A Technical Seminar Report on BRAIN FINGERPRINTING Submitted to JAWAHARLAL NEHRU TECHNOLOGY UNIVERSITY, HYDERABAD In partial fulfillment for the


Under the Esteemed guidance of Mr. SHAIK BASHA

Department Electronics and Communication Engineering CMR INSTITUTE OF TECHNOLOGY (Approved by AICTE, Affiliated by JNTU, Kukatpally) Kandlakoya, Medchal Road, Hyderabad 2011-2012



(Approved by AICTE, Affiliated by JNTU, Kukatpally) Kandlakoya, Medchal Road, Hyderabad Department Electronics and Communication Engineering

This is to certify that the seminar entitled “BRAIN FINGERPRINTING” is submitted by “Alpha Yadav (08R01A0404)” submitted in partial fulfillment of the requirement for the award of the degree Bachelor of Technology in Electronics and Communication Engineering from Jawaharlal Nehru Technology University, Kukatpally, Hyderabad for the academic year 2011-2012.

Mr. Shaik Basha Internal Guide

Prof. A. Balaji Nehru Head of Department




I express my sincere gratitude to respected Mr. Shaik Basha and Prof. 23/01/2011 3 CMRIT . for there constant inspiration and support. Head of Department. Head of Department of ECE. Principal of CMRIT and Prof. I express my thanks to all the help and co-ordination extended in bringing out this seminar successfully on time. A Balaji Nehru. Janga Reddy. Department of Electronics and Communication. encouragement and suggestions. A Balaji Nehru. for their valuable guidance.ACKNOWLEDEMENT I am extremely thankful to my internal guide Mr.

This invention is supposed to be the best lie detector available as on date and is said to detect even smooth criminals who pass the polygraph test (the conventional lie detector test) with ease. a new lie detector has been developed in the United States of America. which are useful in detecting whether the person subjected to the test. remembers finer details of the crime. In the field of criminology. who are very excited about the new kid on the block. the brain wave is sure to trap him.ABSTRACT: Brain fingerprinting is based on finding that the brain generates a unique brain wave pattern when a person encounters a familiar stimulus Use of functional magnetic resonance imaging in lie detection derives from studies suggesting that persons asked to lie show different patterns of brain activity than they do when being truthful. 23/01/2011 4 CMRIT . The new method employs brain waves. Even if the person willingly suppresses the necessary information. The author concludes that neither approach is currently supported by enough data regarding its accuracy in detecting deception to warrant use in court. according to the experts. Issues related to the use of such evidence in courts are discussed. This is called “brain fingerprinting”.

3 14 23/01/2011 5 CMRIT 11 Counter terrorism 11 Criminal justice 12 Medical 13 4.1 10 Four phases of Farwell Brain Fingerprinting 10 CHAPTER 4 Applications 4.INDEX CONTENTS PAGE.NO.2 4.4 Additional Applications .1 6 Brain fingerprinting 7 CHAPTER 2 Technique 8 CHAPTER 3 Phases 3.1 4. CHAPTER 1 Introduction 1.

Detection of guilty person 9 Fig 5.Head band placed suspect 18 CHAPTER 1 INTRODUCTION Brain Fingerprinting is a controversial proposed investigative technique that measures recognition of familiar stimuli by measuring electrical brain wave responses to words.1 . Brain fingerprinting was invented by Lawrence 23/01/2011 6 CMRIT .CHAPTER 5 Case study 15 CHAPTER 6 Comparison with other technologies 19 CHAPTER 7 Admissibility of Brain Fingerprinting in court 20 CHAPTER 8 Record of 100% 21 CHAPTER 9 Conclusion 22 REFERENCES LIST OF FIGURES FIGURES PAGE. Fig 2. phrases.2 .NO. or pictures that are presented on a computer screen.Brain Wave Responses 16 Fig 5.1 .

planning. Brain Fingerprinting is based on the principle that the brain is central to all human acts. developed. but the brain is always there. tests for a US intelligence agency and for the US Navy. innocent person is that the perpetrator. The fundamental difference between a perpetrator and a falsely accused. a new computer-based technology to identify the perpetrator of a crime accurately and scientifically by measuring brain-wave responses to crimerelevant words or pictures presented on a computer screen. having committed the crime. proven. and recording the crime. 23/01/2011 7 CMRIT . executing. there may or may not be many kinds of peripheral evidence. In a criminal act. and patented the technique of Farwell Brain Fingerprinting. has the details of the crime stored in his brain.Farwell. This is what Brain Fingerprinting detects scientifically. Farwell has invented. and the innocent suspect does not. The theory is that the suspect's reaction to the details of an event or activity will reflect if the suspect had prior knowledge of the event or activity. Lawrence A. and tests on real-life situations including actual crimes. This test uses what Farwell calls the MERMER ("Memory and Encoding Related Multifaceted Electroencephalographic Response") response to detect familiarity reaction. Farwell Brain Fingerprinting has proven 100% accurate in over 120 tests. Dr. including tests on FBI agents. One of the applications is lie detection.

