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1/29/2009 Alexandra Mutty

and using troubleshooting methods to determine if the circuit is working properly. and then troubleshoot the circuit to find the error. we will be able to successfully troubleshoot a common emitter amplifier circuit. and observe the results of such errors in the circuit. we will have someone create a small error in the circuit. We will create small problems in the circuit.Introduction In this lab. By the end of this lab. . we will be making a common emitter amplifier circuit. At the end of this lab.

. emitter voltage. collector voltage. collector current. and collector to emitter voltage using the 7 step process to use later to reference to our actual results. load voltage. emitter current.Procedure Materials: DC power supply DMM Function generator Oscilloscope & probes 560Ω. 18kΩ resistors (2) 25uF. 8. Figure 1 Schematic used to build our common emitter amplifier circuit. we put in a 5k pot to lower the incoming voltage. and solve to find the base voltage.2kΩ. In between the input and C1. 100uF capacitors 2N2222 transistor Dynamic Check of Amplifier Operation The first step was to take the schematic from Figure 1. Figure 2 shows the actual circuit we built. 1kΩ.

99 = 5.7 = 2.1 V/560Ω = 3.99mA x 1k = 3. and for the input. so we put in a 5k potentiometer in between the function generator and the capacitor to lower the incoming voltage. Figure 2 shows the actual circuit that we made...2k x 9 = 2.01 V VCE = Vcc – VRL – VE = 2.8 V .99mA = 6. The potentiometer was put in to lower the incoming voltage of the circuit.99 mA VRL = IC x RL = 3. Figure 2 Circuit built from the schematic in Figure 1.99 V VC = Vcc – VRL = 9 – 3.2k/26.VB = R2/(R1+R2) x Vcc = 8.26 We next connected the circuit in Figure 1.8V VE = VB . put in a 30mV p-p wave from the function generator into the input. The function generator’s amplitude could not go as low as 30mV. .7 = 2.91 Re = 25 mV / IE = 25mV / 3.99 mA IC = IE = 3.1 V IE = VE/RE = 2.

we removed C1 from the circuit (see Figure 1). base. 2 3 4 Condition Input Normal C1 open C3 open 30mV 140mV 100mV Base 30mV 0V 100mV V p-p Collector 3. From the information gathered. Table 1 Dynamic Checks Step 1. DC Voltage Measurements For the next part of the lab.5V 0V 190mV Output 3. and recorded that into Table 1. From the results. collector and output voltages of the circuit to record into Table 1 (step 3). and recorded that into Table 1. We next put C1 back into the circuit and then took out C3 (see figure 1) and measured the input. we were able to determine that the amplifier operation was good. collector voltage. and output voltage in peak to peak value to record into Table 1 (step 1.5V 0V 190mV okay bad bad Amplifier Operation Next.2). From the measurements we took with the oscilloscope. and recorded that into Table 1. collector. and again measured the input. base voltage. and emitter using the 7 step process. we could conclude that the amplifier operation was bad. collector and output voltages of the circuit to record into Table 1 (step 4). we could tell that the operation of the amplifier was bad. we estimated what the dc voltages at the base.We then used the oscilloscope to measure the voltage of the input voltage. base. We had already calculated what the voltages would be at the .

