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The Quantum Mechanical Atom
CHEM 1500, Chapter 7
Picture of em radiation wave, Kotz p 297
•All forms of radiation can be described in terms of wave-like electric and magnetic fields. All radiation, such as visible light, X-rays, microwaves, and cell phone signals are collectively known as electromagnetic radiation (EM). •All share common properties. 2
CHEM 1500, Chapter 7
The Wave Nature of Light
An EM wave is often depicted as a sine wave that has an: Amplitude - height of the wave - related to the intensity or brightness of radiation Frequency (ν) nu - number of cycles per second = s-1 = Hertz (Hz) Wavelength (λ) lambda - distance wave travels in 1 cycle
Chapter 7 The Wave Nature of Light cont… Speed of wave (v or c) .and (Figure 7.CHEM 1500. page 252) c = 3.for light.00 x 108 m/s c = λ ν 4 . velocity is denoted .2.
Chapter 7 The Electromagnetic Spectrum EM waves are characterized by frequency or wavelength.3. page 255) Our eyes are only able to sense a very narrow band of wavelengths from about 400 to 700 nm.CHEM 1500. This band is called the visible spectrum. 5 . (Figure 7.
CHEM 1500.90 m x 1 nm = 2. Chapter 7 Practice Exercises (more on page 254) An FM station broadcasts classical music at 103.00 x 108 m/s = λ (103.4 MHz (103.4 x 106 s-1) λ = 2. Find the wavelength (in m. What is the frequency? c = λ ν 3.90 m x 1 Å = 2. (1 Å = 10-10 m) c = λ ν 3.18 x 1015 s-1 (Hz) 6 .00 x 108 m/s = (254 x 10-9 m) ν ν = 1.90 x 109 nm 10-9 m λ in Å = 2.90 x 1010 Å 10-10 m The organism that causes tuberculosis can be destroyed by irradiation with UV light with a wavelength of 254 nm.90 m λ in nm = 2. nm and Å) of these waves.4 x 106 Hz).
7 . •Electromagnetic Radiation: No mass. Quantum Theory unites the wave/particle properties of EM radiation. Chapter 7 Waves versus Particles View in the late 19th century… •Matter: Particles with location and momentum can be accurately described. exact position in space not fixed. Considered distinct and unrelated: Classical viewpoint.CHEM 1500.
Thus when matter is heated it emits one or more quantum of energy.626 x 10-34 J sec So…what is the energy of light emitted by a red stop light (λ = 652 nm)? 8 .CHEM 1500. quantum = a discrete bundle or packet of energy Planck proposed that a quantum of energy (photon) can be described by the following equation: E = hν h = Planck’s constant = 6. Chapter 7 Quantized Energy of Light Max Planck (German physicist) proposed that the energy of EM waves is quantized rather than continuous.
When the light is passed through a prism. (Figure 7. it is separated into its component wavelengths. Chapter 7 Atomic Line Spectra Atomic line spectra provide evidence that electrons in atoms have quantized energies.CHEM 1500.3. page 255) 9 . Light bulbs and stars produce radiation containing many different wavelengths. This rainbow of colors is called a continuous spectrum.
The emitted radiation can also be examined with a prism. (Figure 7. The pattern of emitted radiation is called the line spectrum of the atom. page 260) Na atoms emit yellow light H atoms emit pink light 10 .7. Chapter 7 Atoms can absorb energy (when heated) and then emit energy as electromagnetic radiation.CHEM 1500.
Rydberg (1888) : came up with an equation. using 2 integer values. Chapter 7 • The line spectrum of hydrogen is very simple. that predicted these wavelengths what is the significance of this? 11 . only 4 lines in the visible portion (other lines are in the UV and IR regions).CHEM 1500.
page 261) 12 . (Figure 7. How is it that atoms of a given element always undergo exactly the same specific energy changes? We say that the electron is restricted to certain energy levels. Chapter 7 Energy of Electrons in Atoms is Quantized Because atoms emit light of only certain specific frequencies.CHEM 1500.8. and that the energy of the electron is quantized. it must be true that only certain energy changes are able to take place within the atoms.
