This action might not be possible to undo. Are you sure you want to continue?
18: 36703
Copyright © 1986 by Annual Reviews Inc. All rights reserved
MARINE PROPELLERS
Justin Ì. Kerwin
Department of Ocean Engneering, Massachusetts Institute of Technology,
Cambridge, Massachusetts 021 39
INTRODUCTION
Propellers produce thrust through the production of lift by their rotating
blades. Propeller hydrodynamics is therefore part of the broader feld of
lifingsurface theory, which includes such varied applications as aircraf,
hydrofoil boats, ship rudders, and sailboat keels. Air and water propellers
have much in common from a theoretical point of view, particularly if one's
attention is restricted to air propellers operating at low Mach numbers
(where compressibility efects are negligble) and to water propellers
operating without cavitation. The cross sections of most lifting surfaces are
also similar in appearance, being designed to produce a force at right angles
to their motion through the fuid (lift) with a minimum force parallel to their
direction of motion (drag).
In spite of these fundamental similarities, air and water propellers
generally look very diferent. The reason is that propellers for ships are
limited, for practical reasons, in diameter, and they are also limited by
cavitation in the amount oflif per unit blade area that they can produce. As
a result, marine propellers have blades that are much wider in relation to
their diameter than would be found in aircraft propellers. In addition,
propellers are generally located in close proximity to the stern of a ship.
This choice is based both on consideration of propulsive efciency and on
such practical matters as machinery arrangement and vulnerability to
damage. Since the fow near the stern is nonuniform, an inevitable
consequence is the development of vibratory forces on the propeller blades
and on the hull. Decisions concerning the number of blades and the shape of
the blade outline are infuenced to a great extent by the need to minimize
this excitation.
As an example, Figure 1 shows a photograph of a recently designed
propeller for a seismic exploration vessel. The computational model used in
J0J
00661 89/86/01 15367$02.00
A
n
n
u
.
R
e
v
.
F
l
u
i
d
M
e
c
h
.
1
9
8
6
.
1
8
:
3
6
7

4
0
3
.
D
o
w
n
l
o
a
d
e
d
f
r
o
m
w
w
w
.
a
n
n
u
a
l
r
e
v
i
e
w
s
.
o
r
g
b
y
U
N
I
V
E
R
S
I
T
Y
O
F
M
I
A
M
I
o
n
0
1
/
1
1
/
1
2
.
F
o
r
p
e
r
s
o
n
a
l
u
s
e
o
n
l
y
.
Quick links to online content
Further
ANNUAL
REVIEWS
368 KRW
Figure 1 A highly skewe controllablepitch propeller installed on a seismic exploration
vessel. (Photogaph courtesy of BirdJohnson Company.)
A
n
n
u
.
R
e
v
.
F
l
u
i
d
M
e
c
h
.
1
9
8
6
.
1
8
:
3
6
7

4
0
3
.
D
o
w
n
l
o
a
d
e
d
f
r
o
m
w
w
w
.
a
n
n
u
a
l
r
e
v
i
e
w
s
.
o
r
g
b
y
U
N
I
V
E
R
S
I
T
Y
O
F
M
I
A
M
I
o
n
0
1
/
1
1
/
1
2
.
F
o
r
p
e
r
s
o
n
a
l
u
s
e
o
n
l
y
.
�� PROP8IL8R8 169
Figure 2 Vortex lattic representation of the propeller shown in Figure 1.
its design, which we discuss later, is illustrated in Figure 2. The complex
blade shape is required because this propeller must have very low levels of
vibratory excitation and be completely fiee of cavitation under certain
operating conditions.
The complete feld of marine propeller hydrodynamics is far too broad to
cover adequately in a single paper. In this review we restrict our attention to
singleunit propulsors, as illustrated in Figure 1. Multicomponent pro
pulsors consisting of pairs of counterrotating propellers, combinations of
rotors and stators, or propellers combined with fxed or rotating shrouds
are all of current interest but are not covered here. Propeller cavitation is an
extensive feld of its own, which we also do not cover except as a motivation
for determining accurate pressure distributions on the blades. However, the
A
n
n
u
.
R
e
v
.
F
l
u
i
d
M
e
c
h
.
1
9
8
6
.
1
8
:
3
6
7

4
0
3
.
D
o
w
n
l
o
a
d
e
d
f
r
o
m
w
w
w
.
a
n
n
u
a
l
r
e
v
i
e
w
s
.
o
r
g
b
y
U
N
I
V
E
R
S
I
T
Y
O
F
M
I
A
M
I
o
n
0
1
/
1
1
/
1
2
.
F
o
r
p
e
r
s
o
n
a
l
u
s
e
o
n
l
y
.
37Û KRW
reader should be aware that computational techniques for noncavitating
fows, which we do describe, have been extended to the case of cavitating
fows. Recent work in this particular area is reviewed in Van Houten et al.
(1983).
Another important aspect of propeller hydrodynamics that we do not
cover here is the interaction of the pressure feld of the propeller with the
hull. The published literature in this feld is extensive, and the interested
reader might possibly start with publications by Breslin et al. (I982),Vorus
(1976), and Vorus et al. (1978).
In this review we frst discuss the onset fow to the propeller, which must
be known before one can proceed with the solution of the propeller
problem. We then formulate briefy the problem of the fow around a
propeller in general terms, at which point we look specifcally at the
problems of designing a propeller for a gven distribution oflif, analyzing a
given propeller both in circumferentially uniform fow and in the unsteady
fow resulting from a nonuniform onset feld.
THE PROPELLER ONSET FLOW
Except under artifcially contrived laboratory conditions, propellers
operate in a fow feld infuenced by the presence of the ship, where the
boundaries of the fuid domain may include nearby portions ofthe hull, the
free surface, and appendages such as the rudder. The coupling between
the propeller and hull fow is generally considered sufciently weak to prmit
separation of the two problems. Thus, the propeller is assumed to be
operating in an unbounded fuid, but in the spatially varying fow feld
generated by the ship. This fow feld can be represented as a combination of
the potential fow of the hull moving in the free surface and of the wake fow
containing the residue of the hull boundary layer. For most ships, the
deviation from free stream of the fow entering the propeller is largely due to
the viscous wake. This wake fow can in some cases be extremely
complicated. Figure 3 shows equivelocity contours of the longtudinal wake
feld for a supertanker. In this example, a point near the tip of a blade will be
subjected to an onset fow varying between 5 to 85% of the ship speed
during each revolution.
In addition to the hull infuence on the propeller, the propeller induces a
pressure feld on the hull whose mean component is termed "thrust
deduction." The oscillatory component of the propellerinduced hull
pressure, although small compared with the mean thrust, is nevertheless
extremely critical from the point of view of hull vibration. Again if weak
coupling is assumed between the hull and propeller fows, propeller
induced forces acting on the hull can be found by solving the problem of the
A
n
n
u
.
R
e
v
.
F
l
u
i
d
M
e
c
h
.
1
9
8
6
.
1
8
:
3
6
7

4
0
3
.
D
o
w
n
l
o
a
d
e
d
f
r
o
m
w
w
w
.
a
n
n
u
a
l
r
e
v
i
e
w
s
.
o
r
g
b
y
U
N
I
V
E
R
S
I
T
Y
O
F
M
I
A
M
I
o
n
0
1
/
1
1
/
1
2
.
F
o
r
p
e
r
s
o
n
a
l
u
s
e
o
n
l
y
.
MAI PROPELLERS 371
hull alone, in the presence of the freespace fow feld generated by the
propeller. The assumption that the hull and propeller fows can be
separated in this way breaks down if the presence of the propeller
signifcantly alters the fow around the hull. For example, if the regon of
boundarylayer separation on the hull were changed by the propeller's
induced fow, a large modifcation of the infow to the propeller could result.
Fortunately, ships are generally designed to avoid fow separation as much
as possible, so that the infuence of the propeller on the viscous fow around
the hull can generally be ignored.
However, the wake fow in which the propeller is operating contains
vorticity generated in the hull boundary layer, and the fow feld of the
propeller interacts with this rotational fow. The result is that the fow into
the propeller is not the same as it would be Hthe propeller were not there
and is altered by the presence of the propeller. This altered fow feld is
Figure 3 Equivelocity contours of the longitudinal component of the wake feld of a
supertanker. The circle indicates the axis of rotation of the propeller, while the line in the
. upperright comer shows a portion of the hull surface. The numbers indicate the velocity
defcit as a fraction of ship speed. From Holden et al. (1974).
A
n
n
u
.
R
e
v
.
F
l
u
i
d
M
e
c
h
.
1
9
8
6
.
1
8
:
3
6
7

4
0
3
.
D
o
w
n
l
o
a
d
e
d
f
r
o
m
w
w
w
.
a
n
n
u
a
l
r
e
v
i
e
w
s
.
o
r
g
b
y
U
N
I
V
E
R
S
I
T
Y
O
F
M
I
A
M
I
o
n
0
1
/
1
1
/
1
2
.
F
o
r
p
e
r
s
o
n
a
l
u
s
e
o
n
l
y
.
372 KRWN
termed the "efective wake," as contrasted to the "nominal wake" which
exists in the absence of the propeller. This complex interaction results in
changes to the propeller onset fow that are functions of both space and
time. The temporal variation is due to the fact that the propeller's induced
velocity feld is a function of time in a fxed coordinate system containing
the wake as a result of both the rotation of the propeller and its unsteady
loading.
Brockett (1985) suggests that the efective wake be defned as the total
velocity at any point in the fuid with a propeller operating minus the
potential component of the propellerinduced velocity. With this defnition,
the propeller problem is reduced to one of fnding (a)the velocity potential
in an unbounded fuid for a fow that satisfes the kinematic boundary
condition on the propeller surface and (b) a kinematic and dynamic
boundary condition at the trailing edge and on the trailing vortex sheets
behind the blades. Since the kinematic boundary condition involves the
efective onset fow, the propeller problem has not been separated at all,
except in the sense that one can hope to iterate to a converged solution or
possibly settle for a simple approximation to the efective wake. We now
consider these two possibilities.
Several decades passed afer the experimental discovery that the efective
wake and the nominal wake are diferent before any attempt was made to
develop a theoretical explanation. It is customary in developing a major
ship design to test a model together with a propeller in a towing tank. One
of the quantities determined is the thrust identity wake fraction, which is
defned as
(1)
where V is the speed of the ship and VA is the speed in uniform fow at which
the propeller would produce the same thrust as that measured behind the
model. The value of VA determined in this way is generally greater than the
average value of the velocity measured behind the model in the position of
the propeller. If one wishes to use the measured velocity distribution in the
design of the propeller, it would frst have to be scaled in order that its mean
value be equal to VA' If this were not done, the propeller design would prove
to be incorrect. This means that a propulsion experiment must be
performed in order to obtain the information needed for the propeller
design. However, it has been found that the propeller used in this test need
not correspond to the fnal design. A stock propeller of roughly the same
characteristics will yield essentially the same value of the thrust identity
wake.
A
n
n
u
.
R
e
v
.
F
l
u
i
d
M
e
c
h
.
1
9
8
6
.
1
8
:
3
6
7

4
0
3
.
D
o
w
n
l
o
a
d
e
d
f
r
o
m
w
w
w
.
a
n
n
u
a
l
r
e
v
i
e
w
s
.
o
r
g
b
y
U
N
I
V
E
R
S
I
T
Y
O
F
M
I
A
M
I
o
n
0
1
/
1
1
/
1
2
.
F
o
r
p
e
r
s
o
n
a
l
u
s
e
o
n
l
y
.
MU PROP8LL8R8 171
Several theoretical treatments of the efectivewake phenomenon have
appeared in recent years
.
These include contributions by Goodman (1979),
Huang &Groves (1980), Dyne (1980), and R. J. Van Houten (see Breslin et
al. 1982). In addition, the introduction of the laserDoppler velocimeter has
made it possible to measure fow felds just ahead of an operating propeller,
from which the detailed structure of the efective wake can be derived.
The basic idea is presented in Figure 4, taken from Huang & Groves
(1980), who treat the case of a propeller operating behind an axisymmetric
T
e 8
1.6
1.4
1.2
1.0
Rp
0
.
8
0.6
0.4
0.2
0.0
0.3
/
/
i
/
" 0.65._
4.
¯ 1.07
 '\ U
"X
.momoa
V
�
g
q EffaÜtiMa
/ ,
V
.
.
/
. /
( 1eta
" 0.
3
70
.
.
,
.
¯ "
.
4.
"
T
·F
^ `
_
.
U
· .
.. . .. . 1ota ¸× _
v. V �> ¸¸_
ttaa « ~··¯
�
_~¯
.
0.5 0.6 0.7 0.8
0.9
1.0 1.1
Figure 4 Typical total and efective aa velocity profles computed from the measured
nominal axial velocity. Results are given for two diferent values of nondimensional thrust
coefcient CT, corresponding to two values of the advance coefcient J
Y
o These coe
f
cients are
defned as follows:
where T is the propeller thrust, V the ship speed, p the fuid mass density, Rp the propeller
radius, and H the number of propeller revolutions per unit time. From Huang & Groves (1980).
A
n
n
u
.
R
e
v
.
F
l
u
i
d
M
e
c
h
.
1
9
8
6
.
1
8
:
3
6
7

