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BIRDS • BUTTERFLIES AND MOTHS
DINOSAURS • FISHES • FISHING • FLOWERS
FOSSILS • GEOLOGY • INDIAN ARTS
INSECT PESTS • INSECTS • MAMMALS • PLANETS
POND LIFE • REPTILES AND AMPHIBIANS
ROCKS AND MINERALS
SEASHELLS OF THE WORLD
SEASHORES • SKY OBSERVER'S GUIDE
SPIDERS AND THEIR KIN • STARS • TREES
TROPICAL FISH • VENOMOUS ANIMALS
WEATHER • WEEDS
WHALES AND OTHER MARINE MAMMALS
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BIRDS OF NORTH AMERICA
REPTILES OF NORTH AMERICA
ROCKS AND MINERALS
SEASHELLS OF NORTH AMERICA
SKYGUIDE
TREES OF NORTH AMERICA
WILDFLOWERS OF NORTH AMERICA
FAMILIES OF BIRDS
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Cy
mLKÜLK1 V. LLVI
Museum of Comporotive Zoology
Horvord University
CDU
LLKlF K. LLVI
Under the editorship of
HERBERT S. ZIM
Illustrated by
NICHOLAS STREKALOVSKY.
�ÜOLUEM FKEbb • MEWTOKK
×
Western Publishing Company, Inc.
Racine, Wisconsin
FOREWORD
This small guide to spiders and their near relatives intro­
duces the various groups and shows their great diversity.
Accurate species identifcation is often a problem even for
specialists, and while the groups treated in this guide are
widespread, some of the species illustrated have a limited
distribution. If they are not found where you live, perhaps
you will fnd spiders that are similar. The scope of the book
is broad enough to make it useful in Europe and on other
continents
The book woul d have been i mpossi bl e wi thout the hel p of numerous
fri ends and coll eagues. Among those who read early drafts of the text were
Harri et Exl i ne Fri zzel l , W. J. Gertsch, 0. Kraus, Nel l B. Causey, and R .
Crabi l l . Mr. N. Strekal ovsky made the i l l ustrati ons, often handi capped by
l i mitati ons of li ve source materi al . Superb col or sl i des of European spi ders
were made avai l abl e by J. Potzsch; sl i des of many uncommon speci es were
loaned by H. K. Wal l ace. We si ncerel y thank all these and also the many
who provi ded l i vi ng ani mals , col or photographs, determi nati ons of unfa­
mi l i ar ani mal s, or hel p wi th the text: J. W. Abal os, G. Anastos, J. Beatty,
A. R. Brady, P. Bonnet, Stephani e Cannon, Nell B. Causey, B. Conde, J .
A. L . Cooke, Î. A. Coyl e, J . Davi s, C. D. Dondal e, L. C. Drew, W.
Eberhard, T. Ei sner, G. S. Fi chter, B. T. Gardner, G. P. Ginsburg, L . Gl atz ,
B. Heydemann, R . L. Hoffman, H. Homann, B. J . Kaston, H. Klingel , G. M.
Kohl s, R. Koni g, D. H. Lamore, Z. Maret ic, J . Martens, M. Mel chers,
Rodger Mitchel l , W. B. Muchmore, M. H. Muma, F. Papi , B. Patterson, J .
Rafal ski , J. Reddel l , Jonathan Rei ski nd, V. D. Roth, J . H. P. Sankey, P. San
Marti n, P. Stough, V. Si lhavy, W. D. Si l l , H. Stahnke, T. W. Suman, D. W.
Si ssom, W. A. Shear, Paol o Tongi orgi , M. W. Tyl er, J. D. Unzi cker, M.
Vachon, A. A. Weaver, G. C. Wheeler, P. Will, 1. A. Wooll ey.
1UUÛ Edition
H. L.
L . L.
©Copyright 1Ub¯, 1Uõb by Western Publishing Company, Inc. All rights reserved,
including rights of reproduction and use in any form or by any means, including the
making of copies by any photo process, or by any electronic or mechanical device,
printed or written or oral, or recording for sound or visual reproduction or for use in any
knowledge retrieval system or device, unless permission in writing is obtained from the
copyright proprietor. Produced in the U.S.A. Published by Golden Press, New York, N.Y.
Library of Congress Catalog Card Number: õb-ZdÔZZ. ISBN Û-dÛ¯-Z4ÛZ1-Ô
2
CONTENTS
SPIDERS AND THEIR KIN, cl assificati on, anatomy, courtshi p,
growth, enemies, si l k, poisonous spi ders
417
COLLECTING, preservi ng, reari ng ................ .
SPIDERS: 4 pai rs of l egs, spi nnerets; cephol othorax and ab­
domen joi ned by narrow wai st; no antennae ..
Myga/omorph Spiders, Orthognotha: chel icerae (jaws) at­
tached in front of head, open forward .
True Spiders, Labi dognatha: chel i cerae attached bel ow
head, open to si des
Cribe//ate Spiders: cri bel l um, a pl ate with spigots, i n front
of spi nnerets .
SPIDER RELATIVES: no anten nae, no spi n nerets on posterior
of abdomen; 4 pairs of legs .................................. ... .... .
Whipscorpions: strong pal ps, l ong whi pl ike frst legs .
Windscorpions: huge jaws, l egl ike pal ps .
Pseudoscorpions: l arge pi ncer-like pal ps, l acks sti nger .
Scorpions: l arge pi ncer-l ike pal ps, sl ender tai l , wi th stinger
Harvestmen: compact body, segmented abdomen, eyes usu-
18-19
20-115
20-25
26-115
106-115
116-140
116-117
118-119
120-121
122-127
al l y on a tubercl e . 128-133
Mites: smal l , body compact, abdomen usual l y unsegmented 134-139
Microwhipscorpions: smal l , l egl ike pal ps, l ong tai l . 140
Ricinuleids: hood covers jaws . . 140
MYRIAPODS: 1 pai r of antennae, legs on a series of si mi l ar
ri ngs
Pauropods and Symphyla: 9- 1 2 pai rs of l egs .
Centipedes: 15 or more pai rs of legs, one on each segment
Millipedes: two pai rs of l egs on most body ri ngs
LAND CRUSTACEANS: two pai rs of antennae .
Wood Lice: fattened, l ack carapace ..
Land Crabs: not fattened, cephalothorax with carapace .
MORE INFORMATION
INDEX ...
141-151
141
142-145
146-151
152-154
152-153
154
155
156-160
3
SPIDERS AND THEIR KIN
About 37, 000 speci es of spi ders have been named so far,
representi ng what is bel i eved to be about one-fourth the
total . Some 3, 000 ki nds are known from Europe; fewer
from l ess-studi ed N . A. The 700 speci es of spi ders found in
New York and New Engl and about equal s the speci es of
bi rds breedi ng i n N . A. north of Mexi co.
Spi ders are members of the phyl um Arthropoda, the
l arge group of ani mal s wi th j oi nted l egs and a hard outer
skel eton. They bel ong, more speci fi cal l y, to the cl ass
Arachni da, whi ch i ncl udes ani mal s wi th four pai rs of l egs,
no antennae or wi ngs, and onl y two body regi ons-a
cephal othorax and an abdomen. Arachni ds and two
smal l er mari ne arthropod groups (pp. 6-7) form the sub­
phyl um Chel i cerata . These arthropods al i possess chel i cer­
ate j aws {pp. 8, 20, 26) whi ch someti mes are modi fi ed into
pi ncers as i n wi ndscorpi ons (p. 1 1 8- 1 1 9) or i nto pi erci ng
styl ets, as in some mi tes { p. 1 34) .
Al l other arthropods have antennae, and mandi bl es that
work agai nst each other. They are pl aced i n si x cl asses.
These i ncl ude the i nsects { cl ass I nsecta) , whi ch have three
body regi ons, three pai rs of l egs, one pai r of antennae,
and often wi ngs; t he crustaceans (cl ass Crustacea) , mai nl y
water-dwel l ers-the crabs, l obsters , shri mp, barnacl es,
and water fl eas; and the myri apods: centi pedes . ( cl ass
Chi l opoda) and mi l l i pedes (cl ass Di pl opoda); and cl asses
Symphyl a and Pauropoda found i n habi tats l i ke those of
spi ders .
In spi ders, the abdomen is attached to the cephal o­
thorax by a narrow stal k; i n scorpi ons, harvestmen, and
mi tes, the attachment i s broad. Spi ders usual l y have ei ght
si mpl e eyes, vari ousl y arranged, and some have acute
vi si on. Scorpi ons have both medi an eyes and ( usual l y)
4
lateral eyes; harvestmen, only median eyes; pseudo­
scorpions, lateral eyes or none. Long setae (hairs), sensi­
tive to vibration, air movements and sound, occur on the
legs of some spiders and on the pedipalps of scorpions
and pseudoscorpions.
In spiders the abdomen shows little or no segmentation,
but segments are distinct in scorpions. The segmented
spiders, suborder Mesothelae, family Liphistiidae (p. 7),
are an exception. These spiders live in burrows in the
soil and are only found in East Asia. In the other sub­
orders of spiders, Orthognatha (p. 20) and Labidogna­
tha (p. 26), vestiges of the segmentation thought to char­
acterize ancestral forms is reflected externally by the
pattern on the back of the abdomen and sometimes by
the presence of several hard plates (sclerites); internally
by the muscle arrangement and structure of the heart.
This book treats the land arthropods other than insects.
Of these, the spiders and mites, both of the class Arach­
nida, are the most abundant. Mites are mostly microscopic
and difficult to study, hence are given little attention here.
The graphs below show the number of species in
major groups of arthropods and arachnids.
ARTHROPODS ARACHNIDS
ARTHROPODS
ARTHROPODS evolved from mari ne segmented worms. Fossi l s do
not reveal whether they evolved from diferent stocks or al l from
one group. Onychophorans, represented by the many-l egged, soft·
bodied Peripatus mai nly of the Southern Hemi sphere, are perhaps
si mi l ar to some ancestor. The groups of arthropods and t hei r prob­
abl e rel ationshi ps are shown above.
The most wor ml ike arthropods are certai n centi pedes (p. 142)
6.
R
ic
in
ule
i
ds
that consist of seri es of si mi l ar segments. In other arthropods, groups
of segments have become speci al ized. In i nsects, one group of seg·
ments forms the head; another, the thorax; a t hi rd, the abdomen.
Two mari ne groups rel ated to the arachnids are i ncl uded i n t he
subphyl um Chel i cerata: horseshoe crabs, whi ch l i ve onl y on the east
coasts of Asia and N. A.; and sea spi ders, whi ch are slow mari ne
creatures that feed on hydroi ds, anemones and ot her sea ani mal s.
7
THE SPI DER'S BODY consists of a cephalothorax, cov­
ered by a carapace (shield), and an abdomen. Four pairs
of legs are attached to the cephalothorax. The legs end
in either two or three claws, varying with the family.
Nearly all spiders have eight simple eyes. Their arrange­
ment, important in identifying families, is shown in black­
and-white diagrams with family descriptions. The shape
of the carapace is commonly distinctive, too.
The cephalothorax (combined head and thorax) con­
tains the brain, poison glands (p. 1 6), and stomach. In
the abdomen (p. 1 3) are the heart, digestive tract, repro­
ductive organs, lungs and respiratory tracheae, and silk
glands. The two parts are connected by a thin stalk, the
pedicel, through which pass the aorta, intestine, nerve
cord, and some muscles. Spinnerets (usually six) issue
strands of silk through tiny spigots. Between the front
pair in some spiders is the colulus, its function unknown.
In cribellate spiders (p. 1 06), the cribellum is here.
THE JAWS, or chel icerae, are in
the front of the head in Orthog·
n atha (p. 20) and i n the Meso­
thel ae ( p. 7), bel ow the head in
other spiders. Spider jaws are
tipped by fangs, wi th a duct from
a poison gl and opening at the
end of each. I n front of the
l abium (l ower l ip) is the mouth,
its opening
·
covered by the l a­
brum ( upper l ip).
Spi ders feed on l iving prey,
which may be paralyzed or kil l ed
with poison . Juices from the di·
gestive gl ands l iquefy the prey
before it is sucked into the mouth
by the stomach's pumping action.
Spiders with few teeth an their
jaws may suck out the insides of
prey and discard the empty shel l .
8
PEDIPALPS, between the jaws
and the frst l egs, are smal l and
l egl i ke i n femal es and in young
spiders. I n males, t he tip i s en­
l arged. Before searching for a
femal e, the mol e deposits a drop
of sperm on a special web, then
sucks it into the pal p.
I n mating, the sperm is trans­
ferred by inserting the pal p into
an opening on the underside of
the femal e's abdomen. In most
spiders, this opening is on a hard
pl ate, the epigynum, j ust in front
of a sl it (gonopore) through
which the eggs pass. Some,
cal l ed hapl ogyne spiders (pp.
26-30), l ack an epigynum; the
pal pus is inserted d irectl y into
the gonopore.
chel icera
endite
anal tubercl e
EXTERNAL FEATURES shown
above are used in the text to
describe famil ies and species.
Measurements given in this
book are of the adult spider's
approximate body l ength, ex-
cymbium
trochanter
el udi ng l egs and jaws. They are
not measurements of l eg span.
Al l spiders show individual and
regional diferences i n size. The
sign ! i s used for femal e, i
for mal e.
9
COURTSHIP by the adult male begins after his palp is
flled with sperm (p. 8) and he has found a female.
Some hunting spiders locate mates by fnding and
following the draglines (p. 1 5) laid down by mature
females of the same species. Experiments have demon­
strated that male web spiders can often tell by touching
the web whether it contains a mature female. Male orb
weavers and other web spiders with poor vision announce
their approach by plucking the strands of the female's
web. Others stroke and tap the female cautiously. Spiders
with good vision, such as wolf spiders (below) and the
brightly colored jumping spiders, dance and wave their
legs before their mates. A nursery web spider (p. 78)
presents his mate with a fy, before mating.
A female does not ordinarily feast on her mate, as
many people believe, but males usually die soon after
mating. Some male and female sheet web spiders (p. 46)
live together in the same web.
After a week or more, the mated female deposits her
eggs in a silken sac (p. 1 4) . Some species make several
egg sacs, each containing several hundred eggs. Species
that take care of their eggs or young usually produce
fewer eggs. Weeks later, or sometimes not until the fol­
lowing spring, the young spiderlings emerge.
Courtshi p of wol f spi ders
Pardosa nigriceps
A spi der sheddi ng
its ski n
GROWTH of a spider requires shedding its exoskeleton,
usually 4 to 1 2 times before maturity. Female mygalo­
morph spiders (p. 20) continue to molt once or twice a
year through their long adult lives.
Before a spider sheds, the inside layers of its skeleton
are digested. The remaining skeleton then tears more
easily. As molting begins, increased blood pressure
causes the skeleton to tear at the front edge, continuing
around the carapace, which then lifts of; the skin of the
abdomen splits. A pumping motion lowers and raises leg
spines, making the old skin slip over the fexible new legs.
In the process of molting, a previously lost leg may be
replaced by a new, smaller leg.
Most spiders live one or two seasons. Orthognath
spiders do not mature for several years; the males live
less than a year thereafter, but the females may live up
to 20 years. Some primitive spiders (such as Sicarius,
Loxosceles, and Filistata) may live 5 to 1 0 years.
1 1
3
ENEMI ES of spiders i ncl ude other spi ders (pp. 50, 51 )
and some ki nds of i nsects and bi rds. These enemi es hel p
to control spi der popul ati ons, whi ch are afected also
by parasites and avai l abi l i ty of food. The spi ders in turn
control to some degree the abundance of the prey they
feed on, usual l y i nsects.
WASPS of some species prey
onl y on spi ders bel ongi ng to
particul ar fami l ies or genera.
Bel ow, a femal e wasp, Anop/es
fuscus, is sti ngi ng a wol f spider,
Trochosa ferrico/a ( 1 ). ( Rarel y the
spider is the victor i r thes bat·
J2
ties.) The wasp then carries the
spi der to her previousl y exca·
voted burrow (2) and lays an
egg on it (3). The wasp l arva
feeds on the paralyzed spider
(4), eventual l y to pupate and
metamorphose into an adult.
2
4
Potzsch
SILK produced by spiders is used in many ways (pp. 14-
15). Pseudoscorpi ons (p. 120), spi der mi tes (p. 135), most
centipedes (p. 142), and some mi l l i pedes (p. 148) al so
produce si l k but onl y for mati ng or for egg and l arval
chambers. The caterpi l l ars of many moths spi n si l k for
their cocoons.
CHEMICALLY si l k is a fbrous pro­
tein (fbroi n), i nsol ubl e in water.
I t comes from spi gots of the spi n·
nerets i n l i qui d form and hardens
i mmedi atel y, pol ymeri zi ng as i t
is pul led out. Si l k may stretch as
much as one.fourth its l ength
before breaki ng, and the si l k of
Nephi/a ( p. 65) i s the strongest
natural fber known. Spi der si l k is
not used commerci al l y as the
predatory habit of spi ders makes
it di fcul t to rear them i n large
numbers. Web spi ders produce
diferent types of si l k from four
t o seven abdomi nal gl ands: vis·
ci d or sticky si l k from some, web
frame threads from others, egg
sac si l k from sti l l others.
CLAWS on the tips of the l egs
are used by the spi der to handl e
si l k. The cl aws pivot back and
forth, hol di ng the si l k between
mi ddl e claw and two fexi bl e
setae (accessory cl aws) . What
prevents si l k from sti cki ng is not
known. Spi ders that bui l d webs
and wal k on sil k threads have
three claws on each leg. However,
many hunti ng spi ders have onl y
two cl aws, for i n pl ace of the
mi ddl e cl aw is a tuft of fattened
hai rs. Some al so have a brush
of hai rs (scapul a) u nder each
l eg's l ast segment. The cl aw tuft
adheres to the water fl m cover·
ing most surfaces, permitti ng a
spi der to wal k an smooth areas.
Spider Anatomy
heart
cl aw tuft
book l ung cover
medi an cl aw
13
Zora spinimana, European Ctenidae,
(0. 2
11
), guarding egg sac
MANY USES OF SILK have evolved. Most spiders make
silken egg cases, often spherical but sometimes fattened
discs or stalked. Some species use silk to make a nursery
for spiderlings (p. 78). Many hide in silk tunnels or use
silk to line their burrows, or for trapdoors (p. 22). Prey
may be caught in webs, or snares, then wrapped (p. 53
)
.
EGG SAC of Argiope bruennichi
is shown bel ow. The eggs are frst
stuck to a sil k platform, then cov­
ered wi th threads. After they are
wrapped in loose si l k, Q fnal
cover of dense, col ored sil k is
added. Argiope suspends the
egg sac from vegetation.
Potzsch
bal l ooning spider
BALLOONING spiderl ings cl imb
onto fence posts or branches and
rel ease sil k. As the l ine l engthens,
the wind l ifts the l ittle spi der of
i ts perch and foats it of to a new
area. The masses of bal l ooning
threads seen on fal l days are
coil ed gossamer.
DRAGLINES of sil k are l ai d down
by most spiders. Fastened at in·
tervals, they may serve as safely
l ines or to retrace a path.
web of
SNARES of web spiders are a
unique use of sil k for trapping
insects. Each ki nd has its special
method of catching potential vic·
tims. Among them are cobwebs,
sheet, funnel , and orb webs.
Spiral sil k in orbs is sticky in
some, wool l y in others (p. 1 06) .
Ostearius
on dragl ine
Meta segmentata
Potzsch
chel icera
fang
poison gl ands
coxa
Cephalothorax of Widow
(l egs removed)
POI SONOUS SPIDERS, speci fcal l y those dangerous to
man, are few in number. In the United States and Can­
ada, fatal i ties from wasp and bee sti ngs far outnumber
those from spi der bi tes and scorpi on sti ngs. Few spi ders
wi l l bite even when coaxed, and the bi tes of most of
those l arge enough to penetrate the ski n produce no
harm at al l .
Knowl edge about spi der venoms i s very l i mi ted. Often
a spi der that bites i s i mmedi atel y destroyed or escapes.
Even i f the bi te causes i l l ness, the spi der may not be
posi ti vel y i denti fed.
I n the U.S., the dangerous spi ders i ncl ude the Wi dows
and the Brown Spi ders. Bites of Cheiracanthium (p. 89),
small wh i ti sh spi ders found in most parts of the worl d,
may produce a sl i ght fever and destroy ti ssues around
the bi te. The venom of a Brazi l i an Wol f Spi der, L
y
cosa
ra
p
toria, al so destroys tissues i n the vicinity of the bi te,
whi l e another Brazi l i an spi der, Ploneutria (p. 91 ) , has a
very pai nful nerve poi son. The Funnel web Mygal omorph
(Atrax, p. 24) and a number of other Austral i an my­
gal omorphs are dangerousl y poi sonous.
1 6
Latrodectus mactans
� 1 1 mm (0.5
"
)
WI DOWS are web spiders. The
sedentary femal es may bite if
mol ested. Mal es move about but
do not bite. The Bl ack Widow
(Latrodectus macfans) i s found i n
most warm parts of the worl d (p.
42) . Rel ated speci es occur north
to southern Canada and al so in
southern S. A.
The bite may go unnoticed and
may not hurt. But the subsequent
severe abdomi nal pai n from a
Bl ack Widow's bite resembl es ap·
pendicitis. There i s pai n al so i n
muscl es and i n t he sol es of the
feet, but usual l y no swel l i ng at
the site of the bite. Al ternately,
the sal iva fows freely, then the
mouth i s dry. The bi te victim
sweats profusel y. The eyel ids are
swol l en. The patient usual l y re·
covers after several days of
agony. Physici ans can rel ieve the
severe pai n by i njection of cal ci ·
um gl uconate. Antiveni n is avai l ­
abl e i n al l countries where bi tes
occur frequently. No frst aid
treatment is avai l abl e for any
spi der bite.
BROWN SPIDERS (Loxosceles
laefa) of Chi l e, Peru, and Ar­
genti na have been known si nce
the 1 930's to cause severe i l l ness.
It was not unti l the 1 950's, as a
result of bites in Texas, Kansas,
Missouri and Okl ahoma, that the
smal l er Brown Recl use Spi der (L.
reclusa) was recognized to be
si mi l arl y toxic. This spi der com·
manly l ives i n h. ouses on the foor
or behi nd furni ture. Bites occur
when a spi der rests i n cl othi ng or
i n a towel . There may be no harm
at al l . I n very severe cases, a red
zone appears around the bite,
then a crust forms and fal l s of.
The wound grows deeper and
does not heal for several months.
Other species of Loxosceles are
found i n southwestern U. S. and
i n Mediterranean countries (p.
29). Probabl y because these
spiders do not have contact with
man, acci dents do not occur. I n
any bite from a spi der known ta
be poisonous i t i s wise to consul t
a physician as soon as si gns of
i l l ness appear.
17
COLLECTING SPIDERS can be done nearly everywhere­
in houses, gardens, felds and woods, under bark, stones,
or logs. Turn stones and logs back so the habitat is not
destroyed. Spiders that run along the ground can be
chased into a glass vial or picked up and dropped into a
vial of alcohol. Each collecting vial may be half-flled
with specimens. Be sure to insert a penciled feld label,
citing locality, date, and collector.
SWEEPING shrubs and herbs with
an insect net is a techni que by
whi ch many spi ders can be col ­
lected. Smal l spiders can be sifted
from leaf l itter by usi ng a shaker
with cl oth sides and a 1 Cm
(V.ff
)
screen bottom. Burrowi ng spi ders
must be dug out.
NIGHT COLLECTING with a
mi ner's headl amp yiel ds a harvest
of wolf spiders, whose eyes refect
l ight, and of nocturnal orb weav­
ers that show up agai nst the dark
background. Smal l spi ders that
hide i n crevices by day sit i n thei r
webs at ni ght.
ti n can trap
18
A TIN CAN buried fush with the
ground surface wil l trap r unni ng
spi ders. Put i n t he can a smal l
amount of ethyl ene gl ycol (anti ­
freeze), which does not evapo­
rate. A raised l id supported by
stones prevents di l uti on by rai n.
Empty once a week.
TULLGREN FUNNELS have a 1
Cm (V."
)
wi re screen across the
bottom. Leaf l itter i s pl aced on
the screen. Fumes from a singl e
mothbal l suspended bel ow the l i d
wi l l drive spi ders and other smal l
animal s down into a contai ner of
water or al cohol bel ow.
Tul l gren funnel
j ar contai ning vial s
Jun!n: Terma
p100K¸ under bark
g }q]¡}ÿbþ h,10YÌ
col l ecting l abel
PRESERVATION of spi ders and
their ki n must be i n l iqui d, ei ther
80% grain al cohol or 70-80%
i sopropyl (rubbi ng) al cohol , as
these animal s are soft-bodied and
cannot be pi n ned and dried. I n
sorting, keep speci mens sub­
merged. Each l abel ed species
shoul d be kept in a separate
vial and stored wi th others in
a l arger jar of al cohol .
LABELING is most i mportant.
Pl ace a l abel inside every vi al .
I ncl ude on t he l abel t he date and
l ocal ity (state, nearest town), col ·
l ector's name, and habitat. Pen·
cil ed l abel s are good i n the fel d.
Later repl ace wi th l abel s in I ndi a
i nk or typed. Use hi gh qual ity
paper. Never col l ect more than
you can l abel . A speci men wi th­
out a l ocal ity l abel i s worthl ess.
REARING Ground spiders can be
kept i n terraria with soil . Or cut
an air hole i nto a pl astic box with
a hot knife, and gl ue screen over
it. Web spi ders can be kept in
wooden frames with gl ass or
cel l ophane sides. To prevent can­
ni bal i sm, each spi der must be
kept i n a separate encl osure.
Spiders need water, but do not
al l ow contai ners to gel mol dy.
Many spi ders do not need food
for days. Spi ders and centipedes
wil l eat fies, meal worms, cock­
roaches; mil l i pedes and wood
l ice, decaying vegetation.
MYGAL OMORP HS
Suborder Orthognatha
Mygal omorphs i ncl ude the l argest spi ­
ders. There are about 80 speci es north
of Mexico, many more south; few i n
Europe. Thei r jaws ( chel i cerae), at­
tached on front of the head, move up
and down, openi ng paral l el to l ong
axis of body. Al l have 4 l ungs (p. 25).