and reveals a brain MERMER (memory and encoding related multifaceted electroencephalographic response) when. or pictures presented on a computer screen. a record is stored in the brain of the perpetrator. Thus. Existing (polygraph) procedures for assessing the validity of a suspect's "guilty" knowledge rely on measurement of autonomic arousal (e. Brain Fingerprinting is considered a type of Guilty Knowledge Test.1. and nontestimonial manner. while Brain Fingerprinting measures electrical brain activity via a fitted headband containing special sensors. objective. non-invasive. The technique can be applied only in situations where investigators have a sufficient amount of specific information about an event or activity that would be known only to the perpetrator and investigator. In this respect.. non-stressful. When a crime is committed. phrases. palm sweating and heart rate). Brain Fingerprinting is said to be more accurate in detecting "guilty" knowledge distinct from the false positives of traditional polygraph methods. but this is hotly disputed by specialized researchers.g.1 What is Brain Fingerprinting? Brain Fingerprinting is designed to determine whether an individual recognizes specific information related to an event or activity by measuring electrical brain wave responses to words. the guilty can be identified and the innocent can be cleared in an accurate.) Brain Fingerprinting measures electrical brain activity in response to crime-relevant words or pictures presented on a computer screen. scientific. Brain Fingerprinting provides a means to objectively and scientifically connect evidence from the crime scene with evidence stored in the brain. the evidence stored in the brain matches the evidence from the crime scene. and only when. (This is similar to the process of connecting DNA samples from the perpetrator with biological evidence found at the scene of the crime. where the "Guilty" party is expected to react strongly to the relevant detail of the event of activity. 23/01/2011 8 CMRIT . only the evidence evaluated by Brain Fingerprinting is evidence stored in the brain.

words. a rare vs. and pictures. words. Brain fingerprinting is fundamentally different from the polygraph (lie-detector).. The test subject's brain response to these two different types of stimuli allow the testor to determine if the measured brain responses to test stimuli.g. Brain fingerprinting uses cognitive brain responses. Because it is based on EEG signals. which measures emotion-based physiological signals such as heart rate. brain fingerprinting does not depend on the emotions of the subject. a common stimuls or a stimulas the proband is asked to count. called probes. Also. the system does not require the testee to issue verbal responses to questions or stimuli. are more similar to the relevant or irrelevant responses. a murder weapon or a victim's face. 23/01/2011 9 CMRIT . In order to calibrate the brain fingerprinting system. and pictures.CHAPTER 2 TECHNIQUE The person to be tested wears a special headband with electronic sensors that measure the electroencephalography from several locations on the scalp. The novel interpretation in brain fingerprinting is to look for P300 as response to stimuli related to the crime in question e.g. nor is it affected by emotional responses. the testee is presented with a series of irrelevant stimuli. sweating. and blood pressure. and a series of relevant stimuli. The technique uses the well known fact that an electrical signal known as P300 is emitted from an individual's brain approximately 300 milliseconds after it is confronted with a stimulus of special significance. e.

"Information present" means that the probe responses. it does not attempt to determine whether or not the subject is lying or telling the truth. The Brain Fingerprinting system mathematically analyzes the brain-wave responses and makes a determination of "information present’ ("match") or "information absent" ("no match"). The Brain Fingerprinting system also computes a statistical confidence for the determination of "information present" or "information absent. like the target responses.unlike polygraph testing. indicating that the crime-relevant information is stored in the brain.1 Detection of a guilty person." 23/01/2011 10 CMRIT . "Information absent" means that the details of the crime are not stored in the brain. fig 2. contain a MERMER.

