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# Numerical Methods

Topics: Introduction to Numerical Methods in Vibration Approximate Methods Holzer Method for Close Coupled Systems Holzer Method for Branched Systems Myklestad-Prohl Method for Far Coupled Systems Finite Element Method

## Introduction to Numerical Methods in Vibrations

Towards the end of the 19 century , development in rotating machinery led to large complicated and heavy systems Thus the requirement for the methods which could handle large matrices to determine the Eigen values and Eigen vectors was felt by the industries After the II world war , the higher modes of the systems under operation also became very important in fields such as the aviation and shipping fields These all lead to the development of the systems solution in the numerical methods The important methods are

## 1.Dunkerleys method 2.Rayleighs method 3.Holzer method 4.Myklestad Prohl method

Up to I natural frequency

## For the higher modes and complicated systems 2

Numerical Methods
Topics: Introduction to Numerical Methods in Vibration Approximate Methods Holzer Method for Close Coupled Systems Holzer Method for Branched Systems Myklestad-Prohl Method for Far Coupled Systems Finite Element Method

Approximate Methods
Determining the first natural frequency i.e, a method for checking the resonance which were used earlier as an approximate estimate

## Dunkerleys Lower bound Approximation

Consider an EV problem . The frequency equation is given by For N DOF

## Where p(i,i) represents NF of system with only i th mass considered

Approximate Methods
The equation becomes Since , we can write

The above Dunkerlays formula gives always the less approximate than the exact values

The simplicity of the method is in using the reducing the multiple masses to several SDOF masses individually
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Approximate Methods
Rayleighs Upper Bound Approximation
Consider a MDOF system with matrices M and K representing the mass and stiffness matrices Let X be the modal vectors with i th column representing i th model vector with i th column representing the i th mode shape corresponding to P(i) The KE and PE of the system are given as

Hence we get Which give the First NF of the system and is known as Raylieghs quotient This value is always greater the first NF actual value
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Numerical Methods
Topics: Introduction to Numerical Methods in Vibration Approximate Methods Holzer Method for Close Coupled Systems Holzer Method for Branched Systems Myklestad-Prohl Method for Far Coupled Systems Finite Element Method

## Holzer Method for Close Coupled Systems

Consider a closed coupled system shown in the figure

The convention is to measure displacement and velocity to the right side internal forces are measured along outward normal

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## Holzer Method for Close Coupled Systems

The equation of motion for rth mass is R- right For harmonic force , the above eqn becomes The displacement of mass mi is Combining the above equation we get the matrix form of the equations ie., P is the point matrix defines TF to right station in terms of the left station P is function of mass and frequency
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## Holzer Method for Close Coupled Systems

Considering the force field of the spring we get Hence the matrix form is given as

Here F is the Field matrix defining the TF across the field , function of stiffness only Substituting

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## Holzer Method for Close Coupled Systems

Importance is to be given to maintain the order of the matrix multiplication and station numbering using transfer matrix The order to be followed is given below

## Finally we get and , where U is the overall transfer matrix

The application of boundary conditions is also important as pet the appropriate system 11 situation

## Holzer Method for Close Coupled Systems

Sequence of Procedure to be Adapted
Assume Value of 2 Desired Natural Frequency. By Making a Crude Model( Using Dunkerleys or Rayleighs ) Transfer Matrices [ T ]i for all Stations. At End Points Determine Point or Field Matrices. Determine Overall Transfer Matrix [ U ] Change 2 by suitable increment and repeat Steps 1 to 3 Plot u12 vs 2 and find value of 2 for which u12 is Zero. This is a Natural Frequency With {S}0 in the Equation repeat above Steps with the Natural Frequency obtained in Step 5, to determine the State Vectors at Stations 1,2,..n. Plot the Amplitudes X1,X2,.Xn to give the Mode Shape for the Frequency Obtained in Step 5 Repeat Steps 1 to 6 for obtaining other Natural Frequencies and Mode Shapes
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Numerical Methods
Topics: Introduction to Numerical Methods in Vibration Approximate Methods Holzer Method for Close Coupled Systems Holzer Method for Branched Systems Myklestad-Prohl Method for Far Coupled Systems Finite Element Method

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## Holzer Method for Branched Systems

The same method can be extended to the branched systems as well and it is briefly described below A branched system

The overall transfer matrices for the three branches are as follows and at a branch point the following conditions are to satisfied
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## Holzer Method for Branched Systems

Using end conditions we have

And hence Using the branch point conditions we get The above given system can be represented in the branched torsional form as

Therefore

and
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## Holzer Method for Branched Systems

Which can be finally written as and the frequency equation is Which gives the natural frequency of the system

## Example of a geared torsional system

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Numerical Methods
Topics: Introduction to Numerical Methods in Vibration Approximate Methods Holzer Method for Close Coupled Systems Holzer Method for Branched Systems Myklestad-Prohl Method for Far Coupled Systems Finite Element Method

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## Myklestad-Prohl Method for Far Coupled Systems

Consider an n mass system representing the discrete mass of an element as shown (the masses are considered to be lumped)

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## Myklestad-Prohl Method for Far Coupled Systems

For i th element of length li and mass mi and S represents the state vector In the given Xz plane Slope Bending Moment Shear Force My Vz

## The state vector can be defined left to the station i

Convention
w , positive in Y and Z direction Vz My represent the internal forces and are positive in Y and Z direction in positive face A positive face is the one which has outward normal positive x direction
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## Myklestad-Prohl Method for Far Coupled Systems

The relations for a particular ith field are given aside They are given as Using the cantilever relations for shear and bending

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## Myklestad-Prohl Method for Far Coupled Systems

Simplifying we get

In short form

## where S is the state matrix and F is the transfer matrix

Following the relations given for the ith mass We can write

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## Myklestad-Prohl Method for Far Coupled Systems

The transfer matrix is given finally by and Which is a short form of

For SS beam
At the ends

## For cantilever beam

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Numerical Methods
Topics: Introduction to Numerical Methods in Vibration Approximate Methods Holzer Method for Close Coupled Systems Holzer Method for Branched Systems Myklestad-Prohl Method for Far Coupled Systems Finite Element Method

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## Finite Elements Method

Close Coupled Systems 1. Choose Element 2. Define Shape Function 3. Derive Element Stiffness Matrix 4. Assemble Element Stiffness Matrix 5. Set up Mass Matrix and Eigen Value Problem 6. Solve Eigen Value Problem Matrix Condensation Scheme Component mode Synthesis Method

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## Finite Elements Method

Close Coupled Systems

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## Finite Elements Method

Far Coupled Systems 1. 2. 3. 4. Choose Element Define Shape Function Derive Element Stiffness Matrix Assemble Element Stiffness Matrix 5. Set up Mass Matrix and Eigen Value Problem 6. Solve Eigen Value Problem Matrix Condensation Scheme Component mode Synthesis Method

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## Finite Elements Method

Far Coupled Systems

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## Finite Elements Method

Far Coupled Systems

Stiffness Matrix

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## Finite Elements Method

Far Coupled Systems

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Assignment
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Assignment
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Assignment
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Assignment
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Assignment
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Obtain the first five natural frequencies and corresponding mode shapes of the 'Penstock pipe' using Myklestad's method. Details about the system are given in the table. Assume ends to be fixed and two intermediate simple supports in between.

Description L1 = 15.445m L2 = 15.000m L3 = 14.508 or 4.268m Internal Dia. of the pipe = 5230mm Pipe material : Boiler Quality plates (IS 2002 Grade 2A) Pipe thickness = 14 or 16mm
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