2. Only orbits of certain radii are permitted. 3. Bohr based his model on three postulates: 1. 13 .18 x 10-18 J)(1/n2) where: h = Planck’s constant c = speed of light n = energy level or quantum number (integer 1 to ∞) n is also known as the principal quantum number. Bohr was able to calculate the energies corresponding to each allowed orbit for the electron using the formula: E = (-2. An electron in a permitted orbit has a specific energy and is in an ‘allowed’ energy state. Energy is emitted or absorbed by the electron only as the electron changes from one allowed energy to another. Chapter 7 Niels Bohr accounted for these line spectra by assuming that the changes in energy of the H atom reflect energies of the H’s electron.The Bohr Model CHEM 1500.
CHEM 1500.18 x 10-18 J ____________________ ground state Using Bohr’s equation for the Hydrogen atom: ∆E = Ephoton = -2.545 x 10-18 J _________e-_________ light absorbed light emitted n = 1 __________e-___ -2.18 x 10-18 J 12 nfinal2 _ 12 ninitial2 excited state 14 . Chapter 7 Lowest energy level (n) = 1 = ground state First excited state (n) = 2 n = 2 _______________ -0.
9.CHEM 1500. page 263) Transitions: n→1 = ultraviolet n→2 = visible n→3 = infrared 15 . Chapter 7 Energy Levels of the Hydrogen Atom (Figure 7.
CHEM 1500. To what region of the electromagnetic spectrum does this photon belong? Was the photon absorbed or emitted? 16 . Chapter 7 Problems: 1. Calculate the energy of the photon absorbed or emitted in the transition n = 4 to n = 2 for a hydrogen atom.
Calculate the energy of the photon absorbed or emitted in the transition n = 1 to n = 3 for a hydrogen atom. To what region of the electromagnetic spectrum does this photon belong? Was the photon absorbed or emitted? 17 . Chapter 7 Problems cont… 2.CHEM 1500.
De Broglie modified the model by considering the energy levels as standing waves. Describes the electron as a small particle circling about the nucleus. The fixed orbit of each energy level is also incorrect. The electron in a given energy level is not always at the same distance from the nucleus. 3. Chapter 7 Limitations of the Bohr Model 1. Could not explain the spectra of other multi-electron atoms. 2. Bohr’s model only worked for the H atom and other one-electron systems. 18 .CHEM 1500.
CHEM 1500. can moving particles of matter such as electrons be thought of as waves? De Broglie suggested that the λ of matter is given by: λ = h mυ Where υ = velocity of particle 19 . in which he related energy and mass in his. also has the properties typical of particles. This is known as the wave-particle duality. Chapter 7 Electrons: Properties of Particles and Waves In 1905 Albert Einstein published his special theory of relativity. equation: E = mc2 This shows that light. If light can be thought of as moving particles. now famous. an EM wave.
11. (Figure 7. Chapter 7 Diffraction: Wave-Like Property The reinforcement (constructive interference) and cancellation (destructive interference) of wave intensities is a phenomenon called diffraction. page 264) constructive destructive Basis for Electron Microscope (like the light microscope but with much shorter wavelengths) !!! 20 .CHEM 1500.
page 267) 21 .15. Chapter 7 What are Electrons (according to de Broglie)? Electrons can be thought of as standing waves (vibrating string on a guitar) of only allowed wavelengths or energies.CHEM 1500. (Figure 7.
Hψn = Eψn Schrödinger Equation Wave functions (ψ) = the solutions to the wave equation The electrons form a standing wave around the nucleus within an orbital.assumes not possible to specify exact position of electron. 22 .CHEM 1500. Chapter 7 Quantum Mechanics and Atomic Orbitals A better theory of atomic structure : . . but one can calculate the probability of the electron being in some region around the nucleus.I think of it as an electron cloud Only certain wavelengths (solutions to the wave equation) are permitted.the electron is viewed as a wave of certain allowed energy .
y and z axes) Quantum Numbers: n. (n-1) .also know as angular momentum quantum # ..all orbitals with the same n are in the same shell as n ↑ .divides the shells into subshells when n = 1 n=2 n=3 l is 0 l can be 0 or 1 l can be 0.related to the shape of the orbital .. l. energy ↑ . Chapter 7 Each orbital is associated with a complete set of quantum numbers.. 1. 2 . ml n (the principal quantum number) = 1..CHEM 1500. or 2 23 ... These are analogous to defining a point on a 3D graph (x. 3 . 1. size ↑ l (the azimuthal quantum number) = 0.. ∞ .related to the energy level of the orbital .related to the size of the orbital . 2.