2. including presentation of the stimuli and recording of electrical brain activity. as well as a mathematical data analysis algorithm that compares the responses to the three types of stimuli and produces a determination of "information present" ("guilty") or "information absent" ("innocent"). and preserved properly until a suspect is apprehended.1 Four phases of Farwell Brain Fingerprinting In fingerprinting and DNA fingerprinting.. At no time during the testing and data analysis do any biases and interpretations of a system expert affect the stimulus presentation or brain responses. Brain Fingerprinting Brain Evidence Collection. CHAPTER 3 PHASES 3. Brain Fingerprinting Computer Evidence Analysis. Brain Fingerprinting Crime Scene Evidence Collection. an expert in Farwell Brain Fingerprinting examines the crime scene and other evidence connected with the crime to identify details of the crime that would be known only to the perpetrator. except that the evidence collected both at the crime scene and on the person of the suspect (i. is scientifically compared with evidence on the person of the suspect to detect a match that would place the suspect at the crime scene. and a statistical confidence level for this determination. Brain Fingerprinting Scientific Result. in the brain as revealed by electrical brain responses) is informational evidence rather than physical evidence. The expert then conducts the Brain Evidence Collection in order to determine whether or not the evidence from the crime 23/01/2011 11 CMRIT . In the Crime Scene Evidence Collection. evidence recognized and collected at the crime scene. 3.e.The entire Brain Fingerprinting System is under computer control. and 4. There are four stages to Farwell Brain Fingerprinting. which are similar to the steps in fingerprinting and DNA fingerprinting: 1. Farwell Brain Fingerprinting works similarly.

directly or indirectly.1. 23/01/2011 12 CMRIT . 2: Aid in identifying trained terrorists with the potential to commit future terrorist acts.scene matches evidence stored in the brain of the suspect. COUNTER TERRORISM: Brain fingerprinting can help address the following critical elements in the fight against terrorism: 1: Aid in determining who has participated in terrorist acts. 3: Help to identify people who have knowledge or training in banking. In the Computer Evidence Analysis. This determination and statistical confidence constitute the Scientific Result of Farwell Brain Fingerprinting: either "Information present" – the details of the crime are stored in the brain of the suspect – or "information absent" – the details of the crime are not stored in the brain of the suspect. CHAPTER 4 APPLICATIONS 4. the Farwell Brain Fingerprinting system makes a mathematical determination as to whether or not this specific evidence is stored in the brain. finance or communications and who are associated with terrorist teams and acts. even if they are in a “sleeper” cell and have not been active for years. and computes a statistical confidence for that determination.

training and plans that an innocent person does not have. In a terrorist act. there may or may not be peripheral evidence such as fingerprints or DNA. A new era in security and intelligence gathering has begun. It is now possible to determine scientifically whether or not a person has terrorist training and knowledge of terrorist activities.4: Help to determine if an individual is in a leadership role within a terrorist organization. and the innocent suspect does not. a significant scientific breakthrough has now become a practical applied technology. The terrorist has knowledge of organizations. Now. And there is no reason why an innocent individual should be falsely imprisoned or convicted of terrorist activity. and recording the crime. planning. Brain Fingerprinting testing provides an accurate. With the Brain Fingerprinting system. terrorists and those supporting terrorism can be identified quickly and accurately. The key difference between a guilty party and an innocent suspect is that the perpetrator of the crime has a record of the crime stored in their brain. Until the invention of Brain Fingerprinting testing. Until the invention of Brain Fingerprinting testing. This exciting technology gives the judge and jury new. No longer should any terrorist be able to evade justice for lack of evidence. 4. Brain fingerprinting technology is based on the principle that the brain is central to all human acts. Brain Fingerprinting testing does not prove guilt or innocence. there was no scientifically valid way to detect this fundamental difference. DNA evidence 23/01/2011 13 CMRIT . CRIMINAL JUSTICE: A critical task of the criminal justice system is to determine who has committed a crime. but the brain of the perpetrator is always there. That is the role of a judge and jury.2. scientifically valid evidence to help them arrive at their decision. economical and timely solution to the central problem in the fight against terrorism. there was no scientific way to detect this fundamental difference. executing. A Brain Fingerprinting test can determine with an extremely high degree of accuracy those who are involved with terrorist activity and those who are not.

for the first time.3. 4. MEDICAL: ‘Brain Fingerprinting’ is the patented technology that can measure objectively. The impacts on the criminal justice system will be profound. First generation tests have proven to be more 23/01/2011 14 CMRIT . It is estimated that Brain Fingerprinting testing will apply in approximately 60 to 70% of these major crimes. how memory and cognitive functioning of Alzheimer sufferers are affected by medications. from investigations to parole hearings.and fingerprints are available in only about 1% of major crimes. The potential now exists to significantly improve the speed and accuracy of the entire system. Brain Fingerprinting testing will be able to dramatically reduce the costs associated with investigating and prosecuting innocent people and allow law enforcement professionals to concentrate on suspects who have verifiable. detailed knowledge of the crimes.