C l  
jaws cl osed
HAIRY MYGALOMORPHS (Theraphosi dae) are com­
monl y cal l ed tarantul as i n the U. S. Unfortunatel y, thi s
name i s shared with other spi ders. Hai ry Mygal omorphs
are known al so as Bi rd Spi ders, and they may occasi on­
al l y catch nestl i ng bi rds, l i zards, or smal l snakes. I n S.
Africa, they are cal l ed Monkey Spi ders. Most are not
poi sonous to man. About 30 species occur in the U. S. ,
most l y i n the Southwest, none i n Europe. The l argest, from
the Amazon Basi n of S. A. , may be 6-9 em (3. 5") l ong,
with a 25 em (1 0") l eg span
Most Hai ry Mygal omorphs l i ve on the ground, but some
dwel l i n trees, others burrow. The eyes are cl osel y
grouped; these spi ders are sensitive to vi brati ons and
hunt at ni ght by touch. Cornered, the spi der may purr
or rear up on the back l egs. The "hai rs" on the abdomen,
easi l y shed or rubbed of by the l egs, are very i rri tati ng
to human ski n. The undersi de of each l eg ti p has a pad
of i ri descent hai rs. Young mal es l ook l i ke femal es, but
after the fnal mol t, emerge sl ender and i ri descent, pal ps
devel oped. Captive femal es have l i ved 20 years and
mol t after maturity; mal es , shorter l i ved , do not molt.
Members of a rel ated fami l y, Barychel i dae (not i l l us­
trated), have a di ggi ng rake (p. 23) and make a trap­
door to burrow entrance.
20
A. chalcodes

70 mm (2.7
11
)
Arizona
Aphonopelma eutylenum
southern Cal iforni a
These spiders show the diversity
among the Hairy Mygal omorphs
and also their common feature
of hairiness.
Cyrtopholis sp.

50 mm (2
11
)
Puerto Rico
21
TRAPDOOR SPI DERS (Ctenizidae) are mainly tropical,
but numerous species are found in the southern U.S. and
a few in southern Europe. All are about 1 -3 em (0. 3- 1 . 2")
long. Using the spiny rake on the margins- of their jaws,
trapdoor spiders dig tubelike burrows. The tube, includ­
ing the opening, is lined completely with silk. To make
the trapdoor, the spider cuts around the rim of the open­
ing, leaving one side attached for the hinge. The top
of the lid is camoufaged with debris, and additional silk
is added under the lid to make it ft tightly. The lid may
be held shut by the spider. When the spider feels the
vibration of passing prey, it rushes out, captures the prey,
and takes it down the tube. Except to capture prey, the
female seldom leaves her tube; males wander in search
of mates. Spiders in the small family Migidae (not illus­
trated), mainly Australian and South African, are similar
but lack digging rakes.
CYCLOCOSMIA are found i n
southeastern U. S. and southeast­
ern Chi na. The spider makes a
fal se bottom for its t ube wi th the
h ardened, squared-of end of its
abdomen and cl oses the top wi th
a si l ken l i d.
22 MYGALOMORPHS
MYRMEKIAPHILA of several spe­
cies are found in southeastern
U.S. The bu rrow, often l ocated i n
an ant nest, has a si de branch
cl osed by a second door. The out­
si de daor to the burrow i s cov­
ered by a si l ken l i d.
BOTHRIOCYRTUM found in Cal i­
forni a, i s the most commonl y col ­
lected trapdoor spi der. Ummidia
(not i l l ustrated) has its thi rd ti bi a
saddl e-shaped . Several Ummidia
are found in the southeastern
states, where they di g al most
horizontal tubes i nto banks. The
simi l ar Nemesia i s found i n south­
ern Europe.
FOLDI NG-DOOR SPIDERS, Antro­
dioetus, occur from the Gulf
coast to Al aska. Tube dwel lers,
they close their tubes by drawi ng
i n the ri m. Because the anal tu·
bercle i s some di stance from the
spi nnerets and there are hard­
ened pl ates (sclerites) on the back
of the abdomen, Antrodiaetus is
i n its own fami l y-Antrodi aeti dae.
Antrodiaetus burrow
MYGALOMORPHS 23
FUNNELWEB MYGALOMORPHS (Di pl uri dae) are easi l y
recogni zed by thei r l ong spi nnerets, whi ch may be more
than half the l ength of the abdomen. The spi ders are up
to 50 mm (2") i n si ze and most have onl y four spi nnerets.
Funnel web Mygal omorphs catch i nsects by entangl i ng
them i n a sheet of si l k. The spi der hi des i n a tube i n one
corner of the sheet. The tube may be among the roots
at the base of a tree or in crevices in rocks or wood.
Funnel web Mygal omorphs are mai nl y tropi cal , but about
ten speci es are found i n the U. S. and a few i n Spai n.
Atrax i s t he poi sonous Funnel web Spi der of Austral i a.
The N. A. Microhexura i s onl y 3 mm (0. 1 ") l ong. Because
it has six spi nnerets, Hexura is someti mes pl aced in a di f­
ferent fami l y, the Meci cobothri i dae.

  .

� `�
E uagrus
spi nnerets
Hexura f ulva
12 mm (0. 5
1
)
U.S. Pacifc coast
PURSEWEB SPIDERS (Atypidoe) ore about 1 0 to 30 mm
(0. 4- 1 . 1 ") long. The coxa of each polp is widened to form
on endite, and these, as in all true spiders, sere as
mouthparts. Sphodros, found from Kansas and Texas as
for north as Wisconsin and New England, digs a hole at
the bose of a tree and constructs a silken tube camoufaged
with debris. The spider stays hidden inside the tube, which
may extend 1 5 em (6") up the side of the tree. If on insect
lands on the tube, the spider bites through it with its huge
fangs and pulls in the insect. The remains ore thrown out
through the hole before it is patched up. In the norhern
states, moles ore found after June rains when they won­
der in search of females. The European Atypus constructs
a small tube that resembles a half-buried root.
underside of Sphodros
0 European
Atypus catchi ng a fy
J
. ~ M
ì
¦
¯
T R U E S PI DERS

w
Suborder labidognatha
cl osed
Most common spiders belong to this suborder, found
even in the Arctic. Their jaws (chelicerae) are attached
below the head and open sideways, sometimes obliquely.
With few exceptions, all have two lungs.
carapace

carapace
Nops sp.
' 6 mm (0.2
11
)
lesser Anti l les
26

OONOPIDS (Oonopidae) are all
less than 3 mm (0. 1 ") long. Most
are short-legged and have six tiny
eyes, closely grouped. Many have
orange plates on the abdomen.
Oonopids live under stones or in
litter and can run fast. Most are
tropical. About 20 species occur in
southern U. S. ; several reach north­
ern Europe, some in houses.
CAPONI I DS (Caponiidae) to 1 3
mm (0. 5'') long, have only two eyes,
rarely eight in one group. The oval
abdomen lacks lungs but has four
respiratory slits. Found in litter and
under stones, in tropics and south­
western U. S. ; they run rapidly.
DYSDERIDS (Dysderi dae) have six
eyes cl osel y grouped, a long l abi ­
um, and four conspi cuous respira­
tory sl its, rather than two, on the
undersi de of the abdomen. Al l are
nocturnal . Segestria and Ariadna,
but not Dysdera, di rect three pai rs
of l egs forward, one pai r back.
Dysdera l ives under stones or bark;
i t has l ong j aws, an adaptati on for
hunti ng woodl i ce (p. 1 52). Others
trap i nsects i n si l k strands radi ati ng
from the openi ng of a tubul ar re­
treat. About 1 0 speci es are found
north of Mexi co, more i n Europe.
DYSDERI DS 27
si de view of
cephal othorax
SPITTING SPIDERS (Scytodi dae)
can be recogni zed by the shape of
the carapace. Underneath its dome
i s a pai r of l arge gl ands. With thei r
secretion the spi der squi rts sti cky
threads at prospective prey and
hol ds it i n pl ace. The spi der's
aim i s accurate up to 2 em (0.7").
Most species are tropical . The fe­
mal e carri es her egg sac in her j aws.
Scytodes thoracica
� 8 mm (0. 31)
� cosmopol itan; bui l di ngs
SIX-EYED CRAB SPI DERS (Sicari i dae) extend thei r l egs
si deways. They l i ve on sand and can di g themsel ves i nto
it to di sappear compl etel y. They are found onl y in dry
regi ons of S. A. and South Afri ca.
28
BROWN SPI DERS ( Loxoscel i dae) al so
have six eyes. The thorax is not domed,
however, and the spi ders do not spit.
They weave a sheet of sti cky si l k i n
whi ch t hey entangl e i nsects. Loxo­
sceles reclusa (p. 1 7), in the U. S. , and
the l arger L. laeta, i n S. A. , may l i ve i n
houses i n associ ati on with man. Thei r
bi te i s poi sonous . Eggs are i n a l oose
sac in the web.
Loxosceles laeta

25 mm ( 1
1
)
South America
Loxosceles of several simil ar species
occur i n southwestern and southcentral
U. S. L. rufescens, of Mediterranean
area, l ives under stones away from
houses.
poisonous 1. reclusa
@other Loxosceles species
carapace
30
DIGUETI DS (Diguetidae) are related
to Spitting Spiders (p. 28) and also
have six eyes in three groups. The
cephalothorax is long, the abdomen
hairy. The few species known are from
southwestern U.S., Mexico, and Argen­
tina. All members of this family make
a vertical silk tube above a maze of
threads in desert shrubs.
PLECTREURI DS (Piectreuridae) have
eight eyes, thick legs, three claws. Like
other haplogyne spiders (pp. 8, 26-30),
males have simple palps, females no
epigynum. Under stones in webs in
southwestern U.S., eastern Mexico.
ZODARI I DS (Zodariidae) are a diverse group of eight­
eyed hunting spiders. Altogether there are about 300
species. Unlike haplogyne spiders, male Zodariids have
a complicated palpus, and the females have an epigy­
num. Unlike the Palpimanids, their legs are usually
equally thick, and they may have more than two spin­
nerets. Commonly the frst spinnerets are large, those to
the rear, small. Zodariids hide under stones or burrow in
sand; no species is common in N.A.
spi nnerets
PALPI MANI DS (Palpimanidae) are eight-eyed spiders
that resemble Zodariids but usually have only two spin­
nerets. The heavy frst pair of legs is carried up when
walking. The sternum surrounds frst segments (coxae)
of legs. They make irregular webs under stones and de­
bris. The family includes about 80 species; none in N.A.
scl erite �
spi nneret .

anal tubercl e �
31
Carapaces
Pholcus
Spermophora
Physocyclus
u
Leplonela

Ochyrocera
DADDY-LONG-LEGS SPI DERS ( Pholci ­
dae, not to be confused wi th Phal angi ­
i dae, p. 132) have unusual l y t hi n, l ong,
sl ender l egs wi th fl exi bl e ends . Most
speci es are whi ti sh or gray. A few have
si x eyes i n two groups of three. Others
have ei ght eyes, the front center pai r
s ma l l . The eyes ar e a l ways c l os e
together. Many of these spi ders hang
upsi de down i n a l oose web i n dark
corners of houses or cel l ars. Others li ve
under stones i n the dry areas of temper­
ate and subtropi cal regi ons . Mal es and
femal es are commonl y found together.
Mal es have l arge, si mpl e pal ps; the
femal es l ack an epi gynum but have a
swol l en area on the undersi de of the
abdomen . The femal e carri es the round
egg sac i n her j aws . Of more than
300 speci es of Phol ci ds, about 40
speci es are found i n North Ameri ca
north of Mexi co; a few occur i n north­
ern Europe and many in the Medi terra­
nean regi on.
There are several other fami l i es of
rare, smal l (l-3 mm) ( 0. 05-0. l ) , l ong­
l egged spi ders . These are mostl y cave
spi ders-the Leptoneti dae of the Medi ­
t er r a nea n r eg i on , Japa n , and ver y
rarel y Ameri ca; and t he Ochyrocerati ­
dae, whi ch i ncl udes about 20 tropi cal
and subtropi cal speci es found i n Amer­
i ca, Afri ca, and Asi a . Carapaces of
representati ve genera.re at l eft .
32 DADDY-LONG-LEGS SPI DERS
LONG-BODI ED CELLAR SPI DER
hangi ng i n i ts web shakes sa
rapi dl y when al armed that both
spider and web bl ur and seem
to disappear. I t is cosmopol itan,
one of the commonest spiders
found in cel l ars.
Pholcus phalangioides
� 8 mm (0.3
11
)
cosmopol i tan; cel l ars
carryi ng eggs

Psilochorus sp.
� 4 mm (0.2
11
)
southern U. S.
SHORT-BODIED CELLAR SPI DER
Spermophora meridionalis
� 2 mm (0. 1
11
)
, eastern U.S. ; dark pl aces
Y
Pholcus face
DADDY:LONG-LEGS SPI DERS 33
UROCTEIDS (Urocteidae) of about a dozen s
p
ecies are
found only in the Old World. They live under stones and
in rock crevices, where they make a dense, fat silk tube
u
p
to 5 em [2´) wide or a series of sheets above and
below the s
p
ider. Insects crossing the threads become
entangled and are s
p
un into the web as the s
p
ider, its
s
p
innerets
p
ointing in, runs around the insect. The
p
rey
is then cut loose and carried back to the center of the
retreat. The egg sac is also
p
laced between the layers
of silk in the retreat. large urocteids resemble oecobiids
(
p
. 1 15) in sha
p
e of head and s
p
innerets but lack the
transverse
p
late, or cribellum, in front of the s
p
innerets,
with which oecobiids s
p
in their distinctive webs.
carapace

face
34 UROCTEIDS
spi nnerets
HERSI LI I DS (Hersi l i i dae) form a fami l y
of 75 tropi cal and subtropi cal speci es.
They are 1 0- 1 8 mm (0. 4-0. 7") l ong,
wi th di sti nctivel y l ong spi nnerets . Hersi ­
l i i ds posi ti on themsel ves head-down on
bark or stone wal l s . When an i nsect
approaches , the spi der j umps over i t,
spreadi ng si l k and then rapi dl y ci rcl es,
spi nnerets toward the prey, fasteni ng i t
down . After the prey i s compl etel y
wrapped, i t i s bi tten and eaten. Mem­
bers of onl y one genus, Tama, are found
i n southern Texas .
carapace


w
face
COBWEB WEAVERS, or Combfooted Spi ders (Theri di ­
idae), with more than 2,000 species, make up one of the
large fami lies of common spi ders. More than 230 species
occur i n N. A. north of Mexi co, fewer i n Europe; many
species are tropical and cosmopol i tan. The American
House Spider (p. 40) and the Wi dows (p. 42) are members
of this fami ly.
Cobweb Weaver s ar e us ua l l y sedent ary, hangi ng
upsi de-down i n the center of an irregul ar cobweb or hi di ng
in a crevice at the edge of the web. Some make a smal l
web beneath l eaves, stones, or l oose bark. The sticky
outsi de threads entangl e an i nsect that hi ts them and may
pul l i t into the web as they contract. Usi ng a tiny comb of
bri st
i
es (setae) at the end of the fourth l eg, the spi der
throws si l k over the capti ve, then bi tes and sucks i t dry .
. Cobweb Weavers have few or no teeth and do not chew
prey, as do spi ders of rel ated groups.
Most spi ders in thi s fami l y l ack strong setae (hai rs) on
l egs. Many have a spherical abdomen, al most al l have
ei ght eyes, and al l have three cl aws on each l eg (p. 1 3).
As i n other web spi nners, the mal e has poor vi si on and
courts the femal e by pl ucki ng threads of her web.
W
face
Teridion
carapace
THERIDI ON, with several hundred
species, is the second l argest
spider genus and incl udes many
of the commonest small spiders
from the Arctic to the tropics. All
hang upside down in an irregul ar
web. As in most spiders, identif·
cation of species depends on fea·
tures of the pal pi or epigynum, a
matter for the special ist.
. sisyphium
-, ( 4 mm (0.2
"
)
Europe; low p
COBWEB WEAVERS 37
Theridu/a emertoni
-
<
2 mm (
0
.
1
11)
eastern U.S.
under leaves