± 3…. 1 or -2.1. ± 1.0. Chapter 7 l orbital type 0 1 2 3 s p d f ml ( the magnetic quantum number) = 0. or 2 s p d ml is 0 ml is 0 or -1. ± l .2 24 . 0.-1. 1 ml is 0 or -1. 0. 1.CHEM 1500.related to the orientation of the orbital In Summary: when n = 1 n=2 n=3 l is 0 l can be 0 or 1 l can be 0. ± 2.
CHEM 1500.18.1. page 271) Approximate energy level diagram for atoms with more than 1 electron 25 . Chapter 7 (Table 7. page 271) (Figure 7.
ml = +2 d) n = 3.CHEM 1500. l = 1. Chapter 7 Problem: Give all possible ml values for orbitals that have each of the following: a) l = 3 b) n = 2 c) n = 6. ml = -2 26 . l = 1 Problem: Are the following quantum number combinations allowed? If not. l = 1. ml = +1 c) n = 7. ml = 0 b) n = 2. l = 0. l = 2. show two ways to correct them: a) n = 1.
Chapter 7 Problem: Which of the following is not an allowed set of quantum numbers and why? (a) n = 4. l = 2. l = 0. l = 1. ml = 0 (b) n = 4. ml = -3 (d) n = 3. ml = -5 (c) n = 2. ml = -1 Problem: How many orbitals can have the following designation: 4p 27 .CHEM 1500. l = 5.
It behaves like a magnet.19. Chapter 7 Electron Spin and the Pauli Exclusion Principal • Beam of H atoms get split into two when they go through an inhomogenous magnetic field (Figure 7. it creates a magnetic moment.CHEM 1500. page 272) • electron spin is responsible: when an electrically charged object spins. 28 .
each electron in the atom must have a unique set of these four quantum numbers. the other -½).either +½ or ↑ or -½ or ↓ • To fully define where an electron in an atom resides.indicates the direction an electron spins . it is required to have a set of the four quantum numbers (n. Chapter 7 Electron Spin is Quantized ms (the spin magnetic quantum number): two possible values . • Furthermore. and ms). each electron has unique set of four quantum numbers • This means that each orbital can have a maximum of 2 electrons per orbital (one with ms = + ½.CHEM 1500. 29 . l. Pauli Exclusion Principle: no two electrons in the same atom can have the same four quantum numbers. ml.
CHEM 1500. Chapter 7 Electrons in Orbitals 30 .
• below are orbital diagrams for H and He. Each box denotes an orbital. each half arrow an electron.CHEM 1500. Chapter 7 Electron Configurations • the way in which the electrons are distributed among the various orbitals of an atom is called the electron configuration of the atom. For the H atom in its lowest energy state: OR 1s 1s n=1 Your textbook uses: 1s For the He atom in its lowest energy state: n = 1 AND 1s 1s gives 1s2 31 .
• each orbital can have at most two electrons (Pauli exclusion principle) For example. then 2p…. consider Lithium: • Electrons having opposite spins are said to be paired when they are in the same orbital. Chapter 7 Rules for Assigning Electrons: • electrons are fed in to the lowest energy available orbitals (Aufbau principle) for the ground state 1s first. Li). 32 . then 2s. An unpaired electron does not have a partner. • A substance is paramagnetic if it has one or more unpaired electrons (eg.CHEM 1500. These substances are attracted to a magnet. These substances are not attracted to a magnet. • A substance is diamagnetic if all its electrons are paired (eg. He).
the electrons remain as far apart as possible to minimize electron-electron repulsions.CHEM 1500. the electron configuration of lowest energy has the maximum number of unpaired electrons with the same spin. 33 . By occupying different orbitals. Violate Hund’s Rule • Hund’s rule is based in part on the fact that electrons repel one another. Chapter 7 Hund's Rule: when degenerate orbitals are available.