accurate than other routinely used tests. The 30 minute test involves wearing a headband with built-in electrodes. When presented with familiar information. inexpensive and easy to administer test for Alzheimer’s and dementia will improve the healthcare process dramatically. The technician can use this response to measure how quickly information is disappearing from the brain and whether the drugs they are taking are slowing down the process. • Using the very precise measurements of cognitive functioning available with this technology. the progression of Alzheimer's symptoms can often be delayed through medications and dietary and lifestyle changes. pharmaceutical companies will be able to determine more quickly the effects of their new medications and potentially speed FDA approval. technicians then present words. providing a more sensitive measure than the P300 alone. There is a critical need for a technology that enables early diagnosis economically and that can also accurately measure the effectiveness of treatments for these diseases. • 23/01/2011 15 CMRIT . The incidence of Alzheimer’s and other forms of dementia is growing rapidly throughout the world. • An accurate. and help improve the quality of life for millions of people. phrases and images that are both known and unknown to the patient to determine whether information that should be in the brain is still there. MERMER technology. the brain responds by producing MERMERs. specific increases in neuron activity. Brain Fingerprinting Laboratories is now developing diagnostic and monitoring systems for Alzheimer’s using this exciting new technology. developed and patented by Brain Fingerprinting Laboratories. • The non-invasive nature of P300/MERMER testing technology and the simplicity of its administration will allow primary care physicians to monitor the progress of their patients in their own offices and adjust treatments accordingly. With early diagnosis. and could be commercially available in 18-24 months. Research has now demonstrated that analysis of the P300 brainwave can show dementia onset and progression. includes the P300 brainwave and extends it.

Most advertising programs today are evaluated subjectively using focus groups.4. The same type of testing can help to determine if an individual has specific knowledge related to computer crimes where there is typically no witness or physical evidence. Additional Applications: In advertising.Security Clearances. We will be able to offer significantly more advanced. training or group affiliation. For example. It can also determine if a person has specific "classified" or confidential information stored in their brain.4. etc. This technology will be able to help determine what information is actually retained in memory by individuals. Brain Fingerprinting technology can play a significant role in Security Testing when investigators know specific details of a crime. Brain Fingerprinting Laboratories will be able to help reduce the incidence of insurance fraud by determining if an individual has knowledge of fraudulent or criminal acts. In the insurance industry. Typical applications include: Visa Applications 2nd Level Testing Polygraph "False-Positive"2nd Level Testing Corporate Security • Insurance Fraud.Computer Hacking. • • • 23/01/2011 16 CMRIT . and how do the results vary with demographics? We will also be able to measure the comparative effectiveness of multiple media types. in a branding campaign do people remember the brand. Brain Fingerprinting Laboratories will offer significant advances in measuring campaign and media effectiveness. the product. scientific methods to help determine the effectiveness of campaigns and be very cost competitive with current methodologies.

who had been serving a life sentence in Iowa State Penitentiary for killing a night watchman in 1977. including conflicting testimony in the original trial. was its role in freeing convicted murderer Terry Harrington. Harrington was granted a new trial when it was discovered that some of the original police reports in the case had been missing at his initial trial. however. he recanted his testimony and the prosecution threw up its hands. By 2001. Evidence had been presented and transcripts published long ago. Harrington requested a new trial on several grounds. Farwell was faced with an immediate and obvious problem: 24 years had passed since the trial. In 2001. the details of the crime had long since come to light. when a key witness heard that Harrington had "passed" his brain fingerprinting test. according to Farwell. most of the witnesses against Harrington had either died or had been discredited.CHAPTER 5 CASE STUDIES The biggest breakthrough. What memories of the crime were left to probe? But Farwell combed the transcripts and came up with obscure details about which to test Harrington. Finally. Harrington was set free. The following page displays Terry Harrington's average brain-wave responses recorded in response to three types of stimuli: (1) Targets (illustrated on the figure with a solid/red line) are phrases that were made relevant to the subject by instructing him to 23/01/2011 17 CMRIT .