Spintharus lavidus
eastern U.S. Ia Bol ivia;
vegetation
38 COBWEB WEAVERS
Dipoena nigra


3 mm (0. 1
1
1
)
� N.A.; ant feeder,
on ground
..
Co/eosoma Roridanum

2 mm (0. 1
11
)
cosmotropical ; l itter
ARGYRODES are ti ny, often si l ­
ver-col ored spi ders that l ive i n
t he webs of other spi ders. They
feed on thei r host's smal l prey or
join them in a l arge meal . Some
have an el ongated worm-shaped
abdomen and can wiggle its ti p.
Mal es have bumps (turrets) on
their heads. About 15 speci es are
found north of Mexico, several i n
the Mediterranean regi on, many
i n the tropics.
Thwaitesia afnis

5 mm (0.2
11
)
New World tropics;
vegetation

COBWEB WEAVERS 39
AMERI CAN HOUSE SPIDER
40 COBWEB WEAVERS
ACHAEARANEA is a very l arge,
world-wide genus recognized by
the patches and streaks often
present on the sides of the ab­
domen. Some femal es have a
hump on the abdomen. Mal es are
smal l er than femal es.
TI DARREN female l ives i n a
curled leaf hangi ng i n the web,
and the tiny males hang nearby.
The mal e amputates one of hi s
enormous pal pi before hi s l ast
mol t. Two common speci es occur
from southern U.S. to S.A.
ENOPLOGNATHA are al l dark
colored (except E. ovalo) and
have a l eafike pattern on the
abdomen. Some l ive i n curl ed·up
l eaves, some under l ogs, others i n
l eaf l itter. Several species occur
in N. A. and Europe.
STEATODA usual l y are
brown with a white l i ne around
the front of the abdomen. S.
borealis sits i n a crevice near
the web. S. hes
p
era, of western
N.A., and S. bi
p
unctata, of
Europe, are si mi l ar.
$. borealis
.
c 8 mm (0.3") A
eastern N. A.; tree trunks,
bui l di ngs
S. erigoniformis
C 3 mm (0. 1
"
)
cosmotropi cal ; under stones
41
WIDOWS (Latrodectus) are the best known and largest
of the Cobweb Weavers. Several speci es are found i n
the U. S. , one i n southern Europe, and others i n the Near
East and S. A. Al l ar e poi sonous ( pp. 1 6- 1 7) . Femal es are
about 1 2- 1 6 mm (0.5-0.6") l ong; mal es much smal l er and
wi th l onger l egs. Adul t mal es wander i n search of femal es
but do not feed or bite; femal es rarel y l eave thei r web.
Strands of si l k are very strong.
BLACK WI DOW (L. moctons) is
found in worm sout heastern U. S.
and West I n di es as for North as
New York. I t is common in trash,
out houses, and du mps. The spi·
der hongs in the web, wh ich is
under objects. I n North Ameri ca
many spi der bi tes ore from Bl ock
Widows. Si milar species ore found
i n t he western slates, Mexi co, and
other ports of the world. The
western North American species
is L. hesperus. Bth L. moctons
and L. hesperus hove on hour­
gloss mark on the underside. The
abdomen of t he Molmignatte (L.
tredecimguttotus), the northern
Mediterranean species, is marked
with a seri es of red spots. The
young of al l species ore bri ghtl y
colored with stri pes and spots.
The egg soc is brown and popery.
Î. tredecimguttatus
BROWN WIDOW (L. geometricusJ
is cosmotropical , i ntroduced in
Fl orida. Usual ly they are brown
to gray, some bl ack; they are
found on ar near bui ldi ng
Though poi sonous it i s less l i kely
to bite or i njects less venom
than other Wi dows. The egg sac
is tufted, fufy.
RED WIDOW (L. bishopi) i s found _¸
onl y in pal mettos in the sandy
scrub- pi ne of central and south­
ern Fl orida. The
white, smooth.
NORTHERN WIDOW (L. varia/us)
occurs from northern Fl ori da to
southern Canada; common in Brit�
ish Col umbi a. General l y i t is
found in undi sturbed woods, in
stumps, or in stone wal l s. The
egg sac i s brown, paper-l i ke.
The "hourgl ass" i s disti nct but
usual l y broken.
L. moctans
and ather species
DWARF SPI DERS AND SHEET-WEB WEAVERS ( Li nyphi ­
i dae) form one of the l argest fami l i es of spi ders, wi th more
than 3, 500 speci es. They are among the l east known of al l
spi ders, however. Li ke other web spi nners, they have three
cl aws on each foot, and most speci es bui l d a dome shaped
or fl at web. Al l have l egs wi th strong setae, a row of teeth, .
on each si de of the fang groove of the j aws, and a col ul us
( p.· 9) .
DWARF SPI DERS (subfami l y Mi cryphanti nae) of probably
several hundred speci es occur in N . A. north of Mexi co. ·
They are common in Europe, the Arct i c, and on hi gh
mountai ns; t he tropi cs are bel i eved to have fewer speci es.
Most Dwarf Spi ders are l ess t han 2 mm ( 0. 1 ") l ong, some
l ess than 1 mm (0. 05") l ong. Most make smal l sheet webs .
. The mal es of many Dwarf Spi ders have unusual turrets,
bul ges, or depressi ons i n the head regi on . The abdomen i s
usual l y spheri cal and, i n some, i t i s covered wi th a hard,
shi ny pl ate.
Some speci es are abundant i n l eaf l i tter and can be
col l ecfd in l arge numbers wi th a Tul l gren funnel ( p. 1 8) .
Many can be found under stones; others can be col l ected
by sweepi ng vegetati on with a net . As many as 11, 000
spi ders per acre (0. 4 hectare) have been found in eastern
U . S . , over 21/4 mi l l i on per acre (6 mi l l i on per hectare) i n a
grassy area in Engl and. These fi gures i ncl ude al l the di ffer­
ent speci es of spi ders, but the Dwarf Spi ders make up two­
t hi rds of the total .
T
he great number of i nsects consumed dai l y by such
l arge popul ati ons of l i ttl e predators i s di ffi cul t to esti mate.
How wi l l thi s natural food chai n be affected by the sprayi ng
of i nsecti ci des over the countrysi de? I t wi l l favor the i nsects,
because the spi ders l ay fewer eggs and each generati on
takes l onger to mature.
44 DWARF SPIDERS


face
side views of ·( Dwarf Spider carapaces
Erigane web
50 mm (2
11
) di am. i n depression
SHEETWEB WEAVERS (subfami l y li nyphi i nae) are
mostl y l arger than Dwarf Spi ders (p. 44) and usual l y
have a pattern on t he abdomen. I n contrast t o Cobweb
Weavers, the abdomen is usual l y l onger than wi de, the
l egs may have strong setae, the jaws many teeth. The
mal e and femal e often hang upsi de down under the
same web and run rapi dl y when di sturbed. The webs,
whi ch have a few sti cky threads, are found between
branches of trees or bushes and i n high grass, often in
great abundance. I f an i nsect gets entangl ed, the spi der
bi tes from bel ow, pul l s the i nsect through the sheet and
wraps it up. The web al so protects the spi der from pred­
ators from above, and someti mes a second web forms
protecti on from bel ow. Onl y a few of the many species
are widespread and abundant.
web 1 0 em (4
1
)
PLATFORM SPIDER
web 15 em (6
1
)
Frontine/lo pyromitelo
eastern and central
Canada and U. S.
47
^
-
da coccinea
Drapetisca soialis
Europe; others in N. A.
48 SHEETWEB WEAVERS
! 4 mm (0. 2")
so(h,a!rn U.S.; grass
Stemonyphantes blauveltae
a 4.5 mm (0.2")
N. America, debri s
Balthyphantes pallidus
< 3 mm (O. l ")
N. America;
i n webs in
� ground l i tter
SHEETWEB WEAVERS 49
PIRATE SPIDERS (Mi meti dae) i nvade webs of other
spi ders. The sl ow-movi ng Pirate Spi der bi tes the web
owner, whi ch is qui ckl y paral yzed and sucked dry through
the l egs, one after another. Some si t wi th outstretched
l egs under l eaves wai ti ng for passi ng spi ders. One spe­
ci es has been observed to pl uck the prey's web l i ke a
courti ng mal e to gai n entrance.
Pi rate Spi ders are recognized by the row of strong
curved setae on the front margi ns of the l ower segments
of the frst pai r of l egs. The eggs are left in a stal ked
sac suspended from a twig or rock. Thi s smal l fami l y i n­
cl udes about a dozen speci es north of Mexi co.
50
Mimetus notius
� 6 mm (0. 2
11
)
southeastern U. S.
NESTI CI DS ( Nesti ci dae), often cal l ed Cave Spi ders, are
pal e deni zens of moi st caves and cel l ars. They make an
i rregul ar cobweb. The fourth l eg has a c omb on i t s l ast
segment ( p. 36). Between the front pai r of spi nnerets is a
col ul us ( p. 9) . Thi s structure, i ts functi on not known, i s
found al so i n some Cobweb Weavers, but al l of these ar e
dark spi ders . The Femal e Nesti ci d spi der carri es her egg
sac attached to her spi nnerets .
Thi rty-one speci es of Nesti ci ds occur north of Mexi co.
Rel ati ves i ncl ude the mi nute Symphytognathi dae ( not i l l us­
trated) , the mi nute Archaei dae (Archaea, bel ow) of Afri ca,
and Mecysmaucheni dae of South Ameri ca .
Nesticus cellulanus
' 5 mm (0.2
11
)
N. Hemi sphere
Archaea has
distinctive carapace
and chel icerae. The
chel icerae are used to
spear spi ders. Mecysmauchenius
segmentatus
' 6 mm (0.211
)
Chi l e
NESTICIDS 51
ORB-WEAVERS (Aranei dae, often cal l ed Argi opi dae)
form a fami l y of some 3, 500 speci es found i n al l parts
of the worl d. About 180 speci es occur north of Mex­
i co. Al most al l of these spi ders spi n an orb-web, an
engi neeri ng feat practi ced al so by the Ul obori ds ( p. 114)
and by the rel ated Ray Spi ders and Tetragnathi ds ( pp.
70-71 ) .
Orb-weavers have poor vi si on. They l ocate prey by
feel i ng the vi brati on and tensi on of t he threads i n t hei r
web, t hen qui ckl y turn the capti ve wi t h thei r l egs whi l e thei r
fourth l egs pul l out si l k and wrap t he vi ct i m. The prey
i s bi tten before bei ng carri ed to the center of the web
or to the spi der's retreat i n a corner, where i t i s eaten.
Anythi ng i nedi bl e i s cut out of t he web and dropped t o
t he ground.
In the fal l , femal e Orb-weavers of many speci es produce
egg sacs contai ni ng several hundred eggs (p. 14) , then
di e. I n some speci es the eggs hatch soon; i n others not unti l
the fol l owi ng spri ng. The l arge number of eggs produced
suggests that these spi derl i ngs face greater hazards than
do the young of scorpi ons, pseudoscorpi ons, and spi ders
cared for by thei r mothers. Orb-weaver spi der l i ngs make
a perfect orb-web, but as the spi derl i ngs mature, thei r
webs become more speci al i zed and characteri sti c of the
speci es.
Orb-webs are a favori te obj ect of research i n i nsti nc­
ti ve behavi or. Strands are pul l ed back whi l e the spi der i s
worki ng to l earn how the spi der compensates for the
change. Or, as the spi der bui l ds a web i n a frame,
t he frame i s turned to determi ne t he i nfl uence of grav­
i ty on the posi ti on of the web. Changes i n the web­
bui l di ng pattern as the spi der matures are studi ed,
too. Smal l doses of some drugs gi ven to the spi der
on a f l y wi l l a l so c au s e t h e s pi de r to c h a n g e t h e
pattern of i ts web.
52 ORB-WEAVERS
carapace
SI LVER ARGIOPE
Argiope argenfafa
face
grasshopper caught i n web
is rapi dl y turned with frst
legs whi l e fourth l egs wrap
it i n si l k sheet drawn
from spi nnerets ��
Prey-handl i ng
By Typical
Orb-Weavers
face carapace
carries wrapped prey; wil l
hang it up or feed on it.
ORB-WEAVERS 53
ORB-WEBS are bui l t by many spe­
cies at night. Fi rst a bri dge is
made. The spi der may wal k from
one bri dgehead ta another,
carryi ng along a l i ne, but usual l y
the spi der sits with its abdomen
i n the ai r and l ets the wi nd pul l
aut a si l k thread ( 1 ) . I f the
thread touches, a bridge is es·
tabl i shed (2); if nat, it may be
pul led back and eaten.
When a bri dge is establ ished,
the spider may rei nforce it by
wal ki ng back and forth, l aying
down more si l k. Then the spider
drops on a thread ( 3) it has
fastened at the center of a strand
i n the bri dge. I t secures the verti·
cal thread and returns to the
fork, the hub of the fnal web (4).
A radi us thread, attached at
the hub, is carried up to the
bri dge and across a short dis·
lance (5) before it is tightened
and fastened (6). More radi i are
formed by the same procedure
54 ORB-WEAVERS
(7-9), and the hub may be
strengthened with additional
threads before t he spi der starts
a temporary spi ral ( 1 0) . Once
around, a leg touches the previ·
ous turn, thus measuring the
distance between rounds. When
the temporary spiral is com­
pl eted, the spider reverses di rec·
lion, rolls up the ol d and puts
down new more numerous and
closer spaced spi ral s of sticky si l k
( 1 1 ) ø The compl ete spiral path
back to the hub is retraced ( 1 2) .
Most rebui l d t he radi i and spi·
ral s each day ar ni ght; some re­
move the web duri ng the day. A
central decoration characteristic
of the species may be added, or
a si l ken retreat i n rol l ed up
l eaves may be made at one si de
of the web, with a di rect l i ne to
the hub that transmits vi brations
of i nsects caught i n the web.
There are many vari ati ons from
this si mpl ifed descri ption.
ORB-WEAVERS 55
A. nordmanni
2 15 mm (0.6")
N. Hemisphere
56
ORB-WEAVERS
ARANEUS is the l argest genus of
spiders, with over 1 ,0 species
found in mast porta af the worl d.
Many speci es make a retreat In
a rol l ed-up leaf near the web.
Web vibrations are transmitted to
the retreat from a signal l ine at­
tached to the hub.
SHAMROCK SPIDEl
A. trfllv•
wldetpread
In N. A.; m•aGc
� may be white
ORB-WEAVERS 57
Araneus cavaticus
eastern U. S. and Canada
FURROW SPI DER
Nuctenea cornufa
wi despread in
N. Hemisphere; on bui l di ngs
Nuctenea patagiata
' 1 1 mm (0.51)
N. Hemi sphere
58 ORB-WEAVERS
LA nCE SPI DER
Araneus thaddeus
' 8 mm (0.3")
eastern U.S
.
Araneus pegnia
east, U. S. , Mexi co
Y
< 6 mm
(
0.
2
1
)
ORB-WEAVERS 59
� 8 mm (0.3
"
)

Ñ. merianae
Europe
60 ORB-WEAVERS
Zygiella africa
� 8 mm (0.3"}
Europe, Brit. Col umbia
and eastern Canada to New Engl and
Zygiella x-notata
� 8 mm (0.31}
Europe, U.S. Pacifc
Atlantic coasts
ORB-WEAVERS 61
*
62 ORB-WEAVERS
Mangora gibberosa
eastern U.S., Canada; grass
CYCLOSA hang in the hub, hi d­
den by debris i n a vertical l i ne.
Egg sac i s i n center of web. The
spider's abdomen extends be­
yond spi nnerets.

C. conica
� 5 mm (0.2")
N. A. , Europe;
woodl ands
� 3 mm (0. 1 1)
#

C. turbinata
N. A.
ORB-WEAVERS 63
64 ORB-WEAVERS
Cyrtophora citricola
<
1
5 mm (0.6")
Mediterranean;
hos web l i ke Mecynogea
Aculepeira sp. 3
< 20 mm (0.8
"
)
western U.S., mountai n
meadows; A. ceropegia
� widespread in Eurasia
NEPHI LA, found in southern U.S.
and i n the tropics, makes o huge
web, 1 m (39
11
) or more i n di om·
eter. The strong webs, matted
and twisted, are used by South
Sea I sl anders for various kinds of
bags and fsh nets. Young Neph·
ita make a compl ete web; adults
bui l d only the bottom portion,
l eavi ng the top irregul ar. Neph­
i/a has conspicuous tufts of hai r
on the l egs. Femal es vary i n size.
65
BOLAS SPI DER
Mastophora bisaccata
southeastern U.S.
Bol as spi ders make
no web, but attract mal e moths
GASTERACANTHA, tropical spid­
ers with a hard abdomen armed
with spi nes, hang i n mi ddl e of
web, adorned by white tufts
and often hi gh i n a tree.
by imitati ng the pheromone
  � �
(perfume) of femal e moths.
 
MI CRATHENA i ncl udes spi ders
with a spi ny, hard, gl ossy abdo­
men. Several N.A. species are
found i n woods and gardens;
many occur in Ameri can tropics.
WHITE MI CRATHENA
M. mitrata
9 5 mm (0. 2
1
)
eastern U.S.; woods
STAR-BELLI ED SPI DER
Acanthepeira sle//ala
9 1 2 mm (0.5
1
)
eastern U.S.; low shrubs
68
A. trifasciata
� 25 mm ( 1
"
)
cosmopol i tan; fel ds
BLACK AND YELLOW
ARGIOPE
A. aurantia
� 25 mm ( 1
"
)
U. S., Canada; gardens
ARGI OPES are l arge, conspicuous
spiders that hang head down i n
center of web. The web usual l y
has crossed zi gzag bands, and
the young spi ders may construct
more zigzags than the adul ts.
Some species are easi l y recog·
nized by their color and pattern.
Species of Argiope are found i n
tropics and temperate regi ons-
A. bruennichi
� 25 mm ( 1
"
)
Europe
A. argenrara
New Worl d tropics
Ý
underside
ORB-WEAVERS
69
RAY SPI DER
Theridiosoma
gemmosum
� 3 mm (0. 1 1)
Eurasia, N.A.
shaded woods
RAY SPI DERS (Theri di osomati dae) form a smal l fami l y of
ti ny spi ders rel ated to the other Orb-weavers { p. 52) . The
smal l web, onl y 1 0 em (4") i n di ameter, l acks a hub but has
several radi i ti ed together near the center. The spi der hol ds
up the web i n the center by a ti ght thread so that i t forms
an umbrel l a. I f a fl y gets caught, the thread i s rel eased,
causi ng the web to spri ng back and entangl e the catch . The
spi der has a gl obul ar abdomen; the sternum i s short and
square behi nd. The egg sac i s suspended on a stal k. One
speci es i s wi despread; about 1 20 are known from the
tropi cs.

