‬
‫מלאת‬
‫מילא‬
‫מי לאה‬

m.pl.

mal' u

‫מלאו‬

f.pl.

malena

‫מלאכה‬

2
2

pi.
m.pl.
f.pl.

milenu
miletem
mileten

‫מלאנו‬
‫מלאתם‬
‫מלאתן‬

3

pi.

mil' u

‫מילאו‬

1

D.He filled the bottles.

‫הבקבוקים‬
E.He made sure
‫הכתובת‬

.‫את‬

‫מילא‬

.‫את‬

of the address.

‫ווידא‬

‫הוא‬
‫הוא‬

21.1 Verbal Nouns of the pi'el
A noun may be derived from pi'el verbs in one of two patterns, or both.
C1iC2uC3 ‫־‬/kivun/
/s ipur/
/kibul/

"direction"
"story"
"capacity"

‫כוון‬
‫ספור‬
‫קבול‬

C1ac2ac3a /kavana/
/bakaSa/
/kabala/

"intention"
"request"
"reception"

‫כוונה‬
‫בקשה‬
‫קבלה‬

The first type is masculine, and the second is feminine.
It cannot be predicted for a particular verb which of these types will
occur, nor can the exact meaning be predicted. Compare the derived nouns of these
verbs:
/kiven/ "he directed"
‫כייז‬
/kivun/ "direction"
‫כיוון‬
/kavana/ "intention, aim" ‫כוונה‬
/kibel/ "he received"
/kibul/ "capacity"
/kabala/ "reception"

‫קיבל‬
‫קביל‬
‫קב לה‬

/bikeS/ "he requested"
‫ביקש‬
/bikuS/ "demand" (opp. of supply) ‫ביקוש‬
/bakaSa/ "request"

‫שה‬

‫כלו‬

In trying to form (guess) a verbal noun, the student should try the pattern C!
iC2uC3 first. There are more verbal nouns of this type than of the C1aC2aC3a type.

681

UNIT

21

.‫ר‬
.‫ה‬

In lamed hey verbs /y/ is used as the third consonant. See Grammar Note 20.5b.
/Sinuy/ "change"

,

‫שיני‬

In verbs whose second radical is (spelled ‫ ) א‬or r the first type has the
vowels /-e-u-/. Cf. Grammar Note 21.6a,
/Serut/ "service"

‫שרוח‬

A. Transformation Drill
Instructor: He visited Haifa. Student: The visit was yesterday.
.‫הב י קור היה אחמול‬

.‫הוא ביקר כחיפה‬. D

.‫הוא שידר את החדשות‬. E

,‫השידור היה אחמול‬

.‫הוא שינה את התוכנית‬. F

.‫השינוי היה אתמול‬

.‫האוטובוס איחר לבוא‬. G

.‫האיחור היה אחמול‬

682

BASIC COURSE 21-8 The pu'al ConjugationHEBREW
Compare the forms in the following

__________________pairs:
UNIT 21

/yesader/
"he will arrange" ‫יסדר‬
/yesudar/ "it will be arranged" ‫יסודר‬
/mekalkel/ "damages"
/ m e k u l k a l /

‫ל‬£‫ןל‬7 ‫מ‬
" d a m a g e d ‫״‬

‫מ ק ו ל ק ל‬

Note that the second form of each pair has the stem vowel pattern /-u-a-/ where the
other form has the pattern /-a-e-/ which has been drilled in the previous sections of this
unit. Note further that the second form is the passive of the first.
These passive forms are part of a conjugation traditionally called the pu'al (since the
3 m.s. past has that pattern.) The pu'al is very simple in structure. It is exactly like
the corresponding pi'el except that the vowels /-u-a-/ occur throughout in place of the
pi'el stem vowels. The /-a-/ will be dropped before suffixes beginning with a stressed
vowel: /yesudru avurenu batim/ "Houses will be arranged for us".
The f.s. present has the pattern: C!uC2eC3et ‫־‬/mesuderet/ "arranged"
The pu'al, however, is comparatively restricted in use. Not all pi'el verbs are so
easily transformed into passives. In theory they could be, but idiomati- cally other
constructions or conjugations are often used, for example, hitpa'el: /lehitkabel/ " to be
received"; the generalized statement:/medabrim ivrit kan/ "Hebrew is spoken here"; etc.
With some verbs only third person or impersonal subjects make sense in the pu'al:
/dubar/ "it was said".'

The present tense forms of certain verbs are in very frequent use, and these forms are
often treated as adjectives. Examples from the units so far are:
/meuxar/
/mecuyan/
/mekulkal/
/me'unary
/meSune/

"late"
"excellent"
"damaged"
"cloudy"
"strange"

‫מאוחר‬
‫מצוין‬
‫מקולקל‬
‫מעונן‬
‫מעונה‬

When the second radical is spelled (spelled ‫ ) א‬or r_, the stem vowels are /-o-a/.
These roots were discussed in Grammar Note 21.6a.
/mefo'ar/ "luxurious"

‫מפואר‬

The following drills should be done in reverse, also. A. Transformation Drill
‫יה‬

683

‫‪UN*T‬‬

‫‪22‬‬

‫_________________________‬
‫‪HEBREW‬‬
‫_________________________‬
‫‪Instructor: He will arrange a house for us.‬‬
‫‪Student: A house will be arranged for us.‬‬

‫‪BASIC COURSE‬‬

‫‪ .‬הוא יסדר עבורנו כיח‪.‬‬
‫‪1‬‬
‫‪ .‬הוא י ק א‬
‫ת‬
‫סל‬
‫‪2‬‬
‫‪ .‬הוא יחלק א‬
‫ת‬
‫‪3‬‬
‫‪ .‬הוא ישנה א‬
‫ת‬
‫‪4‬‬
‫‪ .‬הוא ינגב א‬
‫ת‬
‫‪5‬‬
‫‪ .‬הוא ישד א‬
‫ת‬
‫ר‬
‫‪6‬‬

‫יסודר עבורנו‬
‫בית‬
‫המעטפות‬
‫תקופלנה‪.‬‬

‫המעטפות‬
‫‪.‬‬
‫המכתבים‬
‫‪.‬‬
‫הסרר‪.‬‬

‫הסדר ישונה‪.‬‬

‫הכוס‪.‬‬

‫הכום תנוגב‪.‬‬

‫החדשות‪.‬‬

‫החדשות תשוררנה‪.‬‬

‫המכתבים יחולקו‪.‬‬

‫‪B. Transformation Drill‬‬
‫‪Instructor: He set up the house.‬‬
‫‪Student: The house was set.‬‬

‫‪ .1‬הוא סידר את הכית‪.‬‬

‫הבית סורר‪.‬‬

‫‪ .2‬הוא קיפל את המעטפות‪.‬‬

‫המעטפות קופלו‪.‬‬

‫‪ .,3‬הוא חילק את המכתבים‪.‬‬
‫‪ .4‬הוא עינה את הסדר‪.‬‬
‫‪ .5‬הוא ניגב את הכום‪.‬‬
‫‪ .6‬הוא שידר את החדשות‪.‬‬

‫המכתבים הולקו‪.‬‬
‫הסדר שונה‪.‬‬
‫הכוס נוגבה‪.‬‬
‫החרשות שוררו‪.‬‬
‫‪C. Transformation Drill‬‬

‫‪Instructor: He is straightening up the house.‬‬
‫‪Student: The house is in order.‬‬

‫‪ .1‬הוא מסדר את הבית‪.‬‬

‫הבית מסודר‪.‬‬

‫‪ .2‬הוא מקפל את המעטפות‪.‬‬

‫המעטפות מקופלות‪.‬‬

‫‪ .3‬הוא מחלק את המכתבים‪.‬‬

‫המכתבים מחולקים‪.‬‬

‫‪ .4‬הוא מנגב את הכוס‪.‬‬

‫הכום מנוגבת‪.‬‬

‫‪ .5‬הוא משדר את החדשות‪.‬‬

‫החדשות משודרות‪.‬‬

‫‪684‬‬

‫‪UNIT‬‬

‫‪HEBREW‬‬

‫‪BASIC COURSE‬‬

‫‪20‬‬
‫‪RAPID RESPONSE DRILL‬‬

‫‪ . 1‬מה מתכנך דור לעשות במוצאי שבת?‬
‫‪ . 2‬למה הוא רוצה ללכת לקולנוע מוגרבי?‬
‫‪ . 3‬מה רוצה עטרה לעשות?‬
‫‪ . 4‬מי החליט לאן ילכו?‬
‫‪ . 5‬איר יודיעו ליונתן על התוכנית?‬
‫‪ . 6‬באיזה שעה יעברו על יד ביתו?‬
‫‪REVIEW CONVERSATIONS‬‬

‫א‪:‬‬
‫ב‪:‬‬
‫א‪:‬‬
‫ב‪:‬‬
‫א‪:‬‬
‫כ‪:‬‬

‫משה‪ ,‬אנו הולכים לקולנוע הערב‪ .‬אתה רוצה להצטרף?‬
‫לא‪ ,‬תורה‪ .‬אני הולר לראות הצגה‪.‬‬
‫למה אתה מסרב להצטרף אלינו?‬
‫אני לא מסרב‪ .‬רווקא הערב אני רוצה ללכת ל״הבימה״‪.‬‬
‫ואתמול? אתמול ‪0‬רכת ללכת אתנו‪ ,‬וגם שלשום‪.‬‬
‫נו‪ ,‬רווקא השבוע לא יכולתי ללכת אתכם‪.‬‬

‫ג‪ ,:‬יעקב‪ ,‬האם שמעת שגבי כהן נוסעת לחיפה? ד‪ :‬לא‪ .‬לא ידעתי‪ .‬למה‬
‫לא הודעת לי קודם? ג‪ :‬עברתי על יד ביתר כדי להודיע לר אבל לא היית‬
‫בבית‪ .‬ד‪ :‬באיזה שעה עברת?• ג‪ :‬בערר בשש‪ ,‬שש וחצי‪ .‬ד‪ :‬אתה יורע‬
‫שאני במשרד עד רבע לשבע‪ .‬ג‪ :‬אה כן‪ .‬שכחתי‪.‬‬
‫ה‪ :‬האם החלטתם לאן תסעו הקיץ?‬
‫ו‪ :‬עור לא‪ .‬אני מקווה לראות את הנמל החדש באילת‪ ,‬אבל אישתי רוצה לנסוע לצפת‪ .‬ה‪ :‬אז‬
‫כנראה שחסעו לצפת‪.‬‬
‫ו‪ :‬מה אתה שח?! היא נותנת לי להחליט‪.‬‬
‫ז‪ :‬אני לא אוהב מה שאהרן עושה‪ .‬ח‪ :‬מה הוא עושה?‬
‫ז‪ :‬כל יום הוא משנה את הסדר במשרד ואנו לא יודעים היכן להתחיל והיכן לגמור‪ .‬ח‪ :‬אולי אתם‬
‫צריכים בשינויים? ז‪ :‬כן‪ .‬קצת‪ .‬אבל כל יום?! ח‪ :‬זה באמת משונה‪.‬‬
‫ט‪ :‬אדוני‪ ,‬בכמה האבטיח? י‪ :‬חצי לירה האבטיח‪ .‬ט‪ :‬חצי לירה?! למה זה כל כר יקר? י‪ :‬כי‬
‫הביקוש הוא גדול‪ .‬ט‪ :‬הביקוש? מי מבקש?‬
‫י‪ :‬מה זאת אומרת מי מבקש? אנשים מבקשים‪ ,‬ואנשים משלמים‪.‬‬

‫‪685‬‬

UNIT

HEBREW

22

BASIC
COURSE

‫בקופה‬

22.1 At the Box Office /bakupa/
DAVID
Sir.
Ple
ase
giv
e
me
thr
ee
tic
ket
s
for
toa
ior
row
.

adoni
ten li
bevaka
Sa
SloSa
kartis
im
lemaxa
r.

tic
ket
,
car

,‫אדוני‬

d

‫בבקשה‬

‫כדטים‬

k
a
r
t
i
s
(
m
)

686

‫תו לי‬
‫^לו^ה‬
‫כרטיסים‬

HEBREW

BASIC COURSE

20

Good seats,
please.

mekomot tovim
bevakaSa.

‫טובים‬

‫מקומות‬
.‫בבקשה‬

CASHIER /‫׳‬kupai/ ‫ק ו!■אי‬
I have
three
ticket
s
in
the
balcon
y.
yeS li
Sl
oS
a^
ka
rt

isim
bayac
ia.

y
a
c
i
a
(
m
)

‫כרטיסים‬

‫יש לי‬
‫שלושה‬
.‫ביציע‬

‫יציע‬

balcony

DAVID
In the center?

baimca
?

middle, center

emca
(m)

‫אמצע‬

?‫באמצע‬

CASHIER
A

bit on
the side,
but
it's
possible
to
see
well.

s
i
d
e

baca
d,
aval
efSa
r
lir'
ot
tov.

‫צר‬
‫אבל‬
‫אפש‬
‫ר‬
c
a
d

b
u
t

(
m
)
a
v
a
l
e
f
S
a
r

p
o
s
s
i
b
l
e

kcat

DAVID
In which row?

row

beeyze Sura?
Sura (f)

‫שורה‬

?‫באיזה שורה‬

687

.‫קצת בצר‬
‫אבל אפשר‬
‫לראות‬
.‫טוב‬

UNIT

UNIT

HEBREW

22

BASIC
COURSE

CASHIER
Ar
e
yo
u
in
te
re
st
ed
in
th
e
se
ve
nt
h
ro
w?
a
t
a

n
y
a
n
b
a
S
u
r
a
h
a
S
v
i
i
t
?

intere
sted

m
e
u

meuny
an(m.
s.)
‫א‬
‫ת‬

‫מ‬
‫ע‬
‫ו‬
‫נ‬
‫י‬
‫ן‬

‫ה‬
‫מ‬
‫ע‬
‫ו‬
‫נ‬
‫י‬
‫ן‬
^
‫ש‬
‫ו‬
‫ר‬
‫ה‬
‫ה‬
‫ש‬
‫ב‬
‫י‬
‫ע‬
‫י‬
‫ת‬
?

DAVID
These are

the
las
t
tic
ket
s?