4
0
3
.
D
o
w
n
l
o
a
d
e
d
f
r
o
m
w
w
w
.
a
n
n
u
a
l
r
e
v
i
e
w
s
.
o
r
g
b
y
U
N
I
V
E
R
S
I
T
Y
O
F
M
I
A
M
I
o
n
0
1
/
1
1
/
1
2
.
F
o
r
p
e
r
s
o
n
a
l
u
s
e
o
n
l
y
.
374 KRWIN
body. The axial component of the infow velocity in this typical example
ranges from about 30% of free stream at the hub to 80% at the tip. If we
assume that axial velocity gradients are small compared with radial
gradients, the fow feld can be represented by a volume distribution of
circumferential vorticity whose strength, in the absence of the propeller, is
independent of the axial coordinate.
The propeller induces an axial velocity feld that can be considered as a
frst approximation to be the diference between the total velocity and the
infow. This propellerinduced fow accelerates the fuid as it approaches
the propeller, and as a result, the circumferential vorticity that it contains is
stretched. This reduces the magnitude of the radial velocity gradient in the
infow. Huang &Groves (1980) fnd this by solving the vorticity equation
with the boundary condition that the fow at large radii is unchanged. The
result is the efective wake, which is also shown in Figure 4. It is evident from
this result that the mean onset fow is increased, and also that its
distribution over the radius is now diferent. A simple scaling of the nominal
wake to produce the correct mean is clearly insufcient. Dyne (1980) cites
experimental evidence that propellers designed on the basis of a scaled
nominal wake have too small a value of blade angle at the inner radii, which
is consistent with the trend shown in Figure 4.
Propeller onset fows are generally not axisymmetric, and thus one must
deal with a much more complex problem in which circumferential gradients
are present. In addition, the alteration of the infow by the propeller varies
over the axial extent of the propeller, so that an efective wake is three
dimensional in nature, even if the nominal wake can be regarded as
independent of longitudinal position. This is an active feld of research at
present, as is evident from the Report of the Propeller Committee (1984) of
the Seventeenth International Towing Tank Conference. An example of
analytical progress in this area is the current work of Brockett (1985).
FORMULA TION OF THE PROPELLER
POTENTIALFLOW PROBLEM
As shown in Figure 5, we consider a propeller consisting of K identical,
symmetrically arranged blades attached to a hub that is rotating at
constant angular velocity Ô about the xaxis. The hub is either idealized as
an axisymmetric body as shown or ignored completely. The geometry of the
blades and hub is prescribed in a Cartesian coordinate system rotating with
the propeller. The yaxis is chosen to pass through the midchord of the root
section of one blade, which we designate the key blade. The zaxis completes
the righthanded system. An equivalent cylindrical coordinate system in
which Î is the radial coordinate and 0 " 0 on the yaxis is also used here.
A
n
n
u
.
R
e
v
.
F
l
u
i
d
M
e
c
h
.
1
9
8
6
.
1
8
:
3
6
7

4
0
3
.
D
o
w
n
l
o
a
d
e
d
f
r
o
m
w
w
w
.
a
n
n
u
a
l
r
e
v
i
e
w
s
.
o
r
g
b
y
U
N
I
V
E
R
S
I
T
Y
O
F
M
I
A
M
I
o
n
0
1
/
1
1
/
1
2
.
F
o
r
p
e
r
s
o
n
a
l
u
s
e
o
n
l
y
.
�H8 PROP8LL8R8 375
The blade is formed starting with a midchord line defned parametrically
by the radial distribution of skew angle 0_(r)and rake x_(r).By advancing a
distance _c(r)along a helix of pitch angle ç_(r), one obtains the blade
leading edge and trailing edge, respectively, and the surface formed by the
helical lines at each radius form the reference upon which the actual blade
sections can be built. These sections can be defned in standard airfoil terms
by a chordwise distribution of camber ](s)and thickness t(s),where sis a
curvilinear coordinate along the helix.
The propeller is operating in an unbounded, incompressible fuid, in a
prescribed efective onset fow, as described in the preceding section
.
This
fow is defned in a fxed coordinate system in which the ¼ and Xo axes are
identical, and the y and Yo axes are coincident at time t ¯ Û.If we ignore the
variation of the efective onset fow, both with respect to time and
longitudinal position XQ, and make use of the cyclic nature of the fow, we
can write down the velocity components in the following generally accepted
Figure 5 Propeller blade geometry.
A
n
n
u
.
R
e
v
.
F
l
u
i
d
M
e
c
h
.
1
9
8
6
.
1
8
:
3
6
7

4
0
3
.
D
o
w
n
l
o
a
d
e
d
f
r
o
m
w
w
w
.
a
n
n
u
a
l
r
e
v
i
e
w
s
.
o
r
g
b
y
U
N
I
V
E
R
S
I
T
Y
O
F
M
I
A
M
I
o
n
0
1
/
1
1
/
1
2
.
F
o
r
p
e
r
s
o
n
a
l
u
s
e
o
n
l
y
.
376 KRWN
form:
Þ
'
L A�x.r.t)(r) cos nOo
+
L B�x.r.t)(r) sin nOo.
hFM hF±
(2)
Transformation from the fxed to the rotating coordinate system simply
involves replacing 00 with 0wt in the argument of the trigonometric
functions, thus introducing a periodic time dependency in the fow.
The governing equations for the velocity potential representing this fow
are well known, since they are the same for any incompressible fow around
a threedimensional lifting body. The velocity potential at any point on the
surface of the body can be expressed in terms of a surface integral over the
body and wake using Green's formula:
..
0 1 o.(,) 1 ¸
¯¯¯"´
.,
on . , �. ,
q
o
º
where
b¯b_
+
. .
·
.,
n .� ,
q
o
º
,
w
µ¯ feld point where the velocity potential is to be calculated,
, source point where the source or normal dipole is located,
. distance between points µ(x,y,t)and ,� q,()
(RJ(X_�)2+(Y_1)2+(Z_()2),
� normal velocity at the body boundary
¸� V.¯ a ¬1_'a,,
a ¯ unit normal vector outward from the body,
U
'
" velocity vector of the undisturbed onset fow,
, , ¯ integral over the body surface o,excluding an infnitesimal
b^b_
region o¿containing the singular point p,
, , " integral over the wake surface,
w
·
. ¯ potential jump at the wake surface.
(3)
Equation 3 can be interpreted as a distribution of sources and normal
dipoles over the body, and as a distribution of normal dipoles over the
A
n
n
u
.
R
e
v
.
F
l
u
i
d
M
e
c
h
.
1
9
8
6
.
1
8
:
3
6
7

4
0
3
.
D
o
w
n
l
o
a
d
e
d
f
r
o
m
w
w
w
.
a
n
n
u
a
l
r
e
v
i
e
w
s
.
o
r
g
b
y
U
N
I
V
E
R
S
I
T
Y
O
F
M
I
A
M
I
o
n
0
1
/
1
1
/
1
2
.
F
o
r
p
e
r
s
o
n
a
l
u
s
e
o
n
l
y
.
MARIE PROPELLERS 377
wake. Alternatively, the normal dipoles can be replaced by an equivalent
distribution of vorticity whose strength is equal to the derivative of the
strength of the dipoles. The wake then consists only of sheets of vorticity, an
interpretation that many fnd more physically intuitive.
To complete the formulation of the problem, the Kutta condition must
be imposed, which requires that the velocity be fnite at the trailing edges,
and that the dynamic boundary condition of zero pressure jump across the
trailing vortex wake must be applied. The latter condition requires that the
vorticity in the wake be everywhere convected by the local fow, thus
establishing, in principle, the position in space of the vortex sheets.
The problem as formulated so far does not consider the action of viscous
forces. Following the usual boundarylayer approximation appropriate to
high Reynolds numbers, we may regard the boundary of the potentialfow
regon as consisting of the physical boundaries of the blades and hub,
augented by the displacement thickness of the boundary layers. As a frst
approximation, the displacement thickness can be ignored, which thus
returns us to the original problem, but with a rational basis for adding
viscous tangential stresses in the fnal determination of forces.
Formulating the problem in such a general way is obviously much easier
than solving it! The combination of the nonuniform onset fow, the complex
geometry of the blades, and the need to establish the geometry of the free
vortex sheets makes the solution of the propeller problem extremely
difcult. We next review the progress made in the solution of this problem,
considering in turn the design of propellers for a gven load distribution, the
related problem of analyzing a gven propeller in steady fow, and fnally the
analysis of a propeller in unsteady fow.
PROPELLER DESIGN
Stated simply, the hydrodynamic design of a propeller is accomplished in
two steps. One frst establishes a radial and chordwise distribution of
circulation over the blades that will produce the desired total thrust, subject
to considerations of efciency and cavitation. In the second step, one fnds
the shape of the blade that will produce this prescribed distribution of
circulation.
Betz (1919) frst developed the basis for determining the radial distri
bution of circulation that would result in optimum efciency for a propeller
operating in uniform infow. He found that the optimum propeller in this
case developed a trailing vortex system that formed a rigd helicoidal
surface receding with a constant axial velocity. However, it was not until
Goldstein (1929) that the potential problem posed by Betz was actually
solved. Goldstein's work, however, opened up the way for the development
of a propeller design method following Prandtl's concept of the lifting line.
A
n
n
u
.
R
e
v
.
F
l
u
i
d
M
e
c
h
.
1
9
8
6
.
1
8
:
3
6
7

4
0
3
.
D
o
w
n
l
o
a
d
e
d
f
r
o
m
w
w
w
.
a
n
n
u
a
l
r
e
v
i
e
w
s
.
o
r
g
b
y
U
N
I
V
E
R
S
I
T
Y
O
F
M
I
A
M
I
o
n
0
1
/
1
1
/
1
2
.
F
o
r
p
e
r
s
o
n
a
l
u
s
e
o
n
l
y
.
378 KRWIN
If the aspect ratio of the blades, i.e. the ratio of their span to mean chord,
is high, Prandtl ( 1921) deduced that the threedimensional problem could
be solved by concentrating the circulation around the blades on individual
lifting lines, and that the fow at each radial section could be regarded as two
dimensional in an infow feld altered by the velocity induced by the free
vortex system shed from the lifting lines. Goldstein's solution for the
optimum propeller in uniform fow provided the means to calculate the
velocity induced by the free vortex sheets. By combining this information
with theoretical or experimental twodimensional section data, one could
design an optimum propeller.
This approach was extremely successful for aircraft propellers, which
generally had very highaspectratio blades and operated in front of the
aircraft in relatively uniform fow. However, marine propellers are gener
ally forced to have lowaspectratio blades, since their lift coefcient must
be severely limited to prevent excessive cavitation. As a result, marine
propeller designs based on liftingline theory could not be expected to be
satisfactory. In addition, the onset fow to a propeller, as indicated in the
previous section, is generally quite nonuniform.
It was recognized at an early stage that lifingline theory could be made
applicable to loweraspectratio surfaces by introducing a correction to the
camber of the twodimensional sections to account for the induced
curvature of the fow. An intuitive explanation of the presence of induced
curvature is that the velocity induced by the trailing vortex sheets is greater
at the trailing edge than at the leading edge. Approximate calculations of
camber correction factors for a few limited cases were made by Ludwieg &
Ginzel ( 1944), but it was not until 1 7 years later that precise results obtained
by computer were published by Cox (1961).
It is therefore reasonable to conclude that prior to the 1950s, analytical
methods for propeller design were not yet ready for practical application.
As a result, marine propellers were inevitably designed on the basis of
systematic series of model experiments. A textbook of that time period by
Baker ( 1951) states: "In all marine work, propeller design is based on
experimental data . . .. There is no theory extant which will enable the
efciency and the capacity to absorb power of a given screw to be calculated
for actual ship conditions, either from purely theoretical data, or from the
usual experimental data for aerofoil blades."
The situation soon changed. The extension of Goldstein's lifingline
theory to the case of propellers with arbitrary radial distributions of
circulation in both uniform and radially varying infow was presented in a
landmark paper by Lerbs ( 1952). While initial acceptance was slow because
of the intricacy of the theory and the lengthy calculations required, the pro
cedure was computerized in the late 1960s. The Lerbs method is still the
A
n
n
u
.
R
e
v
.
F
l
u
i
d
M
e
c
h
.
1
9
8
6
.
1
8
:
3
6
7