collector. and collector voltages would be if the base were open. because none of the voltage is going though the transistor. so we copied those down into Table 2 under Voltage (normal). so the voltage should stay at 9V.81 9 Voltage (collector open) Estimated Measured Estimated Measured Voltage (base open) 0 0. Table 2 DC Voltages Element Emitter Base Collector Voltage (normal) 2. .11 2. base. and collector to record into Table 2 under Voltage (normal). measured values. I calculated what the emitter. so the emitter would be 0V. because in the 7 step process. which meant no voltage drop. base.22 1. Because of this.82 0. because of the collector to emitter voltage.07 0 0. and emitter to record into Table 1 under Voltage (emitter open).7 0 0.81 5.31 Voltage (emitter open) Measured 2. and emitter voltages would look like if the emitter was open (not connected to the next part of the circuit).34 9.84 2. but there was no voltage to subtract from. calculated values. measured values.08 2. We knew the values of the base and emitter should stay relatively the same because nothing had changed in the first part of the circuit.11 2. we calculated what the base.4 2. The base voltage we knew to be 4.16 0. we knew the entire voltage supply would be read on the collector. no current was flowing. We next disconnected the function generator from the circuit and measured the DC voltage at the emitter. We knew the collector voltage should be around 9V because since the connection to the emitter was broken.5 5. Next. VE = VB-. collector.beginning of the lab. We then broke the circuit between the resistor and the emitter and measured the voltage at the base. We knew the emitter value should be 0.7.4 9 0 0.82 9.16 Estimated Measured Estimated Next.

7 V because VE = VB . We next measured the emitter voltage. because there was only 1 resistor between the emitter and ground. and because it was not 0. we would assume the resistance to be infinite. We then measured the actual resistances from the emitter. and collector to ground.7 V. From the collector to ground. and collector voltages would be if the collector was open. emitter. We measured the base.14k Troubleshooting the CE Amplifier We had Nate insert some “trouble” into our amplifier. not the emitter. we knew it should be around 560Ω. The first thing we noticed was that the collector voltage was around 9V. and collector voltages to record into Table 2 under Voltage (base open). We then reconnected the base to the circuit. there’s only 1 resistor. We first disconnected the function generator and measured the DC voltage at the collector. the transistor is off. so the resistance should be around 8. and estimated the resistance of the emitter.. measured values.We then reconnected the emitter to the circuit and disconnected the base from the circuit and measured the base. next to the estimated values. the 8. base. base. measured values. collector. emitter. we knew that it was the base that was open. and the base voltage should be 0. We were able to successfully troubleshoot the circuit to find that the base was open in our common emitter circuit. Base should be around 0. .2k 8. From the emitter to ground. Table 3 Resistance Measurements Element Emitter Base Collector Resistance to Ground (G) Estimated Measured 560 462 8. and emitter voltages and recorded them into Table 2 under Voltage (collector open).7.16k ∞ 27. Resistance Measurements We disconnected the DC power supply from the circuit.2kΩ resistor. From the base to ground. We next calculated what the base. and recorded them into Table 3. and collector to ground.7. the collector and emitter voltages should be close to 0. and emitter. because with no power in the circuit. so VB = VE + . and the resistance should be infinite.2kΩ. which we knew meant that either the base or emitter was open. base. and disconnected the emitter from the rest of the circuit. We knew that because the collector was open.