‫ה‬
‫כ‬

‫י‬

elu
h
a
k
a
r
t
i
s
i
m
h
a
a
x
a
r
o
n
i
m
?

elu
axaron
‫אלו‬

thes
e
last

‫אלו‬
‫אחרו‬
‫ן‬

688

HEBREW

BASIC COURSE

20

‫יס‬
‫ים‬
‫הא‬
‫חר‬
‫ונ‬
‫ים‬
?

689

UNIT

UNIT

BASIC

HEBREW

22

COURSE

CASHIER
Yes, sir.
Do you want them?

ken, adoni.
ata roce otam?

.‫ אדוני‬,‫כן‬
?‫אתה רוצה אותם‬

DAVID

eyn li brera. ekax
otam. kama ani
xayav lexa?
brera (f)

All right. I have no choice. I'll
take them. How much do I owe you?

tov.

choice

.‫טוב‬
.‫איך לי ברירה‬
‫ כמה‬.‫אקח אותם‬
?‫אני חייב לך‬

‫ברירה‬
CASHIER

Eighteen liras.

22.2 ADDITIONAL VOCABULARY
Give me three
seats in the orchestra.
hall, orchestra
I'm interested
in good seats
on the aisle.
aisle
There
are
seats on the
left or on the
right.
left right
The seats are near the
stage.
stage, platform
The seats are near the
entrance.
entrance
The seats are near the exit.
exit
There is a parking place.
parking
They charge for parking.
fee,payment
The parking is free.
free
ten li Slo^a

Smone'esre lirot.

kartisim baulam.
ulam (m)
ani meunyan
bemekomot tovim
al yad hamaavar.
maavar (m)
yeS mekomot bacad
hasmali o bacad
hayemini.
smali (m.s.)
yemini
(m.s.)
hamekomot krovim
labama.
bama (f)
hamekomot krovim
laknisa.
knisa (f)
hamekomot krovim
layecia.
yecia (f)
ye'S mekom xanaya.
xanaya (f)
haxanaya betaSlum.
taSlum (m)
haxanaya xofSit.
xofSi (m.s.)

. ‫העשרה לירות‬
‫שמונ ־‬

‫או לם‬

‫אני מעונין‬
‫במקומות טובים‬
.‫על יד המעבר‬

‫מעבר‬
‫יש מקומות בצד‬
‫השמאלי או בצד‬
.‫הימיני‬
‫שמאל‬
‫י‬
‫ימי‬
‫נ י‬

‫כמה‬
‫כביסה‬
‫יציאה‬

‫חנייה‬
‫תשלו ם‬
‫חו פשי‬

690

‫תך לי שלושה‬
.‫כרטיסים באולם‬

‫המקומות קרובים‬
.‫לבמה‬
‫המקומות קרובים‬
.‫לכניסה‬
‫המקומות קרובים‬
.‫ליציאה‬
.‫יש מקום חנייה‬
.‫החנייה בתשלום‬
.‫החנייה חופשית‬

HEBREW

BASIC COURSE

20

22-3 The kal (pa'al) Conjugation
Though its name means "easy" this conjugation requires more drill to master
than the pi'el because there are more stem patterns for the tenses and more
consonant alternations. However, if the student has thoroughly learned the Basic
Sentences and verb drills of the preceding units he will find that he has already
mastered the most frequent variations and that the following charts will merely
diagram this knowledge.
At this point the student should review the phonological rules discussed in
Grammar Note 6.9* In the following charts the stems are indicated in capital letters,
but the euphonic vowels which break up the threeconsonant clusters are in lower-case letters.
A completely regular verb will
introduced one by one afterwards.

be

given

first,

be and the variations will

(a) Regular verb pattern
Forms with vowel suffix
Infinitive:
Imperative:

li
GMOR
GMO
R

m.s
.

f.s.
m.pl.

GM6R na

f.pl.

1
2
3
3
1

s.

e GMOR

GMeR i
m. s.2 f.s.titiGMOR
m. s.
yi GMOR
ti GMOR
F.s.
2m.pl. ti GMeR u
pi.
ni GMOR

3m.pl. yi GMeR u
ti GM6 R na

2 f.pl.
3 f.pl.

ti

691

m6r
na
G

GiMR i
GiMR u

UNIT

UNIT

BASIC

HEBREW

22

COURSE

A. hu yigmor et hahaxanot maxar. "He'll finish the preparations tomorrow."

GOMR im
GOMR ot

GAMR a

GAMR u

m.pl.
Present:
f.pl.

m.s.
f.s.

GOMER

Past:

s.

GAMXR

ti

GAMAR

ta

GAMAR

t

GAMAR
GAMAR
GAMAR
GAMAR

nu
tem
ten

1

3 f.s.

3 Pi-

2 m. s.
2 f.s.
3 m. s.
1 pi. 2
m.pl. 2
f.pl.

et

GOM£R

.‫הוא יגמור את ההכנות מחר‬

692

‫‪UNIT‬‬

‫‪HEBREW‬‬

‫‪BASIC COURSE‬‬

‫‪.1‬‬

‫אני‬

‫‪.2‬‬

‫אתמול‬

‫‪.3‬‬

‫אתה‬

‫‪.4‬‬

‫עכשי ו‬

‫‪.5‬‬

‫דוד‬

‫‪.6‬‬

‫מחר‬

‫ד‪.‬‬

‫אתם‬

‫‪.8‬‬

‫אתמו ל‬

‫‪.9‬‬
‫‪.‬‬
‫‪10‬‬
‫‪.‬‬
‫‪11‬‬
‫‪.‬‬
‫‪12‬‬
‫‪.‬‬
‫‪13‬‬
‫‪.‬‬
‫‪14‬‬
‫‪.‬‬
‫‪15‬‬
‫‪.‬‬
‫‪16‬‬
‫‪.‬‬
‫‪17‬‬
‫‪.‬‬
‫‪18‬‬
‫‪.‬‬
‫‪19‬‬

‫אשתו‬
‫עכשי ו‬

‫אנ‬
‫י‬
‫אנ גמרתי את ההכנות אתמול‪.‬‬
‫י‬
‫את גמרת את ההכנות אתמול‪.‬‬
‫ה‬
‫את גומר את ההכנות עכשיו‪.‬‬
‫ה‬
‫דו גומר את ההכנות עכשיו‪.‬‬
‫ד‬
‫דו יגמור את ההכנות מחר‪.‬‬
‫ד‬
‫את תגמרו את ההכנות מחר‪.‬‬
‫ם‬
‫את גמרתם את ההכנות אתמול‪.‬‬
‫ם‬
‫אשתו גמרה את ההכנות אתמול‪.‬‬
‫אשתו גומרת את ההכנות עכשיו‪.‬‬

‫‪etmol‬‬

‫‪2.‬‬

‫‪ata‬‬

‫•‪3‬‬

‫‪ax&av‬‬

‫‪4.‬‬

‫‪david‬‬

‫•‪5‬‬

‫‪maxar‬‬

‫‪6.‬‬

‫‪atem‬‬

‫•‪7‬‬

‫‪etmol‬‬

‫‪8.‬‬

‫‪iSto‬‬
‫‪axSav‬‬

‫•‪9‬‬
‫‪10.‬‬

‫הן‬

‫הן‬

‫גומרות את ההכנות עכשיו‪.‬‬

‫‪hen‬‬

‫‪11.‬‬

‫מחר‬

‫הן‬

‫תגמורנה את ההכנות מחר‪.‬‬

‫‪maxar‬‬

‫‪12.‬‬

‫אתן‬

‫את‬
‫ן‬
‫את‬
‫ן‬
‫אנ‬
‫ו‬
‫אנ‬
‫ו‬
‫הם‬

‫תגמורנה את ההכנות מחר‪.‬‬

‫‪aten‬‬

‫•‪13‬‬

‫גמרתן את ההכנות אתמול‪.‬‬

‫‪etmol‬‬

‫‪14.‬‬

‫גמרנו את ההכנות אתמול‪.‬‬

‫‪anu‬‬

‫•‪15‬‬

‫גומרים אח ההכנות עכשיו‪.‬‬

‫‪axSav‬‬

‫‪16.‬‬

‫גומרים את ההכנות עכשיו‪.‬‬

‫‪hem‬‬

‫•‪17‬‬

‫בעוד חודש‬

‫הם‬

‫יגמרו את והכנות כעור חודש‪.‬‬

‫‪beod xodeS‬‬

‫‪18.‬‬

‫את‬

‫את‬

‫תגמרי את ההכנות כעוד חודש‪.‬‬

‫‪at‬‬

‫•‪19‬‬

‫אתמול‬
‫אנו‬
‫עכשיו‬
‫הם‬

‫אגמור את ההכנות מחר‪.‬‬

‫‪ani‬‬

‫‪201.‬‬

‫"‪B. hu sagar et haxanut etmol. "He closed the store yesterday.‬‬

‫הואיכגר את החנות אתמול‪.‬‬

‫‪693‬‬

‫‪BASIC‬‬

‫‪HEBREW‬‬

‫‪COURSE‬‬

‫‪.1‬‬
‫‪.2‬‬
‫‪.3‬‬
‫‪.4‬‬
‫‪.5‬‬
‫‪.6‬‬
‫‪.7‬‬
‫‪.8‬‬
‫‪.9‬‬
‫‪.‬‬
‫‪10‬‬
‫‪.‬‬
‫‪11‬‬
‫‪.‬‬
‫‪12‬‬
‫‪.‬‬
‫‪13‬‬
‫‪.‬‬
‫‪14‬‬
‫‪.‬‬
‫‪15‬‬
‫‪.‬‬
‫‪16‬‬
‫‪.‬‬
‫‪17‬‬
‫‪.‬‬
‫‪18‬‬
‫‪.‬‬
‫‪19‬‬

‫‪UNIT‬‬

‫‪22‬‬
‫‪at‬‬
‫‪beod xodeS‬‬
‫‪hem‬‬
‫‪axSav‬‬
‫‪anu‬‬
‫‪etmol‬‬
‫‪aten‬‬
‫‪maxar‬‬
‫‪hen‬‬
‫‪axSav‬‬

‫‪1.‬‬
‫‪2.‬‬
‫•‪3‬‬
‫‪4.‬‬
‫•‪5‬‬
‫‪6.‬‬
‫•‪7‬‬
‫‪8.‬‬
‫•‪9‬‬
‫‪10.‬‬

‫את‬
‫בעור חודש‬
‫הם‬
‫עכשי ו‬
‫אנו‬
‫אתמו ל‬
‫אתן‬
‫מחר‬
‫הן‬
‫עכשי ו‬

‫את סגרת את החנות אתמול‪.‬‬
‫‪.‬את תסגרי את החנות בעור חודש‪.‬‬
‫הס יסגרו את החנות בעוד חודש‪.‬‬
‫הס סוגרים את החנות עכשיו‪.‬‬
‫אנו סוגרים את החנות עכשיו‪.‬‬
‫אנו סגרנו את החנות אתמול‪.‬‬
‫אתן סגרתן את החנות אתמול‪.‬‬
‫אתן תסגורנה אח החנות מחר‪.‬‬
‫הן תסגורנה את החנות מחר‪.‬‬
‫הן סוגרות את החנות עכשיו‪.‬‬

‫‪11.‬‬

‫אשתו‬

‫אשתו סוגרת את החנות עכשיו‪.‬‬

‫‪i&to‬‬

‫אתמו ל‬

‫אשתו סגרה את החנות אתמול‪.‬‬

‫‪etmol‬‬

‫‪12.‬‬

‫אתם‬

‫אתם סגרתם את החנות אתמול‪.‬‬

‫‪atem‬‬

‫•‪13‬‬

‫בקרוב‬

‫אתם תסגרו את החנות בקרוב‪.‬‬

‫‪bekarov‬‬

‫‪14.‬‬

‫מר כהן‬

‫מר כהן יסגור את החנות בקרוב‪.‬‬

‫‪mar kohen‬‬

‫•‪15‬‬

‫עכשי ו‬

‫מר כהן סוגר את החנות עכשיו‪.‬‬

‫‪axSav‬‬

‫‪16.‬‬

‫אתה‬

‫אתה סוגר את החנות עכשיו‪.‬‬

‫‪ata‬‬

‫•‪17‬‬

‫שלשו ס‬

‫אתה סגרת את החנות שלשום‪.‬‬

‫‪SilSom‬‬

‫‪18.‬‬

‫אני‬

‫אני סגרתי את החנות שלשום‪.‬‬

‫‪ani‬‬

‫•‪19‬‬

‫‪b) verbs with future stem vowel /a/‬‬

‫‪ ) and certain other‬כ ‪ , not‬ח ‪Verbs whose third root consonant is or x ( spelled‬‬
‫‪verbs have /a/ as a stem vowel in the imperative and future, instead of /o/. The‬‬
‫‪) when these are at‬ע ( ‪ ) or‬ח( ‪student is reminded that the vowel /a/ must precede/x/‬‬
‫שולח "‪the end of the word: /Soleax/ "sends‬‬
‫‪li Sloax‬‬

‫‪e‬‬

‫‪m s.‬‬
‫‪.‬‬
‫‪f pi.‬‬
‫‪.‬‬
‫‪1 s.‬‬

‫‪ti‬‬

‫‪2 m. s.‬‬

‫‪SLAX‬‬
‫‪na‬‬
‫‪etc.‬‬

‫‪SLAX‬‬
‫‪SLAX‬‬
‫‪SLAX‬‬

‫‪Infinitive:‬‬
‫‪Imperative:‬‬

‫‪Future:‬‬

‫‪The following is a list of substitutions to be used in drilling the‬‬
‫‪sentences below. The substitutions may be varied similarly to the list in Unit‬‬
‫‪21.‬‬

‫אני‬
‫הי‬
‫א‬
‫מש‬
‫ה‬
‫ור‬
‫ב‬
‫אח‬
‫ו‬

‫את‬
‫הו‬
‫א‬
‫אנ‬
‫ו‬

‫הו‬
‫את‬
‫ם‬
‫אח‬
‫ה‬

‫עכשיו‬
‫בקרוב‬

‫אחה‬
‫את‬

‫אתמול‬
‫עכשיו‬

‫אתמול‬

‫אנו‬

‫מחר‬

‫כרגע‬

‫רחל ואתה‬

‫לפני יומיים‬

‫בעוד שבוע‬

‫רחל ולאה‬

‫כרגע זה‬

‫לפני חורש‬

‫הם‬

‫נעור שבועיים‬

‫עכשיו‬

‫אתן‬

‫מחר‬

‫היא‬

‫עכשיו‬

‫אתמול‪.‬‬

‫מר זהבי‬

‫מחר‬

‫עכשיו‬

‫אני‬

‫אתמול‬

‫‪694‬‬

‫שלשום‬

HEBREW

BASIC COURSE

20

C.Yesterday he sent the package by air mail.
D.Yesterday he found the post office without any
trouble.
E.He"s listening to the broadcast now.
F.She's washing the bottles now.
G.Now she reads Hebrew easily.
H.Tomorrow 1'11 learn how to make ice cream.