4
0
3
.
D
o
w
n
l
o
a
d
e
d
f
r
o
m
w
w
w
.
a
n
n
u
a
l
r
e
v
i
e
w
s
.
o
r
g
b
y
U
N
I
V
E
R
S
I
T
Y
O
F
M
I
A
M
I
o
n
0
1
/
1
1
/
1
2
.
F
o
r
p
e
r
s
o
n
a
l
u
s
e
o
n
l
y
.
MAR� PROPELLERS 379
universally accepted procedure for establishing at the early design stage the
radial distribution of circulation and the resulting thrust, power, and
efciency of a propeller.
During this time period design methods were developed, based on a
combination of the original Goldstein or the more general Lerbs lifingline
theory, with lifingsurface corrections to camber and angle of attack.
Notable contributions at this stage were made by van Manen (1957) and by
Eckhart &Morgan (1955). However, this was also the time period for early
developments of a true propeller liftingsurface theory, and it was becoming
clear that the blade outline, the skew, and the form of the radial distribution
of circulation all had a major infuence on the correction factors, which had
initially been portrayed by a single graph. More extensive correction
factors were computed and published by Morgan et al. (1968). These would,
in principle, enable the designer to do a more accurate job. By this time,
however, it was also becoming evident that the problem was too
complicated to be reduced to a simple tabular/graphical hand calculation,
and that the growing availability of computers would soon render this type
of procedure obsolete.
In the meantime, numerical liftingsurface methods were evolving as a
direct consequence of the growing availability of digtal computers.
Actually, Strscheletzky (1950) and Guilloton (1957) published numerical
methods together with hand calculations, but their methods were probably
considered to be too laborious for wiespread adoption. Sparenberg (1959)
formulated the basis for a propeller liftingsurface theory, which would later
be programmed. Then, a sudden burst of publications of computerbased
propeller liftingsurface design methods occurred in 19611962. This
included contributions by Pien (1961), Kerwin (1961), van Manen &
Bakker (1962), and English (1962). However, these initial eforts all involved
simplifying assumptions of various sorts, which have since been found to be
unnecessary as a result of rapid advances in computer hardware and in the
development of efcient computational methods.
We therefore jump to the present time and describe two current lifting
surface computational methods that are essentially equivalent in their basic
formulation and provide almost identical results in a comparative calcu
lation, even though they use very diferent numerical methods. The two
methods are PROPLS, developed by Brockett ( 1981), which evaluates the
resulting singular integrals by direct numerical integration, and PBDlO,
developed by Kerwin, which uses a vortexlattice procedure. The design
method developed by Kerwin and an analysis procedure developed by
Greeley were published jointly by these two authors in 1982 (Greeley &
Kerwin 1982).
The presence of the hub as a solid boundary is ignored in both of these
A
n
n
u
.
R
e
v
.
F
l
u
i
d
M
e
c
h
.
1
9
8
6
.
1
8
:
3
6
7

4
0
3
.
D
o
w
n
l
o
a
d
e
d
f
r
o
m
w
w
w
.
a
n
n
u
a
l
r
e
v
i
e
w
s
.
o
r
g
b
y
U
N
I
V
E
R
S
I
T
Y
O
F
M
I
A
M
I
o
n
0
1
/
1
1
/
1
2
.
F
o
r
p
e
r
s
o
n
a
l
u
s
e
o
n
l
y
.
380
KERWN
theories and has generally been ignored in the past. This may seem
surprising until one realizes that the inner radii contribute little to overall
propeller forces as a result of the low rotational velocity in this region.
However, an extension of the vortexlattice method in which the hub
boundary is accounted for is discussed later in this review.
It is further assumed that the blades are thin, so that the singularities
distributed on both sides of the blades in accordance with Equation (3)
merge, in the limit, into a single sheet of sources and either normal dipoles
or vortices. The source strengths are directly proportional to the stream
wise derivative of the thickness function, whereas the vortex strengths are
prescribed. Diferentiation of (3) with respect to the three coordinate
directions results in singular integrals for the components of the induced
velocity on the mean surface representing the blade. The resulting
expressions are obviously lengthy owing to the complicated nature of the
geometry involved and are not reproduced here.
In the design problem, the geometry of the blade surface is only partially
known. Specifcally, the radial distribution of chord length, rake, and skew,
and the chordwise and radial distribution of thickness are prescribed in
advance. The radial distribution of pitch and the chordwise and radial
distribution of camber are to be determined. However, the source and
vortex distributions representing the blades and wake must frst be placed
on suitable reference surfaces in order that their induced velocity feld can
be calculated. In linear theory, the perturbation velocities due to the
propeller are assumed to be small compared with the onset velocities, so
that the blade and wake can simply be projected onto stream surfaces
formed by the undisturbed fow. However, in most practical cases the
resulting blade surfaces deviate substantially from this, and thus linear
theory is generally not sufciently accurate.
The procedure employed in PBDlO is to start with some initial
prescription of pitch and camber, compute the total fuid velocicy at a
number of points on the surface, and then adjust the surface in such a way as
to annul its normal component. The process is repeated using the adjusted
surface as the new reference surface until convergence is obtained. The
trailing vortex wake is similarly aligned with the resultant fow, as
illustrated in Figure 6. The details of the vortexwake alignment procedure,
which is also employed in the equivalent steadyfow analysis procedure,
are gven in Greeley &Kerwin (1982).
One therefore obtains an exact inviscid solution for a set of zero
thickness surfaces representing the blades and vortex wakes, upon which a
linearized thickness solution is superimposed. Perhaps the term "exact" is
an overstatement, since a discretized representation of the propeller Ìä
A
n
n
u
.
R
e
v
.
F
l
u
i
d
M
e
c
h
.
1
9
8
6
.
1
8
:
3
6
7

4
0
3
.
D
o
w
n
l
o
a
d
e
d
f
r
o
m
w
w
w
.
a
n
n
u
a
l
r
e
v
i
e
w
s
.
o
r
g
b
y
U
N
I
V
E
R
S
I
T
Y
O
F
M
I
A
M
I
o
n
0
1
/
1
1
/
1
2
.
F
o
r
p
e
r
s
o
n
a
l
u
s
e
o
n
l
y
.
MI PROPELLERS 381
, used and the alignment of the trailing vortex wake involves some
approximations.
In PROPLS, the blade reference surface is helicoidal, with an arbitrarily
specifed radial distribution of pitch. It is therefore equivalent to PBDlO
with a specifcation of zero camber. Since the maximum camber of propeller
sections is generally of the order of 23% of the chord, this diference is
minor. The trailing vortex wake consists of constantradius helical lines
whose pitch may be chosen to correspond either to that of the undisturbed
onset fow or to the pitch of the blade reference surface.
Brockett's (1981) procedure for evaluating the induced velocities on the
blade is one of direct numerical integration. Since the integrals over the
other blades and the trailing vortex wakes are nonsingular, the integrands
are ftted by trigonometric polynomials over a prescribed set of chordwise
and radial intervals. The integration for the induced velocity and the second
integration required to obtain the mean line shape are then performed
analytically using precomputed weighting functions.
The integral for the induced velocity at a point on the key blade contains
a Cauchy principalvalue singularity. The integration is therefore frst
TRANSITION
WAK E
(0) WAKE FOL LOWING UNDISTURBED INFLOW
ULTIMATE
WAKE
� º�
(b) WAKE ALIGNED WITH FLOW
Figure 6 Illustration of vortex lattic representation of the trailing vortex wake before and
after alignment with the local fow. Note the substantial increase in pitch afer aligment.
A
n
n
u
.
R
e
v
.
F
l
u
i
d
M
e
c
h
.
1
9
8
6
.
1
8
:
3
6
7

4
0
3
.
D
o
w
n
l
o
a
d
e
d
f
r
o
m
w
w
w
.
a
n
n
u
a
l
r
e
v
i
e
w
s
.
o
r
g
b
y
U
N
I
V
E
R
S
I
T
Y
O
F
M
I
A
M
I
o
n
0
1
/
1
1
/
1
2
.
F
o
r
p
e
r
s
o
n
a
l
u
s
e
o
n
l
y
.
182 KRWlN
performed in the radial direction, and the singularity is then factored out of
the remaining chordwise integrand. The regular part of the integrand is
next ftted with a cosine series, which then yields a series of integrals whose
Cauchy principal value was derived by Glauert (1948).
In the vortexlattice scheme employed in PBDI0, the continuous
distributions of vortices and sources are replaced by a set of concentrated
straightline elements, whose end points lie in the mean blade surface.
Velocities are then computed at suitably placed control points between the
elements. This avoids the difculty associated with the evaluation of
singular integrals and reduces the problem to a geometric one of fnding
points on the mean surface and of calculating the velocity feld of a simple
line vortex and source. The latter step involves only the evaluation of
elementary integrals. An example of the vortex/source lattice arrangement
used in PBDI0 is given in Figure 2.
One must be careful in setting up the geometrical arrangement of lattice
elements and control points or the method may not converge properly.
Vortexlattice methods are generally very robust, in that a wide variety of
spacing algorithms do converge to the right answer, and if they do not, the
error is generally local. Understandably, those individuals with more
rigorous inclinations have frequently been suspicious of the accuracy of
vortexlattice methods and would prefer a direct approach as exemplifed
by Brockett's (1981) method. However, James (1972) and Lan (1974) both
provided rigorous proofs of the convergence of vortexlattice methods in
twodimensional fow. James treated the case of constant spacing of
vortices over the chord and proved that the commonly used 1/4chord 3/4
chord arrangement of vortices and control points within each subinterval
was correct. He also showed that the local pressure obtained from the
solution of the vortex element closest to the leading edge approached a
value that was 1 1.4% too low as the number of elements became large.
However, it is important to recognize that this is not a case of false
convergence, since the value of the local pressure at a gven position near
the leading edge would converge to the right answer as the number of
elements increased, while the place where the answer was inaccurate would
move closer to the leading edge.
Lan (1974) showed that the arrangement of vortex locations Xv and
control point locations Xc represented by
1 ¸ ¸(a,¸¸
x_a)=_ Icos
N
'
a¯ 1, 2, . . . ,N (4)
A
n
n
u
.
R
e
v
.
F
l
u
i
d
M
e
c
h
.
1
9
8
6
.
1
8
:
3
6
7