� face
Tetragnatha sp.
70 ORB-WEAVERS
TETRAGNAT HI DS (Tetragnat hi dae)
make an orb-web, usual l y at an angl e
between verti cal and hori zontal . The
orb usual l y has 1 2 to 20 radi i and
wi del y s pac ed s pi ra l s . The s pi de r
hangs i n the center or cl i ngs to a stal k
somewhere near the web. Unl i ke other
Or b- weaver s , however, the fema l e
Tetragnathi ds, except Leucauge, l ack
an epi gynum { p. 9) . Fewer than two
dozen speci es of Tetragnat hi ds occur
north of Mexi co.
ORCHARD SPI DERS (Leucauge)
are common i n wooded oreas of
eastern U.S. The spi ders hang in
center of horizontal orb. About
1 70 species are tropical .
LONG-JAWED ORB-WEAVERS,
Tefragnafha, at rest may cl i ng
l engthwise al ong a twig or grass
bl ade, hol di ng on with the short
third pair of l egs. The long pai rs
of l egs are extended. More than
a dozen speci es are common i n
meadows near water throughout
N. A. and Europe. There are
more than 250 species i n al l
parts of the worl d.
Tetragnatha pal/escens
THI CKJAWED SPI DER
Pachygnatha sp.
� 6 mm (0.2
11
)
eastern U.S.
THI CK-AWED SPI DERS (Pachy.
gnafha) are found under debri s
or i n dense vegetation near wa­
ter. Young make smal l orb-web
on ground; adults make no web.
eastern U.S. to Central America
ORB-WEAVERS 71
spinnerets
I
spinneret
face
Agelenopsis Tegenaria
FUNNEL WEAVERS (Agelenidae) are seen most easily in
late summer when morning dew makes their webs in lawns
conspicuous. The spider hides at the narrow end of a funnel
that spreads out across the grass. On feeling the vibration
of an insect crossing the web, the spider dashes out, bites
the insect,

nd carries i t back to the funnel . As the spider
grows, it uses its long posterior spinnerets to add new
layers to the flat web.
Like other web spiders, Funnel Weavers have three leg
claws and poor vision. In fall, the female deposits a disc
­
shaped egg sac in a crevice, then dies-often while still
clinging to the egg sac. Of some 600 species in the family,
about 300 are found in N. A. and 95 in Europe. Despite
lack of a cribellum, the Agelenidae are related to the
Amaurobiidae (p. 1 1 1 ) .
Agelenopsis web i n grass
GRASS SPIDERS (Age/eno
p
sis and
Agelena) make funnel webs i n
grass or l ow bushes. There are
several si mi l ar speci es of Age/en­
a
p
sis i n N.A., each l i vi ng i n a
sl i ghtly diferent habitat. Age/ana
labyrinthica is common in Europe.
GRASS SPIDER . 
Agelenopsis sp.
N.A. �
9 20 mm (0.81)
COELOTES communicates with her
young by maki ng speci al move­
ments when feeding, summoni ng
them to share the food. As a
warni ng si gnal, she stamps her
fourth leg, and the young scurry
i nto hi di ng. The mother can dis­
tinguish beteen her young and
potenti al prey by the diferences
i n vi brations in the web and by
touch. The young eat the mother
when she dies in autumn. Most
observations have been made on
the European C. ferrestris.
� 1 5 mm (0.61)
C. terresrris
9 1 3 mm (0.51)
Europe; leaf l itter
Y
FUNNEL WEAVERS 73
.
T. romestica
< 1 2 mm (0.51)
cosmopol itan
C. mericinalis
� 1 2 mm (0.51)
N.A.
T. saeva
Europe; bui l di ngs, gardens
Y

1 6 mm (0.61)
(Tegenaria) bui l d funnel webs i n
dark, moist rooms or cel l ars.
Some species l ive i n quarri es or
woods. Most of the 90 species
described are European; fewer
are native to N. A.
CORAS webs were once used for
dressi ng wounds. Webs of both
Coros and Tegenaria have a
curved open end; in Great Bri tai n
the web is cal l ed a ·cobweb.
Found i n celµrs or foundations
of bui l di ngs and under l oose
bark, stones, and logs.
CI CURI NA are smal l funnel weav·
ers that l ive i n leaf l itter and
under stones. Numerous species
i n N.A. , some i n Europe.
CRYPHOECA are found i n simi l ar
habitats. Species occur i n north·
ern U. S., Canada, Europe.
i 6 mm (0.21)
Cryphoeca sp.
northern N.A.,
_. Europe;
leaf l itter, debri s
HAHNI IDS (Hahni i dae), shown bel ow, have spi nnerets
arranged in a si ngl e transverse row. They are often con­
si dered a subfami l y of the Funnel Weavers, but they
never make a fun nel . Fewer t han 1 00 speci es are known
,
1 9 north of Mexi co. Al l are s mal l , l ess t han 4 mm (0. 2"),
and thei r del i cate webs, commonl y made i n moss or i n
footpri nts of ani mal s i n moist soi l or snow, can be seen
onl y when l aden wi th moi sture. The spi der l i ves beneath
grai ns of soi l at the edge of the web.
EUROPEAN WATER SPI DER is
found in ponds, shal low lakes
and qui et streams of Europe and
Asi a. I t bui l ds a bel l-shaped web
among pl ants under water and
fl l s the bel l wi t h ai r bubbl es car­
ried an its body. Occasi onal l y the
spider repl enishes the air. To do
this, the spider comes to the sur­
face, touches it with its frst l egs,
then turns around and projects its
abdomen through the surface
fl m. A quick motion with the hi nd
l egs repl enishes the ai r carried
16 FUNNEL WEAVERS
around the abdomen and under
the cephol othorax. The spi der
swims upside down. I t remai ns
dry because of the ai r cl i ngi ng to
i ts body.
Aquatic sow bugs and i nsects
are captured and eaten under
the bel l , and the young are
raised there. Unl i ke most spi ders,
the mal es are l arger than the
femal es. The bite of these spi ders
is pai nful to man. Sometimes
water spi ders are pl aced i n a
separate fami l y, Argyronetidae.
LYNX SPI DERS (Oxyopi dae) are hunti ng spi ders that chase
t rr prey over vegetati on or l i e in wai t and l eap out. Al l
are acti ve duri ng dayti me and have good vi si on. Thei r si x
l ar ge eyes f or m a hexagon, and there are two smal l er eyes
bel ow. Lynx Spi ders use thei r s i l k as a drag l i ne for j umpi ng
and for anchori ng the egg sac to vegetati on, not for
catchi ng prey. The femal e guards the egg sac . Lynx Spi ders
have three cl aws on the l eg ti ps. The l egs have many l ong,
strong setae. The abdomen is poi nted behi nd. Most of the
400 speci es are tropi cal ; fewer than 20 speci es are found
north of Mexi co and sti l l fewer i n Europe.
GREEN LYNX
Peucetia viridans
� 16 mm (0.6
1
)
southern U.S.
face carapace
face
Do/omedes
Pisaura
NURSERY WEB SPI DERS ( Pi sauri dae) attract attenti on
because of thei r l arge si ze. They may si t qui etl y for hours,
l egs spread out on vegetati on or boat docks, or they may
hunt acti vel y i n vegetati on. Thei r vi si on i s good.
Nursery Web Spi ders resembl e the rel ated Wol f Spi ders
(p. 82) but di ffer i n habi ts. Thei r ei ght eyes are about equal
in si ze, and they have three tarsal cl aws . The femal e carri es
her huge egg sac i n her jaws. When hatchi ng ti me i s near,
she ti es l eaves together wi th si l k and suspends her egg sac
among them. She then si ts on guard nearby. The young
spi ders l eave the nursery after about a week.
Many Nursery Web Spi ders can run over the surface of
water. I f chased, they dive and stay submerged for some
ti me. Of about 500 species throughout the worl d, about 1 5
occur north of Mexi co; fewer occur i n Europe.
Pisaura mirabilis
� 1 5 mm (0. 6")
carryi ng egg sac
PI SAURI NA in N. A. and Pisaura
af Europe are common spiders.
They have no permanent homes
but hunt i n grass, meadows, and
moi st, open woods. When court­
i ng, the mal e Pisaura presents the
femal e with a fy. I f she accepts,
he wi l l mate whi l e she feeds.
Pisaura mirabilis �

1 5 mm (0.6")
Europe
Pisaurina mira
nursery i n mi l kweed
NURSERY WEB SPI DERS 79
NURSERY WEB SPI DERS 81
WOLF SPI DERS ( Lycosi dae) are among the most common
spi ders . They run on the ground or over stones, and some
may venture up pl ants. At rest they stay under stones . Some
di g short tunnel s, others deep burrows . Many hunt duri ng the
day or, i n warm cl i mates, at ni ght. They have good vi si on
and a hi ghl y devel oped sense of touch. Mal es wave thei r
l arge, often hai ry pedi pal ps i n a rhythmi c pattern as they
approach potenti al mates .
The femal e attaches her l arge egg sac to her spi nnerets. I f
the egg sac i s removed, the spi der searches, and upon fi ndi ng
the sac attaches i t to her spi nnerets agai n. She may substi tute
bi ts of cork, paper, or snai l shel l s for the egg sac i f lost. As
the young spi derl i ngs emerge, they cl i mb onto thei r mother,
who carri es them on her back, brushi ng them away from her
eyes. I f any fal l off, they cl i mb up the mother's l egs agai n.
Wol f Spi ders make ni ce pets . I n capti vi ty they must be
provided with water.
About 2, 000 to 3, 000 species of Wol f Spi ders are known .
Perhaps more than 200 occur north of Mexi co. Some species
are wi despread over the Northern Hemi sphere; others are
very l ocal . They make up a l arge proporti on of the spi der
popul ati on i n the A�ctic and on hi gh mountai ns. Wol f Spi ders
have four smal l eyes i n a row bel ow four l arger eyes, and
three tarsal cl aws .
Lycosa
Pardosa

face carapace coropace
face
82 WOLF SPIDERS
LYCOSAS are l arge, common
Wol f Spi ders. There are numer­
ous species. Most are nocturnal
and can be col l ected wi th a l i ght
at night. Some hi de under ob­
jects; others di g burrows, from
whi ch they can be l ured by i n­
serti ng a straw or a piece of
grass. Largest in the United States
is the Carol i na Wolf Spi der (L.
caro/inensis), whi ch may be 25-35
mm ( 1 - 1 .511) l ong. I ncl uded i n the
genus is the European Tarantul a
(L. tarentu/a) of Mediterranean
countries. Its bite was al l eged to
be poisonous, i ts victi ms cured
only by danci ng the tarantel l a.
The bites may . have been con­
fused with those of Widows (p.
42)
,
as the European Tarantul a
is not now considered poisonous.
L. tarentula
� 25 mm ( 1
11
)
,
! (not i l l us.) browner and l arger
southern Europe
Y
carryi ng young
southeastern U. S.
WOLF SPIDERS 83
Pirata piraticus
N. Hemi sphere
� 7 mm (0.31),
with egg sac;
PI RATE WOLF SPI DER (Pirata) in·
elude a few species of smal l
spiders found i n marshes, ot
edges of ponds or runni ng on
water surface. Al l have a V •
shaped dark mark on the cara­
pace.
PARDSAS of more than 1 00
species are found in N. A. and
Europe. Many occur i n the Arctic
and i n the mountai ns. All are
smal l , active sun-l ovi ng spi ders
that bui l d no permanent retreat.
They confne thei r hunti ng to a
parti cul ar area, however. They
use thei r silk only to make an
egg sac, which the femal e carries
attached to her spi nnerets. As in
other Wolf Spider genera, the
species are difcul t to disti nguish.
Pardosa groenlandica ,.
Greenl and to Al aska, hi gh
N. A. mts.
Pardosa pauxila
Fl ori da
84
WOLF SPIDERS
ARCTOSAS are not as common
as other wolf spiders, but the
species are wi despread through­
out the Northern Hemisphere.
Their col or may match the back­
ground on whi ch they run.
BURROWI NG WOLF SPI DERS
(Geolycosa) dig i n sand, as deep
as 1 m (39") strai ght down. They
dig with their chel icerae, and the
sand grai ns are stuck together
with silk and thrown out of the
hole. The diferent col ors of sand
from the vari ous levels may form
concentric rings of varied col ors
around the hol e. The spider
spends most of its time i n the
burrow; at ni ght it is cl ose to the
surface. In fai r weather the egg
sac is brought up and sunned.
Arctosa sanctarosae
� 1 2 mm (0.51)
U.S. Gulf Coast; sand
Burrowing Wolf Spider ¢
Geolycosa missouriensis eastern U.S.; sand

•¬¬•  

ace
spi nnerets
GNAPHOSI DS ( Gnaphos i dae) ar e us ua l l y u n i f or ml y
bl ack, a few brown, some wi th marki ngs . The l ong abdo­
men i s s l i ghtl y fl attened, and the front spi nnerets are cyl i n­
dri cal and separated . The l egs have onl y two cl aws ( p.
13) . Al l are nocturnal hunters and i n dayti me are found
under stones or l oose bark, often i n a s i l ken sac . The egg
sac may be a shi ny pi nk or whi te papery di sc attached
ti ghtl y to the undersi de of a stone; i n some speci es i t i s a
whi te sac guarded by the femal e . Most Gnaphosi dae have
posteri or medi an eyes oval at an angl e (see above) and the
endi tes ( p. 9) concave and sl i ghtl y constri cted i n thei r
mi ddl e. Many of the 2, 000 speci es of Gnaphosi ds are
found i n temperate regi ons, probabl y 250 speci es i n N . A.
and fewer i n Europe.
Gnaphasa muscorum
N. Hemi sphere
86
Zelotes subterraneus
N. Hemi sphere
' 9 mm
(0.4
"
)
Drassoces lapicosus
' 14 mm (0.61)
Europe
GNAPHOSIDS 87

¸

L
@
l •
l
spi nnerets
SAC SPI DERS ( Ci ubi oni dae) resembl e Gnaphosi ds but
wi th l ess fl attened abdomen, l onger l egs, and wi th cl osel y
spaced, coni cal , front spi nnerets . Many are l i ght l y col ­
ored. They make a resti ng tube i n a rol l ed l eaf or under
bark or stones . More than 200 of about 1 , 500 speci es
occur i n N. A. Anyphaeni dae are s i mi l ar, but wi th s l i ts of
respi ratory tubes openi ng mi dway on the undersi de of the
abdomen. Mai nl y neotropi cal , thi s fami l y has 36 speci es
north of Mexi co.
photo Potzsch
Clubiona abbotii
� 5 mm
(0. 2
11
)
N. A.
ANT MI MI CS are abundant i n
t he genera Micorio and Coslion­
eiro. They often l ive with the
ants they mi mic, but the advan­
tage of mi micry to the spider i s
not understood. The abdomen
may be constricted or covered
with scal es; the gait i s antl i ke,
and the frst legs are held l i ke
antennae. Micaria, mai nl y a
north temperate genus, prefers
dry areas. Costianeira, mai nly of
New Worl d tropics, hos a
grooved thorax and usual l y i s
l arger and more bri ghtl y col ored
than Micorio. Micario is now
often consi dered a Gnaphosid.
Chelracanlhlum mlldel
juv. 1 0 mm (0.4")
Medi terranean; N. A. in
bui l di ngs. First l eg l onger
t han l ast; many speci es poi sonous
Phrurotimpus borealis
northeastern N. A.
l itter
SAC SPIDERS 89
Senocu/id
carapace
Prodidomid ¶
carapace
��
face
Homalonychid
carapace
.
9 0
C L
ÇÞ ÞO
face
SENOCULIDS (Senocul i dae) i n­
cl ude only about two dozen species
i n the Ameri can tropics. They have
three claws and are rel ated to
Nursery Web Spi ders (p. 78) but dif­
fer in arrangement of eyes. Senoc­
ul i ds hunt on pl ants. The femal e
guards her egg sac.
PRODIDOMIDS (Prodi domi dae) i n­
cl ude 60 species with two cl aws.
Related to Gnaphosids (p. 86) but
difer i n eye arrangement and i n
havi ng l ong, spread chel i cerae.
They are found under stones i n dry
areas in southern N. A. and i n
southern Europe.
HOMALONYCHIDS (Homal onychi ­
dae) are found only i n Mexi co and
i n southwestern U. S. The l egs of
these spi ders have two cl aws, may
be held strai ght.
WANDERI NG SPI DERS (Cteni dae) i ncl ude about 550 spe­
ci es of 5-40 mm ( 0. 3- 1. 5") subtropi cal and tropi cal spi ders
wi th two or three l eg cl aws . Eye arrangement i s di agnosti c .
These spi ders someti mes travel as stowaways i n bananas .
lora ( p. 14) hunts duri ng the day on ground l i ke a wol f
spi der; others l i ve on fol i age.
9 1
GI ANT CRAB SPI DERS {Sparassi dae) are mostl y tropi cal
spi ders that hol d thei r two-cl awed l egs crabl i ke. larger
than Crab Spi ders (p. 94), they have teeth on thei r j aws .
About 850 speci es.
HUNTSMAN SPI DER (Heteropoda
venatoria), found around the
worl d i n tropical regi ons, is wel ­
comed i n houses because it eats
cockroaches. The spiders hide i n
crevices duri ng day and came
out i n eveni ng. The femal es carry
thei r egg sacs with the jaws. They
Huntsman Spi der,
or Banana Spi der
Heteropoda
venatoria
9 2
are found i n the southern U.S.
and are commonl y i mported with
bananas. A si mi l ar huntsman,
Olios, occurs i n the southwestern
states and i n southern Europe.
The front mi ddl e eyes of Olios
are as l arge or l arger than the
l ateral eyes.

face
PLATORI D CRAB SPI DERS ( Pi atori dae) of about a dozen
speci es occur i n Asi a and i n tropi cal Ameri ca. They are
characteri zed by fl atness, l ong mi ddl e spi nnerets, wi del y
spaced front spi nnerets, and two l eg cl aws .
�w
face
carapace

 
,�
^
.
/

´´/ ' /

:'! f
¯
/
spi nnerets
SELENOPI D CRAB SPI DERS (Sel enopi dae) i ncl ude 200
speci es of l arge tropi cal spi ders easi l y recogni zed by thei r
fl atness and by thei r eye arrangement-si x i n a si ngl e row.
Li ke other crab spi ders, they have two l eg cl aws . Common
i n houses and under bark or rocks; i f di sturbed, they dash
si deways i nto crevi ces .
carapace
face
-
i l l

·

·
.
. .

g
Ç

_
M1sumena
carapace car0pace
Philoramus
CRAB SPI DERS {Thomi si dae, Phi l odromi dae) hol d thei r
l egs crabl i ke, out at the si des, and can wal k forward,
backward, or si deways . The l argest are tropi cal speci es
1 2-20 mm ( 0. 5-0. 8") i n body l ength . Many have horns or
ornaments on the head or abdomen, and some mi mi c bi rd
droppi ngs. Mal es are smal l er than femal es and have much
l onger l egs . Crab Spi ders wai t i n ambush for passi ng
i nsects; some hol d thei r front l egs outstretched i n readi ­
ness. Thei r vi si on f or movements i s good. Thei r j aws are
smal l , and after prey is bi tten, it is hel d above the spi der
and sucked dry. Those that si t on fl owers apparentl y have
a toxi n potent to bees, fl i es, and other i nsects much l arger
than themsel ves . They do not use si l k to capture prey, but
i n courtshi p, the mal e may wrap hi s prospecti ve mate
l oosel y i n s i l k. Femal es of most speci es guard the egg sac
but di e before the eggs hatch. Of about 2, 000 speci es,
more than 200 occur i n N. A. , fewer i n Europe.
FLOWER SPI DERS (Misumena,
Misumenops) sit on fowers, and
can change col or slowly.
Misumena vatia
� 10 mm (0.4
"
)
N. Hemi sphere
bi ti ng bee
Stephanopis sp.
� 6 mm (0. 2")
Chi l e
M. asperatus
� 5 mm (0.2
1
)
N.A.; vegetati on
CRAB SPIDERS 95
X. cristatus
< 7 mm (0.3
11
)
Europe
Tmarus angulatus
< 7 mm (0.3
11
)
N. A.
96 CRAB SPI DERS
X. emertoni
� 5 mm (0.2
11
)
N. A.
XYSTI CUS of more thon 230 spe·
cies occur i n all parts of the
worl d, mainl y i n the Northern
Hemi sphere. Most are found
under bark ar on the ground.
Dul l brownish, they resembl e
thei r background. Mal es may l ook
quite di ferent from femal es.
CORI ARACHNE has several spe·
cies occurri ng i n N. A. Extreme
fatness adapts them to hi di ng in
narrow crevices i n bark.
Tibe/lus oblongus
� 9 mm (0.4
"
)
N. Hemi sphere
PHI LODROMI D CRAB SPI DERS
TI BELLUS, l i ke l ong-jawed spi ders
( p. 7 1 ), stretch al ong twi gs and
grasses. They usual l y are col·
l ected i n grass by sweepi ng with
a net. Mal es and femal es are
simil ar i n appearance#
THANATUS l ive on vegetation
and bork i n N. A. and Europe.
A captive T. formicin us had a
food preference for moths.
PHI LODROMUS are attive
Spi ders that cl i mb on
pl ants, or sometimes on
i n houses. Egg sacs are
to l eaves or bark. Many
more than 1 70 species
N. A. and i n Europe.
CRAB SPIDERS 97
face carapace
Sa!ticus
J UMPI NG SPI DERS ( Sal ti ci dae) are among our most
attracti ve spi ders . Most have bri ght col ors, often wi th
i ri descent scal es. A l arge fami l y of more than 5, 000 spe­
ci es, J umpi ng Spi ders are most abundant i n the tropi cs,
but about 300 speci es occur north of Mexi co and many i n
Europe. Al l are smal l , most l ess than 1 5 mm ( 0. 7") l ong .
Jumpi ng Spi ders are active duri ng the day and l i ke
sunshi ne. They wal k wi th an i rregul ar gai t and l eap on
thei r prey, someti mes j umpi ng many ti mes thei r own
l ength . Most of the j umpi ng power is suppl i ed by the fourth
pai r of l egs, though they are onl y sl i ght l y modi fi ed for
j umpi ng . Before j umpi ng, the spi der secures a si l k thread
on whi ch i t can cl i mb back i n case i t mi sses i ts mark. At
ni ght or when it is cool , the spi ders stay in l i ttl e cocoons or
i n crevi ces .
Jumpi ng Spi ders' eyes are among the best i n i nverte­
brate ani mal s . Two of the ei ght eyes are l arge. Many
speci es can recogni ze prey or other spi ders at a di stance
of 1 0-20 em (4-8"). They can al so change the color of thei r
eyes .
When a mal e J umpi ng Spi der fi nds a femal e, he stops,
waves hi s bri ghtl y col ored fi rst l egs, wags hi s abdomen ,
and hops . If the femal e is of the same speci es, she si gnal s
wi t h her l egs . The fi rst l egs ( and someti mes t hi rd) may be
col orful and enl arged. After mati ng, the femal e constructs
a s i l k cocoon for her eggs and guards i t .
98 J UMPING SPIDERS
ZEBRA SPI DER
Salticus scenicus
N. Hemi sphere;
bui l di ngs
� 6 mm (0.2
1
)
Pe/enes viridipes �

5 mm (0.2
1
)
eastern U.S.
J UMPING SPIDERS 99
« 1 2 mm (0.5
"
)
100 J UMPING SPIDERS
P. clarus
N.A. ; common
on pl ants
1 02 J UMPI NG SPI DERS
PHI DI PPUS is common i n N.A.;
none i n Europe. Large, heavy­
bodied and conspi cuous, th.ese
spi ders are found on vegetation,
stones, and someti mes i nside
houses. I n captivity, they are
active and have good appetites.
One captive Phidippus ate more
than 40 fruit fies in succession.
P. apacheanus
� 9 mm (0.
.11)
Rocky Mts.
P. johnsoni
� displ ayi ng at
Rocky Mts. and westward;
stones
P. regius
! 1 8 mm (0.7'
1
)
southeastern U. S.
13 mm (0.5
11
)
JUMPI NG SPI DERS 1 03
Synemosyna formica
< 5 mm (0.2")
eastern U.S.
Synemosyna americana
< 6 mm (0. 2")
Central Ameri ca
J umpi ng Spi ders That Mi mi c Ants
carapace
Panama
Lyssomanes, because they
eyes i n four rows, are ¯¯¯¯`""¯¯"
pri mitive j umpi ng spi ders.
1 05
CRI BELLATE SPI DERS have a cri bel l um, a fattened
sievel i ke pl ate i n front of the spi nnerets. Through i t the
cal ami strum, a row of curved setae on the next to l ast
segment of the fourth l eg, pul l s si l k. The hackl ed threads
produced are covered wi th fne wool that entangl es the
prey. Every struggl i ng movement of the prey onl y i n­
creases the entangl ement.
I t was thought that fami l ies of cri bel l ate spi ders are a
separate, di sti nct group. Now the opi ni on is that the pres­
ence of the cri bel l um i s an ancestral condi ti on and the
structure has been l ost several ti mes. For i nstance, the
Oecobi i dae (p. 1 1 5) are si mi l ar to the Uroctei dae ( p. 34)
though smal l er and owners of a cri bel l um. The cri bel l um
i s sti l l a good character f or i denti fi cati on.
Hypochifus
cal amistrum

cri bel l um V Uloborus
el ectron mi croscope picture of cri bel l ate si l k
Y. Friedrich
HYPOCHILIDS ( Hypochi l idae) are found in i sol ated re­
gi ons of America, Chi na, and Tasmani a. Fewer than ten
species are i ncl uded in the fami l y. Some species resembl e
t he Mygal omorphs (p. 20) i n jaw attachment and i n hav­
ing two pai rs of l ungs wi th l ung covers. Under a l edge,
Hypochilus bui l ds its l ampshade-shape web, covered wi th
hackl ed threads; the spi der hangs i nsi de agai nst the l edge.
F l ies may be caught on the outsi de of the web and pul l ed
through or they may be trapped under the web canopy.
CRIBELLATES 1 07
cri bel l um
carapace
FI LI STATI DS ( Fi l i stati dae) of fewer than 50 speci es are
common i n southern Europe and other warm parts of the
worl d, a dozen i n the U . S. The cri bel l um may be di ffi cul t
to see, but the shape of the carapace i s di agnosti c . By day
they hi de i n a tubul ar retreat i n a crevi ce of a wal l . As i n
Ariadna { p. 27) , si l k strands radi ate from t he mouth of the
tube. Mal es have much l onger l egs than femal es. Femal es
l ack an epi gynum.
1 08 CRIBELLATES
Filistala sp.
( 1 8 mm (0.71)
Arizona
ERESIDS ( Eresi dae) of about 1 00 speci es are found i n
Eurasi a and Africa, none i n t he Ameri cas. large and
hai ry, t hey resembl e Mygal omorphs ( p. 20) . Eresi ds l i ve
under a stone at the end of a si l ken tube from whi ch a
web extends beyond the stone between p!t stems. The
web resembl es t hat of a Funnel Weaver ( p. 72) but i s not
as cl ean and new l ooki ng. Some have a cover over tube.
Mal es may be bri ghtl y col ored. Some speci es are col oni al .
4
Eresus niger ..
Eurasia, northern Africa
Eresus
carapace
CRIBELLATES 1 09
Diyna
DI CTYNI DS ( Di ctyni dae) of about
500 smal l ( l ess than 5 mm, 0. 2") spe­
ci es, worl dwi de i n di stri buti on, form
the l argest fami l y of cri bel l ate spi ­
ders ( p. 1 06) . Common i n t he U . S.
a n d E u r op e , t h ey s u p e r fi c i a l l y
resembl e Cobweb Weavers ( p. 36) .
The i rregul ar webs are at ti ps of
pl ants, under l eaves, or i n crevi ces .
Rel ated Psechri dae (not shown) of
southeastern Asi a and New Zeal and
have a t uft under the t hi rd c l aw.
AMAUROBI I DS (Amaurobi i dae) are
much l arger than the Di ctyni ds and
are s i mi l ar to the Funnel Weavers ( p.
72) . They are found under l ogs or
stones, where they make a l oose web
with coarse hackl i ng. There are 300-
350 speci es; the fami l y i s worl dwi de
i n di stri buti on. Many N. A. and Euro­
pean speci es are very common, but
onl y the easi l y seen cri bel l um di s­
t i ngui shes t hem from the Funnel
Weavers.
Titanoeca americana
� 6 mm (0.2 )
eastern U.S.
Canada
Amaurobius
CRI BELLATES 1 1 1


L L
.
face
ACANT HOCTE NI DS ( Acant hocten i dae) r esembl e t he
Wanderi ng Spi ders ( p. 91 ) but have a cri bel l um. They have
two l eg cl aws. Thei r hackl ed webs are found near thei r
hi di ng pl aces under l oose bar k. About 25 speci es ar e
known f r om t he Ameri can tropi cs.
ZOROPSI DS (Zoropsi dae) have two or three l eg cl aws;
most cri bel l ates have three. They di ffer from Gnaphosi ds
( p. 86) by the cri bel l um and by scapul ae under the l ast two
leg segments . Two dozen speci es occur around the Medi ­
terranean , i n Mexi co, and i n Central Ameri ca .
OGRE-FACED SPIDERS (Dinopidae) usually have two
enormous posterior median eyes; the remaining six eyes
are small. During daytime they hide in shrubs, and at
night, with a few parallel hackled threads, the spider
makes a rectangular web supported by silk lines, which
it holds with its front legs. When an insect approaches,
the web is spread and thrown. Cosmotropical in distribu­
tion, about 50 species occur in the American tropics,
one in southeastern United States. Menneus, of Australia,
has small
p
osterior median eyes.
OGRE-FACED SPI DER
Dinopis spinosa
< 20 mm (O. B")
southeastern U.S.
ULOBORI DS ( Ui obori dae) have a cri bel l um but make orb­
webs, though the spi ders are not si mi l ar i n appearance to
Orb-weavers ( p. 52) . Ul obori ds l ack poi son gl ands. About
200 speci es occur i n al l parts of the worl d . Fi fteen speci es
are found i n N . A. , fewer i n Europe, but they are most
abundant i n the tropi cs .
1 1 4 CRIBELLATES
ULOBORUS orb is often horizon·
tal . I nstead of sticky thread, as
i n the web of Orb·weavers, the
spiral is made of hackl ed threads.
Species of U/oborus are found i n
the U.S. and i n Europe; some
species are soci al . Rel ated genera
are found i n the tropics.
U. g/omosus
' 7 mm (0.3")
N.A.
HYPTI OTES web is tri angul ar. The
spi der attaches itsel f to a twig
by si l k from its spi nnerets and
hol ds the web wi th i ts frst l egs.
The spi der i tsel f bri dges a gap i n
the threads. When an i nsect gets
caught, the spi der pul l s the web
taut, then l ets it go sl ack agai n.
Thi s further entangl es the prey.
The web is made by constructi ng
a bri dge, a vertical l i ne, and two
more radi i . Scafol di ng threads
run out from the center, and
hackl ed threads are put down
separately i n each sector. H.
cavatus i s found i n eastern U. S.,
southern Canada. H. paradoxus
i s commonest European species.
TRIANGLE SPI DER
H. cavatus

4 mm (0.211
)
N. A.
OECOBI I DS (Oecobi i dae) have a
cri bel l um and are ti ny; otherwise
t h e y r es e mb l e t h e Ol d Wor l d
Uroctei ds ( p. 34) . Oecobi i ds make
smal l flat webs over crevices i n walls
and on vari ous leaves. They feed
on ants, and some are social . They
have a l arge, hai ry anal tubercl e.
Most speci es are tropical and sub­
tropi cal; a few i nhabit houses i n the
North.
CRI BELLATES 1 1 5
S P I DE R R E L ATI VE S
A number of groups (orders) are bel i eved to share a com­
mon ancestry wi th spi ders ( pp. 6-7) . Al l have j aws (chel i ­
cerae) , pedi pal ps (someti mes pi ncer l i ke), and four pai rs of
wal ki ng l egs. They di ffer in adaptati ons of the appen­
dages . I n some, the abdomen i s segmented and j oi ned
broadl y to cephal othorax.
WHI PSCORPI ONS (order Uropygi ; about 85 speci es)
occur i n some parts of southern U. S . , but are most abun­
dant i n Central and South Ameri ca, Asi a, and t he East
I ndi es . They have no sti ng but can pi nch. Al l are nocturnal ;
they have poor vi si on, but are sensi ti ve t o vi brati ons.
VI NEGARONES, or Vi negoroons
(Thelyphonidae), ai m a vi negar
scented mist from a gl ond at the
base of the tail when disturbed.
The spray contai ns acetic acid
and a sol vent that attacks the
exoskeleton of i nsects. Other
tropical species smell of formic
VI NEGARONE
1 1 6
acid or of chl ori ne. Vi negarones
burrow i n sand or under l ogs and
carry their prey i nto the burrow.
Female carries 20-35 eggs i n a
membranous sac under her abdo­
men. The young ri de on the
mother until thei r frst mol t, then
become i ndependent.
l argest whipscorpion
known; mal es and
femal es are si mi l ar
i n appearance
8 em (3
"
)
T rithyreus pentapeltis
6 mm (0.2
1
) ..
southern Cal iforni a
SCHI ZOMI DS (order Schi zomi da, someti mes cal l ed Schi ­
zopel t i di a) ore smal l , none more than 6 mm ( 0. 2") l ong.
They l ack eyes, and the short tai l has onl y three segments .
About 80 speci es l i ve i n the tropi cs and subtropi cs under
stones and i n l eaf l i tter.
TAI LL ESS WH I PSCORPI ONS, or Wh i ps pi der s ( or der
Ambl ypygi ) , have a wi de head and thorax, t o whi ch the
abdomen i s attached by a stal k. The fi rst pai r of l egs i s
l ong and whi pl i ke. Ambl ypygi ds hi de under bark or stones,
and i f the stone i s turned, scurry si deways to the other
si de. I n the U . S. , they ore found i n the warm South , where
they may come i nto houses . Others are found i n tropi cal
Ameri ca, Afri ca, and Asi a . Femal e carri es eggs and young
f or fou r t o si x days . About 70 speci es ore known i n two
fami l i es, Charonti dae and Tarantul i dae.
WI NDSCORPI ONS ( or der Sol i f ugae) ar e s omet i mes
cal l ed Sun Scorpi ons because most l i ve i n deserts or dr y
areas. From 1 t o 5 em (0. 3-2") l ong, most are yel l owi sh or
brown . They have enormous j aws, and thei r l egl i ke pedi ­
pal ps are used wi t h t he fi rst pai r of l egs as feel ers. They
wal k on onl y si x l egs, as do Whi pscorpi ons ( p. 1 1 6) and
Tai l l ess Whi pscorpi ons ( p. 1 1 7) , and run swi ftl y-"l i ke the
wi nd . " Sensi ng prey, they may stop suddenl y, then start
agai n. Some can cl i mb trees .
Wi ndscorpi ons are voraci ous feeders . Wi th thei r l arge
pi ncer l i ke j aws they can ki l l even smal l vertebrates and
may someti mes feed on smal l l i zards. They can bi te but do
not have poi son gl ands. I t i s bel i eved that some use thei r
eyes f or hunti ng, but most use touch onl y. The mal l et­
shaped organs on the l ast pai r of l egs are probabl y sen­
sory. At rest, Sol i fuges may burrow or si t under stones .
Most are nocturnal , but some are acti ve dur i ng the day.
Mal es are general l y smal l er and have l onger l egs than the
femal es. Femal es bury thei r eggs and may guard them.
Adul ts l i ve l ess than a year.
Wi ndscorpi ons of the Ol d Worl d bel ong to several fam­
i l i es. They are abundant i n Afri ca and the Near East;
absent from Austral i a . Si x speci es are found i n southern
Europe. Al most 1 20 speci es occur i n N . A. north of Mexi co,
900 worl dwi de. They are found as far north as southwest­
ern Canada but are most abundant i n Ari zona and the
Great Basi n area . One speci es occurs i n Fl ori da, the onl y
one known from eastern U. S . Wi ndscorpi ons of N. A.
bel ong t o two easi l y recogni zed fami l i es, but t he speci es
are di ffi cul t to i denti fy. I n the fami l y Ammotrechi dae, the
fi rst pai r of l egs have no cl aws, and the front edge of the
head i s rounded or poi nted . I n the fami l y Eremobati dae,
the fi rst pai r of l egs have one or two cl aws, and the front
edge of the head i s strai ght .
1 1 8 WI NDSCORPI ONS
mal l et­
shaped
organ
underside of
wi ndscorpion
Ammotrechella stimpsoni
20 mm (0.8
11
)
Fl ori da, West I ndies
Sol pugi dae, eastern Africa
E. durangonus
28 mm ( 1 . 1
11
)
Texas to Cal ifornia,
northern Mexico
E. pal/ipes
26 mm ( 1
11
)
N. Dakota to Arizona
DSCORPIONS 1 1 9
PSEUDOSCORPI ONS (order Pseudoscorpi ones) are com­
mon everywhere but are rarel y seen because of thei r
secretive habi ts. They are smal l , most of them l ess than
5 mm (0.2") l ong. Al most 200 speci es are known from
N.A. Most species l ive i n l eaf l i tter, moss, manure, under
l oose bark, or under stones. Many can be col l ected from
l itter with a Tul l gren funnel (p. 1 8) .
Pseudoscorpi ons can wal k backwards as wel l as for­
ward. They do not have a long tai l and sti nger as do
scorpi ons, but most have poison gl ands i n thei r pi ncers.
The poison i s used sol el y to capture smal l i nsects, thei r
prey. Pseudoscorpi ons are not l arge enough to bi te. They
have si l k gl ands openi ng on thei r jaws, and use si l k to
make chambers for overwi nteri ng, mol ti ng, or broodi ng.
Many species l ack eyes and, judgi ng from the l ong hairs
on the pi ncers, their mai n sense is touch. Pseudoscorpi ons
someti mes attach themselves to fl ies or to beetl es; they
are carried as hi tchhi kers, not as parasites.
In courti ng behavi or, the mal e waves hi s pi ncers, vi­
brates his abdomen, or taps hi s l egs. The femal e responds
and the two ani mal s, thei r pi ncers l ocked, pul l each other
back and forth. Eventual l y the mal e deposits on the
ground a stalked capsul e contai ni ng spermatozoa. As
the femal e i s pul l ed over the capsul e, she pi cks it up with
the l i ps of an openi ng on the undersi de of her abdomen.
The eggs, i n a l i ttl e sac, stay attached to the femal e' s ab­
domen, and when the young hatch, they remai n i n the
sac and feed on a mi l kl i ke secretion from the mother's
ovaries. Usual l y there are fewer than to dozen young,
but there may be more than one brood a year.
After l eavi ng the egg sac, the young ri de on the
mother for a short ti me. I t may be one to several years
before they become adults; duri ng this period, the young
mol t three ti mes.
1 20 PSEUDOSCORPI ONS
Lamprochernes minor
3 mm (0. 1 ")
� and ' in courtshi p
Chitrella sp.
3 mm (0. 1 ")
N. A. ;
suborder Di pl osphyroni da,
al l tarsi divi ded
HOUSE PSEUDOSCORPION, one
of the l argest, is found i n houses
all over the worl d. Probably they
feed mai nl y on cl othes moths and
carpet beetl e l arvae, book-lice,
and other smal l i nsects and mites;
they are reported to l i ke bed­
bugs. In search of moisture they
often become stranded i n si nks or
bath tubs, unabl e to cl i mb out
over the smooth surface.
Apochthonius sp.
2 mm (0. 1
11
)
N.A. ;
suborder
Heterosphyroni da,
tarsi of l ast 2 l egs
divided
cancroides
4 mm (0.2") cosmopol itan;
suborder Monosphyronida,
none of the tarsi divided
PSEUDOSCORPIONS 1 21
SCORPIONS (order Scorpi ones) have pi ncers and a
l ong tai l wi th a sti nger at its ti p. The pecti nes, a pai r of
combl i ke structures underneath the l ast l egs, are sense
organs of touch. Scorpi ons have two eyes i n t he center
of the head and usual l y two to fve al ong the margi n on
each si de. They do not see wel l , and depend on touch,
usi ng the l ong setae on thei r pi ncers. When runni ng,
they hol d thei r pi ncers outstretched. Mal es have broader
pi ncers and l onger tai l s than do femal es.
Most scorpi ons l i ve i n warm, dry cl i mates. But one
speci es i s found as far north as Al berta; i n Europe, Eu­
scor
p
ius germanus i s found to al titudes of 1 ,800 m (6,000
ft.) in the southern Al ps; others are found near snow i n
the southern Andes. Speci es are restricted t o smal l areas,
and only one i s found worl d-wi de i n tropi cs. Scorpi ons
feed at ni ght on i nsects and spiders that are caught wi th
the pi ncers and someti mes stung. Scorpi ons that remai n
under stones or bark duri ng the day carry thei r tai l s to
one si de; burrowers hol d thei r tai l s up.
I n courtshi p the mal e hol ds the femal e by the pi ncers
or jaws and l eads her back and forth. Eventual l y he de­
posits a stal ked package of spermatozoa (a spermato­
phore) and pul l s the femal e over i t. She picks up part
of the capsul e wi þ an org�n on her abdomen. The young
' . DI PLOCENTRI DAE contai ns tropi-
�� �
cal scorpi ons from the West I n-

e
di es and southwestern N. A. The
' -
l arge Nebo is found in eastern
_. .. ,. ,
s
p
s�rnum ��� �

Mediterranean countries. The
1 22 SCORPI ONS
si des of the sternum are paral l el ,
and only one spur i s present on
the outside beteen the last l eg
segments. Al l have a tubercl e
underneath the ti p af the sti nger.
Diplocentrus hasethi
5 em (2
11
)
Lesser Anti l l es
¹
ri de on the mother's back unt i l they shed thei r ski ns for the
fi rst ti me, then become i ndependent and l i ve a sol i tary l i fe
that may l ast several years .
Scorpi ons sti ng i n sel f-defense. Most
s
ti ngs are not seri ­
ous , but dangerous scorpi ons occur i n Nor t h Afr i ca, S. A. ,
and Mexi co. I n the U . S . , Centruroides scul
p
turatus of Ar i ­
zona has poi son t hat affects t he nerves, causi ng severe
pai n . Speci es of Centruroides i n Mexi co have caused
deaths . Scorpi on anti veni ns are avai l abl e.
Of over 1 , 200 speci es known, 20 t o 30 occur i n t he U . S .
Scorpi ons are best col l ected a t ni ght when they are acti ve,
wi th a bl ack l i ght , whi ch makes them fl uorescent i n the
darkness .
SCORPI ONI DAE contai ns Ol d
Worl d and Austral i an scorpi ons.
Some are gi ants. Onl y one, Opis·
thocanthus, occurs i n the West
I ndi es and Central Ameri ca. The
last two l eg segments have onl y
one spur on the outsi de, as i n
Di pl ocentridae, but there is no
tubercl e u nder t he sti nger.
Pandinus sp.
to 17 em (7
"
)
Africa; rocky areas
SCORPIONS 1 23
CHACTI DAE, represented here by
Euscorpius, i s a fami l y world-wide
i n di stri buti on. The sternum i s
al most square or wi der than l ong.
There may be either two spurs
between the last to l eg seg­
ments or one-and if one, i t is
on the i nsi de. They moy have two
eyes on each side of the head or
none. Superstitiona, a three­
striped scorpi on about 4 em
( 1 .611) l ong, i s found in south­
western U.S.
Euscorpius carpathicus
S cm (2
11
)
southern Europe, very common
Sothriurus banariensis
5.5 em (2.2
11
)
southern S.A.
A
BOTHRI URI DAE contai ns mostly
South American scorpi ons, a few
from Austral i a. The ster num con­
sists of two transverse pl ates,
much wi der than l ong, someti mes
barel y vi si bl e.
VAEJOVI DAE scorpi ons have a
broad sternum, l i ke Chactids, but
have three to fve eyes on each
side of the head. Some species
occur i n the Old World, and
many are American. . 
Northern Voejovis
Paruroctonus boreus
5 em (2")
western U. S. to Albrta
VAEJOVI D SCORPI ONS
MORDANT UROCTONUS
Uroctonus mordax
6 em (2.4
1
)
Oregon, Cal iforni a
STRI PEDTAI LED VAEJOVI S
V. spinigerus
5 to 8 em (2-3")
southwestern U.S.
SWOLLEN-STINGER ANUROCTONUS
Anuroctonus p#aeodactylus