.‫ הוא שלח את החג ילה ברוא ו־ אוויר אחמול‬.‫ג‬
.‫ אתמול הוא מצא את הדואר ללא קושי‬.‫ד‬
.‫ הוא שומע את הבירורים עכשיו‬.‫ה‬
.‫ היא רוחצת את הבקבוקים עכשיו‬.‫ו‬
.‫ עכשיו היא קוראת עכר ית כקלות‬.‫ז‬
.‫ מחר אלמד להכין גלידה‬.‫ח‬

695

UNIT

UNIT

HEBREW

22

BASIC
COURSE

c) Alternating first radicals
In Grammar Note 21.4b we saw that the consonants /b/,/p/ and /k/(spelled ‫)כ‬
alternated with /v/, /f/ and /x/ when they were the first root consonant of the verb.
The same rules apply in the kal as in the pi'el: In prefixed forms the consonant
is /v/, /f/ and /x/ respectively. In other forms it is /b/» /p/ and

A/•

In some respects the. alternations in the kal are simpler to remember. First of
all, there are no roots with v (‫ )י‬as the first radical. Thus, all /v/ is the result
of the b/v alternation.
Second, the prefix before A/ (spelled ‫ )כ‬is /ti-, yi- / etc., and the prefix
before /x/ (spelled ‫ ) ח‬is /ta-, ya- / etc.
/tixtov/ "you will write" ‫תכתוב‬
/taxSov/ "you will think" ‫תחשוב‬
Prefixed forms
Infinitive:

liVdok

Imperative: m.s. Bdok
f.s. Bidki etc.,

I s . evdok 2 m.s. tivdok 2 f.s. tiVdeki
etc.

Present: m.s. Bodek
f.s. Bodeket etc.,
Past: I s . Badakti
2 m.s. Badakta etc.,

I. We checked the program yesterday.
J. Moshe opened the new store a week ago.
K. Atara will write to her tomorrow.

.‫ בדקנו את התוכנית אתמול‬.‫ט‬
‫ כלשה פתח את החנות החדשה‬.‫י‬
.‫לפני שבוע‬
.‫ עטרה תכתוב לה מחר‬.‫כ‬

L. I'11 think about it tomorrow.

.‫ אחשוב על כר מ ת־‬.‫ל‬

M. They tied up the packages yesterday.

.‫ הס קשרו אתמול את החבילות‬.‫מ‬

696

‫‪UNIT‬‬

‫‪HEBREW‬‬

‫‪BASIC COURSE‬‬

‫‪20‬‬
‫‪N. Transformation Drill - Affirmative to Negative‬‬
‫‪Instructor: Check the boxes right now.‬‬
‫‪Student: Don't check the boxes now, wait till tomorrow.‬‬

‫כדוק את הקופסאות‬
‫כדקי‬

‫מיד‪.‬‬

‫את‬

‫הקופסאות מיד‪ .‬בדקו‬
‫את הקופסאות מיד‪.‬‬
‫את‬

‫בדוקנה‬
‫הקופסאות מיד‪.‬‬
‫תכדוק‬

‫אל‬

‫הקופסאות‬
‫חכה‬

‫עד‬

‫עכשיו‪,‬‬
‫מחר‪.‬‬

‫תכדקי‬
‫הקופסאות‬
‫חכי‬

‫עד‬

‫חכו‬

‫ער‬

‫עכשיו‪,‬‬
‫מחר‪.‬‬

‫עכשיו‪,‬‬
‫מחר‪.‬‬

‫אל‬
‫את‬

‫עכשיו‪,‬‬

‫חכינה עד מחר‪,‬‬

‫‪697‬‬

‫אל‬
‫את‬

‫תכדוקנה‬
‫הקופסאות‬

‫אל‬
‫את‬

‫תבדקו‬
‫הקופסאות‬

‫את‬

‫‪BASIC‬‬
‫‪COURSE‬‬

‫‪UNIT‬‬

‫‪HEBREW‬‬

‫‪22‬‬

‫‪O. Transformation Drill - Negative to Affirmative‬‬
‫‪Instructor: Don't open the windows. It's cold outside.‬‬
‫‪Student: Open the windows. It's hot in the house.‬‬

‫אל תפתח את החלונות‪ .‬קר בהוץ‪.‬‬
‫אל‬

‫תפתחי‬

‫את‬

‫החלונות‪.‬‬

‫קר‬

‫בחוץ‪ .‬אל תפתחו את החלונות‪.‬‬
‫קר‬

‫אל‬

‫בחוץ‪.‬‬

‫תפתחנה‬

‫את‬

‫החלונות‪ .‬קר בחוץ‪.‬‬
‫פתח את החלונות‪ .‬חם בבית‪ .‬פתחי‬
‫את החלונות‪ .‬חם בכית‪ .‬פתחו את‬
‫החלונות‪.‬‬

‫חם‬

‫בכית‪.‬‬

‫החלונות‪ .‬חם בבית‪,‬‬

‫‪698‬‬

‫פתחנה‬

‫את‬

‫‪UNIT‬‬

‫‪HEBREW‬‬

‫‪BASIC COURSE‬‬

‫‪20‬‬
‫‪P. Transformation Drill - Affirmative to Negative‬‬
‫‪Instructor: Write him a letter.‬‬
‫‪Student: Don't write him a letter. Phone him.‬‬

‫אל תכתוב אליו מכתב‪ .‬התקשר אתו בטלפון‪ .‬אל‬
‫תכתבי אליו מכתב‪ .‬התקשרי אתו בטלפון‪ .‬אל‬
‫תכתבו אליו מכתב‪ .‬התקשרו אתו בטלפון‪ .‬אל‬
‫תכתובנה אליו מכתב‪ .‬התקשדנה אתו כטלפון‪,‬‬

‫‪Q. Transformation Drill - Negative to Affirmative‬‬
‫‪Instructor: Don't work right now. It's still early.‬‬
‫‪Student: Get to work right away. Otherwise the time will‬‬
‫‪pass.‬‬

‫עוד‬

‫אל תפעל מיד‪.‬‬
‫מוקדם‪.‬‬
‫אל תפעלי מיד‪.‬‬

‫עור‬

‫מוקדם‪.‬‬
‫אל תפעלו מיד‪.‬‬

‫עור‬

‫מוקדם‪.‬‬
‫אל תפעלנה מיד‪.‬‬

‫עוד‬

‫מוקדם‪.‬‬
‫כתוב אליו מכתב‪.‬‬

‫פעל מיד‪.‬‬

‫כתבי אליו מכתב‪.‬‬

‫הזמן‪.‬‬

‫כתבו אליו מכתב‪.‬‬
‫בתובנה‬

‫אחרת‬

‫יעבור‬

‫פעלי מיד‪.‬‬

‫אליו‬

‫אחרת‬

‫יעבור‬

‫הזמן‪.‬‬

‫מכתב‪.‬‬

‫פעלו מיד‪.‬‬

‫אחרת‬

‫יעבור‬

‫הזמן‪.‬‬
‫פעלנה מיד‪ .‬אחרת‬

‫יעבור‬
‫הזמן‪.‬‬

‫‪699‬‬

UNIT

22

HEBREW

The above drills should also be done in reverse.

700

BASIC
COURSE

HEBREW

BASIC COURSE

20

(d) Alternating second radicals
To complicate things a bit more, the three consonants b, £ and k ( ‫)כ‬
alternate when they are the second radical of the verb. In prefixed forms the
second root consonant is /b/, /p/ and /k/» and in the unprefixed forms they
are /v/, /f/ and /x/. !1his is the reverse of the pattern described in the
predecing section for the alternating first radical.
Prefixed forms
Infinitive:

Future:

1 s.
2 m. s.
3 m.s.
3 f.s.
1 pi.
2 m.pl.
2 f.pl.
3 m.pl.
3 f.pl.

lisPo
r

Imperative:

m.s.
f.s.
m.pl
.
f.pl
.

sFor
siFr
i
siFr
u
sFor
na

esPor
tisPor
yisPor
tisPor
nisPor
tisPeru
tisPorna
yisPeru
tisPorna

In the stark imperative of some verbs the student may hear vacillation between forms,
for example, /Sxax ~ Skax/ "forget". (See section 21.2, Drill F) This can result when the
speaker drops the /ti**/ of the gentle imperative /tiSkax/ to make a regularized stark
imperative /Skax/. Similarly one might hear /Sikxi/ as the feminine singular instead
of /Sixexi/.
Such regularizations are not surprising, but they are often deplored by
educated speakers.
The division of the conjugation into prefixed forms and unprefixed forms is merely
a handy device to help the student in doing the drills of these verbs. The general
rules for the b/v, p/f and k/x alternations in verbs are complex and are no benefit
to the student at this point.
In any event, the student should not try to memorize rules but must keep drilling
the correct forms until, for example, /timkor/ and /moxer/ just sound right, and the
incorrect forms */timxor/ and Smoker/ jar his ears.

701

UNIT

‫‪BASIC‬‬

‫‪UNIT‬‬

‫‪HEBREW‬‬

‫‪COURSE‬‬

‫‪soFer‬‬

‫‪m s.‬‬
‫‪.‬‬
‫‪f s.‬‬
‫‪m pi.‬‬
‫‪.‬‬
‫‪f.pl.‬‬

‫‪saFarti‬‬

‫‪1 s.‬‬

‫‪saFarta‬‬

‫‪2 m.s.‬‬
‫‪2 f.s.‬‬
‫‪3 m.s.‬‬
‫‪3 f.s.‬‬
‫‪1 pi.‬‬
‫‪2 m.pl.‬‬
‫‪2 f.pl.‬‬
‫‪3 pi.‬‬

‫‪soFeret‬‬
‫‪soFrim‬‬
‫‪soFrot‬‬

‫‪saFart‬‬
‫‪saFar‬‬
‫‪saFra‬‬
‫‪saFarnu‬‬
‫‪saFartem‬‬
‫‪saFarten‬‬
‫‪saFru‬‬

‫‪22‬‬
‫‪Present:‬‬

‫‪Past:‬‬

‫‪R. He counted the jars the day before yesterday.‬‬

‫הוא ספר את הצנצנות שלשום‪.‬‬
‫‪. 1‬הן הן ספרו את הצנצנות שלשום‪.‬‬
‫‪.‬‬
‫הן סופרות את הצנצנות כרגע זה‪.‬‬
‫עור מעט ‪. 2‬ברגע זה‬
‫הם‬
‫‪. 3‬את את סופרת את הצנצנות ברגע זה‪.‬‬
‫‪1‬‬
‫עכשיו‬
‫‪. 4‬בעור יומיים את תספרי את הצנצנות בעוד יומיים‪.‬‬
‫‪.‬‬
‫אנו‬
‫רב ואתה תספדו את הצנצנות בעוד יומיים‪.‬‬
‫‪. 5‬דב ואתה‬
‫‪2‬‬
‫אתמול‬
‫דב ואתה ספרתם את הצנצנות לפני שבוע‪.‬‬
‫‪. 6‬לפני שבוע‬
‫‪.‬‬
‫אתן‬
‫‪. 7‬אתן אתן ספרתן את הצנצנות לפני שבוע‪.‬‬
‫‪3‬‬
‫מח‬
‫‪. 8‬כרגע אתן סופרות את הצנצנות כרגע‪.‬‬
‫‪.‬‬
‫‪. 9‬אנו אנו סופרים את הצנצנות כרגע‪.‬‬
‫ר‬
‫‪4‬‬
‫‪. 10‬מחר אנו נספור מחר את הצנצנות‪.‬‬
‫‪ 5‬ין‬
‫כולם יספרו מחר את הצנצנות‪.‬‬
‫‪. 11‬כולם‬
‫‪ !6‬עכשיו‬
‫כולם ספרו אתמול את הצנצנות‪.‬‬
‫‪. 12‬אתמול‬
‫‪ .7‬אשתך‬
‫‪ . 8‬אתמו ל ‪. 13‬את את ספרת אתמול את הצנצנות‪.‬‬
‫את סופרת את הצנצנות עכשיו‪.‬‬
‫‪ .9‬אתם מחר ‪. 14‬עכשיו‬
‫‪. 15‬היא היא סופרת את הצנצנות עכשיו‪.‬‬
‫דוד‬
‫‪.‬‬
‫היא תספור את הצנצנות בקרוב‪.‬‬
‫‪. 16‬בקרוב‬
‫‪ 10‬עכשיו‬
‫‪. 17‬אתה אתה תספור את הצנצנות בקרוב‪.‬‬
‫‪ . 1 1‬אתה‬
‫אתה ספרת את הצנצנות שלשום‪.‬‬
‫אתמו ל ‪. 18‬שלשום‬
‫‪.‬‬
‫‪. 19‬אני אני ספרתי את הצנצנות שלשום‪.‬‬
‫‪ 12‬אני‬
‫אני סופר את הצנצנות עכשיו‪.‬‬
‫‪. 20‬עכשיו‬
‫‪.‬‬
‫‪13‬‬
‫‪.‬‬
‫‪S. He broke some of the jars yesterday morning.‬‬
‫‪14‬‬
‫‪ .‬הוא שכר כמה מהצנצנות אתמול גג וקר‪.‬‬
‫‪ 15‬עוד מעט הוא ישבור כמה מהצנצנות‪ .‬עוד מעט הס ישכרו‬
‫כמה מהצנצנות‪ .‬הם שוברים עכשיו כמה מהצנצנות‪ .‬אנו‬
‫‪.‬‬
‫‪ 16‬שוברים עכשיו כמה מהצנצנות‪ .‬אתמול אנו שברנו כמה‬
‫מהצנצנות‪ .‬אתן שברתן אתמול כמה מהצנצנות‪ .‬אתן תשכורנה‬
‫‪.‬‬
‫‪ 17‬מחר כמה מהצנצנות‪ .‬הן תשכורנה מחר כמה מהצנצנות‪ .‬הן‬
‫שוברות עכשיו כמה מהצנצנות‪ .‬אשתך שוברת עכשיו כמה‬
‫‪.‬‬
‫‪ 18‬מהצנצנות‪ .‬אשתך שכרה אתמול כמה מהצנצנות‪ .‬אתם שכרתם‬
‫אתמול כמה מהצנצנות‪ .‬מחר אתם תשברו כמה מהצנצנות‪ .‬דוד‬
‫ישבור מחד כמה מהצנצנות‪ .‬דוד שובר עכשיו כמה מהצנצנות‪.‬‬
‫אתה שוכר עכשיו כמה מהצנצנות‪ .‬אתה שברת אתמול כמה‬
‫מהצנצנות‪ .‬אני שברתי אתמול כמה מהצנצנות‪.‬‬
‫‪T. He sold the tickets yesterday evening.‬‬