there could be 2 easily identifiable problems. collector. Most of the values were relitively close to what we were expecting. we immediatley noticed a problem. The next two circuits I could confidently say were not in good amplifier operation using the same process. we looked at the information from the first table. Our first circuit was deemed okay. and emitter) in reference ot ground.22 5. which we knew was not correct from learning about troubleshooting. From our knowledge of common emitter amplifiers.6. DC Voltage Measurments. Gain = output/input gain = 190mV / 100m v.1 V of eachother. and our largest difference being within 0.Discussion During the Dynamic Check of an Amplifier Operation portion of this lab. and measured the voltages at each of the elements (collector. I know that a gain of around 116 would put the amplifier in good working condition. The last section in this lab was to have someone “insert” trouble into our circuit. We knew from this information. where our hookup wire connecting the two . otherwise the voltage would have been 0 V or close to it. gain = 3. To do this. Table 4 shows some of our closely related values. We got an actual reading of around 27kΩ (shown in Table 3). The collector to ground resistance we had assumed to be infinite because no voltage was in the circuit. which turns on the transistor and allows us to get a reading. When we measured the voltage from the collector to ground. From this.5 Collector 5. and use the troubleshooting methods we have learned through this lab. For the second part of the lab. we had to calculate what we thought each of the defective circuits voltage values would be to compare to the measured values fo the circuit. The voltage was around 9 V. which we know is because the ohmmeter sends out a small current to be able to read the resistance. but one confused us slightly. gain = 116.31 Our next part of the lab was to measure the resistances of our emitter. the output wasn’t there at all.11 2. either the emitter or base is open.84 2. the gain was rather bad. We started the DC measurments testing of the lab because out function generator had already been disconnected. All of out values were exremely close. The fact that out measured and calculated valuesa re so close together allows me to be sure that my results are accurate. while it did have a larger output than input.9 A gain of only 1. and we knew that the input and base should be identical votlages as well as the collector and output. This was confirmed by a closer look at our circuit.31 V of each other. The voltage was around 2 V. as well as out knowledge about common emitter circuits.81 1. Gain =1. We can also cheack the gain of the circuit by using the formual gain = output/input. so I knew the amplifier was not working. Table 3 DC Voltages Element Emitter Base Voltage (normal) Estimated Measured 2. so we knew that it was not the base that was open. because we were getting a higher output than input. and we expected to read an infinite amount of voltage ebcause the transistor is “off”. base. For the second circuit (step 3).9 is not very good for an amplifier. we knew that the “trouble” inserted into our circuit was a disconnection of the emitter to the rest of the circuit. So we next checked the emitter to ground voltage. The last circuit. our closest being within 0. we used our knowledge of common emitter amplifier to decide whether the amplifier operation was good or bad. so we knew that it was not in good working order.5V / 30mV. and base to ground.

and the amplifier was working find again. . We replaced the of the circuit together was missing.

The actual value came out to be 0. or many calculations. Compare the estimated and measured voltages in Table 2 for an amplifier operating normally. Other values were a little confusing.81. with the values of VB = 2. 4. For the Voltage (collector open) values for the emitter. Why is a dynamic test of an amplifier’s operation more meaningful than static dc voltage and resistance checks? A dynamic test will actually test the amplifiers operation using a signal generator and common sense to know if the circuit is working properly or not. It consists of first checking that the power is on.Questions 1. and the output of the second is capacitively coupled to the input of the third. 3. we estimated it to be 0V because the connection was broken and we did not think we would read any voltage. which we now know is because of small leakage through the transistor. The calculated value was 5. such as the collector voltages for the normal circuit. A static DC voltage and resistance checks need something to compare the circuit to.(or more) transistor (stage) amplifier to a specific transistor stage. These values are close enough for us to know we did everything correctly. and VE = 2. like an exact circuit that you know is working. Signal tracing can be used in a multistage amplifier to troubleshoot by checking to see if you’re getting a reasonably reading every couple of components to make sure nothing went amiss. 2.16V. Explain and discrepancies. We know they should stay the same because they would not be affected by the change in . The transistors are connected so that the output of the first is capacitively coupled to the input of the second. we expected that both the emitter and base voltage values would stay the same as if the emitter were closed. and finally using the DC voltage measurements to make sure everything is fine. The dynamic test is more meaningful because it will tell if the circuit is working properly without you needing another circuit to compare results to. Interpret and explain the voltages at the elements of the transistor with the emitter open (Table 2). and then using the dynamic tests with the oscilloscope to determine if the amplifier is okay.30 V. Next. Most of the values in Table 2 were extremely similar. or calculations that might have been done incorrectly. With the emitter open.22 V and the measured value was 5. The technique of signal tracing can be used to isolate trouble two. Explain how this technique may be used to determine which transistor stage is defective in a three – stage amplifier.11. the transistor should be tested.