21.20. Chapter 7 Electron Configurations and the Periodic Table We can use the structure of the periodic table to predict the filling order of the orbitals (Figure 7.CHEM 1500. page 276) Each row (period) represents an energy level Each region of the chart represents a different type of sublevel 34 . page 275) (Figure 7.
The outer shell electrons include the electrons involved in chemical bonding. • One is now able to correlate the electron configuration to the atoms chemical behaviour. which are called valence electrons.CHEM 1500. Chapter 7 Condensed Electron Configurations • condensed electron configuration: electron configuration of previous noble gas represented as [He] or [Ne]. The outer shell electrons are given after the noble-gas. Consider sodium: Na: [Ne]3s1 The electrons of the noble gas are called core electrons. etc: correspond to completely filled inner shell of electrons. The recurring patterns in the distribution of electrons in atoms’ orbitals is the basis for the recurring pattern in element chemistry that Mendeleev used originally to devise the periodic table. 35 .
• In all it’s chemical properties. • The electron has not gone into a 3d orbital as expected.CHEM 1500. Potassium is clearly a member of the alkali metal group and thus it’s outermost (valence) electron is in a s orbital. but has occupied the 4s Li Na K Rb Cs [He]2s1 [Ne]3s1 [Ar]4s1 [Kr]5s1 [Xe]6s1 or or or or or 1s22s1 1s22s22p63s1 1s22s22p63s23p64s1 1s22s22p63s23p64s23d104p65s1 1s22s22p63s23p64s23d104p65s24d105p66s1 36 . Chapter 7 Chemical Properties Depend on Valence Shell Configuration • Following Argon is Potassium in the periodic table.
CHEM 1500. Chapter 7 Transition and Rare Earth Metal Configurations Unexpected Chromium and Copper expected to be: Cr Cu [Ar]4s23d4 [Ar]4s23d9 Determined experimentally to be: Cr Cu [Ar]4s13d5 [Ar]4s13d10 Similar things happen with silver and gold: Ag Au [Kr]5s14d10 [Xe]4f145d106s1 37 .
CHEM 1500. Chapter 7 Problems: 1) Write the full ground-state electron configuration for each and decide whether it is diamagnetic or paramagnetic : a) Br b) Mg c) Se 38 .
These are exceptions. The 3d and 4s orbitals are very close in energy and it is more stable to half-fill (as in Cr) or completely-fill (as in Cu). Chapter 7 Problems: 2) Write the condensed ground-state electron configuration for each: a) Ga b) Zn c) Sc *d) Cr *e) Cu * . the degenerate set of d orbitals.CHEM 1500. 39 .
CHEM 1500. Chapter 7 For a Summary of Valence Electron Configurations – 40 .
CHEM 1500. Chapter 7 Quantum Theory Predicts Shapes of Atomic Orbitals •We think of an electron as a particle by using the statistical probability of the electron being found at a particular place. 41 . •We then use quantum mechanics to mathematically connect the particle and wave representations of the electron.
Ψn = solution to the wave equation . ψn2.probability of finding an electron in a particular region of space (Figure 7. and is called the probability electron density. Chapter 7 Heisenberg said you could only predict the possibility of finding the electron somewhere.22) Ψ2n 42 . A 3-D graph of the space within which there is a certain probability of finding the electron is described by the square of the wavefunction.describes the motion of electrons in time and space = orbital .CHEM 1500.
23.Representations and Shapes of Atomic Orbitals CHEM 1500. ml = 0 Node = zero electron density 43 . page 282) l = 0. represented by ψ2n. The s Orbitals 1s. 2s. Chapter 7 An orbital shape is a picture of the highest probable electron location around the nucleus. and 3s orbitals are spherical (Figure 7.
1) • Nodal plane results in a two-lobe shape. (Figure 7.24 & 7.26. y and z axes. page 283) Nodal Plane = surface with e.25 & 7. highly directional.CHEM 1500.density of zero • Electron density is concentrated in two regions on either side of the nucleus. Chapter 7 The p Orbitals (l = 1. three p orbitals symmetric along x. ml = -1. 44 . 0. It is dumbbell shaped.
