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1/29/2009 Alexandra Mutty

and using troubleshooting methods to determine if the circuit is working properly. and then troubleshoot the circuit to find the error. we will be able to successfully troubleshoot a common emitter amplifier circuit. and observe the results of such errors in the circuit. we will have someone create a small error in the circuit. We will create small problems in the circuit.Introduction In this lab. By the end of this lab. . we will be making a common emitter amplifier circuit. At the end of this lab.

. emitter voltage. collector voltage. collector current. and collector to emitter voltage using the 7 step process to use later to reference to our actual results. load voltage. emitter current.Procedure Materials: DC power supply DMM Function generator Oscilloscope & probes 560Ω. 18kΩ resistors (2) 25uF. 8. Figure 1 Schematic used to build our common emitter amplifier circuit. we put in a 5k pot to lower the incoming voltage. and solve to find the base voltage.2kΩ. In between the input and C1. 100uF capacitors 2N2222 transistor Dynamic Check of Amplifier Operation The first step was to take the schematic from Figure 1. Figure 2 shows the actual circuit we built. 1kΩ.

99 = 5.7 = 2.1 V/560Ω = 3.99mA x 1k = 3. and for the input. so we put in a 5k potentiometer in between the function generator and the capacitor to lower the incoming voltage. Figure 2 shows the actual circuit that we made...2k x 9 = 2.01 V VCE = Vcc – VRL – VE = 2.8 V .99mA = 6. The potentiometer was put in to lower the incoming voltage of the circuit.99 mA VRL = IC x RL = 3. Figure 2 Circuit built from the schematic in Figure 1.99 V VC = Vcc – VRL = 9 – 3.2k/26.VB = R2/(R1+R2) x Vcc = 8.26 We next connected the circuit in Figure 1.8V VE = VB . put in a 30mV p-p wave from the function generator into the input. The function generator’s amplitude could not go as low as 30mV. .7 = 2.91 Re = 25 mV / IE = 25mV / 3.99 mA IC = IE = 3.1 V IE = VE/RE = 2.

we removed C1 from the circuit (see Figure 1). base. 2 3 4 Condition Input Normal C1 open C3 open 30mV 140mV 100mV Base 30mV 0V 100mV V p-p Collector 3. From the information gathered. Table 1 Dynamic Checks Step 1. DC Voltage Measurements For the next part of the lab.5V 0V 190mV Output 3. and recorded that into Table 1. From the results. collector and output voltages of the circuit to record into Table 1 (step 3). and recorded that into Table 1. We next put C1 back into the circuit and then took out C3 (see figure 1) and measured the input. we were able to determine that the amplifier operation was good. collector voltage. and output voltage in peak to peak value to record into Table 1 (step 1.5V 0V 190mV okay bad bad Amplifier Operation Next.2). From the measurements we took with the oscilloscope. and recorded that into Table 1. collector. and again measured the input. base voltage. and emitter using the 7 step process. we could conclude that the amplifier operation was bad. collector and output voltages of the circuit to record into Table 1 (step 4). we could tell that the operation of the amplifier was bad. we estimated what the dc voltages at the base.We then used the oscilloscope to measure the voltage of the input voltage. base. We had already calculated what the voltages would be at the .

collector. and collector voltages would be if the base were open. because none of the voltage is going though the transistor. so we copied those down into Table 2 under Voltage (normal). so the voltage should stay at 9V.81 9 Voltage (collector open) Estimated Measured Estimated Measured Voltage (base open) 0 0. Table 2 DC Voltages Element Emitter Base Collector Voltage (normal) 2. .11 2. base. and collector to record into Table 2 under Voltage (normal). measured values. I calculated what the emitter. so the emitter would be 0V. because in the 7 step process. which meant no voltage drop. base.22 1. Because of this.82 0. because of the collector to emitter voltage.07 0 0. and emitter to record into Table 1 under Voltage (emitter open).7 0 0.81 5.31 Voltage (emitter open) Measured 2. and emitter voltages would look like if the emitter was open (not connected to the next part of the circuit).34 9.84 2. but there was no voltage to subtract from. calculated values. measured values.08 2. We knew the values of the base and emitter should stay relatively the same because nothing had changed in the first part of the circuit.11 2. we calculated what the base.4 2. The base voltage we knew to be 4.16 0. we knew the entire voltage supply would be read on the collector. no current was flowing. We next disconnected the function generator from the circuit and measured the DC voltage at the emitter. We knew the collector voltage should be around 9V because since the connection to the emitter was broken.5 5. Next. VE = VB-. collector.beginning of the lab. We then broke the circuit between the resistor and the emitter and measured the voltage at the base. We knew the emitter value should be 0.7.4 9 0 0.82 9.16 Estimated Measured Estimated Next.

7 V because VE = VB . We next measured the emitter voltage. because there was only 1 resistor between the emitter and ground. and because it was not 0. we would assume the resistance to be infinite. We then measured the actual resistances from the emitter. and collector to ground.7 V. From the collector to ground. and collector voltages would be if the collector was open. emitter. We measured the base.14k Troubleshooting the CE Amplifier We had Nate insert some “trouble” into our amplifier. not the emitter. we knew it should be around 560Ω. The first thing we noticed was that the collector voltage was around 9V. and collector voltages to record into Table 2 under Voltage (base open). We then reconnected the base to the circuit. there’s only 1 resistor. We first disconnected the function generator and measured the DC voltage at the collector. the transistor is off. so the resistance should be around 8. and estimated the resistance of the emitter.. measured values.We then reconnected the emitter to the circuit and disconnected the base from the circuit and measured the base. next to the estimated values. the 8. base. base. measured values. collector. emitter. we knew that it was the base that was open. and the base voltage should be 0. We were able to successfully troubleshoot the circuit to find that the base was open in our common emitter circuit. Base should be around 0. .2k 8. From the emitter to ground. Table 3 Resistance Measurements Element Emitter Base Collector Resistance to Ground (G) Estimated Measured 560 462 8. and emitter voltages and recorded them into Table 2 under Voltage (collector open).7.16k ∞ 27. Resistance Measurements We disconnected the DC power supply from the circuit.2kΩ resistor. From the base to ground. We next calculated what the base. and recorded them into Table 3. and collector to ground.7. the collector and emitter voltages should be close to 0. and emitter. because with no power in the circuit. so VB = VE + . and the resistance should be infinite.2kΩ. which we knew meant that either the base or emitter was open. base. and disconnected the emitter from the rest of the circuit. We knew that because the collector was open.