X-axis: time in milliseconds (msec). According to these witnesses.press a particular button when they appeared on the screen. The large MERMER in response to probes indicates that these specific details of the events that took place elsewhere at the same time as the crime are relevant and noteworthy for this subject. Stimulus was presented at 0 msec. (3) Probes (bold/blue line) are phrases relevant to events that took place the night of the Schweer murder. according to alibi witnesses. 23/01/2011 18 CMRIT . The MERMER is absent. Note the large MERMER (evident here as a positive voltage peak at approximately 800 msec followed by a negative voltage peak at approximately 1100 msec). Y-axis: voltage in micro volts at the parietal (Pz) scalp site. Harrington participated in these events that took place far from the crime scene at the time of the crime. Note that the brain response to probes matches the brain response to targets. (2) Irrelevants (dotted/green line) are phrases that are not relevant. which indicates that these stimuli are relevant to the subject. which also contains a MERMER.

Dawson ordered a test on J. accused of raping and murdering a 25-yearold woman. In 1999. Probes and Irrels. B. In Macon County. Mo. who had also seen it featured on television. Sheriff Robert Dawson learned about the method from his secretary.1 Brain wave responses have shown using Targets. Grinder..Fig 5. Grinder had admitted and denied the allegations 23/01/2011 19 CMRIT .

and non-testimonial manner. Dawson turned again to brain fingerprinting. "We didn't know what to believe anymore." Confronted with the test results. While the suspect denied knowing anything about the case. He refrained from discussing the details of the case with the suspect and with the media so that the P300 probes would be valid. non-invasive. and only when. Thus. (This is similar to the process of connecting DNA samples from the perpetrator with biological evidence found at the scene of the crime. which seemed to confirm one of Grinder's many confessions.so many times that. When a crime is committed. a record is stored in the brain of the perpetrator. objective. and reveals a brain MERMER (memory and encoding related multifaceted electroencephalographic response) when. Grinder pled guilty to the charges and also admitted to killing three other girls in Arkansas. 23/01/2011 20 CMRIT . the evidence stored in the brain matches the evidence from the crime scene. the guilty can be identified and the innocent can be cleared in an accurate. according to Dawson. Brain Fingerprinting provides a means to objectively and scientifically connect evidence from the crime scene with evidence stored in the brain. non-stressful.) Brain Fingerprinting measures electrical brain activity in response to crime-relevant words or pictures presented on a computer screen. only the evidence evaluated by Brain Fingerprinting is evidence stored in the brain. When another murder investigation ran into problems earlier this year. scientific. Farwell's test suggested otherwise.

the probes are noteworthy due to his knowledge of the details of the crime. Since the targets are noteworthy for the subject. These irrelevants do not elicit a MERMER." "irrelevants. Some of the non-target stimuli are relevant to the crime or situation under investigation.Fig 5. Each stimulus appears for a fraction of a second. they elicit a MERMER.2 A blue color headband placed on suspects head. These relevant stimuli are referred to as probes." and "probes. words. For a subject who has committed the crime. and pictures taken from crime scene." The targets are made relevant and noteworthy to all subjects: the subject is given a list of the target stimuli and instructed to press a particular button in response to targets. Three types of stimuli are presented: "targets. and therefore probes elicit a brain 23/01/2011 21 CMRIT . Brain Fingerprinting incorporates the following procedure. with a computer placed in front of him displaying the series of relevant stimuli. and to press another button in response to all other stimuli. having no relation to the crime. A sequence of words or pictures is presented on a video monitor under computer control. Most of the non-target stimuli are irrelevant.

CHAPTER 6 Comparison with other technologies Conventional fingerprinting and DNA match physical evidence from a crime scene with evidence on the person of the perpetrator.MERMER. Should we really rely on memory to detect lies in people? Brain is much more complicated than we have the knowledge of. the results are the same whether the person has lied or told the truth at any time. I am not sure whether we should tie memory with lying. how brain works. Brain Fingerprinting matches informational evidence from the crime scene with evidence stored in the brain Fingerprints and DNA are available in only 1% of crimes. As with DNA and fingerprints. and will have change of mind once I do. and how Brain Fingerprinting. the probes are indistinguishable from the irrelevant stimuli. I just do not have enough understanding and/or knowledge of memory. Similarly. Brain Fingerprinting has nothing to do with lie detection. this is where I stand and I think the criminal justice system is with me on this. Memory is just not stable enough to be used in criminal justice system. For an innocent subject lacking this detailed knowledge of the crime. 23/01/2011 22 CMRIT . For such a subject. in which case Brain Fingerprinting is not better than Lie detectors. I admit current lie detectors have some issues with reliability and do not have accuracy result of 100% like Farwell did with Brain Fingerprinting. and recording the suspect's actions. planning. it is a scientific way to determine if someone has committed a specific crime or other act. The brain is always there. But I rather have lie detector improved with more technology than relying on Brain Fingerprinting. executing. Rather. the probes are not noteworthy. No questions are asked and no answers are given during Farwell Brain Fingerprinting. But for now. and thus probes do not elicit a MERMER. Maybe.