26. 1. 0. 1. -1. -1. 0. ml = -3. page 283) The f Orbitals (l = 3.CHEM 1500. (Figure 7. 2. -2. 3) 45 . Shaped like a cloverleaf. Chapter 7 The d Orbitals (l = 2. ml = -2. 2) • Two nodal planes result in a four-lobe shape.
CHEM 1500. 1913). • Now the periodic table has elements arranged by atomic number. but atomic weight generally increases with atomic number (Z). Mendeleev’s Periodic Law and Table (1869) • Atomic numbers were not yet known. Chapter 7 Atomic Properties Correlate with an Atoms Electron Configuration There are many chemical and physical properties that vary in a more or less systematic way according to an element’s position in the periodic table. • Atomic numbers (number of protons and electrons) arose from direct dependence between element’s nuclear charge and its position in the periodic table (Moseley. 46 .
Therefore the force of attraction increases as the nuclear charge increases and decreases as the electron moves further from the nucleus. Zeff: The positive nuclear charge actually experienced by an electron Zeff = Z – S where: Z = Atomic number. number of protons S = Shielding constant (there are rules for its calculation) Usually close to the number of core electrons in an atom Inner electrons shield outer electrons more effectively than do electrons in the same sublevel (orbitals). Shielding from the inner core electrons reduces the actual nuclear charge Z on the valence electrons to an effective nuclear charge.CHEM 1500. Chapter 7 Effective Nuclear Charge (Zeff) Coulomb’s Law: The strength of the interaction between two electrical charges depends on the signs and magnitudes of the charges and on the distance between them. 47 . Effective nuclear charge. nuclear charge.
CHEM 1500. page 284) • There is some possibility of finding the 2s electron close to the nucleus. and therefore the 2s electron will experience a slightly greater attraction than our simple model suggested. Chapter 7 Example: Consider: Li [He] 2s1 (1s2 2s1) (Figure 7.28. 48 .
CHEM 1500, Chapter 7
Why do certain orbitals lie lower than others in terms of energy? e.g., 2s is lower than 2p
• The more stable an orbital, the lower its energy is (more negative). • The energy of a 2p orbital is slightly higher than a 2s orbital even though both of them are in the n = 2 shell
• Compare probability curves for a
2s and a 2p orbital. • 2s has greater penetration, so core electrons do not shield 2s electrons as effectively.
Zeff(2s) > Zeff(2p)
CHEM 1500, Chapter 7
In general: • Lower l value → more penetration → larger Zeff → more stable orbital
• Order of sublevel (orbital) energies with same n:
How does Zeff change as we move across a row (left → right)? Zeff = Z – S
• When we move across a row, the number of core electrons remains the same (same S) but the actual nuclear charge (Z) increases. • The valence electrons added to counterbalance the increasing nuclear charge do not shield one another very effectively. ⇒ Thus the effective nuclear charge, Zeff, increases steadily across a period of the Periodic Table
CHEM 1500, Chapter 7
Example: Compare Li and Be:
Li 1s2 2s1 Zeff = 3 – 2 = 1+
Be 1s2 2s2 Zeff = 4 – 2 = 2+
NOTE: Zeff increases only slightly as we go down a column because larger electron cores are less able to screen the outer electrons from the nuclear charge. So this increase is less important than the increase across a row.
Bonding atomic radius: Based on the distances separating the nuclei of atoms when they are chemically bonded to each other (attractive interaction) 52 . Chapter 7 Atomic size can be defined in terms of how close one atom is to another (internuclear separations).Size of Atoms and Ions CHEM 1500.
CHEM 1500. which draws the valence electrons closer to the nucleus. This results from the increase in the principal quantum number. In a group: Atomic radius increases down a column. The bond length in a molecule can be estimated by adding up the individual atomic radii of the constituent atoms. n of the valence electron (the number of electronic shells increases) 53 . For example: Cl Cl bond length is 199 pm. so the atomic radius assigned to Cl is 99 pm. This results from the increase in Zeff. Chapter 7 Periodic Trends in Atomic Radii The atomic radius can be determined by measuring the bond length in a diatomic molecule and dividing it in two (bonding atomic radius). In a period: Atomic radius decreases from left to right in a row.
Chapter 7 Trends in Atomic Radii (Figure 7. 54 . page 286) The atomic radius increases as you go down a column and as you move from right to left in a period.29.CHEM 1500.
