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Cloud computing: Rethink IT. Reinvent business
The desktop is dead. Welcome to the Internet cloud, where massive facilities across the globe will store all the data you'll ever use. George Gilder on the dawning of the petabyte age.
What is cloud computing?
Cloud computing changes the way we think about technology. Cloud is a computing model providing web-based software, middle-ware and computing resources on demand. By deploying technology as a service, you give users access only to the resources they need for a particular task. This prevents you from paying for idle computing resources. Cloud computing can also go beyond cost savings by allowing your users to access the latest software and infrastructure offerings to foster business innovation. Expert insight: Cloud computing defined As the classic saying goes, we’ve all got one. Usually it's an opinion, but in this case it's a personal definition of cloud computing. Despite a rapidly growing degree of genuine interest, pundits can’t seem to agree on a proper meaning. Over the years, "cloud" has become a vague and flexible term that does not reference anything in particular. This has allowed some providers to take advantage of the positive press and push any related services as "cloud," while other companies might shun the term entirely out of self-consciousness or concerns about cloud computing's future. Meanwhile, the National Institute of Standards and Technology (NIST) is the most famous purveyor of the "cloud" definition, publishing a new one every year in an attempt to cover all the characterizations and opinions that exist in the marketplace. The most recent edition, however, clocks in at a lengthy 790 words, and NIST acknowledges its definition's fluidity with two introductory notes about cloud being an "evolving paradigm." The organization is also actively seeking public comments for the in-progress sixteenth version. All this back and forth leads to the question: When is a cloud not a cloud? The fact remains that both "cloud" and "cloud computing" are imprecise, adaptable terms that can be modified to fit the needs and agendas of certain individuals within the marketplace. And with no single, accepted definition, products and services may not effectively provide the benefits clients are seeking for their business.
into a computer-on-a-planet. scores of thousands of cheap computers working in parallel could perform petascale tasks – like searching everything Yahoo. but they have less and less to do. And those are. vastly more powerful than any built before. All those PCs are still there. To make sense of it all. turbocharged with billions in Madison Avenue mad money for targeted advertisements.com. Ironically. the new computing architecture scales across Earth's surface. Page and Brin – with Microsoft. and Barry "QVC" Diller's Ask.Past trends: Yawn. which move data over vast distances without degradation. at most. terascale tasks. Amazon. this emerging architecture is interlinked by the very technology that was supposed to be Big Computing's downfall: the Internet. Today Google rules a total database of hundreds of petabytes.com hot on their heels – are frantically taking the computer-on-a-chip and multiplying it. This change is as momentous as the industrial-age shift from craft production to mass manufacture. eBay. Now. No single computer could update millions of auctions in real time. Page and Brin understood that with clever software. allow computing to migrate to wherever power is cheapest. they're morphing into general-purpose computing platforms. as eBay does. as Yahoo does. each larger than the whole Web of a decade ago. Google . and no one machine could track thousands of stock portfolios made up of offerings on all the world's exchanges. from individual workers in separate shops turning out finished products step by step to massive factories that break up production into thousands of parts and perform them simultaneously. in massively parallel arrays. Optical networks. and dancing-doggy videos – a relentless march of daily deltas. and anyone else could shovel onto the Net. swelled every 24 hours by terabytes of Gmails. as Google and the others take on more and more of the duties once delegated to the CPU. Thus. MySpace pages. Yahoo. The data centers these companies are building began as exercises in making the planet's ever-growing data pile searchable.
appears to have attained one of the holy grails of computer science: a scalable massively parallel architecture that can readily accommodate diverse software. Amazon web services hiccuped a few times but continued to set the pace for public clouds 2. clouds grew and alternatives to VMwaPrivatere matured 3. Trends that shaped cloud computing: 1. Tools for wrangling big data showed that volume of data is only part of the equation Cloud computing architecture: . Cloud productivity apps became good enough 4.
Making copies of data as a backup is called redundancy. The back end is the "cloud" section of the system. The technique is called server virtualization. A central server administers the system. like all computers. In theory. That means there's unused processing power going to waste. Middleware allows networked computers to communicate with each other. Services like Web-based email programs leverage existing Web browsers like Internet Explorer or Firefox. The front end is the side the computer user. It's called cloud computing because the data and applications exist on a "cloud" of Web servers. By maximizing the output of individual servers. the idea has been around for a few years. Most of the time. On the back end of the system are the various computers. servers and data storage systems that create the "cloud" of computing services. each running with its own independent operating system. or client. Cloud computing systems need at least twice the number of storage devices it requires to keep all its clients' information stored. It follows a set of rules called protocols and uses a special kind of software called middleware. servers don't run at full capacity. usually the Internet. A cloud computing system must make a copy of all its clients' information and store it on other devices. server virtualization reduces the need for more physical machines. a cloud computing system could include practically any computer program you can imagine. The copies enable the central server to access backup machines to retrieve data that otherwise would be unreachable. Some companies require hundreds of digital storage devices. It's possible to fool a physical server into thinking it's actually multiple servers. That's because these devices. . Not all cloud computing systems have the same user interface.I COMPUTED LONELY AS A CLOUD Although cloud computing is an emerging field of computer science. Other systems have unique applications that provide network access to clients. sees. each application will have its own dedicated server. They connect to each other through a network. When talking about a cloud computing system. The front end includes the client's computer (or computer network) and the application required to access the cloud computing system. there's likely to be a high demand for a lot of storage space. monitoring traffic and client demands to ensure everything runs smoothly. occasionally break down. Usually. it's helpful to divide it into two sections: the front endand the back end. If a cloud computing company has a lot of clients. from data processing to video games.