‫הוא מכר את הפרט י־י ‪ L‬אתמול כערב‪.‬‬

‫‪702‬‬

‫‪UNIT‬‬

‫‪HEBREW‬‬

‫‪BASIC COURSE‬‬

‫‪.‬‬
‫‪1‬‬
‫‪.‬‬
‫‪2‬‬
‫‪.‬‬
‫‪3‬‬
‫‪.‬‬
‫‪4‬‬
‫‪.‬‬
‫‪5‬‬
‫‪.‬‬
‫‪6‬‬
‫‪.‬‬
‫‪7‬‬
‫‪.‬‬
‫‪8‬‬
‫‪.‬‬
‫‪9‬‬
‫‪.‬‬
‫‪10‬‬
‫‪.‬‬
‫‪11‬‬
‫‪.‬‬
‫‪12‬‬
‫‪.‬‬
‫‪13‬‬
‫‪.‬‬
‫‪14‬‬
‫‪.‬‬
‫‪15‬‬
‫‪.‬‬
‫‪16‬‬
‫‪.‬‬
‫‪17‬‬
‫‪8‬‬
‫י‪.‬‬

‫אתה‬

‫אתה מכרת את הכרטיסים אתמול בערב‪.‬‬

‫עכשיו‬

‫אתה מוכר את הכרטיסים עכשיו‪.‬‬

‫אתם‬

‫אתם מוכרים את הכרטיסים עכשיו‪.‬‬

‫אתמול‬

‫אתם מכרתם את הכרטיסיס אתמול‪.‬‬

‫הן‬

‫הן מכרו את הכרטיסים אתמול‪.‬‬

‫מחר‬

‫הן תמכורנה מחר את הכרטיסים‪.‬‬

‫אנו‬

‫אנו נמכור מחר את הכרטיסים‪.‬‬

‫עכשי ו‬

‫אנו מוכרים עכשיו את הכרטיסים‪.‬‬

‫הקופאי‬

‫הקופאי מוכר עכשיו את הכרטיסים‪.‬‬

‫לפני יומיים‬

‫הקופאי מכר את הכרטיסים לפני יומיים‪.‬‬

‫את‬

‫את מכרת את הכרטיסים לפני יומיים‪.‬‬

‫בעור יומיים‬

‫את תמכרי את הכרטיסים כעוד יומיים‪.‬‬

‫אתן‬

‫אתן תמכורנה את הכרטיסים בעוד יומיים‬

‫כרגע‬

‫אתן מוכרות אח הכרטיסים כרגע‪.‬‬

‫הם‬

‫הם מוכרים את הכרטיסים כרגע‪.‬‬

‫אתמו ל‬

‫הם מכרו את הכרטיסים אתמול‪.‬‬

‫הקופאית‬

‫הקופאית מכרה את הכרטיסים אתמול‪.‬‬

‫בקרוב‬

‫הקופאית תמכור את הכרטיסים בקרוב‪.‬‬

‫‪703‬‬

‫‪20‬‬

UNIT

BASIC

HEBREW

22

COURSE

U. Transformation Drill - Affirmative to Negative Instructor: Please count the nuts
for me.
Student: Don't count the nuts. I already know how many there are.
.‫ אני כבר יורע כסה שיש‬.‫אל תספור את האגוזים‬
.‫ אני כבר יורע כמה שיש‬.‫אל תספרי את האגוזים‬
.‫ אני כבר יורע כמה שיש‬.‫אל תספרו את האגוזים‬

.‫ ספור את האגוזים בשבילי‬,‫בבקשה‬
.‫ שפרי את האגוזים בשבילי‬,‫בבקשה‬
.‫ ספרו את האגוזים בשבילי‬,‫בבקשה‬
.‫ה את האגוזים בשבילי‬3 ‫פור‬0 ,‫ביקשה‬

.‫ אני כבר יודע כמה שיש‬.‫אל תספורנה את האגוזים‬
V. Transformation Drill - Negative to Affirmative
Instructor: Don't sell the house. Student: Sell the house.
. ‫מכור את הבית‬
.‫מכרי את הבית‬
.‫מכרו את הבית‬
.‫מכורנה את הבית‬

W. Substitution Drill

.‫תמכור את הבית‬
.‫תמכרי את הבית‬
.‫תמכרו את הבית‬
.‫תמכורנה את הבית‬

‫אל‬
‫אל‬
‫אל‬
‫אל‬

Break something else but not the glass.

. ‫ אבל לא את הכום‬,‫שבור משהו אחר‬
‫שברי שברו שב ו ר נה‬

(e)verbs with first radical ‫_י‬
[The following ‫״‬remarks pertain to most, not all, verbs whose first radical is .
Verbs different from those described in this section are not too frequent, and the
student can learn them as he meets them.^
A distinction must be made between verbs whose first radical is (‫ )א‬and those
whose first radical is ( ‫ ) ע‬. The charts below illustrate the patterns of two ,such
verbs.
In the present and past tenses there is no distinction, and both types have the
regular vowel patterns of the kal in these tenses.
If the second radical is b, £ or k ( ‫ )כ‬then only the alternants /v/,/f/ and /x/
occur. The rules described in the preceding section (d) do not apply. The examples
chosen for the charts illustrate this.
The main feature to observe in the following charts is the prefix of each type.
The future stem vowel of the first type is /a/: /toxal/ "you will eat", and the
future stem vowel of the second type is /o/:/taavor/ "y°u will pass".

704

HEBREW

BASIC COURSE

20
Infinitive:
Imperative:
m. s.
f.s.
m.pl.
f.pl.

‫אכל‬
LEExol

‫עכר‬
LAAvor

Exol
ixli
ixlu
Exolna

Avor
ivri
ivru
Avorna

Oxal
TOxal
TOxli
YOxal
TOxal
NOxal

EEvor
TAAvor
TAAvor
YAAvor
TAAvor
NAAvor

2 m.pl.
2 f.pl.
3 m.pl.
3 f.pl.

TOxlu
TOxalna
YOxlu
TOxalna

TAAvru
TAAvorna
YAAvru
TAAvorna

Present:
m.s.
f.s.
m.pl.
f.pl.

oxel
oxelet
oxlim
oxlot

over
overet
ovrim
ovrot

Past:
1 s.
2 m.s.
2 f.s.
3 m.s.
3 f.s.

axalti
axalta
axalt
axal
axla

avarti
avarta
avart
avar
avra

1 pi.

axalnu

avarnu

axaltem
axalten
axlu

avartem
avarten
avru

Future:
1 s.

2 m.s.
2 f.s.
3 m.s.

3 f.s.
1 pi.

2 m.pl.

2 f.pl.
3 Pi-

infinitive of /amar

/is /lomar/ "to say", spelled

‫) לו מד‬

Use the list of substitution cues given

in section 22.3(b),

X. I told him not to wait for me.
Y.

1

. ‫ לא לחכות לי‬1 ‫אמרתי ל‬
. ‫טעים‬

ate it aii because it's good.

Z. I liked to stroll in the evening.

AA. X passed by the cafe.

‫אכלתי את הכל כי זה‬
.

‫רכ‬:‫כ‬
‫אהבתי לטייל ־‬

.‫ה‬£!>‫ ה‬i^J ‫( עברתי על יך‬f) lamed hey verbs in the kal

lamed hey verbs in the kal have the features common to all such verbs, and the

705

UNIT

UNIT

BASIC

HEBREW

22

COURSE

student should find them quite familiar. In the past tense of the kal the stem vowels
are /-a-i/ in the first and second person: /kaniti/ "I bought".
In addition to the features of lamed hey verbs, the first and second root
consonants may cause the alternations described in Sections (c) to (e). For
example:
pnh ‫" פנה‬turn" has the first radical alternation described in Section (c): /pne/
/tifne/.
'lh ‫" עלה‬go up, cost" has the features of a first radical ( ‫ )ע‬described in
Section /(e): /eele/ ~ /taale/
bkh ‫" בכה‬cry" combines the alternations of Sections (c) and (d): /yivke/
~ /baxa/.
Infinitive:
Imperative:

Future:

liknOT
m s.
.
f s.
.
1 s.

kne

2 m.

tikne

2
3
3
Present:

Past:

s.
f.s
.
m.
s f.s
.
m.
s.
f.s
.
1
s.

2
m.

2
f.

3
m.

1

m pi.
.
f pi.
.
1 pi.

nikne

2 m.pl.

tiknu

tikni

2 f.pl.

tiknena

yikne

3 m.pl.

yiknu

3 f.pl.

tiknena

kone

m.pl.

konim

kona

f.pl.

konot

1 pi.

kaninu

kni

1

ekne

1
1

tikne

1

kaniti
s

kamta

s

kanit

s

kana

3 s
f-

t

1

1

knu
knena

2 m.pl.

kanitem

2 f.pl.

kaniten
kanu

3 Pi1 1

kanta

—.

706

HEBREW

BASIC COURSE

20Us
BB
.

e
Sh
e

CC
.

Sh
e

DD
.

Sh
e

EE
.

Sh
e

the list of substitution cues given in

Sectio
n

22.3 (b):

‫היא פנת‬
‫ה‬
saw the storekeeper outside the store. .‫היא ראת את החנווני מחוץ לחנות‬
‫ה‬
bought flour and sugar.
.‫היא קנת קמח וסוכר‬
‫ה‬
went up to the house and set things up.
.‫היא עלת לכית ועשתה סדר‬
‫ה‬
turned at the second intersection.

.‫בהצטלבות השניה‬

FF. He wanted to swim.

.‫הוא רצה לשחות‬

. He swam in the new pool.

.‫החרישה‬

GG

. He cried when he heard the news.

.‫את החרשות‬

HH

ayin v a v

‫בבריכה‬

‫_חה‬
‫הוא ־‬

‫הוא נכה כשישמע‬

( ‫ ) ע ״ י‬verbs

A frequently occurring type of verb is the ayin vav verb, whose second radical
is listed as vav ( ‫ ) י‬in the dictionaries(hence the term ayin vav), although it
does not represent the consonant /v/ but rather the vowel /u/.
The chart below illustrates what is traditionally called the kal conju- gation
of these verbs. This classification as kal is based on historical reasons and the
fact that it is the simplest conjugation of this type of verb.
Some verbs resemble the ayin vav verbs in all respects except that they have
yud, representing /i/, instead of the vav. These verbs are called,
appropriately, ayin y u d ( ‫ ) ע " י‬verbs.

707

(g)

UNIT

UNIT

BASIC

HEBREW

22
Imperative:

m. s .

Infinitive:

1 s.

2

m. s.

2

f.s.

3
3

kum '

la kum

m.pl.

1

f.pl.

a kum 1

1 pi.

kum i 1

f.s.
Future:

COURSE

ta kum

2

m.pl.

ta kum i '

2

f.pl.

m. s.

ya kum |

3

m.pl.

f.s.

ta kum ‫ן‬

3

f.pl.

Present: m. s.

kum

u

kum na
n
a
t
a
t
a
y
a
t
a

kum
kum u
kum na
kum u
kum na

kam |

m.pl.

kam im

f.s.

kam a ‫ן‬

f.pl.

kam ot

Past: 1 s.

kam ti 1

1 pi.

kam nu

m.pl.
f.pl.

kam tem
kam ten

2
2
3
3

m. s.
f.s.
m. s •
f.s•

kam ta
kam t
kam
kama

1
‫׳‬
1
‫ן‬

2
2

pi.
kam u
3
1
A frequently heard variant of the 2 and 3 f.pl. forms is /takomna/ in the
ayin vav verbs and /taSerna/ in the ayin yud verbs.

The verb /lavo/ "to come" is an ayin vav verb, but with /o/ as a stem
vowel. It is listed in the dictionaries under ‫ בוא‬. The first radical alternates
between /b/ and /v/ as described in Section (c).
II.

Use the substitution cues given in Section 22.3 (b).

I stayed at the Savoy Hotel yesterday.

JJ. I got up early yesterday.

.‫גרתי במלון סבו י אתמול‬
.‫קמת מוקרם אתמול‬
‫י‬
.‫רצת לאוטובוס אתמול‬
‫י‬
.‫באת לתיאטרון אתמול‬
‫י‬
.‫שרת בהצגה אתמול‬
‫י‬

K I ran to the bus yesterday.
K.
LL I came to the theater yesterday.
.
M I sang in the show yesterday.
M.
22.4 Verbal Noun of the kal

The verbal noun of the kal has the following pattern: /C1C2iC3a/
These nouns are feminine and have the plural pattern: /C1CaiC3ot/
Examples which have occurred in the text are:
/slixa/ "pardon"
‫ סליחה‬six
/knisa/ "entrance" ‫ כניסה‬kns
/yeci'a/"exit"
‫יציאה‬
(in the third example the /e/ breaks up the beginning cluster /yc-/.)
As with verbal nouns of all conjugations it is hard to predict the exact

708

HEBREW

BASIC COURSE

20

shade of meaning which it might have. The translations, therefore, may cover a wide
range.
The root kns occurs in the nif1al with the meaning "to enter", but the verbal
noun is still in the kal.
The verbal nouns of lamed hey verbs have yr as the third root consonant. Cf.
Grammar Note 21.7• However, since the glide from the vowel /i/ to the vowel /a/
produces the /y/ anyway, the nouns are transcribed without the /y/:
/knia/ "purchase" ‫ קניה‬knh (kny) ‫קנה‬
In ordinary speech verbal nouns of roots whose third consonant is are often
pronounced with a smooth glide: /yecia/ as well as /yeci'a/.
When the first root consonant is h or x, then the pattern is:/CiaC2iC3a/
/,axila/ "eating" ‫אכי״ליה‬
A. Translation Drill
(The instructor reads both parts of the

meet in a cafe.
sentence before the student translates)

1.The doctor examined him, and the
examination was quick.