4
0
3
.
D
o
w
n
l
o
a
d
e
d
f
r
o
m
w
w
w
.
a
n
n
u
a
l
r
e
v
i
e
w
s
.
o
r
g
b
y
U
N
I
V
E
R
S
I
T
Y
O
F
M
I
A
M
I
o
n
0
1
/
1
1
/
1
2
.
F
o
r
p
e
r
s
o
n
a
l
u
s
e
o
n
l
y
.
�n PROPELLERS 383
gave exact results for the total lif of a fat plate or parabolic camber line and
was more accurate than the constantspacing arrangement in determining
the local pressure near the leading edge. This choice, commonly referred
to as cosine spacing, can also be seen as related to the conformal trans
formation of a circle into a fat or parabolically cambered plate by the
Joukowski transformation.
Similar spacing arrangements can be used in a vortexlattice represen
tation of the lifingline problem, whose exact solution is well known. Table
1 shows the convergence of the calculated induced velocity at the tip panel
of a lifing line with elliptical circulation using cosine spacing. Also shown is
the total induced drag obtained by summing the elementary drag forces
over all the panels. Theconvergence is approximately quadratic in this case,
and it is evident that 10 to 20 elements yield results that are accurate enough
for any practical purpose. In the case of elliptical loading, the error in the
computed induced velocity is constant over the span, so that the values of
induced velocity given in Table 1 for the tip panel apply to all of the panels.
Table 1 also shows what happens in a vortexlattice scheme if the control
points are not located in the correct position. The values labeled
"midpoint" are the results obtained by keeping everything the same as in
the previous calculation except the position of the control points, which are
now moved to the midpoints of the intervals between vortices. The induced
velocities at the tip panel are seen to be completely wrong and diverge as the
number of panels is increased. However, the results over the rest of the span,
which are not tabulated, are not as bad; this is indicated by the fact that the
total induced drag appears to be convergng to the right answer.
There is no exact solution to compare with in the case of the propeller,
Table 1 Vertical velocity inducd at tip panel and total induced
drag for an elliptically loaded lifting line using a vortex lattice with
cosinespaced vortices·
Velocity at tip panel Total induced drag
Panels Cosine Midpoint Cosine Midpoint
5 0.9836 0.5441 1.5198 1.2443
10 0.9959 2.3357 1.5579 1.3948
20 0.9990 5.3357 1.5676 1.4787
4 0.9997 12.6831 1.570 1.5236
80 0.9999 26.4017 1.5706 1.5469
160 1.000 53.8123 1.5707 1.5588
Exact (1.000) (1.5708)
• The control points are either cosine spaced or at the midpoints of the
panels.
A
n
n
u
.
R
e
v
.
F
l
u
i
d
M
e
c
h
.
1
9
8
6
.
1
8
:
3
6
7

4
0
3
.
D
o
w
n
l
o
a
d
e
d
f
r
o
m
w
w
w
.
a
n
n
u
a
l
r
e
v
i
e
w
s
.
o
r
g
b
y
U
N
I
V
E
R
S
I
T
Y
O
F
M
I
A
M
I
o
n
0
1
/
1
1
/
1
2
.
F
o
r
p
e
r
s
o
n
a
l
u
s
e
o
n
l
y
.
384 KRWN
but one can be reasonably confdent that if a vortexlattice arrangement is
used that converges to the correct answer for both twodimensional fow
and a lifting line, then one can believe the converged solution. The
convergence of a propeller vortexlattice method calculation with increas
ing numbers of chordwise and radial elements is illustrated by Greeley &
Kerwin (1982).
We close our discussion of the propeller liftingsurface design problem by
comparing the results obtained by the two methods discussed. The test case
is a fvebladed, highly skewed propeller whose geometry is similar to that
of the propeller illustrated in Figure 10. The detailed geometry of the test
case is given by Brockett (1981). To make a consistent comparison, trailing
vortexwake alignment was suppressed in PBD10, and its pitch distri
bution was set to conform to PROPLS. However, the blade reference
surface in the PBD10 calculation was automatically adjusted to its
converged value, and this represents a diference between the two methods.
Figure 7 shows the radial distributions of pitch and camber obtained by
these two methods. The results are very similar, although small dis
1.6
1.4
P/O
PBO 10
0
d
1.2
PROPLS �
+
0
I
< I.
0:
0:
w
¹
º
�
I
L
w %
�
< .6 .0
30
0
I
^ <
:
.4 .02 0:
u
PBO 10
I
0:
a.
w
(
.2 .01
�
<
0
0
U
.2 .4 .6 1.0
NON DIMEN SIONAL r/R
Figure 7 Comparison of radial distributions of pitch/diameter and camber ratios obtained
by current liftingsurface methods by Brockett (PROPLS) and Kerwin (PBDIO).
A
n
n
u
.
R
e
v
.
F
l
u
i
d
M
e
c
h
.
1
9
8
6
.
1
8
:
3
6
7

4
0
3
.
D
o
w
n
l
o
a
d
e
d
f
r
o
m
w
w
w
.
a
n
n
u
a
l
r
e
v
i
e
w
s
.
o
r
g
b
y
U
N
I
V
E
R
S
I
T
Y
O
F
M
I
A
M
I
o
n
0
1
/
1
1
/
1
2
.
F
o
r
p
e
r
s
o
n
a
l
u
s
e
o
n
l
y
.
� PROPELLERS 385
crepancies exist. The largest diferences are in the camber at the inner radii,
and it is possible that these are due to the iteration of the blade reference
surface by YBOiÛ. In any case, diferences as small as these would be
almost impossible to detect by means of a model test.
The neglect of the hub in these design methods, while justifable from the
point of view of overall propeller performance, results in substantial local
errors in section shape at the inner radii. These sections are therefore not as
good as they could be, from the point of view of cavitation and viscous drag
.
In addition, neglecting the hub actually makes the determination of the
local shape at the inner radii more difcult. This is because the inner
boundary of the blade becomes, in efect, a free tip with a large squaredof
chord. The exact shape required to achieve a prescribed circulation
distribution for this artifcial tip may be very complex, requiring fnely
spaced elements to obtain an accurate solution to the wrong problem! If the
hub boundary condition is to be ignored, it would seem better to recognize
that the solution in the immediate vicinity of the hub will be incorrect, and
therefore that one should not attempt to calculate section shape in this
region but instead should smoothly extrapolate the results obtained over
the rest of the blade.
Of course, a better approach is to include the hub in the problem. This
results in a mixed design/analysis problem. The hub is a body of revolution
of known shape on which the normal component of the total fuid velocity
must vanish. On the other hand, as before, the circulation on the blades is
specifed and their shape is to be determined.
This problem has been recently treated by Wang (1985), who combined
Kerwin's vortexlattice method with a surfacepanel representation of the
hub. The surfacepanel elements were also chosen to be concentrated
vortices, which are aligned with the corresponding elements on the blades
at the hub juncture. An iterative solution is used in which the velocity feld
generated by the initially hubless blades is treated as a given onset fow for
the hub solution. The velocity feld thus generated by the hub is then
similarly added to the onset fow in the next iteration of the blade solution.
Since the blade shape changes during each iteration, the hub is continu
ously repaneled to match the blade at the hub juncture.
This procedure generally converges within three or four iterations. The
computing times are substantially greater than for the hubless case but
would not be considered excessive for a fnal propellerdesign calculation.
As might be expected, the efect of the hub is negligible over the outer
portion of the blade but results in a reduction in pitch and camber in the
immediate vicinity of the hub. In some cases, a large negative camber is
required to generate the desired circulation distribution in this regon, and
the chordwise distribution of camber may have a pronounced "s" shape.
A
n
n
u
.
R
e
v
.
F
l
u
i
d
M
e
c
h
.
1
9
8
6
.
1
8
:
3
6
7

4
0
3
.
D
o
w
n
l
o
a
d
e
d
f
r
o
m
w
w
w
.
a
n
n
u
a
l
r
e
v
i
e
w
s
.
o
r
g
b
y
U
N
I
V
E
R
S
I
T
Y
O
F
M
I
A
M
I
o
n
0
1
/
1
1
/
1
2
.
F
o
r
p
e
r
s
o
n
a
l
u
s
e
o
n
l
y
.
386 KRW
Since the blade geometry in the hub region is very sensitive to the
prescribed distribution of circulation, the abrupt change in shape in this
region may be impossible to build. On the other hand, since the method for
arriving at the prescribed circulation distribution near the hub may be
arbitrary, it is questionable whether this type of design approach is always
appropriate. An alternative would be to design the shape of the blade for a
prescribed circulation distribution, either without accounting for the
infuence of the hub or with a simple hub image approximation. One would
then modify this shape, unecessary, to insure that the shape was smooth
and buildable. The smoothed design would be subject to an analysis, and
the resulting pressure distribution near the hub would be examined to
determine if it is acceptable from the point of view of cavitation and/or
boundarylayer characteristics. If the pressure distribution were not
acceptable, the shape would then be systematically altered in a smooth way
and the analysis repeated.
It would also make sense if a surfacepanel method were used for this
kind of analysis, rather than a liftingsurface method as used in the design.
The reasons are that the blade sections near the hub tend to be thick for
structural reasons, and that the spacing between blades at the hub juncture
is of the same order of magnitude as the blade thickness. In addition, fllets
are generally present, so that the actual geometry is quite diferent from that
assumed in present lifingsurface procedures. This is discussed further in
the next section.
ANALYSIS IN STEADY FLOW
Background
In the analysis problem we are gven the geometry of the propeller and wish
to determine the fow feld that it generates. The govering equations are
the same as in the design problem, but the unknowns are reversed. The
circulation distribution over the blades, which was prescribed in the design
problem, is now the unknown, whereas the shape of the blade is now given.
The singular integral that yields the velocity induced by a known
distribution of circulation in the design problem becomes an integral
equation in the analysis problem. While the latter is, in principle, more
difcult from a mathematical point of view, this diference becomes
relatively unimportant once a numerical solution is employed. In that case,
the singular integral equation is inevitably replaced by a system of linear
algebraic equations whose solution presents no problems if the number of
unknowns is not excessive ..
One of the earliest analysis procedures consisted simply of inverting the
liftingline design methods of van Manen (1957) or Eckhart & Morgan
A
n
n
u
.
R
e
v
.
F
l
u
i
d
M
e
c
h
.
1
9
8
6
.
1
8
:
3
6
7

4
0
3
.
D
o
w
n
l
o
a
d
e
d
f
r
o
m
w
w
w
.
a
n
n
u
a
l
r
e
v
i
e
w
s
.
o
r
g
b
y
U
N
I
V
E
R
S
I
T
Y
O
F
M
I
A
M
I
o
n
0
1
/
1
1
/
1
2
.
F
o
r
p
e
r
s
o
n
a
l
u
s
e
o
n
l
y
.
�n PROPELLERS 387
(1955). One such method was developed by Kerwin ( 1959), who employed
an iterative solution to match the twodimensional section characteristics
at each radius with the approximate induced infow obtained by interpo
lation of tabulated values of the Goldstein function. The method worked
fairly well for simple, unskewed blade shapes, but it would obviously o
unable to handle current complex propeller forms.
A liftingsurface analysis method was published by Yamazaki (1962),
although the results given were obtained by hand and involved some
simplifcations. Tsakonas et al. (1968, 1973, 1983) developed a procedure for
propeller analysis in both steady and unsteady fow based on the
acceleration potential. His approach was to represent the unknown loading
by a summation of chordwise and radial mode functions whose amplitudes
could be determined. The earlier versions of Tsakonas' procedure were
based on a strictly linearized theory, which was found to introduce much
larger errors in the steady solution than in the unsteady solution. However,
later refnements improved the accuracy of the steady solution, as indicated
by Tsakonas et al. (1983).
The mode approach was combined with a vortexlattice representation
of the blades by Cummings (1973) to solve the steadyHow analysis
problem. The procedure was simplifed by restricting the chordwise modes
to two; one consisted of the loading form of a twodimensional Hat plate,
and the other was chosen to be the form of the twodimensional loading of
the propeller's camber line. While this method worked fairly well, the error
introduced by the limited representation of the chordwise load distribution
could not be readily evaluated.
Current Partially Linearized Analysis Method
We consider in this category methods that are linearized to the extent that
the How feld is constructed from singularities located on the mean blade
surface, but where induced velocities are not necessarily considered small
compared with the velocity of onset How, and where the positions of the
blade and trailing vortex wake are allowed to deviate from a stream surface
of the undisturbed fow. This is in contrast to boundaryelement methods,
in which the fow feld is constructed from singularities located on both
sides of the actual blade surface.
Represented in this category are methods by Tsakonas et al. (1983),
Kerwin & Lee (1978), van Gent (1977), and Greeley (1982). However, we
limit our review to the essentials of the procedure developed by Greeley,
which he has designated as PSF2.
The PSF 2 program uses a vortexlattice representation of the blades
that is identical to the design procedure described earlier. Rather than using
spanwise and chord wise mode functions to describe the unknown circu
A
n
n
u
.
R
e
v
.
F
l
u
i
d
M
e
c
h
.
1
9
8
6
.
1
8
:
3
6
7