it is possible to share services within any one of the following layers. .Layers Once an internet protocol connection is established among several computers.
 What makes a cloud application different from other applications is its elasticity. Cloud applications have the ability to scale out and in. Cloud tasks provide compute. which is the cloud computing environment (platform). Some of these devices . Tasks can be cloned into multiple virtual machines. communication and management capabilities. A cloud application is a SOA application that runs under a specific environment. eliminating the need to install and run the application on the customer's own computers and simplifying maintenance and support. storage. A cloud application is a service. Examples are thin clients and the browserbased Chromebook. A cloud application is software provided as a service. and tenancy metrics. virtual desktop clients and most email clients).g. SOA applications are not necessary cloud applications. such as desktop computers. A cloud application meta-model is a SOA model that conforms to the SOA meta-model. Some cloud applications. and flexible prices. and are accessible through application programmable interfaces (API).rely on cloud computing for all or a majority of their applications so as to be essentially useless without it.laptops. ease of access. There is no need to stop the running application or redeploy it in order to modify or change the information in this file. This environment is characterized by horizontal scalability. however. Some legacy applications (line of business applications that until now have been prevalent in thin client Windows computing) are delivered via a screen-sharing technology. support specific client software dedicated to these applications (e. Many cloud applications do not require specific software on the client and instead use a web browser to interact with the cloud application. While . which contain dynamic information about tasks at run-time. SOA is an umbrella that describes any kind of service. It consists of the following: a package of interrelated tasks. Cloud applications have a pricing model that is based on different compute and storage usage. rapid provisioning.cloud clients .Client Users access cloud computing using networked client devices. This makes cloud applications SOA applications. tablets and smartphones. Configuration Data is where dynamic aspects of cloud application are determined at run-time. This can be achieved by cloning tasks in to multiple virtual machines at run-time to meet the changing work demand. Application Cloud application services or "Software as a Service (SaaS)" deliver software as a service over the Internet. However. Cloud applications are a kind of utility computing that can scale out and in to match the workload demand. With AJAX and HTML5 these Web user interfaces can achieve a similar or even better look and feel as native applications. and the configuration files. the definition of these tasks..
also known as "infrastructure as a service" (IaaS). Infrastructure Cloud infrastructure services. clients instead buy those resources as a fully outsourced service. Rather than purchasing servers. Server The Layers contain both hardware and software. also known as platform as a service (PaaS). or even use services provided by the cloud. It facilitates deployment of applications without the cost and complexity of buying and managing the underlying hardware and software layers. including multi-core processors. the amount of resources consumed (and therefore the cost) will typically reflect the level of activity. Regardless of the nomenclature. deliver a computing platform and/or solution stack as a service. data-center space or network equipment.SOA is a business model that addresses the business process management. Deployment models . Platforms let developers write certain applications that can run in the cloud. Cloud computing is becoming a major change in the computing industry. they all have great potential in developing. cloud-specific operating systems and combined offerings. There are different names being used for platforms which can include the ondemand platform. each must build its own cloud platform. which makes it more a technical model Platform Cloud platform services. products that are specifically designed for the delivery of cloud services. and when development teams create applications for the cloud. these are the layers on the server. often consuming cloud infrastructure and sustaining cloud applications. deliver computer infrastructure – typically a platform virtualization environment – as a service. and one of the most important parts of this change is the shift of cloud platforms. along with raw (block) storage and networking. software. cloud architecture addresses many technical details that are environment specific. Suppliers typically bill such services on a utility computing basis. or Cloud 9.