‫ והבריקה‬,‫הרופא כדק איווו‬. 1
.‫היתה מהירה‬

2.He went to Eilat, and the trip was long.

‫ והנסיעה‬,‫הוא נסע לאילת‬. 2
.‫היתה ארוכה‬

3• He opened the store,
and the opening was beautiful.

‫ והפתיחה‬,‫הוא פתח את החנות‬. 3
.‫היתה יפה‬

4. He walked six kilometers, but the walk
was easy.

,‫הוא הלך ששה קילומטרים‬. 4
.‫אכל ההליכה היתה קלה‬

5• They went to eat, because it came time
to eat.

,‫הם הלכו לאכול‬. 5
.‫כי שעת האכילה הגיעה‬

6. He wrote one letter,
and it took a long time to write.

‫ והכתיבה‬,‫הוא כתב מכתב אחד‬. 6
.‫לקחה הרבה זמן‬

7• We swim every day, because we like to
swim.

,‫אנו שוחים כל יום‬. 7
.‫כי אנו אוהבים את השחיה‬

8. They went to Israel in the last
immigration.

.‫הם עלו לארץ בעליה האחרונה‬. 8
‫ הריבה‬.‫ הוא מכר את הריבה‬.S
.‫היתה כמכירה‬

9• He sold the jelly. The jelly was on
sale.

,‫ אני אזגוש את מרים‬.10
.‫והפגישה תהיה כבית קפה‬

10. I'm going to meet Miriam, and we'll
RAPID RESPONSE DRILL

?‫ כמה כרטיסים רצה דוד לקנות‬.1
?‫ האם המקומות היו כאולם‬.2
?‫ האם המקומות היו באמצע‬.3
?‫ באיזו שורה היו המקומות‬.4
?‫ למה לא סרב דוד לקחת את הכרטיסים‬.5
?‫ כמה שילם בעד הכרטיסים‬.6

709

UNIT

‫‪BASIC‬‬
‫‪COURSE‬‬

‫‪UNIT‬‬

‫‪HEBREW‬‬

‫‪22‬‬
‫‪REVIEW CONVERSATIONS‬‬

‫א‪ :‬משה‪ ,‬מה אתה עושה הערב? ב‪ :‬אין לי תוכנית‪ .‬מה אתם עושים? א‪ :‬יש לנו כרטיסים‬
‫להצגה ב״הבימה״‪ .‬ב‪ :‬טוב מאד‪.‬‬
‫א‪ :‬לא כל כר טוב‪ .‬אשתי לא יכולה ללכת‪ .‬ב‪ :‬מכור לי את הכרטיסים ואני אלר‪ .‬א‪:‬‬
‫כרצון‪ .‬אמכור לר את הכרטיסים‪ .‬ב‪ :‬האם המקומות טובים?‬
‫א‪ :‬לא רעים‪ .‬קצת בצד‪ .‬הם עולים ‪ 6‬לירות הכרטיס‪ .‬ב‪ :‬תודה רבה‪.‬‬
‫ג‪ :‬מרים בכתה בהצגה‪ .‬ד‪ :‬מדוע?‬
‫ג‪ :‬היא קראה את הספר וההצגה היתה מצויינת‪.‬‬
‫ד‪ :‬איר היא נהנתה ממרים נרקיס?‬
‫ג‪ :‬היא אוהבת אותה מאד‪.‬‬
‫ד‪ :‬גם לדעתי היא שחקנית גדולה‪.‬‬
‫ה‪ :‬היינו בפתיחה של החנות החדשה‪.‬‬
‫ו‪ :‬גם אנו היינו‪ .‬היתר‪ .‬לנו פגישה עם המנהל‪.‬‬
‫ה‪ :‬מכירת הפתיחה היתה יפה מאד‪.‬‬
‫ו‪ :‬כן‪ .‬היו שם הרבה דברים יפים‪ .‬ה‪ :‬קניתם משהו?‬
‫ו‪ :‬כן‪ .‬קנינו שולחן יפה ובזול‪.‬‬
‫ז‪ :‬רחל לא מצאה את הבית של דב‪ .‬ח‪ :‬איך זה? היא לא בדקה את הכתובת בספר הטלפונים? ז‪:‬‬
‫נתתי לה את הכתובת כשהיא עברה על יד ביתנו‪ .‬ח‪ :‬אולי במקום ללכת ימינה היא הלכה שמאלה‪.‬‬
‫ט‪ :‬גמרנו את הלימודים והלכנו לשחות‪ .‬י‪ :‬איר היו המים?‬
‫ט‪ :‬המים היו נהדרים והשחייה ה י וזה מצויינת‪ .‬י‪ :‬עליתם לאכול במזנון? ט‪ :‬כן‪ .‬האוכל שם טעים‬
‫מאד‪.‬‬

‫‪710‬‬

HEBREW

BASIC COURSE

20

23*1 Before The Play

Atara,
I see that
you have won again.
again
he won

atara,
ani roe SeSuv nicaxt.
&uv
niceax
YONATAN

,‫עטרה‬
.‫אני רואה ש שוב ניצחת‬
‫שר ב ניצח‬

ATARA
I
ani ‫אני‬
generally
win
menacaxat,
because I have
a good husband.

‫׳‬

bederex klal
‫מנצחת‬
ki yeS li
baal tov.

‫בר ח־ כלל‬
.‫טוב‬

‫כי יש לי‬
‫ בעל‬generalization klal (m) ‫כלל‬

DAVID
Do you want to
drink anything?
he drank
something
chocolate

atem rocim
ustot ma'Sehu?
gata
maSehu (m)
Sokolad (m)

ATARA
No, thanks. I'm
not thirsty. Oh the bell is
ringing.
thirsty
bell
rang

lo toda. ani
lo cmea. o hapaamon
mecalcel.
came
paamon (m)
cilcel

‫שתה‬
‫משהו‬
‫שוקולד‬

‫צמא‬
‫פעמו‬
‫ן‬
‫צלצל‬

‫אתם רוצים‬
‫לשתות‬

?‫משהו‬

‫ אני‬.‫לא תורה‬
‫ אה‬.‫לא צמאה‬
‫ הפעמון‬.‫מצלצל‬

YONATAN
bou nigaS lamekomot Selanu.

Let's go to
our seats.

DAVID

‫בואו ניגש‬
,‫למקומות שלנו‬

anu yoSvim
bayacia.

We're sitting in the balcony.
ATARA

711

‫אנו יושבים‬
.‫ביציע‬

UNIT

UNIT

HEBREW

22

The seats

BASIC
COURSE

are pretty good.
enough

da
y

harnekomot
‫די‬
day tovim.

712

‫המקומות‬
.‫רי טובים‬

HEBREW

BASIC COURSE

UNIT

20
DAVID

What do you want
for six liras? To
sit
in the front row?
ma at roca beSeS

‫מה אח רוצה‬

lxrot, laSevet
baSura hari£ona?

‫בשש‬

?‫לירות‬
‫לשבת‬
‫ב״ורה‬
?‫הראשונה‬
‫שקט‬
.‫אל תפריע‬

ATARA
Quiet.

Seket .
Don't disturb.
he disturbed

al tafria.

hifri
a

‫הפריע‬
‫מסך‬

The curtain's going up.
curtain

luncheonette
hamasax ole.
masax (m)

The first act is over.
act

hamaaraxa hariSona
nigmera. maaraxa (f)

There's an intermission for
ten minutes.
interruption he
interrupted

yeS hafsaka leeser
dakot.
hafsaka (f)
hifsik

You're not allowed to smoke
inside.
forbidde
n
he
smoked
interior

asur leaSen bifnim.
asur (m.s.)
iSen
pnim (m)

23.2 ADDITIONAL VOCABULARY

Smoking is permitted in the
lobby.
lobby
Use the ashtray.
I'm hungry.

ani raev.
hungry

ashtray

Where's the snack bar?
raev (m.s.)

mutar leaden
bamisderon.

misderon (m)

.‫המסך עולה‬
‫מערכה‬

‫המערכה‬
‫הראשונה נ ג‬
.‫נזרה‬
‫הפסק‬
‫יש הפסקה לעיר ה‬
‫הפס‬
.‫רקות‬
‫י ק‬

‫אסור‬

‫אסור לעשן‬
.‫בפנים‬

‫מסררו ן‬

‫מותר לעשן‬
.‫במסדרון‬

‫עישן‬
‫פנים‬

hiStame)‫־‬bamaafera.
maafera (f)

‫מאפרה‬

eyfo hamiznon?
miznon (m)

‫מזנון‬

.‫אני רעב‬

‫השתמש‬
.‫במאפרה‬
? ‫איפה המזנון‬

‫רעב‬

/came/ "thirsty"

23.3 VOCABULARY DRILLS
A. Substitution-Agreement Drill

.‫ הוא צמא‬.‫הוא לא רעב‬
/raev/ "hungry"

‫ אני‬- ‫ הן‬- ‫ היא‬- ‫הם‬

He's not hungry; he's thirsty.

B. Substitution Drill /hiStameS/ "use" Use the exit on the

.‫השתמש כיציאה מימין‬
‫השתמשי‬
‫השתמשו‬
‫השתמשנ‬
‫ה‬

right.

713

UNIT

BASIC

HEBREW

22

COURSE

23.4 VERB DRILLS
The student may soon begin to feel overwhelmed at the large number of different
forms that a verb root may have in the various conjugations. He will be required to
conjugate fully almost every new verb that occurs. A shift in tense, person, gender,
or number - and the form learned in the Basic Sentence is incorrect in the new
sentence.
However, the task is not nearly so difficult as it may seem at this point. The
student will find that the regularities of the system are very great and that a few
patterns take care of the large majority of verbs which actually occur in ordinary
speech. Conscientious overlearning of these drills will bring an increasing measure of
confidence.
In previous units the different forms of new words have been drilled in the
Vocabulary Drill sections. In this and following units new verbs will be drilled in
special Verb Drill sections. These will serve as a constant review of the binyanim
and verb types. Pertinent comments for individual verbs will be made from time to
time.

(a) ./nic£ax/ "he won" ‫נצח‬
The third root consonant of this verb is x ( ‫ ) ח‬, and the vowel /a/ must
precede it at the end of a word.
A.Substitution-Agreement Drill - Past Tense

.‫ניצחתי‬

I'm happy that I've won again.

‫אני שמח שישיב‬

- ‫ הן‬- ‫ אתם‬- ‫ אח הם‬- ‫ עטרה‬- ‫ יונתן‬- ‫ אנו‬- ‫אתה‬
‫ אני‬- ‫ אנו‬- ‫אתן‬
(This drill may be varied by varying /sameax/ to agree with the alternations of
/nicaxti/: /ata sameax SeSuv nicaxta/, /anu smexim SeSuv nicaxnu/, etc.)
B.Substitution-Agreement Drill - Present Tense

I generally win.

. ‫ בלל מנצח‬1‫אני ב »־ר ־‬
‫ אני‬- ‫ דוד‬- ‫ הנשים‬- ‫ הם‬- ‫ אשתי‬- ‫את‬

C. Substitution-Agreement Drill - Future Tense
1 hope you'll win tomorrow.

.‫אני מקווה שתנצח מחר‬

- ‫ שאתן‬- ‫ שאתם שהיא‬- ‫ שאנו‬- ‫ שהם‬- ‫ שאת‬- ‫שמשה‬
‫ שאני‬- ‫שאתה‬
D. Substitution-Agreement Drill - All Tenses

.‫ ניצחנו אתמול וננצח היום‬.‫אנו מנצחים כל פעם‬

We win every time.
We won yesterday,
and
we'll
win
today.

‫ היא‬- ‫הם הנשים שלנו‬
‫ אתם‬- ‫אתה‬
‫ אנו‬- ‫ את‬- ‫ אתן‬- ‫ אתה‬- ‫ אני‬- ‫בעלך‬

714

HEBREW

BASIC COURSE

20
(b)/cilcel/ "rang" ‫צלצל‬
This verb is conjugated exactly like /kilkel/ "he damaged". The pi'el is used in
both the transitive meaning /cilcalti bapaamon/ "I rang the bell" and the intransitive
meaning /hapaamon cilcel/ "the bell rang".
E.Substitution-Agreement Drill - Past Tense
we rang the beii on time.

.‫צלצלנו כפעמון כזמן‬

- ‫ הוא‬- ‫ את‬- ‫ התלמידים אתה‬- ‫ אתם‬- ‫ אני‬- ‫ המנהלת‬- ‫המורה‬
‫ אנו‬- ‫אתן‬

F.Substitution-Agreement Drill - Present Tense
we ring the beiis at noon.

.‫אנו מצלצלים כפעמונים בצהריים‬

‫ אנו‬- ‫אני את הוא הן‬

G.Substitution-Agreement Drill - Future Tense
when will he ring the beii?

?‫מתי הוא יצלצל כפעמון‬

‫ הוא‬- ‫ הם‬- ‫ הן‬- ‫ היא את‬- ‫ אתם‬- ‫ אתן‬- ‫אתה‬

(c)/i£en/ "he smoked" ‫עישן‬
H.Substitution-Agreement Drill - Past Tense
she smoked aii morning.

.‫היא עישנה כל הנוקר‬

‫ היא‬- ‫ אתן‬- ‫ את‬- ‫ אנו‬- ‫ אתה אתם‬- ‫ המורה‬- ‫ הן‬- ‫ הם‬- ‫אני‬

I.Substitution-Agreement Drill - Present Tense
x smoke in my free time.

