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Contents Introduction Objective 9.1 Sulphuric acid 9.1.1 Properties of sulphuric acid 9.1.2 The uses of sulphuric acid 9.1.3 The industrial process in manufacture of sulphuric acid 9.1.4 Environmental pollution by sulphuric acid 9.2 Ammonia and its salt 9.2.1 Properties of ammonia 9.2.2 The uses of ammonia 9.2.3 The industrial process in manufacture of ammonia 9.3 Alloys 9.3.1 Physical properties of pure metals 9.3.2 Meaning and purpose of making alloys 9.4 Synthetic polymers 9.4.1 The meaning and types of polymers 9.4.2 Advantages of synthetic polymers 9.4.3 Environmental pollution caused by synthetic polymers 9.4.4 Methods to overcome the environmental pollution caused by synthetic polymers 9.5 Glass and ceramics 9.6 Composite material Conclusion References 15 18 19 20 Pages 2 3 4 4 4 6 7 8 8 9 9 11 11 12 13 13 14 14 14


INTRODUCTION All the objects that exist around us are made up of chemical substances. It also gives me new knowledge of the uses of chemical substances that I usually found in the laboratories. This is important for the students to appreciate the knowledge of chemistry that is still new for themselves. I think that this chapter is an interesting chapter as it revealed the way of scientist produces the material around me. by learning this chapter. compound or mixture. All the equations from this chapter make me more understand of the previous chapters. 3 . These objects exist as an element. All these objects contribute benefit to humankind. Personally. I hope. human has done many researches to ensure all these chemical substances will be enough for the use of themselves. I will be more interested in learning chemistry as it will help me in the future. As time goes on. Chapter 9 of Form 4 syllabus introduces the students with manufactured substances in industry.

 Evaluate the uses of synthetic polymer.  Appreciate various synthetic industrial materials.  Understand alloys.  Synthesise the manufacture of ammonia and its salts.  Evaluate the uses of composite materials.  Apply the uses of glass and ceramics.OBJECTIVES  Understand the manufacture of sulphuric acid. 4 .

Sulphuric acid is a strong mineral acid.1 SULPHURIC ACID 9. It is a highly corrosive.1. dense and oily liquid. Sulphuric acid is a non-volatile diprotic acid.2 Properties of sulphuric acid 9.9.1 A molecule of sulphuric acid.2 The uses of sulphuric acid 1) To manufacture fertilizers There are many fertilizers that can be made of sulphuric acid.1. Sulphonic acid is then neutralized with sodium hydroxide to produce detergents. 6. Soluble in Highly corrosive Diprotic acid Oily liquid Properties of sulphuric acid Dense Non-volatile acid Viscous colourless liquid Figure 9. 4. 5. Its molecular formula is H2SO4. 2. 3. Concentrated sulphuric acid is a viscous colourless liquid. It is soluble in water. 5 .1 Properties of sulphuric acid 1. Figure 9. Some of them are: a) Calcium dihydrogen phosphate (superphosphate) 224 + Ca3(PO4) 2 → Ca(H2 PO4) 2 + 2CaSO4 b) Ammonium phosphate sulphuric acid + tricalcium sulphate → calcium dihydrogen phosphate +2NH3 → (NH4) 2 SO4 sulphuric acid + aqueous ammonia → ammonium sulphate 2NH3 → (NH4) 2 SO4 c) Potassium sulphate 1) To manufacture detergents ulphuric acid + aqueous ammonia → ammonium sulphate Sulphuric acid reacts with hydrocarbon to produce sulphonic acid.

The neutralization of sulphuric acid and barium hydroxide produces barium sulphate.2) To manufacture synthetic fibres Synthetic fibres are polymers (long chain molecules).4 Uses of sulphuric acid in Industry O er th ch icals em 16% Pain pig en t m t 15% 6 . BaSO4. 3) To manufacture paint pigments The white pigment in paint is usually barium sulphate. Rayon is an example of a synthetic fibre that is produced from the action of sulphuric acid on cellulose. c. d. b. 4) As an electrolyte in lead-acid accumulators 5) To remove metal oxides from metal surfaces before electroplating 6) To manufacture pesticides 7) The uses of sulphuric acid in school laboratories are: a. As a strong acid As a drying or dehydrating agent As an oxidizing agent As a sulphonating agent As a catalyst As an electrolyte in lead-acid accumulators Remove metal oxides from metal surfaces before electroplating Manufacture fertilizers Manufacture pesticides Uses of sulphuric acid Manufacture paint pigments Manufacture detergents Manufacture synthetic fibres A an s electroly te 10% D eterg ts en 12% Sy th n etic fibres 9% M clean g etal in 2% D es y 2% Figure 9. e.3 Uses of sulphuric acid A an acid s 2% Fertilisers 32% Figure 9.