6 em (2.41)
Utah to Cal ifornia
YELLOW VAEJOVIS
V. faus
4 Cm (1 .5")
suhwesern U.S.
GIANT HAIRY HADRURUS
SCORPIONS 1 25
underside of Buthus
EUROPEAN BUTHUS
B. occitanus
5 cm (2
1
1
)
southern Europe;
sti ng pai nful
1 26
BUTHI DAE, wi th 600 speci es, has
some representati ves on oi l conti ­
nents except Antarcti ca; i t i s the
l argest fami l y of scorpi ons. The
sternum i s tri angul ar, poi nted in
front and often l onger than i t is
wi de. Many speci es have a tubercl e
that i s l ocated under the sti nger.
The pi ncers have a graceful , sl en­
der hand. Some speci es are poi ­
sonous to man-Tityus i n Brazi l ,
Androctonus i n North Afri ca, and
Centruroides i n Mexi co.
.
SPOTTED I SOMETRUS
lsometrus macu/atus
� 5-7 Cm (2-2.7
11
)
cosmotropical


  ��
HASETH'S CENTRUROI DES
C. hasethi
5 Cm (2
11
)
� with young
Lesser Anti l l es
HENTZ'S CENTRUROI DES
C. he0tzi
Fl ori da; under bark
SCULPTURED CENTRUROI DES
Ce0truroides seu/pturatus
6-7 Cm (2.4-2.8
11
)
Ari zona; poi sonous
SCORPI ONS 1 27
HARVESTMEN (order Opi l i ones) are commonl y cal l ed
Daddy-l ong-l egs, but many have short l egs . They hol d
thei r short, round bodi es near the ground. I f caught by a
l eg, the l eg may break off. The head, thorax, and abdo­
men are j oi ned broadl y, and i n the mi ddl e of the head are
two eyes, usual l y one on each si de of a hi gh turret . In many
speci es, spi nes, tubercl es, or bri stl es arm the head; scent
gl ands open al ong the edge of the carapace. Mal es are
smal l er than femal es and have l onger l egs. Unl i ke other
arachni ds, Harvestmen do not court before mati ng. Wi th
a l ong, stout ovi posi tor, the femal e deposi ts her eggs i n
the ground i n the fal l ; the young hatch i n the fol l owi ng
spri ng. Most speci es l i ve l ess than a year or two. Harvest­
men feed mai nl y on l i vi ng i nsects, someti mes on dead
ani mal s or pl ant j ui ces. There are 200 speci es i n N . A. ,
4, 500 to 5, 000 worl dwi de.
MI TE HARVESTMEN (suborder Cyphophthal mi ) are al l
l ess than 3 mm ( 0. 1 ") l ong. Eyes, i f present, are far apart
and i ndi sti nct, and the scent gl ands are on cones . Unl i ke
most mi tes, they have a segmented abdomen. Mi te Har­
vestmen i nhabi t humi d l eaf l i tter. Probabl y not rare, but
sel dom col l ected. There are five fami l i es. Fi ve or si x speci es
are recorded for the U . S. Captives l i ve four to si x years .
Siro duricorius
Austria, northern
Yugoslavia;
forest l itter
LANIATORES (suborder) i ncl ude about 2,000 species,
mostl y tropical , but with a few representatives i n south­
ern and western U. S. and i n Europe. lani atores have
the basal segments (coxae) of the frst three pai rs of l egs
touchi ng at the mi dl i ne. The smal l fami l y Oncopodi dae
( not i l l ustrated), found onl y i n southeastern Asia, has
the body (except for the l ast segment) covered by a hard
pl ate. The Assami i dae ( not i l l ustrated) carry thei r sl ender
pedi pal pi crossed over. I ncl uded are 300 species from
southeastern Asia, Austral i a, and Africa.
Stygnomma spinilera
4 mm (0.2
1
)
Fl ori da
PHALANGODI DAE hove two
cl aws, vi si bl e with hi gh-powered
hand lens or miscroscope, on the
fourth l eg. There are 20 to 30
species i n N. A.
TRIAENONYCHI DAE have a si n­
gl e cl aw (wi th three teeth) on
the fourth l eg. Members of thi s
fami l y are found i n Madagascar,
Austral i a and the Americas, sev­
eral north of Mexico.
HARVESTMEN 1 29
1 30 HARVESTMEN
COSMETI DAE ar e a l l Amer i can
speci es and most ar e tropi cal . Al l
have a smal l medi an t hi r d cl aw at
the t i p a/ the fourth l eg. The s mal l
pal pi have segments fl attened and
keel ed .
GONYLEPTIDAE is a fami l y of
about 600 species in the Ameri­
can tropics. It i ncl udes the har­
vestmen with the l argest fody.
All have a smal l medi an thi rd
cl aw at the ti p of the fourth l eg.
The l arge pal pi are not fattened.
Sadocus po/yacanthus
1 1 mm (0.5
1
)
Chi l e
PALPATORES (suborder) contai ns most temperate zone
Eurasi an and N.A. harvestmen. Of a total of about 900
speci es, 1 50 occur north of Mexi co. Basal leg segments
(coxae) separated by the breastpl ate (sternum).
Tragulus tricarinatus
1 0 mm
(
0.
4
11
)
Europe; u nder stones
NEMASTOMATIDAE have very
short jaws and no cl aws on thei r
pedi pal pi . The frst and fourth
basal l eg segments (coxae) have
margi nal rows of spi nes. The eyes
are on a tubercl e. About fve spe­
ci es occur north of Mexico, 50 i n
the worl d.
Cros cus
d
asycnemus
1 . 5 mm ( 0. 06")
eastern Canada, U. S.
CERATOLASMATIDAE have
mi croscopi c scul pturi ng on
TROGULI DAE are sl ow and noctur­
nal , wi th the eye tubercl e proj ecti ng
i n front and overhangi ng the j aws.
The European Trogulus, commonl y
encrusted wi th soi l parti cl es, i s a
predator on snai l s . T. tricarinafus
has been establ i shed i n upstate N. Y.
undersi de
undersi de
Nemastoma sp.
4 mm ( 0. 2")
Europe, eastern Canada
HARVESTMEN 1 3 1
·
l
|
1 32 HARVESTMEN ,
pal p
`
I SCHYROPSALIDI DAE usual l y have
huge j aws, l ack cl aws on the pedi ­
pal ps, and have shari l egs. About
30 speci es i n fami l y, 8 north of Mex­
i co.
PHALANGI I DAE ( Daddy- l ong­
l egs) are wi despread i n Europe and
temperate N. A. Each pedi pal p has
a smal l cl aw at i ts t i p, and i n al l
speci es, the l egs are l ong and sti l t­
l i ke. Of about 800 speci es, 1 00 to
1 50 occur north of Mexi co. Caddi ­
dae are a rel ated fami l y wi th l arge
underside
northeastern U.S., Canada
HARVESTMEN 1 33
MI TES (order Acari ) are found throughout the worl d and
i n al l types of habi tats . They surpass al l other spi der l i ke
ani mal s i n numbers . Many are parasi tes on pl ants or ani ­
mal s, and some transmi t di sease. Others are freel i vi ng
predators . Some are aquati c-mostl y i n fresh water, a few
in the ocean . Among the parasi tes are some extraordi nari ­
l y speci al i zed speci es, adapted to l i ve onl y i n bi rd feathers
or nostr i l s , under bat wi ngs, i n monkey l ungs, bee tra­
cheae, and si mi l arl y restri cted habi tats .
Most mi tes are very smal l , but they can be col l ected i n
abundance from soi l or l i tter by usi ng a Tul l gren funnel ( p.
1 8) . A mi te's body i s fused i nto one pi ece, wi th no separa­
ti on between head and abdomen . In parasi tes, the mouth­
parts may be speci al i zed as sharp, pi erci ng styl ets . Adul t
mi tes have four pai rs of l egs, but l arval mi tes have onl y
three. Some worml i ke, mi croscopi c gal l mi tes have fewer
l egs. More than 30, 000 speci es are named, probabl y a
fracti on of the total . Many have become pests s i nce the
wi despread use of pesti ci des .
MESOSTI GMATI D MI TES (suborder Mesosti gmata) have
ei ther a si mpl e cl aw on the pedi pal ps, or none. Many have
pl ates on the back and undersi de. Some are free- l i vi ng
predators and can be col l ected wi th a Tul l gren funnel .
Others are parasi tes and l i ve i n the fur of mammal s , on
bi rds, or on i nsects .
1 34
MI TES
Spinturnix sp.
1 mm (0.04")
Å
laelaptid Mite
Laelaps vacua
1 .5 mm (0.06
"
)
on i nsects
TROMBI DI I D MI TES (suborder Trombi di formes) i ncl ude
many pl ant and ani mal parasi tes and some predators.
Water Mites (p. 1 36) are usual l y pl aced i n this group.
CHI GGERS, or Harvestmites
(Trombi cul i dae), form a family of
about 700 species. Adults are
predators on i nsects or i nsect eggs;
l arval stages are parasites. Fewer
than 50 speci es attack humans,
biti ng where clothi ng i s tight and
causi ng severe itchi ng. After
feedi ng, they fal l of. Some peo­
pl e are i mmune. In the Ori ent,
chi gger mites carry scrub typhus.
I n the U. S. they are most abun­
dant i n the South.
SPI DER MITES, or Red Spi ders
(Tetranychi dae), 0.3-0.8 mm (.01 -
•03
11
), are seri ous pests on vari ­
ous crops. They often i nvade
bui l di ngs i n fal l . Al l have si l k
gl ands openi ng near mouth and
make a loose web among l eaves.
CHIGGER
Trombicula sp.
adult, 3 mm (0. 1 11
)
VELVET MI TES (Trombi di i dae) are
of l ittl e economi c i mportance •
There are several thousand spe­
cies. Larvae are parasites on i n­
sects; l arge adults (to - mm,
0. 2
11
), usual l y velvety red, eat
i nsect eggs.
WATER MITES (Hydrachnel l ae), a
group of several fami l ies, are
related to trombi di i d mites (p.
1 35). Many are colorful -red,
green or yel l ow. Some crawl on
stones, others swi m. The l ang
hai rs on thei r l egs hel p them to
paddl e, but their bodies are
streaml i ned and nearl y smooth.
Most Water Mites are predators,
but some are parasitic on cl ams
or i nsects. Those that parasitize
dragonfies attach themselves to
nymphs ready to leave the water,
then to become ai rborne on the
newly mol ted adul t. They drop
of i nto the water, possibl y
when the i nsect lays its eggs.
SARCOPTID MI TES (suborder Sarcoptiformes) i ncl udes
the Scabi es or Mange Mites, the Cheese Mites found i n
many stored products and causi ng the al l ergy "grocer's
itch," and the Ori batid Mites.
ORIBATID MITES, al so cal l ed
Beetl e Mites or Moss Mites, in·
el ude several fami l ies of free·
l i vi ng Sarcoptid Mites. With their
hard, shi ny shel l s they may re·
sembl e ti ny dark brown or bl ack
beetles. Some can tuck thei r l egs
under hi nged "wi ngs,'' formi ng a
l itle bal l . Most are len than 1
mm l ong. I n some, the shed ski ns
col l ect on the back, maki ng a
hi gh ornament. Most Oribatid
Mites l ive i n soil or l itter, but
those found on decaying wood
are seen most often. They are of
economic i mportance in break­
down of l itter and formation of
humus. Some feed on
eggs and transmi t
Phthiracarus sp.
1 mm (0.04
11
)
wal ki ng
MI TES 1 37
wel l fed
� WOD TI CK,
Dermacentor, sp.
2 em (0.8
11
)
TI CKS (suborder l xodi des) are the l argest of the mi tes,
as much as 3 em ( 1 .2") l ong after feedi ng. Al l are ex­
ternal parasites of repti les, birds, or mammal s. Most drop
of thei r host after feedi ng. They mol t and then wai t on
the tips of l eaves, forel egs outstretched, ready to attach
to any ani mal brushi ng post. Young ti cks, whi ch hove
onl y three pai rs of l egs, mov attock smal l er host ani mal s
than the adul ts. The bi te of some ti cks may cause mi l d
paralysis to man; others transmi t disease. Ti cks attach
themsel ves to the host onl y wi th thei r mouthparts, and
feed on bl ood. I n removi ng a ti ck, toke core not to l eave
mouthparts behi nd.
About 300 speci es of ticks occur around the worl d.
Soft ti cks (Argasi dae) hove a l eathery i ntegument; they
hove no head pl ate, and the head is on the undersi de.
Hard ti cks ( I xodi dae) hove a hard pl ate above the head
and the head i s di rected forward.
4 mm (0.2
11
)
1 38 MI TES
SOFT TI CKS
BLUE BUG
Argas persicus
parasite af bi rds
and bats; often pests
af paultry i n warm, dry
parts of worl d
Ornithodoros sp.
parasites of mammal s,
i ncl udi ng mon; may
transmi t rel apsing
fever i n western U.S.
5 mm (0. 2
11
)
Dermacentor andersoni
western N.A. , Rocky Mts.;
aHacks l arge mammal s, man;
may transmi t
diseases. D. variabilis
i n eastern N.A.
Boophilus sp.
4
mm (0. 2
11
)
stays on host
throughout l ife
HARD TI CKS
LONE STAR TI CK
Amblyomma americanum
4
mm (0. 2
11
)
southcentral U. S. ;
on l arge mammal s, man
BROWN DOG TICK
Rhipicephalus sanguineus
4 mm (0.2
11
)
found in houses,
rarely bites man;
cosmopol i tan
MI TES
1
39
Euloenenia sp.
2 mm (0. 1 1)
without tail
Texas
MI CROWHI PSCORPI ONS (order Pal pi gradi ) are agi l e
arachni ds l ess t hen 2 mm (0. 1 ") l ong. They l i ve under
stones, goi ng deeper i nto the soi l i f i t gets too dry. Of the
50 to 60 speci es known, 3 occur i n the U . S . , i n Texas and
Cal i forni a; other speci es are found i n the Medi terranean
regi on.
RI CI NULE I DS (order Ri ci nul ei ) resembl e ti cks. They move
about sl owl y in l i tter and l eaf mol d of humi d, warm
areas, and may feed on termi tes . They are 1 0- 1 5 mm
( 0. 4-0. 6") l ong, wi t h a heavy cuti cl e. I n front of the head
i s a uni que hi nged hood coveri ng the j aws . Young Ri ci n­
ul ei ds have onl y si x l egs . As recentl y as 1 929 fewer t han
1 40
Crptocellus sp.
4 mm (0.21)
Central ond S.A.
40 speci mens of Ri ci nu­
l ei ds were known to
have been found, al l
from Afri ca an d S. A.
Now they are known to
occur wi del y in the
Ameri can tropi cs and i n
Mexi can caves . Onl y
one speci es, found i n
Texas , i s known from
the U. S . The femal e car­
ri es the si ngl e egg be­
tween the bent pedi ­
pal ps and the hood.
About 35 speci es are
known .
MYRI AP ODS
Myri apods are the cl asses of arthropods i n whi ch the body
i s made up of numerous s i mi l ar segments .
PAUROPODA, a cl ass cl osel y rel ated to mi l l i pedes, are
soft-bodi ed, l ess than 2 mm (0. l ") l ong, wi th 1 2 segments
and usual l y ni ne pai rs of l egs . The more than 500 descri bed
speci es are found i n the tropi cs and temperate regi ons,
where t hey l i ve i n decayi ng l ogs, forest l i tter, humus, and
under stones. They probabl y feed on fungi and decayi ng
ani mal s . Most are sensi ti ve to l i ght and to dryi ng .
SYMPHYLA, a smal l cl ass of 1 60 known speci es cl osel y
rel ated to centi pedes and mi l l i pedes, are found i n the
tropi cs and temperate regi ons. Symphyl a are 2- 8 mm ( 0. 1 -
0. 3") l ong, wi th 1 5-22 back pl ates, 1 2 pai rs of wal ki ng
l egs, and a pai r of spi nnerets . They l i ve i n moi st , rotti ng
wood or i n soi l and l i tter. Unl i ke centi pedes and mi l l i pedes,
they move al l l egs on one si de together. They feed on
decayi ng vegetati on but may attack l i vi ng pl ants and
become garden pests .
GARDEN CENTI PEDE
Scutigerel/a immaculata
8 mm (0.3
"
)
Europe, N. A., Hawaii;
pest i n gardens
and greenhouses
1 4 1
CENTI PEDES ( cl ass Chi l opoda) have one pai r of l egs on
each segment . The fastest are the ones wi th fewest l egs,
the Scuti geromorphs and Li thobi omorphs . Si nce the pl ates
on thei r back hook together, they can hol d the body
strai ght i n runni ng. The Scol opendromorphs and many­
l egged Geophi l omorphs are sl ow and may move wi th
snakel i ke moti ons; al l thei r dorsal trunk pl ates are al i ke
and move freel y. About 2, 500 speci es of centi pedes are
known . The orders of centi pedes are descri bed and i l l us­
trated on pp. 1 43- 1 45.
Li ke i nsects an d mi l l i pedes but unl i ke spi ders, centi pedes
have a pai r of antennae. Most are nocturnal . I n dayti me
they h i de i n l i t ter, under l oose bark, stones, l eaves, and
debri s . Some di g i nto the soi l . They avoi d extremel y wet
or dry ni ches . Centi pedes are predators, feedi ng mostl y
on other arthropods. Al l have poi son gl ands openi ng
t hrough thei r j aws , and t he bi te of even a smal l centi pede,
i f i t succeeds i n breaki ng the ski n , can produce pai n.
Scolopendra, the l argest, can gi ve a very pai nful bi te,
but usual l y i s not dangerous. Some centi pedes l ack eyes
and are bl i nd; others do not see wel l . In experi ments i n
whi ch gl ass beads were di pped i n "fl y j ui ce, " some centi ­
pedes tri ed to bi te the beads . They wou l d not touch gl ass
beads di pped i n water, however, and so i t i s assumed
that centi pedes fi nd thei r prey by smel l and perhaps
by touch.
Some centi pedes can produce si l k, whi ch i s used onl y
duri ng mati ng and when captur i ng prey. When a mal e fi nds
a femal e, they t ouch antennae, and he fol l ows her.
The mal e makes a smal l web i n whi ch he deposi ts a
package of sperm. The sperm is then pi cked u p by the
femal e. The mal e's bui l di ng of a web has been observed
onl y among the Geophi l omorphs, Li thobi omorphs, and
Scol opendromorphs .
1 42 CENTI PEDES
face
compound eye
antenna
maxi l l a 2
Scutigera co/eoptrata
3 em ( 1 . 2
1
)
southern Europe and southern U.S. ;
outdoors. Farther north
in bui l di ngs
SCUTI GEROMORPHA i s an order of mostl y tropi cal
centi pedes. About 1 30 speci es have been descri bed; al l
bel ong t o the fami l y Scuti geri dae. Unl i ke other cen­
ti pedes, they have a round head and l arge compound
eyes. They have 1 5 pai rs of l ong l egs. A femal e of Scu­
tigera produced 35 eggs over a peri od of days. The
eggs are not guarded. Young centi pedes are born with
onl y seven pai rs of l egs, but the number i ncreases with
every mol t. I n captivity, the common Scutigera found
throughout the U. S. may l i ve more than a year. I t i s the
onl y centi pede common i n houses, where i t runs rapi dl y
al ong wal l s and foors as i t hunts for fi es and other
i nsects. I t i s surpri si ngl y agi l e. I n summer they l i ve outside,
or i n warm cl i mates they l i ve outsi de the year around.
CENTI PEDES 1 43
undersi de of
LI THOBI OMORPHA, or Stone Centi pedes, are al l less
than 4. 5 em ( 1 . 7") l ong. Adults have 1 8 body segments,
1 5 pai rs of legs and 20 to 50 or more segments in the
antennae. As i n Scuti geromorphs, the young have fewer
legs. When di sturbed, they move the l ast pai rs of legs
rapi dly, throwi ng dropl ets of sticky materi al at the poten­
ti al predator and sl owi ng it i n the tangl i ng mass. About
1 , 1 00 speci es have been described i n thi s order.
GEOPHI LOMORPHA, or Soi l Centi pedes, are sl ender,
eyel ess centi pedes that have 31 to 1 77 pai rs of l egs and
antennae with 1 4 segments. The l ongest are 1 6- 1 7 em
(6"), but most are l ess than 5 em (2") . The number of
pai rs of legs is always odd, usual l y vari abl e wi thi n the
species, and each l eg can be moved i ndependentl y. Soi l
Centi pedes penetrate as deep as 40 to 70 em ( 1 6-28")
i nto soi l , feedi ng on i nsect l arvae and worms. I f di s­
turbed, they coi l up and ej ect from pores on thei r under­
si de a secreti on that seems to repel potenti al predators.
A number of species can give of phosphorescent mate­
rial . Femal es guard thei r eggs. About 1 ,000 species.
SCOLOPENDROMORPHA have 21 or 23 pai rs of l egs
and 1 7 to 30 segments in thei r antennae. Worl d-wi de
and mai nl y tropi cal , the order i ncl udes the l argest cen­
ti pedes. Many are an attractive bl ue-green, ol i ve- green,
or yel l ow. To pi ck one up, i t i s best to use two hands and
forceps as they can i nfi ct a pai nful bite and can al so
pi nch wi th thei r l ast pai r of l egs. They have been ob­
served feedi ng on toads and l i zards. These l arge cen­
ti pedes di g burrows and al so make chambers i n whi ch
they rest. The femal e often coi l s around her eggs or
young and may peri odi cal l y l i ck the eggs, presumabl y
to cl ean them. About 550 speci es descri bed i n two fam­
i l i es: Scol opendri dae and t he bl i nd Cryptopi dae.
Sco/opendra 5g.
1 4 Cm (5. 5
"
)
guardi ng young
S. heros
g 1 5 cm
(611)
Ari zona
CENTI PEDES 1 45
MI LLI PEDES ( cl ass Di pl opoda) are "thousand l eggers , "
di fferi ng from the "hundred l eggers" or centi pedes ( p.
1 42) i n havi ng two pai r s of l egs on most body ri ngs (whi ch
are two fused segments) . They have one pai r of antennae.
Some mi l l i pedes are cyl i ndri cal , adapted for burrowi ng;
others are fl at . Some resembl e woodl i ce ( p. 1 52) . Some
are soft-bodi ed, very smal l , and covered wi th saw-toothed
hai rs (p. 1 47) .
Mi l l i pedes are found under stones, i n moi st soi l and l eaf
l i tter. They avoi d l i ght and feed on vari ous pl ant materi al s,
especi al l y soft decomposi ng pl ant ti ssues . Most mi l l i pedes
have pores, usual l y al ong the si des of thei r body ri ngs,
from whi ch they di scharge strong-smel l i ng secreti ons that
may be repel l ent and poi sonous to other ani mal s . Some
l arge tropi cal mi l l i pedes squi rt thei r secreti ons . Neverthe­
l ess, mi l l i pedes are prey of bi rds, toads , and other
ani mal s .
I n most mi l l i pede groups, the l egs on t he seventh r i ng of
the mal e are modi fi ed as copul atory organs (gonopods) .
The shape of these organs i s i mportant i n i denti fyi ng spe­
ci es. The femal e l ays her eggs i n the soi l ; some speci es
construct egg capsul es and guard them. J ust-hatched mi l ­
l i pedes have few r i ngs and three pai rs of l egs, t he number
i ncreasi ng wi th each mol t . Some speci es l i ve onl y one year,
others to seven . More than 1 0, 000 speci es are known ,
about 600 north of Mexi co.
1 46
egg chamber of
Atopetholus
broken open, with young i ntact
Polyxenus lagurus
3 mm (0.
1 11)
Europe, si mi l ar
species i n N. A.
PSELAPHOGNATHA i s a subcl ass of soft mi l l i pedes, al l
l ess than 4 mm (0. 2") l ong, with 1 1 to 1 3 ri ngs. They
have many rows and bundl es of barbed hai rs. Mal es do
not have l egs modi fed for copul ati on. Found i n most
parts of the worl d, there are about 60 speci es of two
fami l i es; Pol yxeni dae has 5 speci es in N. A. They feed
on al gae and l i ve under l oose bark and i n l i tter.
CHI LOGNATHA, the subcl ass i ncl udi ng al l other mi l l i ­
pedes, have hardened body r i ngs and mal es have l egs
modi fed for copul ati on. There are a number of orders.
GLOMERI DA, Pi l l Mi l l i pedes, are short and wi de, re­
sembl i ng woodl i ce (p. 1 52), but have more than seven
pai rs of l egs. The mal e's l ast pair of l egs are modi fed
to hol d the femal e when mati ng. Gl omeri ds can coi l i nto
a bal l when di sturbed, some tropi cal speci es approachi ng
t he si ze of gol f b"l l s. Speci es found i n southern states
and in Cal i forni a are never more than 8 mm (0.3") l ong.
Common i n Europe, where some speci es reach a l ength
of 2 em (0. 8").
PLATYDESMIDA are fat with a tiny head
and from 30 to 1 92 body rings. I n mal es,
the 9th and 1 Oth pairs of l egs are modifed
as copul atory organs (gonopods) . The
usual col or is pi nk. The rough dorsal sur­
face has a narrow l ongitudi nal groove.
About a dozen species occur in North
America north of Mexico.
POL YZONI IDA are very si mi l ar to Pl aty­
desmi da but are smooth and l ack the
dorsal groove. The usual col or i s cream.
About 1 5 species occur north of Mexi co.
The orders Pl atydesmi da and Pol yzoni i da,
wi th smal l heads, bel ong i n the super· ·
order Col obognatha.
CALLIPODIDA, wi th up to 89 ri ngs, have a pai r of ti ny
spi nnerets on the l ast body r i ng . Most are cyl i ndr i cal ,
wi th l ateral r i dges an d knobs. I n mal es, t h e second pai r
of l egs on the 7th r i ng ar e modi fi ed as gonopods . Most
produce strong-smel l i ng whi te · secret i ons from st i nk
gl ands. About 20 speci es are known nor t h of Mexi co,
one wi despread i n wester n Europe and many i n easter n
Medi terranean. Some ar e fast- r unni ng scavengers and
predators.
1 48 MI LLI PEDES
POLYDESMI DA is an order i n whi ch most
speci es have 20 ri ngs that usual l y bear
promi nent keel s whi ch gi ve them a fl at­
l ooki ng bac k. Al l l ack eyes; the fi rst pai r
of l egs on t he 7t h r i ng are gonopods .
Many are bri ghtl y col ored; al most al l have
sti nk gl ands . Of 2700 speci es, about 250
occur nort h of Mexi co, fewer i n Europe.
�d