.‫אני מעשן כזמני החופשי‬

‫ אני‬- ‫ אתם‬- ‫ היא‬- ‫ את הוא‬- ‫ הן‬- ‫ אנו‬- ‫הם‬

J. Substitution-Agreement Drill - Future Tense
We'll smoke during the second intermission.

.‫אנו נעשן כהפסקה השניה‬

‫ אנו‬- ‫ היא‬- ‫ אתם‬- ‫ הוא‬- ‫ הן אתן‬- ‫ את‬- ‫ אתה הם‬- ‫אני‬

715

UNIT

UNIT

BASIC

HEBREW

22

COURSE

(d) /Sata/ "he drank" ‫שתה‬
This is a lamed hey verb of the kal. It is conjugated exactly like /kana/ "he
bought" ‫ קנה‬. The 3 f«s. past tense is /^ateta/ ‫•שתתה‬
K. Transformation Drill - Affirmative to Negative
Instructor: Drink tea.
Student: Don't drink
coffee.

tea.

Drink

.‫שתה קפה‬
.‫שתי קפה‬
.‫שתו קפה‬
‫שתינה‬
.‫קפה‬

.‫תשתה תה‬
.‫תשתי תה‬
.‫תשתר תה‬
‫תשתינה‬

‫אל‬
‫אל‬
‫אל‬
‫אל‬
,‫תה‬

‫שתה‬
.‫וזה‬
.‫שתי תה‬
‫שתר‬
.‫תה‬
‫שתינה‬
.‫תה‬

L. Transformation Drill - Past to Future
Instructor: I drank the milk. Student: I'll drink the milk.

M.

‫ שתיתם את‬.‫ הוא ישתה את שתיתי את החלב‬.‫ תשתי את החלב‬.‫תשתו את החלב‬
.‫ את שתית את החלב‬.‫ הם החלב‬.‫ תשתינה את החלב‬.‫ היא תשתה את החלב‬.‫החלב‬
.‫ הן תשתינה את החלב‬.‫אתה תשתה את החלב‬
‫ שתינו את‬.‫הוא שתה את החלב‬
This drill should be done in reverse,
.‫ היא שתתה את החלב‬.‫החלב‬
‫ הם שתו את‬.‫שתיתן את החלב‬
.‫ אתה שתית את החלב‬.‫החלב‬
.‫הן שתו את החלב‬

.‫אשתה את החלב‬
‫ נשחה את‬.‫החלב‬
.‫ישתו את החלב‬
also.

Substitution-Agreement Drill - Present Tense Do you
drink plain .water?
‫אתה‬

?‫האס אתה שותה מים רגילים‬
‫אתן‬

‫הם‬

‫ הוא‬- ‫את‬

716

HEBREW

BASIC COURSE

20

23•5 The nif'al Conjugation
The present and past tenses of the nif'al were drilled in Unit 19 and should be
quite familiar to the student. The future tense is simple in struc- ture, but in verbs
whose first or second radical is b, £, or k ( ‫ )כ‬, the alternation of consonants may be
confusing at first. Care should also be taken not to confuse the future tense pattern
of the nif'al with that of the pi'el.
In the charts below, the vowel of the prefix in the imperative and future is
separated from the consonant of the prefix in order to point out more clearly the
differences from the pi'el. Euphonic vowels are in lower case when they occur within a
capitalized pattern.
The following charts will have some forms which would make sense only in rather
contrived contexts: For example, the imperative /hisager/ "be locked in". However, they
are included in order to illustrate the complete conjugation.
As with the pu'al (see Grammar Note 21.8) some forms make sense only in the third
person. No general rules can be given to predict these, but the student can usually
rely on his own judgment, though English idiom can be misleading. For example, "I will
be finished" meaning "I will finish" is rendered in Heorew in the kal: /egmor/. The
nif'al form /egamer/ would be a slang inno- vation.
(a) Pattern with unchanging root consonants:

717

UNIT

UNIT

BASIC

HEBREW

22

COURSE

Forms with vowel suffix
Infinitive:
Imperative:

le h ISAGER
m.s*

h

ISAGER
f.s.
m.pl
.

h ISAGR i
h ISAGR u

2

f.
s.

t ISAGR i

ISAGER na

2

m.pl
.

t ISAGR u

ISAGER na

3 m.pl

y ISAGR u

3 f.

ni SGeR a

3 pi.

ni SGeR u

ISAGER na
f.pl.
Future:

1

s.

2

m.s.

t

m. s.
f.s.

Y

1

pi.

n

T

m.s.

n
i
n
i
n
i
n
i
n
i
n
i
n
i
n
i

m.pl.
f.pl.
1

s.

2.M.s.
2

f.s.

3

m.s.

ISAGER
ISAGER
ISAGER

.

t

.s.

ISAGER

t

3 f.pl.

F

Past:

ESAGER

3
3

2 f.pl.

Present:

h

SGAR
SG1SR

et

SGAR im
SGAR ot
SGAR

ti

SGAR ta
SGAR t
SGAR
s.

A.

1

pi.

2

m.pl.

2

f.pl.

n
i
n
i
n
i

SGAR nu
SGAR tem
SGAR ten

Expansion Drill
Instructor: I will hurry.
Student: If I don't hurry I will be locked in the building.

718

‫‪UNIT‬‬

‫‪HEBREW‬‬

‫‪BASIC COURSE‬‬

‫אני אמהר‪.‬‬

‫אם‬

‫אתה תמהר‪.‬‬

‫אם‬

‫את תמהרי‪.‬‬

‫אם‬

‫הוא ימהר‪.‬‬

‫אם‬

‫היא תמהר‪.‬‬

‫אס‬

‫אנו נמהר‪.‬‬

‫אם‬

‫אתם תמהרו‪.‬‬

‫אם‬

‫אתן תמהר!ה‪.‬‬

‫אם‬

‫הם ימהרו‪.‬‬

‫אם‬

‫הן תמהרנה‪.‬‬

‫אם‬

‫ל‬
‫א‬
‫ל‬
‫א‬
‫ל‬
‫א‬
‫ל‬
‫א‬
‫ל‬
‫א‬
‫ל‬
‫א‬
‫ל‬
‫א‬
‫ל‬
‫א‬
‫ל‬
‫א‬
‫ל‬
‫א‬

‫אמהר‪,‬‬

‫אסגר כבנין‪.‬‬

‫תמהר‪,‬‬

‫אתה תסגר כבנין‪.‬‬

‫תמהרי‬
‫‪,‬‬
‫י‬
‫מהר‪,‬‬
‫תמהר‪,‬‬

‫את תסגרי בכנין‪.‬‬

‫היא תמגר כבנין‪.‬‬

‫נמהר‪,‬‬

‫אנו נסגר בב נ י ן‪.‬‬

‫תמהרו‬
‫‪,‬‬
‫תמהרנ‬
‫ה‬
‫ימהרו‬
‫‪,‬‬
‫תמהרנ‬
‫ה‬

‫אתם תסגר ו בב נ י‬
‫ן‪.‬‬
‫‪ ,‬אתן תסגרנה כבנין‬

‫‪20‬‬

‫הוא יסגר בבנ י ן‪.‬‬

‫הם יסגרו בב נ י ן‪.‬‬
‫‪ ,‬הן תסגרנה כבנין‪.‬‬

‫‪B. Transformation Drill - Future to Past‬‬
‫‪Instructor: He will be locked in the building. Student: He was locked in the building‬‬
‫‪yesterday.‬‬

‫הוא י ‪0‬ג ‪ "1‬כבנין‪.‬‬
‫היא תיסגר כבנין‪.‬‬
‫הם יסגרו כבנין‪.‬‬
‫הן תיסגרנה יבנין‪.‬‬
‫את תיסגרי כבנין ‪.‬‬
‫אתם תיסגרו בבנין‪.‬‬
‫אנו ניסגר כבנין‪.‬‬
‫אחה תיסגר בבניך‪.‬‬
‫אני אסגר בבנין‪.‬‬

‫הוא נסגר אתמול כבנין‪.‬‬
‫היא נסגרה אתמול כבנין‪.‬‬
‫הם נסגרו אתמול כבנין‪.‬‬
‫הן נסגרו אתמול כבנין‪.‬‬
‫את נסגרת אתמול כבנין‪.‬‬
‫נסגרתם אתמול כבנין‪.‬‬
‫נסגרנו אתמול כבנין‪.‬‬
‫אתה נסגרת אתמול כבנין‪.‬‬
‫נסגרתי אתמול כבנין‪.‬‬
‫‪The drill should be done in reverse, also.‬‬

‫) כ ‪(b) Alternating root consonants b,p, k f‬‬
‫‪The pattern of root consonant alternations in the n i f 1 a l is different from that in‬‬
‫‪the kal. In the nif'al all forms have a prefix, and therefore,the handy rule about‬‬
‫‪prefixed and unprefixed forms would not be applicable.‬‬
‫‪However, if the /ni-/ of the present and past tenses is disregarded, then the rule‬‬
‫‪for the alternations is exactly the reverse of the kal. The following charts will‬‬
‫‪illustrate this more clearly.‬‬

‫‪719‬‬

UNIT

Prefixed Unprefixed

Prefixed Unprefixed
(disregard /ni-/)

yiVdok

yiBadek
ni Vdak

Badak
Future:
Past:
k/x
Future:
Past:

COURSE

Alternating first radicals (1 )
kal
nif'al

b/v
Future:
Past:

E/f

BASIC

HEBREW

22

yiFtax

yiPatax
Pa tax

yiXtov

Katav

ni Ftax
yiKatev

ni Xtav

C. Substitution-Agreement Drill

- ‫ הן את‬- ‫ העולים‬- ‫ הוא‬- ‫ אתם‬- ‫אני‬
‫ אתה‬- ‫ אבו‬- ‫ היא‬- ‫אתן‬

‫ אני נכרקתי‬.‫הכני ן נבדק אתמול‬
.‫ התלמידות נבדקו אתמול‬.‫אתמול‬
‫ את נבדקת‬.‫אתה נבדקת אתמול‬
‫ העולים החדשים נבדקו‬.‫אתמול‬
‫ אנו‬.‫ אתם נבדקתם אתמול‬.‫אתמול‬
‫ המשפחה ניברקה‬.‫נבדקנו אתמול‬
.‫ אתך נברקתך אתמול‬.‫אתמול‬
D. Transformation Drill Past to Future
Instructor: The building

You will be examined tomorrow morning.

was examined yesterday. Student: The building will be
examined tomorrow.

‫ אני אברק‬.‫ מהר‬,‫הבנין ייבדל‬
‫ אתה‬.‫ התלמידות תיבדקנה מחר‬.‫מחר‬
.‫ את תיבדק י מחר‬.‫תיבדק מחר‬
‫ אתם‬.‫העולים החדשים ייבדקו מחר‬
.‫ אנו ניבדק מחר‬.‫תיבדק ו מחר‬
‫ אתן תיבדקנה‬.‫המשפחה תיבדק מחר‬
.‫מחר‬

Do this drill in reverse, also.

E. Transformation Drill - Past to Future
‫ המשרד נפתח‬.‫הדלת נפתחה לפני שעה‬
‫ הדלתות נ י פתחו לפני‬.‫לפני שעה‬
‫ משרד‬.‫ הדואר נפתח לפני שעה‬.‫שעה‬
‫ המלונות‬.‫התיירות נפתח לפני שעה‬
‫ בתי הספר נפתחו‬.‫נפתחו לפני שעה‬
.‫לפני שעה‬
Instructor: The door was opened

an hour ago. Student: The door will be opened in
an hour.

‫ המשרד יפתח‬.‫הדלת תיפתח בעור שעה‬
.‫ הדלתות תיפתחנה בעוד שעה‬.‫בעוד שעה‬
‫ משרד התיירות‬.‫הדואר יפתח בעור שעה‬
‫ המלונות יפתחו בעוד‬.‫יפתח בעור שעה‬
.‫ בתי הספר יפתחו כעוד שעה‬.‫שעה‬

Do this drill in reverse, also.

F.Substitution Drill
The following greetings are used on the Hebrew New Year, Rosh Hashana. The verb
forms are Classical Hebrew and are slightly different from the ordinary modern
Hebrew forms.
May you be inscribed for a good year.
leSana tova tikatev.
tikatevi
tikatevu

.‫לשנה טובה תכתב‬

‫תכתבי‬
‫תכתבו‬

720

HEBREW

BASIC COURSE

20

‫תכתבנה‬

tikatavna
G.Substitution Drill
come into the office, please.

.‫ בבקשה‬,‫הכנס למשרד‬

‫היכנסי‬
‫היכנסו‬
‫י כ נ ס‬
‫נ ה‬
,‫ר‬

(in ordinary speech the shortened forms /kanes, kansi/ etc., will often be
heard.)