Stage I: Production of sulphur dioxide gas.3 The industrial process in manufacture sulphuric acid 1. SO2. This is because: a) Sulphur trioxide has low solubility in water b) Sulphur trioxide reacts violently and mists are formed instead of a liquid 7 . sulphur trioxide is not dissolved directly in water to produce sulphuric acid.1. H2SO4 to produce oleum. This is: a) To remove water vapour b) To remove contaminants 8. In stage III. In stage II. Sulphur → I Sulphur dioxide II 4. a) b) Burning of sulphur in dry air. Stage II: Conversion of sulphur dioxide to sulphur trioxide SO3. H2S2O7+ H2O → 2 H2SO4 7. Stage III: Production of sulphuric acid a) Sulphur trioxide is dissolved in concentrated sulphuric acid. + → Burning of metal sulphide such as zinc sulphide in dry air. A temperature of between 450°C to 550°C. 3. Sulphuric acid is produced from sulfur.9. The Contact process involves three stages. 2ZnS + 3 → 2 + 2ZnO 5. sulphur dioxide is dried first before being added to dry air to produce sulphur trioxide. H2S2O7 H2SO4+ SO3 → H2S2O7 b) Oleum is reacted with water to form concentrated H2SO4. This is then oxidised to sulfur trioxide under the following conditions: a) b) c) The presence of a vanadium (V) oxide as a catalyst. Sulphuric acid is manufactured by the Contact process. oxygen and water via the contact process. 2. A pressure of one atmosphere 2 SO2 + O2 → 6. III → Sulphur trioxide → Sulphuric acid This can be done by two methods.

Sulphuric acid and sulphurous acid are constituents of acid rain. Acid rain flows into the rivers and increases the acidity of water and kills aquatic living things. b) a temperature of between 450°C to 550°C. Remove sulphur dioxide from waste air by treating it with calcium carbonated before it is released. H2SO4 . c) a pressure of one atmosphere . 4. Corrodes concrete buildings and metal structure ii. Sulphuric acid is formed by atmospheric oxidation of sulphur dioxide in the presence of water. H2S2O7 diluted with equal volume of water H2O Concentrated sulphuric acid H2SO4 Figure 9. 5. Acid rain can cause many effects such as: i. 2. ii.2. Decrease the pH of the soil and make it become acidic iv.Sulphur or metal sulphide burned in air Sulphur dioxide. SO3 dissolved in sulphuric acid. A colorless. Sulphur dioxide is the main byproduct produced when sulfurcontaining fuels such as coal or oil are burned. a) the presence of a vanadium(V) oxide as a catalyst. Destroys trees and plants iii. 2.4 Environmental pollution by sulphuric acid 1. 9. It also produces sulphurous acid. we must reduce the sulphur dioxide from the atmosphere by: i.1. Use low sulphur fuels to reduce the emission of sulphur dioxide in exhaust gases.5 Flowchart of Contact process 9. 3. pungent gas.1 Properties of ammonia 1. Hence.2 AMMONIA AND ITS SALT 9. Its molecular formula is NH3 8 .

7. It is about one half as dense as air 6. K+ ion. 4. 5. [Zn(NH3)4] 2+ + 2− [Cu(NH3)4] 2+ + 2− Zn(OH)2 + 4NH3 → Cu(OH)2 + 4NH3 → Weak alkali Extremely Colourless soluble in water Pungent smell Properties of amm 9 . It is extremely soluble in water. Ammonia is alkaline in property and reacts with dilute acids in neutralization to produce salts. It reacts with hydrogen chloride gas to produce white fumes of ammonium chloride.6 A molecule of ammonia. and Ca 2+ ion) forming metal hydroxides precipitate. It is a weak alkali. For examples: NH3 + N 3 → 2NH3 + 24 NH3 + → NH4N 3 (NH4) 2 SO4 → 1. Fe3+ + 3− → Fe(H) 3 B w p c ita ro n re ip te Mg2+ + 2− → Mg(H) 2 Witep c ita h re ip te 2. Some metal hydroxides such as zinc hydroxide and copper (II) hydroxide dissolves in excess aqueous ammonia to form complexes.3. Aqueous solutions of ammonia produces OH − ions (except Na+ ion. Figure 9.