Our values were confirmed by the measured values. and can just fix it. Knowing about amplifier operation also helps you determine what is wrong in the circuit. then VB = VE + 0. if I’m not getting any collector voltage. and VC = 9. because there was no voltage in the circuit.4. so the base voltage should be 0. which is why the lower power ohms function would be better to use in the circuit. While we assumed they would be 0V. Determine the voltages with respect to common which you would measure at the elements of the transistor. I know that the emitter and collector voltages should be 0V when the collector is open because with no current flowing. but the ohmmeter turns the transistor on. 6. Show your computations. where VB = 2. 5.08.7 V. Assume a short-circuited base-to-emitter voltage in Fig 1.82. Also. then the base voltage should be 0. our base voltage was relatively similar at 0. Interpret and explain the voltages at the elements of the transistor with the collector resistor open (Table 2). so the collector voltage will stay as 9V. I know that the collector is open in the circuit. they actually came out to be 0. but our emitter and collector voltages were a little higher than we expected. you will know something is wrong and know to troubleshoot. because if VE = VB0. In practice. .7. there should be no voltage. and we know this is because of the leakage through the transistor that we read any voltage at all. This is why the lower power ohms function would be better than the high power function of the VOM of measuring the resistance of a circuit. the total voltage.16 V. Is an understanding of the operation of a transistor amplifier helpful in troubleshooting it? Why? The understanding of the transistor operation is important as well as helpful because if you get some outrageous values.7 V. or very little collector voltage.82 V. 8. no current will flow which will mean no voltage drop. Why is it preferable to use the low-power-ohms function of a digital multimeter rather than the conventional ohms function of a VOM in measuring resistance in the external circuit of a transistor amplifier? The higher power ohms function on an ohmmeter can damage a transistor by putting out too much voltage. 7. I also know that while the emitter voltage should be 0V. all relatively close to our calculated values.7. We also know that the collector voltage should be around 9 V because with the emitter open.circuit. we though our collector to ground voltage would be infinite. VE = 2. For instance. and so we got an actual voltage.

and base). I know the emitter voltage is the same as the base voltage. or the process of testing the leads with an ohmmeter. From previous labs.25V VE = 0. For the transistors. Because the base and emitter are in parallel. and output) to find any errors.2k||560 / 18k + 8. common. The first step we’ve learned to take when troubleshooting is to check to make sure the power is on and going into the circuit. This testing specifically needs you to already have calculated values for the circuit already. and the entire 9V is read on the collector. we can find the transistors that are not working properly. We know that the reverse bias should be infinite in a good transistor. collector. So by looking at the reverse bias and determining it is infinite. I’ve also learned to recognize specific data within a circuit that could indicate certain problems. I used the 8. there is no voltage drop across the emitter. Conclusion From this lab. because you don’t want the current going back through the transistor and damaging your circuit if you put the transistor in wrong.2k|| 560 x 9 = 0. The next step is to check the transistor. Another problem might be some abnormal voltages during the DC voltage testing. such as using the Tektronix curve tracer machine to make sure the transistor is working.VB = R2 / R1 + R2 x Vcc = 8. I know there are several ways to test a transistor. and that the forward bias is not. Some of these are problems like not receiving any voltages during the dynamic test for the output or collector voltage. base. I’ve learned how to troubleshoot a common emitter amplifier circuit using several different methods. I calculated the base voltage using the same 7 step process I used before.2kΩ resistor in parallel with the 560Ω resistor because the short put the two in parallel. otherwise the transistor would never turn on. input. . they can still be broken. The next step is to using the method of dynamic testing where you inject a signal into the circuit and trace the signal throughout the circuit (such as at the emitter. The forward bias should be significantly less for each of the leads of the transistor. as well as my knowledge of common emitter circuits to find the errors in the circuits. Things like no voltage at the collector and emitter suggests that the collector is open. This does not mean we can determine which ones are working correctly. because even if they do pass this test. I know the collector voltage is still 9 V because with the emitter shorted to the base. This indicates that one of the capacitors might be open.25V VC = 9V To calculate VB. we used the ohmmeter to measure the resistance between each of the transistor leads (emitter.

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