Pseudopolydesmus
serratus
GREENHOUSE
MI LLI PEDE
Oxidus gracilis
2.5 em ( 1
"
)
cosmopol i tan i n
greenhouses and
subtropics
3 em ( 1 .2
"
)
eastern N.A.
Pachydesmus crassicutis
7 em (2
.
8")
Motyxia sp . . 
4 cm ( 1 .5
"
)
southern Cal iforni a;
bi ol umi nescent
southeastern U.S.

Sigmoria aberrans
4 cm ( 1 . 5")
N. Carol i na, Vi rgi ni a
MILLIPEDES 1 49
J ULIDA is one of four orders of cyl i ndri cal mi l l i pedes
that have both pai rs of l egs on the 7th ring of the mal e
modi fed as copul atory organs (gonopods) . More than
1 00 species are found north of Mexi co. The numerous
members of the fami l y Parai ul i dae, or wi reworms, meas­
ure 1 5-90 mm (. 7 -3. 5") l ong. Most are smooth, with up to
74 body ri ngs and the gonopods are outsi de the body.
I n mal es, the frst pair of l egs are greatl y enl arged. I n
the fami ly J ul i dae, the gonopods are i n a pouch, and
t he mal e's frst pai r of l egs are hook-shaped. They ar e
native t o Europe and western Asia; i ntroduced to parks
and gardens i n N.A.
SPI ROSTREPTI DA is an order of l arge (to 28 em, or 1 1 ")
cyl i ndrical mi l l i pedes found mai nl y in the tropi cs. There
i s onl y one pai r of gonopods, the anteri or. In southwest­
ern U. S. and adj acent Mexico, mi l l i pedes of the genus
Ortho
p
orus often congregate i n l arge numbers. Three
speci es occur in states adj acent to Mexi co.
Orthoporus pontis
1 2 Cm (4. 5")
western Texas
1 50 MI LLI PEDES
pr
amentum
stipes
mentum
Q
�l amel l ae l i ngual i s
mauthparts

c�
l l um
Texas; caves

ead
CAMBALI DA have no l egs on the 4th ri ng; other mi l l i ­
pedes have one pai r. Cambala (fami l y Cambal i dae) are
easi l y recogni zed by the l arge cover (col l um) of the frst
body segment and by the promi nent l ongi tudi nal ri dges
on the body of most speci es. Cambal i da are rare i n the
Great Pl ai ns and semi -deserts. The l argest, to 60 HH
(2. 5"), occur i n the Appal achi an Mountai ns.
SPI ROBOLI DA have on l y one pai r of l egs on the 5th
ri ng; other mi l l i pedes have two pai rs. The mal e's copul a­
tory organs (gonopods) are hi dden i n a pouch. The four
cyl i ndri cal groups can al so be separated by the structure
of the mouthparts on the undersi de of the head. About 35
speci es occur north of Mexi co. Narceus pl aces each si ngl e
egg, 1 mm l ong, i n a capsu l e of chewed l eaf l i tter. The
capsul e i s passed posteri orl y by the l egs and i nto the rec­
tum where i t i s mol ded and then deposited in a pi l e with
many others.
mouthparts

um
 �
head
Narceus americanus
to 1 0 em
(411)
southeastern U. S. , north to
Ohi o and west to Texas;
i n forest l ogs
MI LLI PEDES 1 5 1
L AND C R US TACE ANS
Crustacea have two pai rs of antennae. Though most are
aquatic (Crayfsh, lobsters, Barnacl es, Shri mps, Water
Fl eas), some have been successful on l and. Beach Fl eas
(Scuds) are found on moi st ocean beaches and i n humi d
tropi cs. Terrestrial Copepods and Ostracods are found
i n the Southern Hemi sphere.
WOODLI CE (order l sopoda) feed on humus and fungi .
North of Mexi co there are nearl y 1 00 speci es. Eggs
and young are carri ed i n a brood pouch by the femal e.
ROCK SLAYERS (li gi i dae) are am·
phi bi aus an ocean beaches. They
feed on seaweed, mai nl y at low
tide. The smal l end of the l ong
antennae (second pai r) has more
than ten segments.
PI LL BUGS (Armadi l l i di idae) have
an arched bady and can rol l i nto
a bal l when di sturbed. The two
tai l s ( uropods) are shorter than
the l ast abdomi nal segment .

PI LL BUG �
Armadi/idium vulgare
1 .4 em (0.61)
cosmopol itan
1 52 LAND CRUSTACEANS
TRI CHONI SCI DS (Tri choni sci dae)
are found in wet 9QDf9. They are
•mal l , narrow-bodi ed, and have
onl y four to fve segments i n
smal l end of the l ong antennae
(second pai r). Both the a ntennae
and tai l s ( uropods) are ti pped
by a brush.
SOW BUG is a nome used for
species i n two fami l ies. Those in
the fami ly Oniscidae, represented
here by Oniscus, have three seg­
ments i n the small, segmented
end of the l ong antennae (sec­
ond pai r); most cannot rol l i nto
a bal l . Members of the fami l y
Porcel l i oni doe have two seg­
ments i n the smal l , segmented
end of the l ong antennae (sec­
ond pai r).

Metoponorthus
pruinosus
cosmopol itan;
Porcel/io scober
1 .4 em (0.611)
wi despread,
i n northern U.S.;
tubercl es al l over

abdomen narrow; end segment
of l ong antennae hal f
l ength of previous one
æ
Trachelipus rathkei
1 . 2 em (0
.
511)
cosmopol i tan, bui l di ngs;
tubercl es on head;
i n � , 3rd segment
from end of 7th l eg
has keel

Cylisticus convexus
1 2 mm (0.511 )
Europe, eastern U.S. ;
shi ny,
con rol l up
LAND CRUSTACEANS 1 53
LAND CRABS (Gecarci ni dae), found onl y in the subtrop­
i cs and tropi cs, are l and-dwel l i ng crustaceans, but the
femal es return to the ocean to reproduce. They di g tun­
nel s 30-40 Lm deep ( 1 2- 1 6"), 1 8 LH (7") i n di ameter,
and come out at ni ght to feed. littl e ones cl i mb wal l s
and trees.
Land Hermit Crabs (Coenobi tidae) can give a good
pi nch with their col orful cl aw if handl ed carel essl y. Most
are scavengers. In the Southwest Pacifc, the Coconut
Crab (Birgus), growi ng to 45 Lm ( 1 8") i n l ength, feeds
on fal l en coconuts, and can be destructive to crops. I t i s
consi dered a del icacy itsel f.
1 54
LAND HERMI T CRAB
Coenobita clypeatus
cl aw to 6 em (2. 3
"
) di ameter
eastern Cari bbean, southern Fl ori da
LAND CRAB
Gecarcinus latera/is
to 9 em (3.511) wi de
Fl ori da Keys, Bermuda,
West I ndi es
MOR E I N F ORMAT I ON
Baker, E . W. et al . , A Manual of Parasi t i c Mi tes, Nat' l Pest Control
Assoc . , 1 956. A l ot of i nformati on on mi tes of economi c i mportance.
Barnes, R . D. , Invertebrate Zool ogy, Saunders, Phi l adel phi a, 1 987. A
good textbook gi vi ng background on Crustacea, Myri apods and Arach­
ni ds.
Bonnet, P. , Bi bl i ographi c Araneorum, Toul ouse, 7 Vol . , 1 945-1 962. An
i ndi spensabl e reference work l i sti ng al l spi der l i terature up to 1 938. I n
l arger l i brari es onl y.
Cl oudsl ey-Thompson, J . l . , Spi ders, Scorpi ons, Centi pedes and Mi tes,
Pergamon Press, london, 1 968. A very useful , accurate book.
Foel i x, R . F. , Bi ol ogy of Spi ders. Harvard Uni versi ty Press, Cambri dge,
1 982. Spi der bi ol ogy wi th emphasi s on physi ol ogy and behavi or.
Gertsch, W. J . , Ameri can Spi ders, 2nd ed. Van Nostrand- Rei nhol d, New
York, 1 978 . Natural hi story of Ameri can spi ders.
Grasse, P. , edi t . , Trai te de Zool ogi e, val . 6, Masson & Ci e, Pari s, 1 949.
One of t he best summari es of bi ol ogy, anatomy and systemati cs of spi ders
and al l i ed groups; i n French.
Jones, D. The Larousse Gui de to Spi ders, Larousse, N. Y. , 1 983. Pi ct ures
of European spi ders.
Kaestner, A. , adapt. levi , H. W. and l . R. levi , Invertebrate Zool ogy
val . 2: Art hropod Rel ati ves, Chel i cerata, and Myri apoda. R. E .
Kri eger Publ . Co. , Mel bourne, F l , 1 980. A summary o f our knowl edge
of arachni ds and myri apods; i n Engl i sh .
Kaston, B. J . , How t o Know the Spi ders, 3rd ed. W. C. Brown Co . ,
Dubuque, I owa, 1 978. Keys t o common spi der genera.
Kaston, B. J . , Spi ders of Connecti cut, rev. ed. Bul l . Conn . Geol . Nat .
Hi s! . Surv. 70, 1 98 1 . The most useful reference book on spi ders of
eastern U. S .
Krantz, G. W. , A Manual o f Acarol ogy. Oregon State Uni v. Bookstore,
Corval l i s , rev. ed. 1 978.
locket, G. H . and A. F. Mi l l i dge, Bri t i sh Spi ders, Ray Soc . , london,
1 95 1 - 1 953. Speci al i zed, separati ng spi der speci es of Great Bri tai n .
Roth, V. D. , Spi der Genera of North Ameri ca. Publ i shed by author,
Portal , AZ, 1 986. Key to fami l i es and genera found in North Ameri ca.
Shuttl esworth , D. E . and S. Ì. Swai n, The Story of Spi ders, Garden Ci ty,
New York, 1 959. An excel l ent chi l dren's book.
Yagi numa, T. , Spi ders of Japan i n Col or, Osaka, Japan, new ed . 1 986.
I n Japanese; wel l i l l ustrated, the names of spi ders i n lat i n.
1 5 5
Abaci on, 1 48
abdomen, spider, 8, 9,
1 3
Acacesi a, 6 1
Acanthepei ra, 67
Acanthocteni dae, 1 1 2
Acanthoctenus, 1 1 2
Acari , 1 34- 1 39
accessory cl aws, 1 3
Achoearaneo, 40, 50
Acrographinotus, 1 30
Aculepei ra, 64
Ael uri l l us, 1 00
Agel ena, 73
Agel eni dae, 72-76
Agelenopsi s, 72, 73
Amaurobi i dae, 1 1 1
Amaurobi us, 1 06, 1 1 1
Amblyomma, 1 39
Amblypygi , 1 1 7
American House
Spider, 36
Ammotrechel l a, 1 1 9
Ammotrechidoe, 1 1 8
Amphipoda, 1 52
anal tubercl e, 9, 1 3, 3 1
Androctonus, 1 26
Anelosi mus, 38
Anoples, 1 2
ant mi mi cs, 89
Antrodi aeti da, 23
Antrodiaetus, 23
Anuroctonus, 1 25
Anyphaenidae, 88
Aphonopel ma, 2 1
Apochthoni us, 1 2 1
Arachni da, 4
"
Araneidae, 52-69
Araneus, 53, 56-59
Aroniello, 59
Archaea, 51
Archaeidoe, 51
Arctoso, 85
Arenophi l us, 1 44
Argas, 1 38
Argasi dae, 1 38
Argiope, 1 4, 53, 68-69
Argi opi dae, 52-69
Argyrades, 39
Argyroneto, 76
1 56
I ND£X
Femal e,
Argyronetidoe, 76
Ari adna, 27, 1 08
Armadi l l i di i dae, 1 52
Armadi l l i di um, 1 52
Arrenurus, 1 36
Arrowshaped
Micratheno, 67
Arthropoda, 4, 6
Assomi i dae, 1 29
Atopethol us, 1 46
Atrax, 1 6, 24
Atypidae, 25
Atypus, 25
Aysha, 88
bal l ooni ng, 1 5
Banana Spider, 92
Banded Argiape, 68
Barn Spider, 58
Barychel i dae, 2 1
Basi l i ca Spider, 64
Bathyphantes, 49
Beach Fleas, 1 52
Beetle Mites, 1 37
Bi rd Spi ders, 20, 2 1
Bi rgus, 1 54
Bl ack & Yel low
Argiope, 68
Bl ack Widow, 1 7, 36, 42
Blue Bug, 1 38
Bolas Spider, 66
book l ung, 9, 1 2- 1 3
Boophi l us, 1 39
Bothriocyrtum, 23
Bothri uri doe, 1 24
Bothri urus, 5, 1 24
Bowl & Doi l y
Spi der, 47
Brachycybe, 1 48
Brown Centruroides,
1 27
Brown Dog Ti ck, 1 39
Brown Recluse
Spider, 1 7
Brown Spi ders, 1 6, 29
Brown Wi dow, 43
bul b, 9
Burrowing Wolf
Spiders, 85
Buthidae, 1 26- 1 27
Mal e
Buthus, 1 26, 1 27
Caddi dae, 1 32
Caddo, 1 32
cal ami strum, 1 06
Cal l i lepi s, 87
Cal l i podi dae, 1 48
Cal l obi us, 1 1 1
Cambol a, 1 5 1
Cambol i da, 1 5 1
Caponi i dae, 26
carapace, 8, 9, 1 6
Carol i na Wolf Spi der, 83
Casti anei ra, 89
Castor Bean Tick, 1 39
Cattle Ti ck, 1 39
Cave Orb-weaver, 60
Cave Spi ders, 32, 5 1
Centipedes. 1 42- 1 45
Centruroi des, 1 23, 1 26- 1 27
cephalothorax, 8, 9, 1 6
Ceraticel us, 45
Ceratolasmatidae, 1 3 1
Chacti dae, 1 24
Choronti dae, 1 1 7
Cheese mi tes, 1 37
Chei racanthi um, 1 6, 89
chel i cera, 8, 9, 1 6
Chel icerata, 4 , 6
Chel i ler, 1 2 1
Chi ggers, 1 35
Chi lognatha, 1 47
Chi lopoda, 1 42- 1 45
Chi trel l a, 1 2 1
Chryssa, 38
Ci curi na, 75
claws, 1 3 , 1 29, 1 30
Cl ubi ona, 88-89
Cl ubi noni dae, 88-89
Cobweb Weavers,
36-43, 5 1
'
74. 1 1 0
Coelotes, 73
Coenobita, 1 54
Coenobi ti dae, 1 54
Coleosomo, 39
col l ecti ng spi ders, 1 8
col l um, 1 5 1
Col obagnatha, 1 48
col ul us, 8, 9, 1 3, 5 1
comb, 36, 1 26
Combfooted Spi ders, Drapeti sca, 48 Gecarci ni dae, 1 54
36-43 Drassodes, 87 Gecarci nus, 1 54
Copepoda, 1 52 Dwarf Spiders, 44-45 geni tal pl ate, 1 26
Caras, 74 Dysdera, 27 Geol ycosa, 85
Cori arachne, 96 Dysderi dae, 27 Geophi l omorpho, 1 44
Corythol i a, 1 04 Gi ant Crab Spi ders, 92
Cosmetidae, 1 30 egg sac, 1 0, 1 4
Gi ant Hai ry
courtshi p, spider, 1 0 embol us, 9 Hadrurus, 1 25
coxa, 8, 9, 1 6, 1 29, endi te, 8, 9, 1 6, 25
Gl omeri da, 1 47
1 30, 1 3 1 Enoplognatha, 4 1 , 5 1 Gl omeri s, 1 47
Crab Spi ders, 92, 93 epi gynum, 8, 9, 1 3, 70 Gnaphosa, 86
94-97 Epi si nus, 38 Gnaphosi dae, 86-87,
Cri bel l ate Spi ders, Eremobates, 1 1 9 88, 89, 90, 1 1 2
1 06- 1 1 5 Eremobatidae, 1 1 8 gnathochi l ari um, 1 5 1
cri bel l um, 3, 8, 1 06 Eresi dae, 1 09 Gol den lynx Spi der, 77
Crosbycus, 1 3 1 Eresus, 1 09 Gol den Si l k Spi der, 65
Cross Spider, 56 Eri go'e, 45 gonopods, 1 46
Crustaceans, 4, 5, Eri s, 1 0 1 gonopore, 8
1 52-54 Ero, 50 Gonyl epti doe, 1 30
Cryphoeca, 75 Euagrus, 24 gossamer, 1 5
Cryptopidae, 1 45 Eukoeneni a, 1 40 Grass Spi der, 73
Cryptocel l us, 1 40 European Greenhouse
Cryptothel e, 3 1 Buthus, 1 26 Mi l l i pede, 1 49
Cteni dae, 1 4, 9"t House Spider, 74 Green lynx Spi der, 77
Cteni zi dae, 22 Tarant• do, 83 Grocer
'
s I tch Mi tes,
Cupi ennus, 91 Water Spider, 76 1 37
Cyclocosmi a, 22 Euryopi s, 39 growth, spi der, 1 1
Cycl ase, 63 Euscorpi us, 1 22, 1 24
Cyl i sti cus, 1 53 Eustal a, 62 Habrocestum, 1 00
cymbi um, 9 Evarcha, 99 hackl edthreads, 1 06
Cyphophthal mi , 1 28 eyes, 8, 1 6 Hadrobunus, 1 33
Cyrtophol i s, 2 1 Hadrurus, 1 25
Cyrtophora, 64 fang, 1 6, 1 43, 1 44 Haemaphysal i s, 1 39
Featherlegged Spider, 1 1 4 Hahni a, 75
Daddy-l ong-l egs, femur, 9 Hahni i dae, 75
1 28, 1 32- 1 33 Fi l istata, 1 1 , 1 08 Hai ry Mygal omorphs,
Daddy-l ong-l egs Fi l istatidae, 1 08 20-2 1
Spiders, 32 Fi shi ng Spiders, 80-81 Hamatal i wa, 77
Dermacentor, 1 38, 1 39 Floricomus, 45 Hammock Spi der, 46
Di ctyna, 1 1 0 Fl ori nda, 48 Hapl odrassus, 87
Di ctyni dae, 1 1 0 Fl ower Spiders, 94 Hapl ogyne Spi ders,
di ggi ng rake, 23 Fol di ng Door 8, 26-30
Oi gueti a, 30 Spider, 23 Hard Ti cks, 1 38, 1 39
Di gueti dae, 30 Fronti nel l o, 47 Harvestmen, 1 28- 1 33
Oi nopi dae, 1 1 3 Funnel Weavers, Harvest Mi tes, 1 35
Di nopsi s, 1 1 3 72-76, 1 09, 1 1 1 Hasari us, 1 04
Di pl ocentri doe, 1 22 Funnelweb Hoseth
'
s
Di plocentrus, 1 22 Mygalomorphs, Centruroi des, 1 27
Di plopoda, 1 46- 1 5 1 1 6, 24 Hel ophora, 48
Di plosphyroni da, 1 2 1 Furrow Spider, 58 Hentz
'
s
Di pl uri dae, 24 Centruroi des, 1 27
Di poena, 39 Garden Centipede, 1 4 1 Herpyl l us, 87
Dol i omal us, 93 Garden Spider, 56 Hersi l i a; 35
Dolomedes, 78, 80- 81 Gasteracantha, 66 Hersi l i i dae, 35
dragl i nes, 1 0, 1 5 Gea, 69 Heteropoda, 92
1 57
z
Heterosphyroni da, 1 2 1 li gi i dae, 1 52 Mi crommata, 92
Hexuro, 24 li mnochares, 1 36 Mi crowhi pscorpi ons,
Homol onychi dae, 90 li mul us, 6 1 40
Homol onychus, 90 li nyphi a, 47 Mi cryphanti nae, 44
House Pseudoscorpi on, li nyphi i dae, 44-49 Mi gi doe, 22
1 2 1 li nyphi i nae, 46-49 Mi l l i pedes, 1 46- 1 5 1
House Spi der, 36, 74 li phi sti i doe, 5, 7 Mi meti dae, 50
Huntsman Spi der, 92 li thobi omorpho, 1 44 Mi metus, 50
Hydrachnel l ae, 1 36 li thobi us, 1 44 Mi sumena, 94
Hypochi l i dae, 1 07 lobed Argi ape, 69 Mi sumenops, 94, 95
Hypochi l us, 1 06, 1 07 lone Star Ti ck, 1 39 Mi te Harvestmen, 1 28
Hypsel i stes, 45 long-bodi ed Cel l ar Mi tes, 1 34- 1 39
Hypti otes, 1 1 5 Spi der, 33 Mi topus, 1 32
long- jawed mol ti ng, 1 1
l ci us, 1 0 Orb-weavers, 72 Monkey Spi ders, 20- 21
lschyropsal i di dae, 1 32 Loxosceles, 1 1 , 1 7, 29 Monosphyroni do, 1 2 1
lschyropsol i s, 1 32 loxoscel i dae, 29 Mordant Uroctonus, 1 25
lsometrus, 1 26 l ung covers, 25 Moss Mi tes, 1 37
l sopoda, 1 52- 1 53 l ung sl i ts, 27, 1 06 Motyxi a, 1 46, 1 49
lsoxyo, 67 lycoso, 1 6, 82, 83 Mygal omorpha, 20
I tch Mi te, 1 37 lycosi dae, 82-85 Mygal omorphs,
I xodes, 1 39 lynx Spi ders, 77 20, 1 07, 1 09
l xodi des, 1 38- 1 39 lyssomanes , 1 05 Myri apoda, 5, 1 4 1
I xodi dae, 1 38- 1 39 Myrmeki aphi l a, 22
mal l et-shaped organs, Myrmonyssus, 1 34
v
jaws, spi der, 8, 1 0, 26 1 1 8- 1 1 9
o
Jul i da, 1 50 Mal mi gnotte, 42 Norceus, 1 5 1
g u
r
Jul i dae, 1 50 Monge Mi tes, 1 37 Nebo, 1 22
u