It can also be defined as multiple cloud systems that are connected in a way that allows programs and data to be moved easily from one deployment system to another. and manage them" and thus do not benefit from less hands-on management. etc. whether managed internally or by a third-party and hosted internally or externally. Private cloud Private cloud is infrastructure operated solely for a single organization. such as applications and storage. or public) that remain unique entities but are bound together. The costs are spread over fewer users than a public cloud (but more than a private cloud). community. Community cloud Community cloud shares infrastructure between several organizations from a specific community with common concerns (security. available to the general public over the Internet. compliance.essentially "[lacking] the economic model that makes cloud computing such an intriguing concept". jurisdiction. whether managed internally or by a third-party and hosted internally or externally. so only some of the cost savings potential of cloud computing are realized.). offering the benefits of multiple deployment models. They have attracted criticism because users "still have to buy. build. in which a service provider makes resources. Public cloud services may be free or offered on a pay-per-usage model. Hybrid cloud Hybrid cloud is a composition of two or more clouds (private. .Public cloud A public cloud is one based on the standard cloud computing model.
Multi-tenancy enables sharing of resources and costs across a large pool of users thus allowing for: Centralization of infrastructure in locations with lower costs (such as real estate.g.. This is purported to lower barriers to entry. Cloud computing systems typically use REST-based APIs.) Peak-load capacity increases (users need not engineer for highest possible load-levels) Utilisation and efficiencyimprovements for systems that are often only 10–20% utilised. as opposed to the control of a centralized IT service (for example) Agility improves with users' ability to re-provision technological infrastructure resources. Reliability is improved if multiple redundant sites are used. mobile phone). self-service basis near real-time. Device and location independence enable users to access systems using a web browser regardless of their location or what device they are using (e. etc. Applications can be easily migrated from one physical server to another. electricity. Virtualization technology allows servers and storage devices to be shared and utilization be increased. Application programming interface (API) accessibility to software that enables machines to interact with cloud software in the same way the user interface facilitates interaction between humans and computers. users can connect from anywhere. Pricing on a utility computing basis is finegrained with usage-based options and fewer IT skills are required for implementation (in-house).Characteristics Cloud computing exhibits the following key characteristics: Empowerment of end-users of computing resources by putting the provisioning of those resources in their own control. As infrastructure is off-site (typically provided by a third-party) and accessed via the Internet. as infrastructure is typically provided by a thirdparty and does not need to be purchased for one-time or infrequent intensive computing tasks. . Cost is claimed to be reduced and in a public cloud delivery model capital expenditure is converted to operational expenditure. which makes well-designed cloud computing suitable for business continuityand disaster recovery. without users having to engineer for peak loads. PC. and consistent and loosely coupled architectures are constructed using web services as the system interface. Performance is monitored. Scalability and Elasticity via dynamic ("on-demand")provisioning of resources on a fine-grained.
you could buy an inexpensive computer terminal. However. a cloud computing system could execute all the programs a normal computer could run. Why would anyone want to rely on another computer system to run programs and store data? Here are just a few reasons: Clients would be able to access their applications and data from anywhere at any time. input devices like a keyboard and mouse and just enough processing power to run the middleware necessary to . Potentially. They could access the cloud computing system using any computer linked to the Internet. increased securityfocused resources. Instead. everything from generic word processing software to customized computer programs designed for a specific company could work on a cloud computing system.Microsoft. In addition. You wouldn't need to buy the fastest computer with the most memory. Security is often as good as or better than other traditional systems. and the lack of security for stored kernels. With the right middleware. etc. because they do not need to be installed on each user's computer. Some people think Apple might investigate the possibility of producing interface hardware for cloud computing systems. It could bring hardware costs down. Cloud Computing Applications The applications of cloud computing are practically limitless. IBM and Google are investing millions of dollars into research. user access to security audit logs may be difficult or impossible.. Private cloud installations are in part motivated by users' desire to retain control over the infrastructure and avoid losing control of information security. because the cloud system would take care of those needs for you. The terminal could include a monitor. but concerns can persist about loss of control over certain sensitive data. Maintenance of cloud computing applications is easier. the complexity of security is greatly increased when data is distributed over a wider area or greater number of devices and in multi-tenant systems that are being shared by unrelated users. Cloud computing systems would reduce the need for advanced hardware on the client side. in part because providers are able to devote resources to solving security issues that many customers cannot afford.Security could improve due to centralization of data. Data wouldn't be confined to a hard drive on one user's computer or even a corporation's internal network. WHO'S WHO IN CLOUD COMPUTING Some of the companies researching cloud computing are big names in the computer industry.