4) The theory and practice of Brain Fingerprinting have gained general acceptance in the relevant scientific community. 5) Brain Fingerprinting is non-invasive and non-testimonial 23/01/2011 23 CMRIT . will be relevant when the question of admissibility is tested in court. 2) The theory and application of Brain Fingerprinting have been subject to peer review and publication. 3) The rate of error is extremely low -. The following well established features of Brain Fingerprinting. 1) Brain Fingerprinting has been thoroughly and scientifically tested.CHAPTER 7 Admissibility of Brain Fingerprinting in court The admissibility of Brain Fingerprinting in court has not yet been established. however.virtually nonexistent -and clear standards governing scientific techniques of operation of the technology have been established and published.

Dr. Farwell's successes in the scientific laboratory with his invention were already well known. Dr. Farwell for the US Navy in collaboration with Navy LCDR Rene S. In collaboration with FBI scientist Dr. Dr. Ph. Tests conducted by Dr. Farwell has published extensively in the scientific literature and presented 23/01/2011 24 CMRIT . Farwell achieved 100% accuracy in using Farwell Brain Fingerprinting to identify FBI agents based on their brain responses to words and phrases only an FBI agent would recognize.D. In research on contract with a US government Intelligence agency. also resulted in 100% accurate results. Drew Richardson. Hernandez.CHAPTER 8 Record of 100% Accuracy At the time of this first field application. Farwell Brain Fingerprinting achieved 100% accuracy in proving the presence or absence of a wide variety of evidence stored in the brains of individuals involved in over 120 cases..

Farwell. In one criminal case. CHAPTER 9 CONCLUSION Brain Fingerprinting is a revolutionary new scientific technology for solving crimes. identifying perpetrators. and other applications. phrases. and other scientists has consistently demonstrated similar results. Previous published research by Dr.his research to many scientific and technical audiences throughout the world. Farwell Brain Fingerprinting has been subjected to rigorous peer review under US government sponsorship. In all of these studies and cases. his colleagues. In another criminal case. There were no false positives. Brain Fingerprinting vindicated a police officer falsely accused of a felony. words. actual criminal cases. law enforcement 23/01/2011 25 CMRIT . and exonerating innocent suspects. Brain Fingerprinting implicated a serial killer in a murder that had remained unsolved for 15 years. no false negatives. and has been found scientifically viable as well as revolutionary in its implications. or pictures flashed on a computer screen containing information relevant to the crimes or other investigated situations elicited a MERMER only in the subjects who possessed the critical information. The technology fulfills an urgent need for governments. Over 120 subjects in the above four experiments were correctly classified as possessing or not possessing the critical information stored in the brain. with a record of 100% accuracy in research with US government agencies. and no indeterminate.

crime victims. witnesses. and others is of central concern to all phases of law enforcement. it does not depend on the emotional response of the subject. This new system detects information directly. and intelligence operations. intelligence sources. corporations. measured non-invasively from the scalp. The detection of concealed information stored in the brains of suspects. Brain Fingerprinting presents a new paradigm in forensic science. and falsely accused innocent suspects. government and private investigations. on the basis of the electrophysiological manifestations of information-processing brain activity.agencies. Since Brain Fingerprinting depends only on brain information processing. investigators. REFERENCES: 23/01/2011 26 CMRIT .

2. 105 pp.com/epilepsy/electroencephalogram..htm.1. Lehtonen.com 3. http://www. Brain Fingerprinting. Working from http://computer. 7. Electroencephalography. http://techalone. Helsinki University of Technology. http://www. (1989).google. Bootstrapping: applications to psychophysiology.com//brain fingerprinting. Wolpaw and Niels Birbaumer. http://en. Department of Electrical and Communications Engineering. EEG-based Brain Computer Interfaces (Thesis). Website: www.fi/research/cogntech/bci/jannes_thesis.hut. Brain Fingerprinting. 6.webmd. 8.pdf Brain–computer interfaces for communication and controlJonathan R. 23/01/2011 27 CMRIT .howstuffworks. J. 26:208-221.lce. Wasserman S. 5. 2002. Bockenholt U. Psychophysiology.com/braincomputer-interface.wikipedia. 4.org/wiki/Brain Fingerprinting. Early speculations of brain fingerprinting from.

23/01/2011 28 CMRIT .