Br Same period: Se. K. rank the elements in the following sets in order of increasing size: Same period: think Zeff Same group: think n (a) Ga. Ga Zeff increases. Br. Se Cl < Br < Se Xe < I < Ba 55 (c) I. order: K. Chapter 7 Periodic Trends in Atomic Radii Exercise: Using only a periodic table. Xe Ga < Ca < K (b) Cl.CHEM 1500. Ca Same period. Ca. Ba . Br Same period: I. Xe. atomic radius decreases Same group: Cl.
CHEM 1500. • Anions are larger than their parent atoms. • For ions carrying the same charge. Chapter 7 Periodic Trends in Ionic Radii • The radii of ions are based on the distances between ions in ionic compounds. size increases as we go down a group 56 . Z 2) number of electrons 3) orbitals in which the valence electrons are found • Cations are smaller than their parent atoms. • The size of ions (like the size of atoms) depends on the: 1) nuclear charge.
Chapter 7 Periodic Trends in Atomic and Ionic Radii (pm) (Figure 7.29.CHEM 1500. page 286) 57 .
Mg+2) Because the number of electrons remain constant. F-. (O2-. Mg2+.(Z=17). Rank the Na+.(Z=8). Which are isoelectronic? Which is the smallest ion? smallest ion → Al3+: [Ne] O2-: [Ne] Cl-: [Ar] Isoelectronic 58 .. e.ions in order of increasing size: Z Ionic Radius (pm) Exercise: 12(Mg) 65 Mg2+ < 11(Na) 95 Na+ < 9(F) 136 F- Write the condensed electronic configurations for the following ions: Al3+ (Z=13). Na+.CHEM 1500.g. Chapter 7 • An isoelectronic series is a group of ions all containing the same number of electrons. O2. F. and Cl. the radius of the ion decreases with increasing effective nuclear charge.
Key factor in an element’s reactivity: First ionization energy: Energy required to remove the least attracted electron from a neutral atom in the gas phase. Chapter 7 Ionization Energy Ionization energy (IE): The minimum energy required to remove an electron from the ground state of an isolated gaseous atom or ion.CHEM 1500. Second ionization energy: Energy required to remove the second least attracted electron. and so forth. 59 . A (g) → A+ (g) + eA+ (g) → A2+ (g) + eIE1 > 0 (always) IE2 > IE1 (always) The greater the IE the harder it is to remove the electron.
60 . while inner electrons are too tightly bound to the nucleus to be lost or even shared.Variations in Successive Ionization Energies CHEM 1500. (Table 7. an electron is being pulled away from an increasingly more positive ion.23.2. Chapter 7 IE1 < IE2 < IE3 This trend is because with each successive removal. This supports the fact that outer electrons are used in bonding and reactions. page 287) (Figure 7. page 289) Increases are not smooth: Notice the sharp increase in ionization energy that occurs when an inner-shell (noble-gas core) electron is removed.
CHEM 1500. page 288) In a group: IE generally decreases down a group. 61 . The atomic radius increases down a group.31. Chapter 7 Periodic Trends in First Ionization Energies (Figure 7.
Chapter 7 Periodic Trends in First Ionization Energies In a period: IE generally increases with increasing Zeff The alkali metals show the lowest ionization energy and the noble gases the highest. As the atomic radius decreases (since Zeff increases). The representative elements show a larger range of values for IE1 than do the transition-metal elements. In general: Smaller atoms have higher IEs 62 .CHEM 1500. it is harder to remove the least attracted electron in the atom.
easier to remove than 2s2 of Be N and O O’s last electron is a 2p4. Chapter 7 Irregularities in IE1 Compare: Be and B B’s last electron is a 2p1. easier to remove than the unpaired 2p3 of N 63 .CHEM 1500.
CHEM 1500. I Rb < K < Ca S < Cl < F Sn < Sb < I Atomic size α 1/Zeff IE1 α Zeff 64 . F. Cl (c) Sb. Chapter 7 Exercise Using only a periodic table. Ca (b) S. rank the elements in the following sets in order of increasing IE1: (a) Rb. K. Sn.