721

UNIT

‫‪H. Substitution-Agreement Drill‬‬
‫‪The following drill can be varied by leaving off the phrase /lak^xat et‬‬
‫‪hamixtavim/.‬‬
‫‪I will go into his office tomorrow to get the letters.‬‬

‫מחר למשרדו לקחת את המכתביש‪.‬‬

‫‪1.‬‬
‫‪2.‬‬

‫‪3‬‬
‫•‬
‫‪4‬‬
‫‪.‬‬
‫‪5‬‬
‫•‬

‫‪6.‬‬

‫‪I:‬‬
‫‪9‬‬
‫•‬

‫‪.‬‬
‫‪10‬‬
‫׳‬
‫‪.‬‬
‫‪11‬‬
‫‪.‬‬
‫‪12‬‬
‫•‬
‫‪13‬‬
‫‪.‬‬
‫‪14‬‬
‫•‬
‫‪15‬‬

‫‪.‬‬
‫‪16‬‬

‫•‬
‫‪17‬‬

‫‪.‬‬
‫‪18‬‬

‫•‬
‫אני אצא‪.‬‬
‫אני אצא‪ .‬אל תיכנס‪19 .‬‬
‫תיכנסו‪,‬‬
‫אל‬
‫‪.‬‬
‫אני אצא‪.‬‬
‫אל תיכנסי‪20 ,‬‬
‫אל‬
‫‪.‬‬
‫תיכנסנה‬
‫‪21‬‬
‫‪ .‬אני‬
‫‪.‬‬
‫אצא‪.‬‬
‫‪22‬‬
‫•‬
‫‪23‬‬
‫‪.‬‬
‫‪24‬‬
‫•‬
‫‪25‬‬

‫אכנ ‪0‬‬

‫‪.‬‬
‫‪1‬‬

‫‪ scira‬היום‬
‫שרה‬
‫יכנס מחר למשרדו לקחת את המכתבים‪.‬‬
‫שרה ת‬
‫‪ etmol‬כנסה נכנם‬
‫אתמו ל‬
‫אתמול למשרדו לקחת את המכתבים‪ .‬שרה נ‬
‫‪ yaakov‬נכנס נסות‬
‫‪.2‬‬
‫יעקב‬
‫אתמול למשרדו לקחת את המכתבים‪ .‬יעקב‬
‫‪maxar‬‬
‫המכתבי‪£‬את‪baboker‬‬
‫עכשיו לקחת‬
‫‪ axSav‬כנסנה מחר בבקר למשרדו‬
‫המכתבים‪.‬‬
‫את לקחת‬
‫למשרדו‬
‫עכשי ו ‪.3‬‬
‫יעקב‬
‫עכשיולקחת את‬
‫‪ hen‬יכנס מחר בבקר למשרדו‬
‫למשרדו לקחת את‬
‫‪.4‬‬
‫הן‬
‫המכתבים‪ .‬המכתבים‪ anu.‬הן נכ‬
‫‪ ba¥avua‬י‬
‫ו כשבוע שעבר למשרדו לקחת את המכתבים‪Seavar .‬‬
‫‪.5‬‬
‫תי‬
‫הן‬
‫מחר‬
‫כשבוע שעבר למשרדו לקחת את המכתבים‪.‬‬
‫בבקר ‪.6‬‬
‫‪ ani‬אנו נ‬
‫כנס היום למשרדו לקחת את המכתבים‪.‬‬
‫‪.7‬‬
‫‪ hayom‬נכנסג‬
‫אנו‬
‫‪hem‬‬
‫נסים היום למשרדו לקחת את המכתבים‪.‬‬
‫‪.8‬‬
‫נכנסת‬
‫בשבוע‬
‫נסו בעוד חודש למשרדו לקחת את המכתבים‪ beod xodeS .‬בעוד‬
‫‪.9‬‬
‫אני נ‬
‫שעבר‬
‫חודש למשרדו לקחת את המכתבים‪.‬‬
‫‪.‬‬
‫‪ at‬הם נכ‬
‫אני‬
‫לפני יומיים למשרדו לקחת את המכתב ים• ‪lifney yomaim‬‬
‫היום הם ‪10‬‬
‫הם י‬
‫לקחת את המכתבים‪.‬‬
‫‪.‬‬
‫‪ hu‬נס כ את‬
‫בעוד‬
‫לפני יומיים למשרדו‬
‫חודש את ‪11‬‬
‫י תכ את‬
‫לקחת‬
‫למשרדו‬
‫עכשיו‬
‫כנסות‬
‫המכתבים‪.‬‬
‫את‬
‫עכשיו למשרדו לקחת‬
‫‪. 12‬‬
‫נכ‬
‫נס‬
‫לפני‬
‫‪.‬‬
‫‪ axSav aten‬את המכתבים‪ .‬ה בשבוע הבא למשרדו לקחת ת‬
‫את הוא נ‬
‫יומיים‬
‫המכתבים‪.‬‬
‫‪ baSavua haba‬המכתבים‪ .‬בשבוע הבא למשרדו לקחת את‬
‫‪13‬‬
‫כנ‬
‫הוא נ‬
‫הוא‬
‫לפני שעה‬
‫עכשי ו ‪.‬‬
‫‪ ata‬לפני שעה למשרדו לקחת את המכתבים‪ .‬ו ס‬
‫אתן נ‬
‫למשרדו‬
‫‪14‬‬
‫‪ lifney Saa‬למשרדו לקחת את המכתבים‪ .‬כנסים ברגע זהכנ‬
‫תכנסנ‬
‫אתן‬
‫לקחת את‬
‫‪ £nu‬לקחת את המכתבים כנסת ברגע זה למשרדו ס‬
‫תיכנס‬
‫שעה בשבוע ‪ .‬הבא‬
‫‪ berega ze‬המכתבים‪ .‬יכנס כעוד שעה למשרדו לקחת את המכתבים‬
‫נכנסת‬
‫‪ 15‬אנו‬
‫אתה לפני‬
‫‪ raxel beod‬זהבי תיכנס בעוד שעה למשרדו‪...‬‬
‫זה כרגע רחל‪.‬‬
‫‪mi^pSxat‬נכנסנ‬
‫‪zah&vi £aa‬‬
‫‪16‬‬
‫בעוד שעה‬
‫אנו נ‬
‫משפחת ‪.‬‬
‫זהבי‬
‫זהבי נכנסה שלשום למשרדו לקחת את המכתבים‪ .‬רחל נ‬
‫‪17‬‬
‫שלשום‬
‫‪ £il£om‬כנסה שלשום למשרדו לקחת את המכתבים‪.‬רחל ת‬
‫‪.‬‬
‫יעל‬
‫‪ yael‬משפחת‬
‫כנסת היום למשרדו לקחת את המכתבים‪.‬‬
‫‪18‬‬
‫‪ hayom‬משפחת‬
‫‪.‬‬
‫יעל נ‬
‫‪19‬‬
‫יעל נ‬
‫‪Affirmative to Negative‬‬
‫‪.‬‬
‫‪X. 20 Transformation Drill‬‬
‫‪Instructor: Come in, please.‬‬
‫‪.2 1‬‬
‫‪Student: Don't come in. 1'11 come out.‬‬
‫‪.‬‬
‫‪22‬‬
‫היכנס בבקשה‪ .‬היכנסו בבקשה‪ .‬היכנסי כבקשה‪ .‬היכנסנה בבקשה‪.‬‬
‫‪.‬‬
‫‪23‬‬
‫)‪J. Expansion Drill . (Keep the tense the same in both parts of the response‬‬
‫‪24‬‬
‫אבל הוא יצא מיד‪ .‬אכל יצאנו מיד‪ .‬אבל‬
‫הוא‬
‫לבית‪ .‬היא תיכנס לב‬
‫נכנס לב ‪.‬‬
‫אצא מיד‪ .‬אבל היא תצא מיד‪ .‬אבל יצאתם‬
‫הם‬
‫לבית‪.‬‬
‫נכנסתם‬
‫‪25‬‬
‫מיד‪ .‬אבל יצאו מיד‪ .‬אכל היא יצאה מיד‪.‬‬
‫נכנסנו‬
‫נכנסה‬
‫היא‬
‫לב‬
‫ייכנסו‬
‫‪.‬‬
‫אבל הוא יצא מיד‪.‬‬
‫לבית‪.‬‬
‫הוא ייכנס‬
‫‪26‬‬
‫‪Instructor: He went into the house.‬‬
‫‪he came right out.‬‬
‫אכנס‬
‫‪.‬‬
‫‪Student: He went into the house, but‬‬
‫ת‪.‬‬
‫‪27‬‬
‫‪.‬‬
‫‪28‬‬

‫ית‪.‬‬
‫ית‪.‬‬
‫לבית‪.‬‬
‫לבית‪.‬‬

‫‪.‬‬
‫‪26‬‬

‫•‬
‫‪27‬‬

‫‪.‬‬
‫‪28‬‬

‫‪722‬‬

‫‪UNIT‬‬

‫‪HEBREW‬‬

‫‪BASIC COURSE‬‬

‫‪20‬‬
‫‪BASIC COURSE_______________________________HEBREW________________________________________UNIT 23‬‬

‫‪.K. Expansion Drill (Reverse of Drill j) Instructor: He came out of the house‬‬

‫‪Student: He came out of the house, but he went right bac in.‬‬
‫‪k‬‬
‫הוא יצא מהבית‪.‬‬
‫יצאנו מהבית‪.‬‬
‫אצא מהבית‪.‬‬
‫היא תצא מהבית‪.‬‬
‫יצאתם מהבית‪.‬‬
‫הם יצאו מהבית‪.‬‬
‫היא יצאה מהבית‪.‬‬
‫הוא יצא מהבית‪.‬‬

‫אכל‬
‫אכל‬
‫אכל‬
‫אכל‬
‫אבל‬
‫אבל‬
‫אכל‬
‫אבל‬

‫הוא נכנס מיד‪.‬‬
‫נכנסנו מיד‪,‬‬
‫אכנס מיד‪.‬‬
‫היא תיכנס מיד‪.‬‬
‫נכנסתם מיד‪.‬‬
‫הם יכנסו מיד‪.‬‬
‫נכנסה מיד‪.‬‬
‫הוא ייכנס מיד‪.‬‬

‫‪. Substitution-Agreement Drill‬״‪I‬‬
‫‪He'll get together with David this evening.‬‬

‫הוא ייפגש עם דור הערב ‪.‬‬
‫עטרה ‪ -‬אתה ‪ -‬הם ‪ -‬את ‪ -‬אבר‬
‫אתם ‪ -‬אני ‪ -‬אתן ‪ -‬הן ‪ -‬ירכתן‬

‫‪M. Transformation Drill‬‬
‫‪Instructor: He'11 meet David this evening. Student:‬‬
‫‪He'll get together with David this evening.‬‬
‫הוא ייפגש עם דור הערב‪ .‬אני אפגש עם‬
‫דוד הערב‪ .‬שרה תיפגש עם דוד הערב‪.‬‬
‫אנו ניפגש עם דור הערב‪ .‬אתה תיפגש‬
‫עם דור הערב‪ .‬הם ייפגשו עם דוד‬
‫הערב‪ .‬את תיפגשי עם דוד הערב‪ . .‬מר‬
‫וויליאמם ייפגש עם דוד הערב‪.‬‬

‫‪together with Atara in the cafe. Student: We‬‬
‫‪Atara in the cafe.‬‬

‫עטרה בבית הקפה‪.‬‬

‫נפגשנו עם עטרה בבית הקפה‪ .‬דוד נפגש עם‬
‫עטרה בכית הקפה‪ .‬שרה נפגשה עם עטרה כבית‬
‫הקפה‪ .‬הם נפגשו עם עטרה בכית הקפה‪ .‬אשתי‬

‫‪723‬‬

‫הוא יפגוש את דור הערב‪ .‬אני אפגוש‬
‫את דור הערב‪ .‬שרה תפגוש את דוד‬
‫הערב‪ .‬אנו נפגוש את דוד הערב‪ .‬אתה‬
‫תפגוש את דור הערב‪ .‬הם יפגשו את‬
‫דור הערב‪ .‬את תפגשי את דור הערב‪.‬‬
‫מר וויליאמס יפגוש את דוד ה׳‬
‫‪Future to‬‬
‫‪Past‬‬

‫‪N. Transformation Drill‬‬
‫‪Instructor: We'll get‬‬
‫‪got together with‬‬

‫אנו ניפגש עם עטרה ברית הקפה‪ .‬דוד ייפגש עם‬
‫עטרה בבית הקפה‪ .‬שרה תיפגש עם עטרה בבית‬
‫הקפה‪ .‬הם ייפגשו עם עטרה בכית הקפה‪ .‬אשתי‬
‫תיפגש עם עטרה בבית הקפה‪ .‬הן תיפגשנה עם‬

‫נפגשה עם עטרה בבית הקפה‪ .‬הן נפגשו עם‬

‫עטרה בבית הקפה‪.‬‬

‫‪Do this drill in reverse, also.‬‬

‫‪724‬‬

HEBREW

BASIC COURSE

20
(2) Alternating second radicals

b/v
Future:
Past:

Prefixed

kal

yi&Bor

E/l

Future: Past:

k/x

Future:

nif'al Prefixed
Unprefixed
(disregard /ni-/)
yiSaVer
ni SBar

Unprefixed

SaVar

yiSPo
x

yimKo
r

yiSaFe
x

SaFa
x

ni

ni
Spax

yimaXe
r

maxa mKar
r

Some exceptions to the pattern
in the column on right ("unprefixed") have
already been noted. In Grammar
Note 19•5 it was noted that the second radical
is /v/, /£/, or /x/ if the prefix is /nee-/ or /no-/. For example:
/neexal/ "eaten" ‫נאכל‬

. ‫הכוס תישבר‬

0. Substitution-Agreement Drill The

‫ הצנצנות‬- ‫ הכוסות‬- ‫הבקבוק‬
‫ הצנצנת‬- ‫ הבקבוקים‬- ‫השולחן‬

glass will break.

P. Substitution-Agreement Drill The glass broke.
‫ צנצנת אחת‬- ‫ הבקבוקים‬- ‫ הצנצנות השולחן‬- ‫ הכוסות‬- ‫הבקבוק‬

Q. Transformation Drill - Future to Past
Instructor: The glass will break. Student: The glass broke.

725

.‫הכוס נשברה‬

UNIT

‫הכום תישבר‪.‬‬
‫הבקבוקים ייישברו‪.‬‬
‫השולחנות יישברו‪.‬‬
‫הכוסות •תישברנה‪.‬‬
‫צנצנת אחת תישבר‪.‬‬
‫השולחן הקטן‬
‫יישבר‪ .‬הרלת‬
‫תישבר‪ .‬החלון‬
‫ישבר‪.‬‬

‫הכוס נשברה‪ .‬הב קב‬
‫ו קי ם נשברו‪.‬‬
‫השולחנות נשברו‪.‬‬
‫הכוסות נשברו‪.‬‬
‫צנצנת אחת נשברה‪.‬‬
‫השולחן הקטן נשבר‪.‬‬
‫הדלת נשברה‪ .‬החלון‬
‫נשבר‪.‬‬
‫‪Do this drill in reverse, also.‬‬

‫‪726‬‬

HEBREW

BASIC COURSE

20
UNIT 23_______________________________HEBREW_______________________________BASIC COURSE
R. Transformation Drill
Instructor: Be careful that you don't break the glass. Student: Be careful that
the glass doesn't get broken.
.‫שהכוס לא תישבר‬
.‫שהבקבוק לא ישכר‬
.‫שהכוסות לא תשברנה‬
.‫שהשולחנות לא ישכרו‬

‫היזהר‬
‫היזהר‬
‫היזהר‬
‫היזהר‬

.‫הכוס‬
.‫הנקברק‬
.‫הכרסות‬
.‫השולחנות‬

‫את‬
‫את‬
‫את‬
‫את‬

‫תשכור‬
‫תשכור‬
‫תשכור‬
‫תשבור‬

‫שלא‬
‫שלא‬
‫שלא‬
‫שלא‬

‫היזהר‬
‫היזהר‬
‫היזהר‬
‫היזהר‬

This drill may be varied by putting the first part in the feminine or plural:
.‫היזהרי שלא תשברי את הכוס‬
S. Substitutions-Agreement Drill
The house will be sold by tomorrow.