4
0
3
.
D
o
w
n
l
o
a
d
e
d
f
r
o
m
w
w
w
.
a
n
n
u
a
l
r
e
v
i
e
w
s
.
o
r
g
b
y
U
N
I
V
E
R
S
I
T
Y
O
F
M
I
A
M
I
o
n
0
1
/
1
1
/
1
2
.
F
o
r
p
e
r
s
o
n
a
l
u
s
e
o
n
l
y
.
388 KRWIN
lation distribution, each spanwise vortex element is treated as an unknown
that is to be found by collocation using an equal number of control points
on the blade. This avoids convergence difculties, which must receive
careful attention in a mode collocation scheme, but at the expense of a
larger number of unknowns. While this would be a disadvantage if the
number of vortex elements became very large, it has been found that
converged results can be obtained with roughly 10 to 200 elements. The
time required to solve a linear system of equations of this size is much less
than the time needed to compute the required infuence functions, so that
economization in the number of unknowns is not signifcant.
PSF2 uses a trailingvortexwake alignment scheme that is identical to
that used in the PBDlO design program. However, in this case, two levels
of iteration are required. The distribution of circulation on the blades, and
hence in the wake, is frst found based on an assumed geometry of the wake.
Keeping this circulation fxed, the wake is aligned with the fow in an
iterative way. When this has converged to a specifed tolerance, the
circulation distribution is recomputed and the entire process repeated until
no further changes occur.
Additional considerations enter into the analysis problem if the propeller
is operating ofdesign, particularly as the angles of attack of the thin
outboard sections are increased beyond their design value. As illustrated in
Figure 8, a vortex sheet tends to form not from the tip, but from the leading
edge starting at some radius farther inboard. The mechanism for the
formation of this vortex is believed to be similar to that for a highly swept
wing, and is governed by the viscous behavior of the fow near the leading
edge.
The presence of a leadingedge vortex has two important consequences.
The overall lift of the tip regon of the blade is increased because of the
reduced induction of the vortex as it moves of the blade surface; in
addition, the local pressure reduction at the leading edge is attenuated,
which thus delays the inception of cavitation relative to that which would
be predicted on the basis of inviscid attached fow.
The frst efect can be inferred from the fact that propeller thrust and
torque measured under conditions of high angle of attack are generally
greater than the values calculated assuming an attached vortex sheet. It is
therefore necessary to incorporate some form of detachedvortexsheet
model in a propeller analysis procedure.
The feld of vortexsheet separation is currently an active one, with
numerous marine and aerodynamic applications. However, anything close
to a rigorous solution, involving both the proper alignment of the free
vortex sheet and the treatment of the viscous efects that initiate it, is not yet
at hand; even if it were, the computing efort would be so great as to make
such an analysis scheme impractical for routine design studies.
A
n
n
u
.
R
e
v
.
F
l
u
i
d
M
e
c
h
.
1
9
8
6
.
1
8
:
3
6
7

4
0
3
.
D
o
w
n
l
o
a
d
e
d
f
r
o
m
w
w
w
.
a
n
n
u
a
l
r
e
v
i
e
w
s
.
o
r
g
b
y
U
N
I
V
E
R
S
I
T
Y
O
F
M
I
A
M
I
o
n
0
1
/
1
1
/
1
2
.
F
o
r
p
e
r
s
o
n
a
l
u
s
e
o
n
l
y
.
�UE PROPELLERS 389
A simplifed representation of a separated leadingedge vortex sheet was
devised by Kerwin & Lee (1978) and incorporated by Greeley (1982) in
PSF2. As shown in Figure 9, the actual blade tip, which is generally
rounded, is replaced by a vortex lattic with a fnite tip chord. The spanwise
Figure 8 Illustration ofleadingedge vortex formation made visible by cavitation. (Top) The
proplIer is operating at its deig point, and the vortex leaves from the tip. (Botom) The
propelIer is operating at a low advanc coefcient and a leading edge vortex is evident.
A
n
n
u
.
R
e
v
.
F
l
u
i
d
M
e
c
h
.
1
9
8
6
.
1
8
:
3
6
7

4
0
3
.
D
o
w
n
l
o
a
d
e
d
f
r
o
m
w
w
w
.
a
n
n
u
a
l
r
e
v
i
e
w
s
.
o
r
g
b
y
U
N
I
V
E
R
S
I
T
Y
O
F
M
I
A
M
I
o
n
0
1
/
1
1
/
1
2
.
F
o
r
p
e
r
s
o
n
a
l
u
s
e
o
n
l
y
.
390 KRWN
Figure 9 Il1ustration of a simplifed leadingedge vortex separation model. For clarity. the
magnitude of 1 has been exaggerated.
vortex lines in the tip panel are continued by free vortex lines that depart
from the surface of the blade and join in a "collection point," which then
becomes the orign of the outermost element of the discretized vortex sheet.
The position of the collection point is establishe
d
by setting the pitch angle
of the leadingedge free vortex equal to the mean of the undisturbedinfow
angle and the pitch angle of the tip vortex as it leaves the collection point.
This relatively crude representation of the leadingedge vortex sheet
generally results in substantially improved correlation with experimental
data. However, occasional discrepancies exist, which may be due to
defciencies in the theory, inaccuracies in model manufacture, or Reynolds
number scaleefect problems in model tests. Discrepancies between tests of
the same propeller model in diferent facilities and lack of repeatab;lity of
tests of the same model (due possibly to deterioration of the blade leading
edges) make it difcult to draw any defnite conclusions at present. This
situation is illustrated in Figure 10, which shows experimental results for
the same model conducted at two diferent facilities, together with the
results of the theory. Good agreement exists near the advance coefcient for
which the propeller was designed, but large discrepancies occur at low
advance coefcients. While most comparisons are not this bad, this one is
included to show that problems still exist in ofdesign analysis.
As a next step in the refnement of separated leadingedge vortex fow,
Greeley (1982) developed a semiempirical method for predicting the point
of leadingedge separation. He found that existing data for swept wings
could be collapsed reasonably well by expressing a critical nondimensional
leadingedge suction force as determined from inviscid theory,
(5)
A
n
n
u
.
R
e
v
.
F
l
u
i
d
M
e
c
h
.
1
9
8
6
.
1
8
:
3
6
7

4
0
3
.
D
o
w
n
l
o
a
d
e
d
f
r
o
m
w
w
w
.
a
n
n
u
a
l
r
e
v
i
e
w
s
.
o
r
g
b
y
U
N
I
V
E
R
S
I
T
Y
O
F
M
I
A
M
I
o
n
0
1
/
1
1
/
1
2
.
F
o
r
p
e
r
s
o
n
a
l
u
s
e
o
n
l
y
.
�nE PROPELLERS 391
as a function of a local leadingedge Reynolds number
K
U
"
r
n
ÏÏ ¯
,
V
where
Fs = suction force per length of leading edge,
U
n = component of the infow normal to the leading edge,
r n ¯ radius of curvature of the leading edge in a plane normal
to the edge,
U" = freestream velocity,
v = kinematic viscosity of the fuid.
A plot of this empirical relationship is reproduced in Figure 1 1 .
(6
)
Figure 10 Comparison of calculated and measured propeller characteristics for the propeller
illustrated operating in a uniform onset fow. The nondimensiona thrust and torque
coefcients are
ÿ
K
¬_
¯ 12µn³R¿ ´
where
ÿ
is the propeller torque and all other symbols are as defned in Figure 4 legend.
A
n
n
u
.
R
e
v
.
F
l
u
i
d
M
e
c
h
.
1
9
8
6
.
1
8
:
3
6
7

4
0
3
.
D
o
w
n
l
o
a
d
e
d
f
r
o
m
w
w
w
.
a
n
n
u
a
l
r
e
v
i
e
w
s
.
o
r
g
b
y
U
N
I
V
E
R
S
I
T
Y
O
F
M
I
A
M
I
o
n
0
1
/
1
1
/
1
2
.
F
o
r
p
e
r
s
o
n
a
l
u
s
e
o
n
l
y
.
392 KRW
¿ ¿0
U
..
¯
Ü
:I OO
§
m
L
� 80
z
w
u
i 60
�
C 40
2
Z
o 20
U
�
COMPUTED Cs g FLOW BREAKDOWN V5·
RL
E
( BEST FI T TO AVAI LABLE DATA)
LONG (BURST ) BUBBLE
OR SERRATED FLOW
LI MI TING SUCTION FORCE
( 20 AND Ó¯ DATA )
LOSS OF L. E, SUCTI ON
DUE TO BUBBLE
BREAKDOWN
'
_SHORT BUBBLE OR
ATTACHED TURBULENT
FLOW
RESIDUAL SUCTION
¸AFTER BUBBLE BURST
(20 DTA ONLY) m






W

OLEADIN�DGE5�R��BLE�����N 
O �� && _ &&&� &� &&&& &&�
 0
¹
3 x  0
¹
 0
4
3 x  0
^
 0³
LEA0 W0 E00E REYW0L0S WJVBER, R
g £
Figure 11 Empirical relationship betwen the value of the leadingedge suction force
coefcient at the point of fow breakdown W a function of leadingdge Reynolds numbr. '
From Greeley (1982).
Applying the same criterion to two distinctly diferent propellers, Greeley
(1982) found reasonable correlation between the predicted and observed
radial positions ofthe initiation of the leadingedge vortex. The observation
of the vortex sheet in the experiments was made by reducing the tunnel
pressure to the point where the sheet was just starting to cavitate.
Once the starting point of the sheet is established, one still needs to trace
its path over the blades. As a frst step, Greeley (1982) developed a "frst
order" model in which the free vortex sheet was placed at a height equal to
the blade boundarylayer thickness, and the resulting change in the
predicted chordwise pressure distribution as compared with that of the
attached fow was then found. However, this was only a frst step, and one
must consider that this is still a feld for active research.
A Partially Linearized Method Including the Hub
Incorporation of the hub in the lifingsurface analysis problem was
recently accomplished by Wang (1985), who used the same vortexlattice
representation as in the PSF2 and PBDlO programs. In this case, the
analysis problem is in some respects simpler than the design problem, since
the position of the blade surface is fxed and the blade and hub paneling can
be established at the outset. The number of unknowns is increased when the
A
n
n
u
.
R
e
v
.
F
l
u
i
d
M
e
c
h
.
1
9
8
6
.
1
8
:
3
6
7

4
0
3
.
D
o
w
n
l
o
a
d
e
d
f
r
o
m
w
w
w
.
a
n
n
u
a
l
r
e
v
i
e
w
s
.
o
r
g
b
y
U
N
I
V
E
R
S
I
T
Y
O
F
M
I
A
M
I
o
n
0
1
/
1
1
/
1
2
.
F
o
r
p
e
r
s
o
n
a
l
u
s
e
o
n
l
y
.
� PROP8LL8R8 393
hub is introduced, and one has the choice of solving a larger matrix or using
an iterative technique. Wang chose the latter option in order to minimize
changes in the existing PSF 2 code. He found that the process converged
rapidly as a result ofthe weak interaction between the portions of the blades
and hub that were not in the immediate vicinity of their intersection.
Figure 12 shows the radial distribution of circulation for a particular
propeller obtained both with and without the inclusion of the hub. Shown
in addition is the radial distribution of circulation obtained experimentally
by measurement of the circumferential mean tangential velocity just
downstream of the blades using a laserDoppler velocimeter. It is evident
that the inclusion of the hub in the theory increases the predicted
circulation at the inner radii, which is in bette� agreement with the
measurements. The sharp spike in the measured results near the hub is
60
Vortex l at tice cal cul at i ons
r
0 Symbol Hub Cordwi se Spnwi se
×
E l ements E l emen t s
m
Á
Ignored 8 8 ¯
õ0
c
A Ignored 18 9
I:
C L I ncl uded 8 8
"
j.
(
I ncl uded 18 9