CHEM 1500. they are added to the empty or partially filled orbital having the lowest n. Li: [He] 2s1 F: [He] 2s2 2p5 becomes Li+: becomes F-: [He] [He] 2s2 2p6 = [Ne] When electrons are added to atoms to form an anion. • Main group ions achieve ns2np6 outer electron configurations. 65 . Chapter 7 Electron Configurations of Ions • Ions are formed from atoms by gain or loss of electrons they want to achieve a noble gas electron configuration. Electrons are removed from the orbitals having the largest principal quantum number (n) first.
looks like [Ar] 66 . Consider sodium: Na Na+ 1s2 2s2 2p6 3s1 1s2 2s2 2p6 closed shell.configuration [Ne] 2) Anions (-) have gained electrons until an ns2np6 outer electron configuration is obtained. noble gas Consider sulfur: S [Ne] 3s2 3p4 add 2 electrons S2. Chapter 7 Ion Electron Configurations 1) Cations (+) of main group elements have lost electrons in the reverse order to that in which they were added under the Aufbau principle.CHEM 1500. noble gas e.[Ne] 3s2 3p6 closed shell.
CHEM 1500. paramagnetic Fe2+ : still 4 unpaired e-s. paramagnetic and Fe3+: 5 unpaired electrons. paramagnetic 67 . very stable Magnetic properties of Fe : 4 unpaired electrons. Chapter 7 Transition metal ions Transition metals ⇒ remove 4s electrons before the 3d (highest n value electrons first) Consider Iron: Fe [Ar] 4s2 3d6 loses two electrons Fe2+ [Ar] Fe3+ [Ar] 3d6 loses one more electron easily 3d5 ½ filled 3d orbital.
Chapter 7 Electron Affinities Electron affinity (EA): Energy associated with the process of adding an electron to a gaseous atom. ∆E > 0 • EA2 is always positive because energy must be absorbed to overcome the repulsion between the two negative charges.(g) + e.is attracted to the atom’s nuclear charge.CHEM 1500.(g) EA1.→ A 2. First electron affinity: Energy change accompanying the addition of the first electron to a gaseous atom. A. A (g) + e.(g) EA2 (always +) 68 .(g) EA1 (can be + or -) • For most atoms.(g) EA1 = ∆E = –349 kJ/mol • Electron affinity can either be exothermic (as the above example) or endothermic: Ar (g) + e– → Ar. energy is released when the first electron is added (negative ∆E) because the e.→ A. Cl (g) + e– → Cl.
albeit. for Cl a 3p orbital. the added electron goes into a 2p orbital. Chapter 7 Periodic Trends in Electron Affinity Energies • The greater the attraction between a given atom and the added e-.nucleus attractions and e. The average distance between the added e. The e. minor decrease when we go down a group. Consider the halogens: For F.repulsion decrease.. • Trends in EA are not as evident as they were in IE (Table 7. 69 .and the nucleus increases. the more negative its EA.CHEM 1500. for Br a 4p orbital. page 291) EAs show a general./ e.3.
strongly ⇒ Form anions in ionic compounds Reactive metals: Low IE → Lose e.readily Low (-) EA → Attract e. Chapter 7 Trends not as regular as for IE 70 .with difficulty High (-) EA → Attract e.weakly ⇒ Form cations in ionic compounds Noble gases: High IE & (+) EA Do not tend to lose or gain e⇒ Not very reactive CHEM 1500.Summary Reactive non-metals (Groups 6A & 7A): High IE → Lose e.
15. Chapter 7 Review Questions Page 293 – 297 7.93.77. 7.122.87. 7.136. 7.14. 7.104 – 7.128.95. 7. 7. 7.7. 7. 7.16.5 .137. 7.98. 22.214.171.124. 7.35. 126.96.36.199. 7. 7.112. 7. 7.80 – 7. 7.102. 7. 7. 7. 7.151 71 .97.90.146. 7. 188.8.131.52.CHEM 1500.54.147. 184.108.40.206. 7. 7. 7.134. 7. 7.130. 7. 7.110.139. 7. 7. 7.29. 7.18.38 .114.31.7. 7.30. 7. 7.126. 7.120. 7.116. 7. 7. 7. 7. 7. 7. 7.132.58 . 220.127.116.11.118. 7.124.34.