.‫הכית יימכר עי מחי‬
‫ הבתים הספר‬- ‫ החבילה‬- ‫ החלות‬- ‫התפוחים‬
‫ הקופסאות‬- ‫ השולחן‬- ‫ הכרטיסים‬-

T. Substitution-Agreement Drill
The house was sold before 1 got there.

.‫הכית נמכר לפני שהגעתי לשם‬
- ‫ הפירות כל החסה‬- ‫ הספר‬- ‫ הכרטיסים‬- ‫החלות‬
‫ הלחם‬- ‫ האשכולית‬- ‫שתי קופסאות‬

U. Transformation Drill - Future to Past
Instructor: The tickets will be sold today.
Student: The tickets
have already been sold.
.‫הכרטיסים נמכרו ככר‬
‫ חפירות יימכרו‬.‫ הפירות היום‬.‫ר יימכר הספר נמכר כבר‬-:‫ הס‬.‫הכרטיסים יימכרו היום‬
‫ האשכוליות‬.‫נמכרו כבר‬
.‫ האשכוליות תימכרנה היום‬.‫היום‬
.‫ נמכרו כבר‬reverse, also.
Do this drill in

V. Transformation Drill
Instructor: They have sold the vegetables already. Student: The vegetables have
already been sold.

727

UNIT

‫הירקות ככר נמכרו‬

.‫את הירקות‬

‫הגלידה כבר נמכרה‬

.‫את הגלידה‬

.‫המקומות הטובים ככר נמכרו‬

.‫את המקומות הטובים‬
‫ הספרים‬.‫יימכר‬
‫הכית שלו‬
‫ החבילה‬.‫שלו יימכרו‬
‫ הכוסותהכית שרצינו כבר‬.‫תימכר‬
.‫שרצינו‬
‫את הבית‬
‫הגדולה‬
.‫היפות תימכרנה‬

.‫נמכר‬
9

‫התאנים ככר נמכרו‬

.‫את התאנים‬

‫הכרטיסים הזולים‬

.‫את הכרטיסים הזולים‬

.‫החלה כבר נמכרה‬

.‫את החלה‬

‫כבר‬
‫נמכרו‬

W. Transformation Drill

‫מכר‬
‫ו‬
‫מכר‬
‫ו‬
‫מכר‬
‫ו‬
‫מכר‬
‫ו‬
‫מכר‬
‫ו‬
‫מכר‬
‫ו‬
‫מכר‬
‫ו‬

‫כבר‬
‫כבר‬
‫ככר‬
‫כבר‬
‫כנר‬
‫כבר‬
0‫כ‬

Instructor: He will sell his house. Student: His house will be sold.

.‫הבית שלו‬
.‫הספרים ישלו‬
.‫ההבילה הגדולה‬
.‫הכוסות היפות‬

‫את‬
‫את‬
‫את‬
‫את‬

‫ימכור‬
‫ימכור‬
‫ימכור‬
‫ימכור‬

‫הוא‬
‫הוא‬
‫הוא‬
‫הוא‬

(c) Verbs with first radical r, x, ( ‫ ) ח‬, or h
If the first root consonant of the verb is r, x (‫ ) ח‬, or h then the vowel of the
prefix in the infinitive, imperative and future is /e/7 rather than /i/. Examples are:
/

/
/
/
/
In
tense
/ni-/.

‫להרשם‬
‫י ירשם‬
‫להיראו‬
‫ת ייראה‬

leheraSem/ "to be recorded" /yeraSem/ "it will be recorded"
/lehera'ot/ "to be seen" /yera'e/ "he will be seen"
lehexa&ev/ "to be considered" /yexaSev/ "he will be considered"
lehe* axel/ "to be eaten" /ye'axel/ "it will be eaten"

‫לההש‬
lehe'asot/ "to be done" /ye'ase/ "it will be done"
‫ב‬
‫ייחש‬
‫ב‬
lehehanot/ "to enjoy" /yehane/ "he will enjoy"
‫להאכל‬
‫להיהנו‬
(See 24.4(c), p.282)
‫ייאכל‬
‫ת‬
‫ להיעש‬Grammar Note 19-5 it was noted that the present and
‫ ייהנה‬past
than
‫ ות‬prefix of the last three types is /ne-/, rather
‫ייעשה‬

X. Substitution-Agreement Drill The bread will be eaten first.
‫ החלה‬- ‫ התאנים‬- ‫ הבשר הדגים הממולאים‬- ‫ העוגות‬- ‫ הפירות‬- ‫הגבינה‬

. ‫הגבינה נאכלה תחילה‬

‫הלחם ייאכל‬
.‫תחילה‬

‫ החלה‬- ‫ התאנים‬- ‫ הפירות‬- ‫הלחם‬

‫ הדגים הממולאים‬- ‫ הבשר‬- ‫העוגות‬

Y. Substitution-Agreement Drill

728

HEBREW

BASIC COURSE

20
The cheese was eaten first.

729

UNIT

HEBREW

BASIC COURSE

20

DD. Transformation Drill - Future to Past
Instructor: You'11 look better after the vacation. Student: You looked better
before the vacation.
.‫בראית יותר טוב לפני החופש‬
.‫היא נראתה יותר טוב לפני החופש‬
.‫מר כהן נראה יותר טוב לפני החופש‬
.‫אתם נראיתם יותר טוב לפני החופש‬
.‫הן נראו יותר טוב לפגי החופש‬
.‫נראינו יותר טוב לפני החופש‬
.‫הם נראו יותר טוב לפני החופש‬
,‫נראיתן יותר טוב לפני החופש‬
.‫נראיתי יותר טוב לפני החופש‬
.‫נראית יותר טיב לפני החופש‬

.‫אתה תיראה יותר טוב אחרי החופש‬
.‫היא תיראה י התר טוב אחרי החופש‬
.‫מר כהן ייראה יותר טוב אחרי החופש‬
.‫אתם תיראו יותר טוב אחרי החופש‬
.‫הן תיראינה יותר טוב אחרי החופש‬
.‫אנו ניראה יותר טוב אחרי החופש‬
.‫הם ייראו יותר טוב אחרי החופש‬
.‫אתן תיראינה יותר טוב אחרי החופש‬
.‫אני איראה יותר טוב אחרי החופש‬
.‫את תיראי יותר טוב אחרי החופש‬

Do this drill in reverse, also.

(e) Verbs with first radical Y

If the first root consonant (as listed for the kal) is y .< then it occurs as v
(spelled ‫ ) ו‬in the nif1al. In the present and past tenses the forms begin
with /no-/. See Grammar Note 19«5< part 1(e): /nolad/ "born" ‫נולד‬
In the infinitive, imperative, and future this root consonant is pronounced /v/
and the vowel pattern is the same as with regular verbs. For example:

/yivaled/ "it will be born" ‫ יולד‬root yld ‫ילד‬
/yivada/ "it will be known" ‫ יודע‬root yd' ‫ידע‬
(The future tense of these verbs will not be drilled here, but the drills on
the past tense in Unit 19 may be reviewed.)

The following are drills on the nif'al of various verbs which have occurred in
the text.

EE. Expansion Drill
Instructor: Speak louder.
Student: Speak louder; then you'll be heard better.

.‫ דברנה בקול‬.‫ דברו בקול‬.‫דברי בקול‬

.‫תישמע יותר טוב‬
.‫תישמעי יותר טוב‬
.‫תישמעו יותר טוב‬
.‫תישמענה יותר טוב‬

730

‫אז‬
‫אז‬
‫אז‬
‫אז‬

.‫בקול‬

‫דבר‬

UNIT

‫‪BASIC‬‬

‫‪UNIT‬‬

‫‪HEBREW‬‬

‫‪COURSE‬‬

‫‪the play over? Student: What time will the play‬‬
‫?‪be over‬‬

‫כאיזה שעה ההצגה תיגמר? כאיזה‬
‫שעה המכירות תיגמרנה? כאיזה‬
‫שעה השידור ייגמר? כאיזה שעה‬
‫הלימודים ייגמרו?‬

‫‪22‬‬

‫כאיזה‬
‫כאיזה‬
‫באיזה‬
‫באיזה‬

‫שעה‬
‫שעה‬
‫שעה‬
‫שעה‬

‫נגמרה ההצגה?‬
‫נגמרו המכירות?‬
‫נגמר השידור?‬
‫נגמרו הלימודים?‬

‫ ‪FF. Transformation Drill‬‬‫‪past to Future‬‬

‫‪GG. Substitution-Agreement Drill‬‬

‫‪Instructor: What time was‬‬

‫‪Moshe is being careful not to break the glasses.‬‬

‫משה נזהר לא לשבור את הכוסות‪.‬‬
‫‪.1‬‬
‫‪.2‬‬
‫‪.3‬‬
‫‪.4‬‬
‫‪.5‬‬
‫‪.6‬‬
‫ד‪.‬‬
‫‪.8‬‬
‫‪.9‬‬
‫‪.‬‬
‫‪10‬‬
‫‪.‬‬
‫‪11‬‬
‫‪.‬‬
‫‪12‬‬
‫‪.‬‬
‫‪13‬‬
‫‪.‬‬
‫‪14‬‬
‫‪.‬‬
‫‪15‬‬
‫‪.‬‬
‫‪16‬‬
‫‪.‬‬
‫‪17‬‬
‫‪.‬‬
‫‪18‬‬
‫‪.‬‬
‫‪19‬‬
‫‪.‬‬
‫‪20‬‬
‫‪.‬‬
‫‪21‬‬
‫‪.‬‬
‫‪22‬‬
‫‪.‬‬
‫‪23‬‬
‫‪.‬‬
‫‪24‬‬
‫‪.‬‬
‫‪25‬‬
‫‪.‬‬
‫‪2.‬‬
‫‪6‬‬
‫‪.‬‬
‫‪27‬‬
‫‪.‬‬
‫‪28‬‬

‫רחל‬
‫אתמול‬
‫אתם‬
‫עכשי ו‬
‫הם‬
‫מחר‬
‫הן‬
‫אתמו ל‬
‫הוא‬
‫מחר‬

‫רחל נזהרת לא לשבור את הכוסות‪.‬‬
‫רחל נזהרה אתמול לא לשבור את הכוסות‪.‬‬
‫אתם נזהרתם אתמול לא לשכור את הכוסות‪.‬‬
‫אתם נזהרים עכשיו לא לשכור את הכוסות‪.‬‬
‫הם נזהרים עכשיו לא לשכור את הכוסות‪.‬‬
‫הם ייזהרו מחר לא לגיבור את הכוסות‪.‬‬
‫הן תיזהרנה מחר לא לשכור את הכוסות‪.‬‬
‫הן נזהרו אתמול לא לשבור אח הכוסות‪.‬‬
‫הוא נזהר אתמול לא לשכור את הכוסות‪.‬‬
‫הוא ייזהר מחר לא לשבור את הכוסות‪.‬‬

‫אנו‬

‫אנו ניזהר מחר לא לשבור את הכוסות‪.‬‬

‫היום‬

‫אנו נזהרים היום לא לשכור את הכוסות‪.‬‬

‫‪hayom‬‬

‫דליה‬

‫דליה נזהרת היום לא לשבור את הכוסות‪.‬‬

‫‪dalya‬‬

‫אתמו ל‬

‫דליה נזהרה אתמול לא לשכור את הכוסות‪.‬‬

‫‪etmol‬‬

‫אתן‬

‫אתן נזהרתן אתמול לא לשבור את הכוסות‪.‬‬

‫‪aten‬‬

‫היום‬

‫אתן נזהרות היום לא לשבור את הכוסות‪.‬‬

‫‪hayom‬‬

‫מר כספי‬

‫מר כספי ניזהר היום לא לשבור אח הכוסות‪.‬‬

‫אתמו ל‬

‫מר כספי ניזהר אתמול לא לשבור את הכוסות‪.‬‬

‫שושנה‬

‫שושנה ניזהרה אתמול לא לשכור את הכוסות‪.‬‬

‫מחר‬

‫שושנה תיזהר מחר לא לשבור את הכוסות‪.‬‬

‫הם‬

‫הם ייזהרו מחר לא לשבור את הכוסות‪.‬‬

‫היום‬

‫הם נזהרים היום לא לשכור את הכוסות‪.‬‬

‫משפחת אלון‬

‫משפחת אלון נזהרת היום לא לשבור את הכוסות‪.‬‬

‫אתמו ל‬

‫משפחת אלון נזהרה אתמול לא לשבור את הכוסות‪.‬‬

‫אתה ומשה‬

‫אתה ומשה נזהרתם אתמול לא לשבור את הכוסות‪.‬‬

‫מחר‬

‫אתה ומשה חזהרו מחר לא לשבור את הכוסות‪.‬‬

‫‪maxar‬‬

‫החיילים‬

‫החיילים יזהרו מחר לא לשכור את הכוסות‪.‬‬

‫היום‬

‫החיילים ניזהרים היום לא לשבור את הכוסות‪.‬‬

‫‪27 haxayalim‬‬
‫•‬
‫‪28 hayom‬‬
‫‪.‬‬

‫‪731‬‬

‫‪raxel‬‬
‫‪etmol‬‬
‫‪atem‬‬
‫‪ax&av‬‬
‫‪hem‬‬
‫‪maxar‬‬
‫‪hen‬‬
‫‪etmol‬‬
‫‪hu‬‬
‫‪maxar‬‬
‫‪anu‬‬

‫‪mar keispi‬‬
‫‪etmol‬‬
‫‪SoSlina‬‬

‫אשלח‬
‫הכאה‪.‬‬

‫‪maxar‬‬
‫לישראל בסנה‬
‫‪hem‬‬
‫‪hayom‬‬

‫‪miSpaxat alon‬‬
‫‪etmol‬‬
‫‪ata umoSe‬‬

‫‪1.‬‬
‫‪2.‬‬
‫•‪3‬‬
‫‪4.‬‬
‫•‪5‬‬
‫‪6.‬‬
‫•‪7‬‬