2. that can be converted into nitrate ions by bacteria living in the soil. 4. 4. Nitrogen gas used in Haber process is obtained from the frictional distillation of liquid air. Ammonium fertilizers contain ammonium ions. The fertilizer with a higher percentage of nitrogen is more effective. NO3−. It needs direct combination of nitrogen and hydrogen under high pressure in the presence of a catalyst.7 Properties of ammonia 9.Figure 9. NH4+. Hydrogen gas used in Haber process can be obtained by two methods: a) The reaction between steam and heated coke (carbon) C + H2O → CO + H2 b) The reaction between steam and natural gas ( consisting mainly of methane) CH4 + 2H2O → CO2 + 4H2 10 . which are soluble in water. The effectiveness of ammonium fertilizers is determined by the percentage of nitrogen by mass in them. Haber process is the industrial method of producing ammonia. 5. 3.2. often iron. 3. The percentage of nitrogen by mass can be calculated using this formula: Mass of nitrogen Molar Mass of Fertilizers x 100% 9. Ammonia is also used for the synthesis of nitric acid. The major use of ammonia and its compounds is as fertilizers. Nitrogen is absorbed by plants to produce protein in the form of nitrates.3 The industrial process in manufacture of ammonia 1.2.2 The uses of ammonia 1. 6. 2.

ammonia gas is produced.550°C.In the Haber process: a)A mixture consisting of one volume of nitrogen gas and three volume of hydrogen gas is compressed to a pressure between 200 – 500 atmospheres. b)The gas mixture is passed through a catalyst of powdered iron at a temperature of 450 . N2+ 3H2 → 2NH3 Figure 9.8 The Haber Process Nitrogen Hydrogen N2 and H2 are mixed in the proportion of 1:3 In the reactor chamber Unreacted N2 and H2 gases 11 N2(g) + 3H2(g) 2NH3(g) Temperature: 450-500°C Pressure: 200-500 atmospheres . c)At this optimum temperature and pressure.

3.9 Outline of Haber process 1. a) A pure metal contains atoms of the same size arranged in a regular and organized closed-packed structure. Pure metals are weak and soft because the arrangement of atoms in pyre metals makes them ductile and malleable. Empty space exists in the structures of pure metals. c) There are imperfections in the natural arrangements of metal atoms. b) Pure metals are soft because the orderly arrangement of atoms enables the layers of atoms to slide over each other easily when an external force is applied on them. able to be made into different shapes or pressed into thin sheets. 4. most metals have high melting points.3. This makes the metals ductile and metals can be drawn to form long wires. Hence.In cooling chamber Liquid ammonia 9.3 ALLOYS 9. The strong force of attraction between metal atoms requires high energy to overcome it. 12 . The close-packed arrangement of metal atoms results in the high density of metals. groups of metal atoms may slide into new positions in the empty spaces.1 Physical properties of pure metals Figure 9. This makes metals malleable. When hammered or pressed. Pure metals have the following physical properties a) Good conductor of electricity b) Malleable c) Ductile d) High melting and boiling point e) High density 2.

4. one or more foreign elements are added to a molten metal. When the alloy hardens.High density Malleable Ductile Properties of metals Figure 9.2 Meaning and purpose of making alloys 1. the positions of some of the metal atoms are replaced by the atoms of foreign elements. the layers of metal atoms are prevented from sliding over each other easily. This makes the alloy harder and stronger. 2. less ductile and less malleable than its pure metals. 3. In an alloy.10 Properties of metals 9. which size may be bigger or smaller than the original metal atoms. In the process of alloying. Hence. 13 .3. these atoms of foreign elements disrupt the orderly arrangement of the metal atoms and also fill up any empty space in the metal crystal structure. An alloy is a mixture of two or more elements with a certain composition in which the major component is a metal.

