PHOTOSYNTHESIS: (PHOTOAUTOTROPHY ) Organisms called photoautotrophs carry out photosynthesis, The capture of energy from light and the

use of this energy to manufacture carbohydrates from carbon dioxide. Photosynthesis occurs in green and purple bacteria, in cyanobacteria, in algae, and in higher plants. Photosynthetic bacteria, which probably evolved early in the evolution of living organisms, perform their own version of photosynthesis in the absence of O2. However,algae and green plants make much more of the world¶s carbohydrate supply, so we will consider the process in those organisms first and then see how it differs in green and purple bacteria. In green plants, algae, and cyanobacteria, photosynthesis occurs in two parts²the µµphoto¶¶ part, or the light reactions, in which light energy is converted to chemical energy, and the µµsynthesis¶¶ part, or the dark reactions, in which chemical energy is used to make organic molecules. Each part involves a series of steps. Light reaction: In the light-dependent (light) reactions, light strikes the green pigment chlorophyll a in thylakoids of chloroplasts. Electrons in the chlorophyll become excited²that is, raised to a higher energy level. These electrons participate in generating ATP in cyclic photophosphorylation and in noncyclic photoreduction

In cyclic photophosphorylation, excited electrons from chlorophyll are passed down an electron transport chain. As they are transferred, energy is captured in ATP by chemiosmosis. When the electrons return to the chlorophyll, they can be excited over and over again, so the process is said to be cyclic.

and oxygen molecules. energy is also captured by chemiosmosis. . electrons. Carbon dioxide is reduced by electrons from NADPH in a process known as the Calvin-Benson cycle . The electrons replace those lost from chlorophyll. which are thus freed to reduce the coenzyme NADP. ATP and reduced NADP (NADPH)²the products of the light reaction²and atmosphericCO2 subsequently participate in the dark reactions. Various carbohydrates. are the products of the dark reactions.Example: In noncyclic photoreduction. a process called photolysis. In addition. occur in the stroma of chloroplasts. Example: Cyanobacteria Dark reaction or carbon fixation: The light-independent (dark) reactions. or carbon fixation. Energy from ATP and electrons from NADPH are required in this synthetic process. chiefly glucose. membrane proteins and energy from light are used to split water molecules into protons.

and cyanobacteria as follows: 1. as green plants do.a few produce strong sulfuric acid. They differ from green plants. 2. The first photosynthetic organisms probably were purple and green bacteria. and cyanobacteria in ways related to the evolution of organisms. algae.Photosynthesis in green and purple sulfur bacteria differs from that in green plants. Bacterial chlorophyll absorbs slightly longer wavelengths of light than does chlorophyll a. for reducing carbon dioxide. They do not release oxygen as a product of photosynthesis. They use hydrogen compounds such as hydrogen sulfide (H2S). algae. They are usually strict anaerobes and can live only in the absence of oxygen. Electrons from their pigments reach an energy level high enough to split H2S (but not high enough to split H2O) and to generate an H1 gradient for ATP synthesis. rather than water (H2O). which evolved in an atmosphere containing much hydrogen but no oxygen. (Some purple and green bacteria produce elemental sulfur as a byproduct. .) 3.

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