Jumpi ng Spi ders, Mangoro, 62 Nemastoma, 1 3 1
98- 1 05 Marbled Spi der, 57 Nemostomati doe, 1 3 1
. 3
Morpi ssa, 1 0 1 Nemesi o, 23

l abel i ng, 1 9 Mosti goproctus, 1 1 6 Neoonti steo, 75
u labi dognatha, 5, 26 Mastophora, 66 Neoscona, 59
: l abi um, d, 9, 27 maxi l l a, 1 43 Nephi I a, 65
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l abrum, 8 maxi l l i ped, 1 43 Nesti ci dae, 5 1
L lael aps, 1 34 measurements used, 9 Nesti cus, 5 1
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l amel l ae l i ngual is, 1 50, Meci cobothri i dae, 24 Nops, 26
õ
Z 1 5 1 Mecynogea, 64 Northern Vej ovi s, 1 24
v
lamprochernes, 1 2 1 Mecysmaucheni us, 5 1 Northern Widow, 43
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land Crabs, 1 54 Menemerus, 1 04 Nuctenea, 58
land Hermi t Crabs, 1 54 Menneus, 1 1 3 Nursery Web
lani atores, 1 29 mentum, 1 50, 1 5 1 Spi ders, 78-8 1 , 90
lari ni a, 63 Mesostigmata Mi tes,
lathys, 1 1 0 1 34 Ochyrocera, 32
Latrodectus, 1 7, 42-43 Mesothel ae, 5 Ochyroceroti dae, 32
latti ce Spider, 58 Meta, 1 5, 60 Odi el l us, 1 32
m
leberti a, 1 36 Metacyrba, 1 00 Oecobi i dae, 34, 1 1 5
l egs, spider, 9 Metaphi di ppus, 1 0 1 Oecobi us, 1 1 5
lei obunum, 1 33 metatarsus, 9, 1 06 Ogre-faced Spi ders,
lepthyphantes, 49 Metepei ra, 64 1 1 3
leptoneta, 32 Metoponorthus, 1 53 Ol i os, 92
leptoneti dae, 32 Mi cori a, 89 Oncopodi dae, 1 29
leucouge, 70, 71 Mi cratheno, 67 Oni sci doe, 1 53
l i fe span, spi der, 1 1 Mi crohexura, 24 Oni scus, 1 53
li gi a, 1 52 Mi crol i nyphi o, 47 Onychophoro, 7
1 58
Oonopi doe, 26 Pi rate, 84 Sal ti cus, 98, 99
Ophyi ul us, 1 50 Pi rate Spi ders, 50 Sarcoptes, 1 37
Opi l i ones, 1 28- 1 33 Pi rate Wol f Sarcopti formes, 1 37
Opi sthacanthus , 1 23 Spi ders, 84 Scabi es Mi te, 1 37
Orb-weavers, 52-7 1 , 1 1 4 Pi saura, 78-79 scope, 9
orb webs, 54-55 Pi sauri dae, 78-81 Scaphi el l a, 2 6
Orchard Spi der, 71 Pi sauri na, 79 Schi zomi da, 1 1 7
Orchesti na, 26 Pi tyohyphantes, 46 Schi zomus, 1 1 7
Ori bati d Mi tes, 1 37 Pl atori dae, 93 Schi zopel ti di a, 1 1 7
Ori batul a, 1 37 Pl atori d Crab scl eri tes, 5
Orni thodoros, 1 38 Spi ders, 93 Scl erobunus, 1 29
Orodrassus, 87 Pl atydesmi da, 1 48 Scol opendra,
Orthognatha, 5, 20 Pl ectreuri dae, 30 1 42, 1 45
Orthoporus, 1 50 Pl ectreurys, 30 Scolopendri dae, 1 45
Osteari us, 1 5, 45 Pl exi ppus, 1 04 Scolopendromorpha,
Ostracoda, 1 52 Poeci l ochroa, 87 1 44
Oxi dus, 1 49 poi son gl ands, 8, 1 6 scapul a, 1 3
Oxyopes, 77 poi sonous spi ders, 1 6- 1 7 Scorpi ones, 1 22- 1 27
Oxyopi dae, 77 Pol ydesmi da, 1 46, 1 49 Scorpi oni dae, 1 23
Pol yxenus, 1 47 Scorpi ons, 1 22- 1 27
Pachydesmus, 1 49
Pol yxeni dae, 1 47 Scuds, 1 52
Pachygnatha, 7 1
Pol yzoni i do, 1 48 Scul ptured
Pal m Crab, 1 54
Pol yzoni um, 1 48 Centruroi des, 1 27
pal p, 5, 8, 9, 1 32
Porcel l i o, 1 53 Scuti gera, 1 43
Pal potores, 1 30
Porcel l i oni dae, 1 53 Scuti gerel l o, 1 4 1
Pal pi gradi , 1 40
preservi ng spi ders, 1 9 Scuti geri doe, 1 43
Pal pi moni dae, 3 1
Prodi domi dae, 90 Scuti geromorpha, 1 43
Pal pi monus, 3 1
Prol i nyphi a, 47 Scytodes, 28
Pandi nus, 1 23
promentum, 1 50- 1 5 1
Scytodi dae, 28
paracymbi um, 9
Psechri doe, 1 1 0
Sea Spi ders, 6
Parai ul i doe, 1 50
Psel aphognotho, 1 47
Segestr i a, 27
Pordoso, 1 0, 82, 84
Pseudopol ydesmus, 1 49
Sel enopi dae, 93
patel l a, 9
Pseudoscorpi ones,
Sel enopi d Crab
Pouropodo, 1 4 1
1 20- 1 2 1
Spi ders, 93
Peckhomi o, 1 05
Pseudoscorpi ons, 1 20-
pecti nes, 1 22
1 2 1
Sel enops, 93
pedi cel , 8, 9, 1 3
Psi l ochorus, 33
Senocul i dae, 90
pedi pol p, 5, 8, 9, 1 32
Purseweb Spi ders, 25
Senocul us, 90
Pel l enes, 99
setae, 36, 1 06
Peri patus , 6
Robbi t Ti ck, 1 39
Shamrock Spi der, 57
Peuceti o, 77 Sheetweb Weavers,
Phol ongi i doe, 1 32- 1 33
Raft Spi ders, 80
44-49
Phal ongi um, 1 33
rake, 23
Short-bodi ed Cel l ar
Phol ongodi dae, 1 29
Roy Spi ders, 52, 70
Spi ders, 33
reari ng spi ders, 1 9
Phi di ppus, 1 02- 1 03
Red Spi ders, 1 35
Si cari i dae, 28
Phi lodromi dae, 94, 97
Si cori us, 1 1 , 28
Phi l odromus, 94, 97
Red Wi dow, 43
Phol ci dae, 32
Rhi pi cephal us, 1 39
si fti ng, 1 8
Phol cus, 32, 33
Ri ci nul ei , 1 40
Si gmori a, 1 49
Phoneutri a, 1 6, 91
Ri ci nul ei ds, 1 40 s i l k, 1 3, 1 4, 1 5 , 22,
Phthi racarus, 1 37
Rock Sl oters, 1 52
53, 78
Phruroti mpus, 89
si l k gl ands, 1 3
Physocycl us, 32, 33 Sobocon, 1 32
Si l ver Argi ope, 53,
Pi l l Bugs, 1 52 Sac Spi ders, 88-89
69
Pi l l Mi l l i pedes, 1 47 Sodocus, 1 30
Si ro, 1 28
Pi moo, 49 Sol ti ci doe, 98- 1 05 Si tti cus, 99
1 59
r
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=
Si x-eyed Crab
Spi ders, 28
Si x-spotted Fi shi ng
Spi der, 80
Soft Ti cks, 1 38
Soi l Centi pedes, 1 44
Sol i fugae, 1 1 8- 1 1 9
Sol pugi dae, 1 1 9
Sosi ppus, 85
Sow Bug, 1 53
Sporassi dae, 92
spermatophore, 1 22
Spermophora, 32, 33
Sphodros, 25
Spi der Mi tes, 1 35
spi der rel ati ves, 1 1 6
Spi ned Mi crathena, 67
spi nnefets, 8, 9, 1 3, 1 48
Spi ntharus, 38
z
Spi nturni x, 1 34
Spi robol i da, 1 46, 1 5 1
L
Spi rostrepti da, 1 50

Spi tti ng Spi ders, 28
Spotted l sometrus, 1 26
ô
Star-bel l i ed Spi der, 67
v
Steatoda, 4 1 , 5 1 , 71
Z
Stegodyphus, 1 09
|

Stemonyphontes, 49
@ Stephonop; s, 95
� sternum, 9, 1 22, 1 24,
<
1 26, 1 3 1
� sti pes, 1 50, 1 5 1 •
Stone Centi pedes, 1 44
m
@
Storeno, 3 1
õ
Stri gomi o, 1 44
Z
v Stri ped Centruroi des,
¤
1 27
M

Stri pe·toi led Vej ovi s,
1 25
Stygnomma, 1 29
Sun Scorpi ons, 1 1 8
Supersti ti ona, 1 24
Swol l en�sti nger
Anuroctonus, 1 25
Symphyl a, 1 4 1
Symphytognathi dae,
5 1
Synema, 95
Synemosyno, 1 05
Tai l l ess Whi pscorpi ons,
1 1 8
1 60
lama, 35 Tul l gren funnel , 1 8
Tapinopa, 49 Tyrophagus, 1 37
Toracus, 1 32
Tarantu l a, 20- 21 , 83,
Ul oboridae,
92, 1 1 6- 1 1 7
52, 1 06, 1 1 4-\ 1 5
Tarantul idae, 1 1 7
Ul oborus, 1 06, 1 1 4
tarsus, 9
Ummidi a, 23
Tegenaria, 72, 74
Urocteo, 34
Tetragnatha, 70- 71
Uroctei dae, 34, 1 1 5
Tetragnath idae, 52, 70-71
Uroctonus, 1 24
Tetranych idoe, 1 35
uropods, 1 52
T etronych us, 1 35
Uropygi , 1 1 6
Thanotus, 97
Thel yphonidae, 1 1 6
Velvet Mites, 1 35
Theraphosidae, 20- :l
Vaejovidae, 1 24- 1 25
Theridi idae, 36-43
Vaejovis, 1 24, 1 25
Theri di on, 36, 37
Verrucose, 66
Theri di osoma, 70
Vinegarones, 1 1 6
Theridiosomatidoe, 70
Vonones, 1 30
Theridu l a, 38
Thi ck-j awed Spiders, 71
Wanderi ng Spiders,
92, 1 1 2
Thiodi na, 1 01
Thomi sidae, 94-97
Water Mi tes, 1 35, 1 36
Thomi sus, 95
Water Spiders, ¯ó
Thwoi tesia, 39
webs, 1 3, 1 5, 52, 54
Ti bel l us, 97
Web Wol f Spider, 85
Wh ipscorpions,
ti bi a, 9
Ti cks, 1 38- 1 39
1 1 6, 1 1 8
Wh ipspiders, 1 I 7
Tidarren, 40
Whi te Mi cratheno, 67
Ti tanoeco, 1 1 1
Tityus, 1 26
Wi dows, 1 6, 1 7, 42-43,
Tmorus, 96
5 1
Trachel i pus, 1 53
Wi ndscorpi ons, 1 1 8- 1 1 9
Trapdoor Spiders, 22
Wi reworms, 1 50
Wol f Spi ders, 78; 82-85
traps, 1 8
Woodl ice, 1 52- 1 53
Trioenonych idae, 1 29
Wood Ti cks, 1 38, 1 39
Tr;angl e Spider, 1 1 5
Tri choniscidae, 1 52
Xysti cus, 96
Tri choni scus, 1 52
Trithyreus, 1 1 7
Yel l ow Veiovis, 1 25
trochanter, 9
Trochosa, 1 3
Zebra Spider, YY
Trogu l idae, 1 31
Zelotes, 86
Trogu l us, 1 31
Zi l l a, 61
Trombi cul a, 1 35
Zodariidae, 31
Trombi cul idae, 1 35
Zara, 1 4, 91
Trombidiformes, 1 35- 1 36
Zoropsidae, 1 1 2
Trombidi i dae, 1 35
Zoropsi s, 1 1 2
Trombidi um, 1 35 Zygiella, 61
True Spiders, 26 Zygoribatula, 1 ðÏ
b L Û c F
bÌÍLtÜb
ðD0lH6ÎIKÎD
ALLLLLP LL1LL^
HERBERT W. LEVI, Ph. D. , is Alexander Agassiz profes­
sor of zoology and curator of arachnology at the Museum
of Comparative Zoology, Harvard University. He was
born in Germany and received his education at the Uni­
versity of Connecticut and the University of Wisconsi n.
Dr. Levi has authored about 150 technical publications on
spiders and on conservation.
LORNA R. LEVI majored in biology at the University of
Wisconsin and has collaborated with her husband on
several publications.
NICHOLAS STREKALOVSKY studied art in England.
After working for the British Museum, he went to Egypt
where he did illustrations of natural history and medical
subj ects for the government. His first work in the United
States was for the Agassiz Museum at Harvard Univer­
sity. In the Golden Guide Series he has illustrated Insect
Pests and Spiders.
HERBERT S. ZIM, Ph. D. , Sc. D. , an originator and former
editor of the Golden Guide Series, was also an author for
many years . Author of some ninety books and editor of
about as many, he is now Adjunct Professor at the Uni­
versity of Miami and Educational Consultant to the Amer­
ican Friends Service Commit.tee and other organizations.
He works on educational, population, and environmental
problems.
GOLDEN PRESS • NEW YORK
ÆM æ �
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  AGO� DEN - GUI DE®

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