5. 4. The properties of polymer are different from its monomers. 2.1 The meaning of polymers 1. 2. 3. 2. Naturally occurring polymers are formed by the joining of monomers by polymerization. Hence. This type of polymer is man-made by chemical process in the laboratories. This type of polymer exists in living things in nature like the plants and animals. Carbohydrate is formed by the joining of monomers known as glucose. Natural rubber is formed by the joining of monomers known as isoprene.4. Polymerisation is the chemical process by which the monomers are joined together to form the big molecule known as the polymers. The properties of a pure metal are thus improved by making them into alloys. Protein is formed by the joining of monomers known as amino acid. the relative molecular mass of a polymer is large. 14 .4 SYNTHETIC POLYMERS 9. 3.5. Polymers can be defined as large molecules composed of numerous smaller. There are three aims of alloying a pure metal: a) b) c) To increase the hardness and strength of a metal To prevent corrosion or rusting To improve the appearance of the metal surface 9. a) Synthetic polymers 1. Polymers can be divided into two types: a) Naturally occurring polymers 1. A polymer is a very big molecule (macromolecule). repeating units known as monomers which are joined by covalent bonds. Examples of naturally occurring polymers are: a) Protein b) Carbohydrate c) Natural rubber 3. There are two types of polymerization process: a) Addition polymerization b) Condensation polymerization 1. 6.

3 Environmental pollution caused by synthetic polymers a) As most of polymers are non-biodegradable.4.4 Methods to overcome the environmental pollution caused by synthetic polymers a) Reduce. reuse and recycle synthetic polymers b) Develop biodegradable polymers 15 .2 Advantages of synthetic polymers a) Strong and light b) Cheap c) Able to resist corrosion d) Inert to chemical reactions e) Easily moulded or shaped and be coloured f) Can be made to have special properties 9. they will not decay like other organic garbage. polyvinylchloride (PVC). 5. Examples of plastics are polythene (polyethylene). polystyrene . Examples of synthetics fibres are nylon and terylene.2. They are produced by condensation polymerization.4. Polythene and PVC are produced by addition polymerization 6.4. 9. The raw materials for synthetic polymers are obtained from petroleum. The types of synthetic polymers include: a) Plastics b) Fibres c) Elastomers 4. 3. 9. polypropene (polypropylene). Perspex and Bakelite. b) Burning of polymers release harmful and poisonous gases.

SiO2. with the main constituent of aluminosilicate with small quantity of sand and feldspar. Both glass and ceramic have the same properties as follow a) Hard and brittle b) Inert to chemical reactions c) Insulators or poor conductors of heat and electricity d) Withstand compression but not stretching e) Can be easily cleaned f) Low cost of production 1. 2. Ceramic can withstand a higher temperature than normal glass. Ceramic is a manufactured substances made from clay.9.5 GLASS AND CERAMICS 1. 16 . Superconductor is one improved ceramics for specific purposes. while ceramic is opaque. glass is transparent. Uses of improved glass for specific purpose a) Photochromic glass • It is sensitive to light intensity b) Conducting glass • It conducts electricity 6. The main component of both glass and ceramic is silica or silicon dioxide. Differences between glass and cerement are. 7. 2. Types of glass are a) Fused glass • • • • • It is consist mainly of silica or silicon dioxide It has high heat resistance It cannot withstand high temperatures It can withstand high temperature High refractive index b) Soda lime glass c) Borosilicate glass d) Lead glass 1.

There are four types of glass which are as follows: • Fused glass • Soda-lime glass • Borosilicate glass • Lead crystal glass Name of Chemical Properties glass composition ○ Very high softening point (1700 °C) hence. ∞ Lenses ∞ Optical Ba2 O 3 (1%) Fused glass fibers ∞ Laborato ry glass wares 17 . 2. The major component of glass is SiO2.Glass 1. 3. highly heat resistant ○ Transparent to ultraviolet and infrared light ○ Difficult to be made into different shapes ○ Does not crack when temperature changes (very low thermal expansion coefficient) ○ Very resistant to chemical reactions Examples of uses ∞ Telescop SiO2 (99%) e mirrors. Glass is made up from sand.