A key logging program records keystrokes. if the user's computer is just a streamlined terminal. Cloud computing gives these companies the option of storing data on someone else's hardware. removing the need for physical space on the front end. You wouldn't need a large hard drive because you'd store all your information on a remote computer. significantly speeding up the calculation. Some companies rent physical space to store servers and databases because they don't have it available on site. he or she can study the keystrokes to discover user names and passwords. Cloud Computing Concerns PRIVATE EYES ARE WATCHING YOU There are a few standard hacker tricks that could cause cloud computing companies major headaches. then the client could take advantage of the entire network's processing power. it might be impossible to install the program in the first place. If the cloud computing system's back end is a grid computing system. Perhaps the biggest concerns about cloud computing are security and privacy. The idea of handing over important data to another company worries some people. have fewer problems than a network of heterogeneous machines and operating systems. Corporations that rely on computers have to make sure they have the right software in place to achieve goals. On a grid computing system. If a hacker manages successfully to load a key logging program on a victim's computer. Cloud computing systems give these organizations company-wide access to computer applications. the client could send the calculation to the cloud for processing. Often. Corporations might save money on IT support. . One of those is called key logging.connect to the cloud system. Servers and digital storage devices take up space. Instead. The cloud system would tap into the processing power of all available computers on the back end. the company could pay a metered fee to a cloud computing company. Corporate executives might hesitate to take advantage of a cloud computing system because they can't keep their company's information underlock and key. scientists and researchers work with calculations so complex that it would take years for individual computers to complete them. Of course. in theory. Streamlined hardware would. The companies don't have to buy a set of software or software licenses for every employee.
the service would lose all its clients. It benefits these companies to have reliable security measures in place. Some questions regarding cloud computing are more philosophical. It's in their interest to employ the most advanced techniques to protect their clients' data. But. Otherwise. they'll have fewer IT needs. Another is to employ an authorization format -. which means the system monitors itself and takes measures to prevent or repair problems. One way is to use authentication techniques such as user names and passwords.The counterargument to this position is that the companies offering cloud computing services live and die by their reputations. it's possible the client's privacy could be compromised. Currently. If a client can log in from any location to access data and applications. which provides the actual storage space. . Does the user or company subscribing to the cloud computing service own the data? Does the cloud computing system. Cloud computing companies will need to find ways to protect client privacy. How will cloud computing affect other industries? There's a growing concern in the IT industry about how cloud computing could impact the business of computer maintenance and repair. autonomic computing is mostly theoretical. Some industry experts believe that the need for IT jobs will migrate to the back end of the cloud computing system.each user can access only the data and applications relevant to his or her job. Another area of research in the computer science community is autonomic computing. it could eliminate the need for many IT maintenance jobs. own it? Is it possible for a cloud computing company to deny a client access to that client's data? Several companies. law firms and universities are debating these and other questions about the nature of cloud computing. An autonomic computing system is self-managing. Privacy is another matter. if autonomic computing becomes a reality. If companies switch to using streamlined computer systems.
"What would you use it for?" he asked me. If economic woes continue to plague the world as they have in the past few years.Conclusion: In the long run. It gives smaller businesses a chance to play on a more level playing field with the big boys. Take a look back at Microsoft in the early 1990s to see how they initially missed the boat with the Internet. introducing the Web to millions and launching the Internet IPO boom on Wall Street in the late 1990s. A cousin of mine is one of the original Microsoft millionaires: He lived and breathed Microsoft during its early years. . cloud computing is poised to make a real impact on businesses of all sizes. he calmly told me that the Internet would "never" take off. in 1993. of course. Marc Andreesen. Those who dismiss it as "just another trend" are likely to miss out on the opportunities that cloud computing provides for organizations of all sizes. and it helps the big boys cut costs and trim technology needs to compete on a more personal level with customers. Microsoft ate a lot of crow with that one and played a lot of catchup before it captured the Internet lead with Windows Internet Explorer. I do see value in cloud computing. answered that question with a resounding "Everything!" and created Netscape. I'll never forget how.
"Google CEO's new paradigm: 'cloud computing and advertising go hand-in-hand. . 2008.ibm. "Cloud Computing Gets Down to Earth. Retrieved March 11. A paradigm shift to cloud computing will affect many different sub-categories in computer industry such as software companies.The question isn't really "What can cloud computing do for me?" so much as it is "How the heck am I going to manage the use of cloud computing in my organization?" If you're not asking that yet. Nicholas." eWeek. Hickins. it is more difficult to predict how companies in the internet and hardware sectors will be affected. 19. Steve. 2008. pg. C 6. 10. Nov. February 25. 45. "IBM Introduces Ready-to-Use Cloud Computing.com/press/us/en/pressrelease/22613. you should be. While it is relatively easy to see how the main software and internet companies will be affected by such a shift in Ginger's chunky nuggets. http://www-03. 2007. 2008. Feb. "Cloud Computing and EMC Deal. 2006. internet service providers (ISPs) and hardware manufacturers. January 21.wss Lohr. Aug. Vol.'" ZDNet." New York Times. http://blogs. Donna. "IBM unveils 'cloud computing. pg. Sources: Bogatin. "'World Wide Computer' is on horizon. Nov. 2007. 24. 15. Jon.'" Network World. pg. 2008.com/micro-markets/?p=369 Brodkin. Carr.zdnet. Iss. Michael. 14. 25." USA Today. 23." IBM.
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