<
40
±
Î
°
.
Q �" �
:
u
<�
Û
30
u
l.
0
Z
0 A
i
20 (
¯ L
Ü L
Ò
Measured by LOA j ust
X
Ü
downs tream of bl ades
I
e
0
t o
l
.
<
0
¼
Ü
a
0.20 0.
º
0 0.60 0. 8 0  . 00
DI STANC E FROM S HAFT CENTER r/R
Figure 12 Calculated radial distribution of circulation both with and without the inclusion of
the hub compared with experimental resuts obtained with a laserDoppler velocimeter. From
Wang (1985).
A
n
n
u
.
R
e
v
.
F
l
u
i
d
M
e
c
h
.
1
9
8
6
.
1
8
:
3
6
7

4
0
3
.
D
o
w
n
l
o
a
d
e
d
f
r
o
m
w
w
w
.
a
n
n
u
a
l
r
e
v
i
e
w
s
.
o
r
g
b
y
U
N
I
V
E
R
S
I
T
Y
O
F
M
I
A
M
I
o
n
0
1
/
1
1
/
1
2
.
F
o
r
p
e
r
s
o
n
a
l
u
s
e
o
n
l
y
.
394 KRWIN
circulation induced by the rotating hub by the action of viscous stresses.
This, of course, is not included in the theory.
BoundaryElement Method
The two principal shortcomings of the lifingsurface approximation to a
propeller blade are the local errors near the leading edge and the more
widespread errors near the hub, where the blade thickness is large and
where the blades are in close proximity.
The frst problem can be overcome by the application of a local
correction due to Lighthill (1951), in which the fow around the leading edge
of a twodimensional, parabolic halfbody is matched to the three
dimensional fow near the leading edge of the blade obtained from lifting
surface theory. The accuracy of the Lighthill correction is greatest for thin
sections, which makes it particularly suitable for the outer part of the
propeller blade. It is fortunate that it is in this region that accurate pressure
distributions are needed for the prediction of cavitation inception.
However, it is not known whether the Lighthill correction remains
accurate as the slope of the leading edge increases toward the tip. In
addition, the error introduced by the liftingsurface approximation to the
thick hub sections will also not be reduced by a leadingedge correction
except in a very local sense.
As a result, there is current interest in the application of discretized
boundaryelement methods, generally referred to as panel methods, to the
propeller analysis problem. Panel methods are currently being applied to a
variety of problems, including fows around complete aircraft confgura
tions and ship hulls. The number of diferent panel methods is rapidly
growing. A good single source for a derivation of a variety of panelmethod
algorithms is a recent text by Moran ( 1984).
A panel method for propellers has recently been developed by Hess &
Valarezo (1985). Their method is an adaptation of the one developed by
Hess & Smith (1967) for nonlifting bodies and extended by Hess (1975) to
include general lifting bodies.
As illustrated in Figure 13, the blades and hub are represented by a large
number of quadrilateral panels. The appearance is superfcially similar to
the vortexlattice representation of a propeller shown in Figure 2. However,
in this case, quadrilateral panels are located on both sides of the blades as
well as on the hub.
A distribution of sources with constant density is placed within each
panel. In addition, the panels on the blades contain distributions of normal
dipoles that are constant over an entire chordwise strip. The dipole
distributions are extended into the wake by an equivalent distribution of
discrete trailing vortices, the latter being essentially the same as the vortex
A
n
n
u
.
R
e
v
.
F
l
u
i
d
M
e
c
h
.
1
9
8
6
.
1
8
:
3
6
7

4
0
3
.
D
o
w
n
l
o
a
d
e
d
f
r
o
m
w
w
w
.
a
n
n
u
a
l
r
e
v
i
e
w
s
.
o
r
g
b
y
U
N
I
V
E
R
S
I
T
Y
O
F
M
I
A
M
I
o
n
0
1
/
1
1
/
1
2
.
F
o
r
p
e
r
s
o
n
a
l
u
s
e
o
n
l
y
.
MRTE PROPELLERS 395
lattice representation discussed earlier. The hub is considered a nonlifting
element, and thus its panels are exclusively sources.
The strengths of the individual source panels and the dipole strengths
associated with each chordwise strip are found by requiring that the normal
component of the total fuid velocity vanish at a centrally located control
point within each panel. While the representation of the trailing vortex
wake is fundamentally the same as for a vortexlattice method, Hess &
Valarezo (1985) have initially simplifed the geometry of their transition
wake to that of a pure helix. Their ultimate wake is modeled as a ser
infnite cylindrical wake of an infnitely bladed propeller, whose velocity
feld can bfound in closed form. This is quite diferent from the ultimate
wake representation used by Greeley &Kerwin (1982), in which the vortex
sheet is rolled up into one helical vortex line from each blade. The latter may
be closer to physical reality, but the former is computationally more
efcient and may well be equally accurate.
A typical chordwise pressure distribution for a section of a ship propeller
obtained by Hess &Valarezo (1985) is shown in Figure 14, together with
results computed by Kim & Kobayashi ( 1984) and measurements by
Versmissen &van Gent ( 1983). Kim & Kobayashi's results were obtained
from their extension of the PSF2 vortexlattice program to include the
Figure 13 Illust
r
ation of propelJer blade and hub panelling. From Hess & Valarezo (1985).
A
n
n
u
.
R
e
v
.
F
l
u
i
d
M
e
c
h
.
1
9
8
6
.
1
8
:
3
6
7

4
0
3
.
D
o
w
n
l
o
a
d
e
d
f
r
o
m
w
w
w
.
a
n
n
u
a
l
r
e
v
i
e
w
s
.
o
r
g
b
y
U
N
I
V
E
R
S
I
T
Y
O
F
M
I
A
M
I
o
n
0
1
/
1
1
/
1
2
.
F
o
r
p
e
r
s
o
n
a
l
u
s
e
o
n
l
y
.
396 KRWN
computation of local surface pressures. However, their procedure does not
include a Lighthill correction at the leading edge and can therefore not be
expected to properly capture the local pressure minimum. The panel
method result shows the presumably correct pressure minimum, which
Hess &Valarezo point out as being an advantage of the panel method.
However, some caution is called for at this point. Thin sections develop a
sharp pressure peak located close to the leading edge, so that extremely fne
paneling may bneeded near the leading edge in order to capture the peak
value. On the other hand, Lighthill's rule will gve the correct pak value in
twodimensional fow in the limit of small section thickness. Consequently,
a panel method may not be obviously superior to a vortexlattice method
augmented by Lighthill's rule in this particular case. This is clearly an
important area for future research.
0. 3
0. 2
0.1
0. 0
Cp(lOCAl)
0. 1
0. 2
0.3
0.4
0.0
¯ PRESENT METHOD
 PSP METHOD
" 0 EXPERIMENT 1
' 6 EXPERIMENT 2
0.6
FRACTION OF CHORD. lie
0. 8 1 . 0
Figure 14 Comparison of clculated and measured chordwise pressure distributions. The
solid line (identifed as PRESENT METHOD) was obtained by Hess & Valarezo (1985) using
their surfacepanel code. The dashed line (identifed W PSP METHOD) was obtained by K
& Kobayashi (1984) using a vortexlattice method based on PSF2. The two experimental
curves were obtained by Versmissen & van Gent (1983) using pressure transducers embedded
in a OA8m diameter propeller model. The diference between the duplicate experimental
results is indicative of the difculty in carrying out t
h
is type of experiment.
A
n
n
u
.
R
e
v
.
F
l
u
i
d
M
e
c
h
.
1
9
8
6
.
1
8
:
3
6
7

4
0
3
.
D
o
w
n
l
o
a
d
e
d
f
r
o
m
w
w
w
.
a
n
n
u
a
l
r
e
v
i
e
w
s
.
o
r
g
b
y
U
N
I
V
E
R
S
I
T
Y
O
F
M
I
A
M
I
o
n
0
1
/
1
1
/
1
2
.
F
o
r
p
e
r
s
o
n
a
l
u
s
e
o
n
l
y
.
�UE PROPELLERS 397
UNSTEADY PROPELLER FLOWS
Background
We now come to the important problem of unsteady propeller forces, which
unfortunately we are able to treat only briefy. The unsteady problem is
complicated by the presence of shed vorticity in the wake that depends on
the past history of the circulation around the blades. The fundamental
problem of an airfoil or hydrofoil in unsteady fow has an extensive
literature, including recent contributions by McCroskey (1982) and
Crighton (1985
) in this series.
With the onset fow represented in terms of its circumferential harmonic
components, and with the assumption that the propeller responds linearly
to changes in the onset fow, the problem can be reduced to one of fnding
the response of the propeller to each harmonic. The nondimensional
parameter that characterizes the degree of unsteadiness of the fow is the
reduced frequency k, which is defned as the product of the frequency of
encounter and the local semichord, divided by the relative infow speed. For
a typical marinepropeller chord length, the reduced frequency correspond
ing to the frst harmonic of the onset fow is of the order of one half, while the
value for the harmonic corresponding to the number of blades will be of the
order of two or three. From the classical twodimensional �olution for an
airfoil traversing sinusoidal gusts, it is known that the unsteadiness of the
fow becomes signifcant for values of the reduced frequency of roughly one
tenth or higher. Thus the response of a propeller to all circumferential
harmonics of the onset fow is unsteady, in the sense that the lift is
considerably smaller than the equivalent quasisteady value and is shifted
in phase relative to the infow.
Early attempts to calculate propeller unsteady forces used a variety of
approximations, ranging from a purely quasisteady approach to ones that
employed twodimensional unsteady airfoil results. A number of such
semiempirical methods were applied to a specifc case in an interational
cooperative study conducted by Schwanecke (1975) ; the study showed that
a large spread existed in the results obtained by the diferent methods.
Current LitingSurface Method for Unsteady Flow
One of the frst investigators to publish a complete theory for the unsteady
problem was Hanaoka (1962), although numerical evaluation of his theory
was not published until 1969 (Hanaoka 1969). The theory developed by
Tsakonas et al. ( 1968, 1973), which was discussed earlier in connection with
the steadyfow analysis problem, became widely used during this time
period for the prediction of unsteady propeller forces. Figure 1 5, taken from
A
n
n
u
.
R
e
v
.
F
l
u
i
d
M
e
c
h
.
1
9
8
6
.
1
8
:
3
6
7

4
0
3
.
D
o
w
n
l
o
a
d
e
d
f
r
o
m
w
w
w
.
a
n
n
u
a
l
r
e
v
i
e
w
s
.
o
r
g
b
y
U
N
I
V
E
R
S
I
T
Y
O
F
M
I
A
M
I
o
n
0
1
/
1
1
/
1
2
.
F
o
r
p
e
r
s
o
n
a
l
u
s
e
o
n
l
y
.
398 KRWN
Boswell et al. ( 1983), shows good correlation between Tsakonas' theory and
measurements for a series of propellers with varying blade area. Also shown
in Figure 1 5 are results obtained by various approximate theories, which
can be seen to give results either far above or far below the measurements.
Results obtained with the unsteady liftingsurface theories of Hanaoka,
Tsakonas, and others (also compiled by Schwanecke) were found to be in
much closer agreement than the semiempirical methods.
Kerwin & Lee (1978) used a diferent approach, with the blades
represented by a vortex lattice in a manner similar to the steadyfow
problem described earlier, and with the fow solution obtained in the time
domain rather than in the frequency domain. The problem was solved as an
initialvalue problem starting from the steady solution, with the propeller
rotated in discrete angular increments through three or four complete
revolutions until a steadystate oscillatory solution was obtained.
The motivation for using a timedomain solution was largely in