Soda lime glass ○ Low softening point (700 °C). Thus it is heat resistant ○ Does not crack easily with sudden temperature changes ○ Transparent to ultraviolet light ○ More resistant to chemical reactions ○ Does not break easily ○ Low softening point (600 °C) ○ High density ○ High refractive index ○ Reflects light rays and ∞ Bottles ∞ Windowp anes SiO2 CaO (70%) (3%) ∞ Light bulbs ∞ Mirrors ∞ Bowls ( The most widely used type of glass) Na2O (15%) Others (5%) ∞ Laborato ry apparatu s ∞ Cooking utensils ∞ Electrical tubes ∞ Glass pipelines SiO2 (80%) Borosilicate glass Ba2 O 3 (15%) Na2O (3%) Al 2 O 3 Lead crystal glass SiO2 (55%) ∞ Decorati ve items ∞ Crystal glasswares ∞ Lens ∞ Prisms PbO( 30%) K2O (10%) Na2O ( 3%) Al2 O 3 ( 2%) 18 . does not withstand heating ○ Breaks easily ○ Cracks easily with sudden temperature changes (high coefficient of expansion) ○ Less resistant to chemical reactions ○ Easy to be made into different shapes ○ High softening point (800°C). hence.

The main constituent of clay is aluminosilicate. 3. General uses ceramics are as follows of : • very hard and strong but brittle • inert to chemical reaction • has a very high melting point • good electric and heat insulator • able to withstand compression 19 . Ceramic is a manufactured substance made from clay that is dried and then baked in a kiln at high temperature. (which consist of aluminium oxide and silicon dioxide) with small quantities of sand and feldspar. 2. Red clay contains iron (III) oxide which gives the red color. 5. Kaolinite is an example of high 4.∞ Chandeli appears sparkling ers Ceramics 1.

relatively cheaper Reflect light rays and allow light rays to travel along the fibre Reinforced concrete Glass of low refractive index Fibre optics Glass of high refractive index Glass Fibreglass Polyester plastic Glass Light. stronger. 4. lighter. Heavy. flexible. strong but brittle and nonflexible Light. resilient and flexible. elastic but weak and inflammable Transparent and not sensitive to light Sensitive to light Properties of composite Stronger. 3. The composite materials produced are harder. tough. with high tensile strength and not flammable Sensitive to light: darkness when light intensity is high. producing a complex mixture. does not reflect light rays.6 COMPOSITE MATERIAL 1. becomes clear when light intensity is low Photochromic glass Silver chloride. With low tensile strength Steel Hard with high tensile strength but expensive and can corrode Transparent. not so brittle. more resistant to heat and corrosion and also for specific purposes. can withstand higher applied forces and loads. A composite material is a structural material formed by combining two or more materials with different physical properties. 2. higher tensile strength. strong. The composite material produced will have different properties far more superior to the original materials. the weakness of the components will not exist anymore. does not corrode easily. or silver bromide 20 .9. When composite material is formed. strong but brittle and nonflexible Heavy. Composite material Component Concrete Properties of component Hard but brittle.

New needs and new problem will stimulate the development of new synthetic materials. 21 . shelter. New technological developments are used by scientists to make new discoveries. the new use of plastic composite material will replace metal in the making of a stronger and lighter car body. Plastic composite materials may one day used to make organs for organ transplant in human bodies. Synthetic materials are developed constantly due to the limitation and shortage of natural materials. This will become necessity with the shortage of human organ donors. The understanding of the interaction between different chemicals is important for both the development of new synthetic materials and the disposal of such synthetic materials as waste. New materials for clothing. our society is getting more complex. One of the ways is by doing continuous research and development (R & D) to produce better materials used to improve our standard of living.Figure 9.11 Composite material and their new properties CONCLUSION We must appreciate these various synthetic industrial materials. The recycling and development of environmental friendly synthetic material should be enforced. New materials are required to overcome new challenges and problems we face in our daily lives. A responsible and systemic method of handling the waste of synthetic materials and their by-product is important to prevent environmental pollution. For example. As we live in a changing world. tools and communication to improve our daily life are developed continuously for the well-being of mankind. This will save fuel and improve speed.

com 3. 2008. Tan Yin Toon.Bhd.REFERENCES 1. 22 . Oxford Fajar Sdn.answers. Loh Wai Leng. Website http://www. SUCCESS Chemistry SPM. Tan On Tin. Website http://www.wikipedia.