W
::
a
J I
I r
> ::
U I
z :
w I
::
z
O C
w _
a r
u w
w O
0
c
m
0
1 .0
Ü· Ü
0.6
0.4
0.2
UNSTEADY 20
" _ UNSTEADY LL
, ¯
"
¬
´
.
.
�
, ULS (PLEXVAN)
.y J ,  "":;5 (QUASI/
0.3
»
o .. 
� � ULS (PPEXACT)
¯ * � ULS ( PUF2)
' ¯
¬
'  ' � '  : �' �
¸
¸
�
 1 ' �
"
EXPERIMENT
LÕ (T:���A�A'HI l
LOW ASPECT RATIO
0·6 0.9 1 .2
EXPANDED AREA RATIO. A
E
/A
O
Figure 15 Bladefrequency thrust correlation over a range of expanded area ratios a,Ja¿.
The various programs are identifed as follows : QUASI (McCarthy 1961), PPEXACT
(Tsakonas et a. 1973), PLEXV AN (Tsakonas et a. 1983), PUF2 (Kerwin & Lee 1978),
TANIBAYASHI (Tanibayashi 1980), LOW ASPECT RTO (Brown 1981), UNSTEADY
2D (Boswell & Miller 1968), UNSTEADY LL (Brown 196). From Boswell et a. (1983).
A
n
n
u
.
R
e
v
.
F
l
u
i
d
M
e
c
h
.
1
9
8
6
.
1
8
:
3
6
7

4
0
3
.
D
o
w
n
l
o
a
d
e
d
f
r
o
m
w
w
w
.
a
n
n
u
a
l
r
e
v
i
e
w
s
.
o
r
g
b
y
U
N
I
V
E
R
S
I
T
Y
O
F
M
I
A
M
I
o
n
0
1
/
1
1
/
1
2
.
F
o
r
p
e
r
s
o
n
a
l
u
s
e
o
n
l
y
.
�n PROPELLERS 399
anticipation of extending the approach to the solution of propeller fows
with intermittent cavitation. A frequencydomain solution cannot be used
in this case because of the highly nonlinear relationship between fow
conditions and the length of the cavity. As indicated earlier, this interesting
problem is beyond the scope of the present review.
Results obtained by this theory were added to those compiled by
Schwanecke (1975) and were found to lie in the middle of the group of
results obtained by the other unsteady liftingsurface theories. The
combined results may be found in Kerwin & Lee ( 1978), with additional
favorable comparisons in a discussion to that paper prepared by Tsakonas.
While Figure 1 5 shows good agreement between theory and experiment,
there are many contradictory results in the published literature in this area.
It would therefore be desirable to have a defnitive set of experiments that
could be used as a basis for deciding whether or not current theories for
unsteady propeller fows are accurate. Unfortunately, there are two
considerations that make this task more complicated than one might think.
First, unsteady propeller force measurements are extremely diffcult to
make, since the propeller shaft and measuring system must be carefully
designed and dynamically calibrated, and the resulting output signals must
be processed to remove noise. Second, if calculations are to be made
corresponding to a given experiment, the efective onset fow must be
determined. It is not clear at present how much the harmonic content of the
wake feld difers from that of the nominal wake. It is possible that a pure
single harmonic wake generated by a screen in a water tunnel will not be
altered appreciably by the induced velocity feld of the propeller. On the
other hand, the harmonic content of the complex wake feld shown in
Figure 3 could be expected to be considerably diferent. A weak link in the
process of predicting unsteady propeller forces may well be in the
prediction of threedimensional efective wakes ; the current interest in this
topic is certainly justifed.
The latter problem is not a concern if the nonuniform infow is generated
as a result of the inclination of the rotation axis relative to the fow
direction. This is the case in Figure 16a, taken from Boswell et al. (1981),
which shows substantial disagreement between Tsakonas et al. and Kerwin
&Lee in the prediction of the onceperrevolution alternating thrust force
on a single blade. Both theories underpredict the force compared with
experimental results, although to varying degrees depending on the
advance coefcient of the propeller.
Improved agreement at low advance coefcients is obtained by a
refnement introduced by Kerwin ( 1979), in which the axis of the propeller
slipstream is allowed to depart from the axis of propeller rotation. This
introduces a nonlinear coupling between the mean loading and the once
A
n
n
u
.
R
e
v
.
F
l
u
i
d
M
e
c
h
.
1
9
8
6
.
1
8
:
3
6
7

4
0
3
.
D
o
w
n
l
o
a
d
e
d
f
r
o
m
w
w
w
.
a
n
n
u
a
l
r
e
v
i
e
w
s
.
o
r
g
b
y
U
N
I
V
E
R
S
I
T
Y
O
F
M
I
A
M
I
o
n
0
1
/
1
1
/
1
2
.
F
o
r
p
e
r
s
o
n
a
l
u
s
e
o
n
l
y
.
.
�
�
�
35
,
»
l
w
FÞ lÏ
¬
w
w ·
·�
¯m
` ��
E¤p
25 1
'�` 0
w
w
w
w
MUanhy �_ ¸
2
1
(OUPÍÌ
15 �
10 1 _
/
/


¯.a. al
".
ÏMË7ACÃl
m� m��� m ��


a
û.4 0.0 0.ô T.0 T.Z 1 .4 1 .6 T.ô Z.0
J • V (IWMl/nD
�r ¯ ¯,�¯¯�¯�r_¯�
4
Æ
_ ôxptmt
0
0
0
0
0
0
PHOPELÇEH%T
" • Û ÖEO
W¡THMHEEN
o
~
_
0
0
0 K_n & LlMF2l
.^ ª
4
w
Mcy IQUAn
......
"
"
" �"
�
, ,'  � .
¯ Æ
� ¯ , "
.
. .. .�.
,�
w¯..
+
"¯ �
"
Tþ
æ
/ / TWKmæ.. a¡ lMÅAMCÎ
T0
ÖæIg4
,
I
I
0
1 I I
I
I I
0 0.8 a.B T.0 1 T.•
J ^ VÍJ w_)¡nO
T.0
U
I.B

ia
Figure 1 6 Correlation between theory and experiment for frst harmonic thrust fuctuation. The results in (a) are for a 10° shaft inclination in uniform
fow. The results in (b) are for a screngenerated axial wake. Progam identifcation is the same as in Figure 15, with the addition ofPUF2IS (Kerwin
1979). From Boswell et a. (1981).
s
�
A
n
n
u
.
R
e
v
.
F
l
u
i
d
M
e
c
h
.
1
9
8
6
.
1
8
:
3
6
7

4
0
3
.
D
o
w
n
l
o
a
d
e
d
f
r
o
m
w
w
w
.
a
n
n
u
a
l
r
e
v
i
e
w
s
.
o
r
g
b
y
U
N
I
V
E
R
S
I
T
Y
O
F
M
I
A
M
I
o
n
0
1
/
1
1
/
1
2
.
F
o
r
p
e
r
s
o
n
a
l
u
s
e
o
n
l
y
.
Mr PROP8LI8R8 401
perrevolution timedependent loading, which in this case seems to be
additive.
The quasisteady method of McCarthy (1961) is shown in Figure 16a to
give quite good results in this case ; however, it does overpredict the once
perrevolution unsteady thrust by roughly a factor of four in Schwanecke's
(1975) survey. There seems to be no obvious explanation for this
contradictory behavior.
Figure 16b, also from Boswell et al. (1981), shows a similar correlation
between theory and experiment for a circumferentially varying infow
generated by a screen. Here, all three theories considered agree well at the
design advance coefcient of the propeller, but none follow the experi
mental trend at low advance coefcients. This may result from either the
infuence of the efective wake (since the onset fow contains vorticity in this
case) or possibly the asymmetry of the slipstream.
Another phenomenon that may afect unsteady blade forces is the
formation of a leadingedge vortex during part of one revolution of each
blade. It is known that this vortex formation increases lif at high angles of
attack in steady fow, as discussed earlier ; it is possible that this could also
af ect unsteady fows. H so, this would introduce a strongly nonlinear
Reynoldsnumberdependent complication to an already complicated
problem!
In conclusion, present unsteady lifingsurface theories are accurate
enough to be of signifcant help to a designer wishing either to predict
unsteady vibratory forces generated by a propeller or to estimate fuctuat
ing loads on an individual blade as input to a structural analysis. The efect
of changes in blade shape on unsteady forces can be readily studied, and this
type of analysis is frequently used in the optimization of a design. However,
we see that the reliability of unsteady force predictions is by no means
perfect. The most likely sources of error are in the prediction of the three
dimensional efective wake, in the modeling of the unsteady trailingvortex
wake geometry, in the neglect of unsteady leadingedge vortex separation,
and in the method of application of the Kutta condition at the trailing edge.
ACKNOWLEDGMENT
The writing of this review was supported by the Ofce of Naval Research
Special Focus Program in Ship Hydrodynamics.
Literature Cited
Baker, G.8.1951. Ship Design, Resistance and
Screw Propulsion. London: Birchall. 206
pp. 2Od ed.
Btz, A. 1919. Schraubenpropller mit
geringstem Energieverlust. K. Ges. Wiss.
Gittingen Nachr. Math.Phys. Klasse
1919: 193217
Boswell, R.!.,Miller, M. L. 1968. Unsteady
propller loadingmeasurement, correla
tion wt theory, and parametric study.
A
n
n
u
.
R
e
v
.
F
l
u
i
d
M
e
c
h
.
1
9
8
6
.
1
8
:
3
6
7

4
0
3
.
D
o
w
n
l
o
a
d
e
d
f
r
o
m
w
w
w
.
a
n
n
u
a
l
r
e
v
i
e
w
s
.
o
r
g
b
y
U
N
I
V
E
R
S
I
T
Y
O
F
M
I
A
M
I
o
n
0
1
/
1
1
/
1
2
.
F
o
r
p
e
r
s
o
n
a
l
u
s
e
o
n
l
y
.
402 KERWIN
NSRDC Rep. 2625, Nav. Ship. Res. Dev.
Cent., Washington, DC. ix+79 pp.
Boswell, R. J., Jessup, S. D., Kim, K.H. 1981.
Periodic singleblade loads on propellers
in tangential and longitudinal wakes. Proc.
SNAME Propellers '81 Symp., Virginia
Beach, Va., pp. 181202
Boswell, R. J., Kim, K.H., Jessup, S. D., Lin,
G.F. 1983. Practical methods for predict
ing periodic propeller loads. Paper pre
sented at Int. Symp. Pract. Des. Shipbuild.,
2nd, Tokyo
Breslin, J. P., Van Houten, R. J., Kerwin, J. E.,
Johnson, C.A. 1982. Theoretical and ex
perimental propellerinduced hull pres
sures arising from interittent blade cavi
tation, loading, and thickness. Soc. N avo
Archit. Mar. Eng. Trans. 90: 1 1 151
Brockett, T. E. 1981. Lifting surace hydro
dynamics for desig of rotating blades.
Proc. SNAME Propellers '81 Symp., Vir
ginia Beach, Va., pp. 35778
Brockett, T. E. 1985. Shear fow efects on
propeller operation : Efective velocity,
loads and vortex sheet geometry. Rep. 294,
Dep. Nav. Archit. Mar. Eng., Univ. Mich.,
Ann Arbor
Brown, N. A. 1964. Periodic propeller forces
in nonuniform fow. Rep. 647, Dep.
Ocean Eng., Mass. Inst. Techno!.,
Cambridge
Brown, N. A. 1981. Minimization of un
steady propeller forces that excite vibra
tion of the propulsion system. SNAME
Pub!. S7, pp. 20331 . New York : Soc.
Nav. Archit. Mar. Eng.
Cox, G. G. 1961. Corrections to the camber
of constant pitch propellers.
ÿ
. Trans. R.
lnst. Nav. Archit. 103 : 22743
Crighton, D. G. 1985. The Kutta condition in
unsteady fow. Ann. Rev. Fluid Mech.
1 7: 41 15
Cummings, D. E. 1973. Numerical preiction
of propeller characteristics. J. Ship Res.
1 7: 1218
Dyne, G. 1980. A note on the design of wake
adapted propellers. J. Ship Res. 24 : 22731
Eckhart, M. K., Morgan, W. B. 1955. A
propeller design method. Soc. N avo Archit.
Mar. Eng. Trans. 63 : 32574
English, J. W. 1962. The application of a
simplifed lifting surface technique to the
deSign of marine propellers. Rep. SH
R.30/62, Ship Div., Nat!. Phys. Lab.,
Feltham, Eng!.
Glauert, H. 1948. The Elements ofAerofoil
and Airscrew Theory. Cambridge : Cam
bridge Univ. Press. Reissued by Dover. ii
+228 pp.
Goldstein, S. 1929. On the vortex theory of
screw propellers. Proc. R. Soc. Lndon Ser.
A I23 : �5
Goodman, T. R. 1979. Momentum theory of
a propeller in a shear fow. J. Ship Res.
23 : 24252
Greeley, D. S. 1982. Marine propeller blade
tip fows. Rp. 823, Dep. Ocean Eng.,
Mass. Inst. Techno!., Cambridge
Greeley, D. S., Kerwin, !.E. 1982. Numerical
methods for propeller design and analysis
in steady fow. Soc. Nav. Archit. Mar. Eng.
Trans. 90 : 41553
Guilloton, R. 1957. Calcul des vitesses in
duites en vue du trace des helices. Schifs
technik 4: 1019
Hanaoka, T 1962. Hydrodynamics of an
oscillating screw propeller. Proc. Symp.
Nav. Hydrodyn., 4th, pp. 79124. Washing
ton, DC: Nat!. Acad. Press
Hanaoka, T. 1969. Numerical lifting surface
theory of d screw propeller in nonuniform
fow (Part 1 : Fundamental theory). Rep.
Ship Res. Inst., Tokyo 6(5) . 114 (In
Japanese)
Hess, J. L. 1975. Review of integralequation
techniques for solving potentialfow prob
lems with emphasis on the surfacesource
method. Comput. Methods Appl. Mech.
Eng. 5 : 14596
Hess, J. L., Smith, A. M. O. 1967. Calculation
of potential fow about arbitrary bodies.
Prog. Aeronaut. Sci. 8 : 1137
Hess, J. L., Valarezo, W. 0. 1985. Calculation
of steady fow about propellers by means
of a surface panel method. AI AA Pap. No.
850283
Holden, K., Sontvedt, T., Ofsti, O. 1974. On
stability and volume of marine propeller
cavitation and corresponding spectral dis
tribution in hull pressure felds. Proc.
Symp. High Powered Propulsion Large
Ships, Wageningen, N eth.
Huang, T., Groves, N. 1980. Efective wake :
theory and experiment. Proc. Symp. Nav.
Hydrodyn., 13th, Tokyo, pp. 65173
James, R. M. 1972. On the remarkable accu
racy of the vortex lattic method. Comput.
Methods Appl. M echo Eng. I .5979
Kerwin, J. E. 1959. Machine computation of
marine propeller characteristics. Int. Ship
build. Prog. 6: 34354
Kerwin, J. E. 1961. The solution of propeller
lifting surface problems by vortex lattic
methods. Rep., Dep. Ocean Eng., Mass.
Inst. Techno!., Cambridge
Kerwin, J. E. 1979. The effect of trailing
vortex asymmetry on unsteady propller
blade forces. Rep., Dep. Ocean Eng., Mass.
Inst. Techno!., Cambridge
Kerwin, J. E., Lee, C.S. 1978. Prediction of
steady and unsteady marine propeller per
formanc by numerical liftingsurfac
theory. Soc. Nav. Archit. Mar. Eng. Trans.
86 : 21 853
Kim, K. H., Kobayashi, S. 1984. Pressure
distribution on propeller blade surface using
A
n
n
u
.
R
e
v
.
F
l
u
i
d
M
e
c
h
.
1
9
8
6
.
1
8
:
3
6
7

4
0
3
.
D
o
w
n
l
o
a
d
e
d
f
r
o
m
w
w
w
.
a
n
n
u
a
l
r
e
v
i
e
w
s
.
o
r
g
b
y
U
N
I
V
E
R
S
I
T
Y
O
F
M
I
A
M
I
o
n
0
1
/
1
1
/
1
2
.
F
o
r
p
e
r
s
o
n
a
l
u
s
e
o
n
l
y
.
numerical liftingsur!ace theory. Paper pre
sented at SNAME Propellers '84 Symp.,
Virgnia Beach, Va.
Lan, C. E. 1974. A quasivortexlattice
method in thin wing theory. J. Aircr.
1 1 : 51827
Lerbs, H. W. 1952. Moderately loaded pro
pellers with B fnite number of blades and
an arbitrary distribution of circulation.
Soc. N avo Archit. Mar. Eng. Trans. 60 : 73
1 17
Lighthill, M. J. 1951. A new approach to thin
aerofoil theory. Aeronaut. Q.3 : 193210
Ludwieg, H., Ginzel, J. 1944. Zur Theorie der
Breitblattschraube. Rep. 44/A/08, Aero
dyn. Versuchsanst., Gottingen, Ger.
McCarthy, J. H. 1961. On the calculation of
thrust and torque fuctuations of propel
lers in nonuniform wake fow. DTNSRDC
Rep. 1533, David Taylor Nav. Ship Res.
Dev. Cent., Bethesda, Md. iii H33 pp.
McCroskey, W. J. 1982. Unsteady airfoils.
Ann. Rev. Fluid Mech. 14: 28531 1
Moran, J. 19&4. An Introduction t o Theoreti
cal and Computational Aerodynamics. New
York: Wiley. 4 pp.
Morgan, W. B., Silovic, V., Denny, S. B. 1968.
Propeller liftingsurface corrections. Soc.
N avo Archit. Mar. Eng. Trans. 76: 30947
Pien, P. C. 1961. The calculation of marine
propellers based on lifting surface theory.
J. Ship Res. 5(2) : 1¯14
Prandtl, L. 1921. Application of modem
hydrodynamics to aeronautics. Nat!.
Advis. Comm. Aeronaut. Ann. Rep., 7th, pp.
157215
Report of the Propeller Committee. 1984.
Proc. Int. Towing Tank Conf, 1 7th, Gite
borg, 1 : 140270
Schwanecke, H. 1975. Comparative calcu
lations of unsteady propeller blade forcs.
Report of the Propeller Committee. Proc.
Int. Towing Tank Con{., 14th, 3 : 44147
Sparenberg, J. A. 1959.
A
pplication of lifting
surfac theory to ship screws. Proc. K. Ned.
Akad. Wet.Amsterdam, Ser. B 62(5) :
286 98
Strscheletzky, M. 1950. Hydrodynamische
Grund/agen zur Berechnung der Schif s
schrauben. Karlsruhe : G. Braun. 257 pp.
Tanibayashi, H. 1980. Practical approach to
unsteady problems of marine propellers by
quasisteady method of calculation. Mit
�U PROPELLERS 403
subishi Tech. Bull. No. 143, Tokyo
Tsakonas, S., Jacobs, W. R., Rank, P. H. Jr.
1968. Unsteady propeller liftingsurface
theory with fnite number of chordwise
modes. J. Ship Res. 12 : 1445
Tsakonas, S., Jacobs, W. R., Ali, M. R. 1973.
An "exact" linear liftingsurface theory for
a marine propeller in a nonuniform fow
feld. J. Ship Res. 17 : 196 207
Tsakonas, S., Breslin, J. P., Jacobs, W. R.
1983. Blade pressure distribution for a
moderately loaded propeller. J. Ship Res.
27: 3955
van Gent, W. 1977. On the use of lifting
surface theory for moderately and heavily
loaded ship propellers. NSMB Publ. No.
536, Neth. Ship Model Basin, Wageningen
Van Houten, R. J., Kerwin, J. E., Uhlman, J.
S. 1983. Numerical solutions of lifting
surfac sheet cavitation. Proc. Gen. Meet.
Am. Towing Tank Cor, 20th, Davidson
Lab., Stevens Inst. Technol., Hoboken, N.J.,
1 : 39330
van Manen, J. D. 1957. Fundaentals of ship
resistance and propulsion. Part B : Propul
sion. Publ. No. 132a, Neth. Ship Model
Basin, Wageningen. 14 pp.
van Manen, J. D., Bakker, A. R. 1962.
Numerical results of Sparenberg's lifting
surface theory for ship screws. Proc. Symp.
Nav. Hydrodyn., 4th, Washington, DC, pp.
6377
Versmissen, O. O. P., van Oent, W. 1983.
Hydrodynamic pressure measurements on
a ship model propeller. Proc. Symp. Nav.
Hydrodyn., 14th, pp. 787822. Washing
ton, DC: Nat!. Acad. Press
Vorus, W. S. 1976. Caculation of propeller
induced hull forces, force distributions,
and pressures ; Free surface efects. J. Ship
Res. 20: 10717
Vorus, W. S., Breslin, J. P., Tein, Y. S. 1978.
Calculation and comparison of propeller
unsteady pressure forces on ships. Proc.
Ship Vib. Symp. '78, Washington, DC, p. 11
Wang, M.H. 1985. Hub eff ects in propeller
design and analysis. PhD thesis. Dep.
Ocean Eng., Mass. Inst. Techno!., Cam
bridge
Yamazai, R. 1962. On the theory of screw
propellers. Proc. Symp. Nav. Hydrodyn.,
4th, Washington, DC, pp. 128
A
n
n
u
.
R
e
v
.
F
l
u
i
d
M
e
c
h
.
1
9
8
6
.
1
8
:
3
6
7

4
0
3
.
D
o
w
n
l
o
a
d
e
d
f
r
o
m
w
w
w
.
a
n
n
u
a
l
r
e
v
i
e
w
s
.
o
r
g
b
y
U
N
I
V
E
R
S
I
T
Y
O
F
M
I
A
M
I
o
n
0
1
/
1
1
/
1
2
.
F
o
r
p
e
r
s
o
n
a
l
u
s
e
o
n
l
y
.
368
KERWIN
Annu. Rev. Fluid Mech. 1986.18:367403. Downloaded from www.annualreviews.org by UNIVERSITY OF MIAMI on 01/11/12. For personal use only.
Figure 1
A highly skewed controllablepitch propeller installed on a seismic exploration
vessel. (Photograph courtesy of BirdJohnson Company.)
�� PROPELLERS
369
Annu. Rev. Fluid Mech. 1986.18:367403. Downloaded from www.annualreviews.org by UNIVERSITY OF MIAMI on 01/11/12. For personal use only.
Figure 2
Vortex lattice; representation of the propeller shown in Figure 1.
its design, which we discuss later, is illustrated in Figure 2. The complex blade shape is required because this propeller must have very low levels of vibratory excitation and be completely fiee of cavitation under certain operating conditions. The complete field of marine propeller hydrodynamics is far too broad to cover adequately in a single paper. In this review we restrict our attention to singleunit propulsors, as illustrated in Figure 1. Multicomponent pro pulsors consisting of pairs of counterrotating propellers, combinations of rotors and stators, or propellers combined with fixed or rotating shrouds are all of current interest but are not covered here. Propeller cavitation is an extensive field of its own, which we also do not cover except as a motivation for determining accurate pressure distributions on the blades. However, the
have been extended to the case of cavitating flows. a point near the tip of a blade will be subjected to an onset flow varying between 5 to 85% of the ship speed during each revolution. This wake flow can in some cases be extremely complicated. (1978).org by UNIVERSITY OF MIAMI on 01/11/12. Rev. Downloaded from www.370 KERWIN Annu. (1983). For most ships. the deviation fromfree stream of the flow entering the propeller is largely due to the viscous wake. In addition to the hull influence on the propeller. which must be known before one can proceed with the solution of the propeller problem. The coupling between the propeller and hull flow is generally considered sufficiently weak to permit separation of the two problems. but in the spatially varying flow field generated by the ship. the propeller induces a pressure field on the hull whose mean component is termed "thrust deduction. Figure 3 shows equivelocity contours of the longitudinal wake field for a supertanker. reader should be aware that computational techniques for noncavitating flows. 1986. propeller induced forces acting on the hull can be found by solving the problem of the . and Vorus et al. Thus. Fluid Mech. Recent work in this particular area is reviewed in Van Houten et al.annualreviews. at which point we look specifically at the problems of designing a propeller for a given distribution oflift. We then formulate briefly the problem of the flow around a propeller in general terms. In this review we first discuss the onset flow to the propeller. The published literature in this field is extensive. This flow field can be represented as a combination of the potential flow of the hull moving in the free surface and of the wake flow containing the residue of the hull boundary layer. Another important aspect of propeller hydrodynamics that we do not cover here is the interaction of the pressure field of the propeller with the hull. In this example. although small compared with the mean thrust. analyzing a given propeller both in circumferentially uniform flow and in the unsteady flow resulting from a nonuniform onset field.18:367403. THE PROPELLER ONSET FLOW Except under artificially contrived laboratory conditions. and appendages such as the rudder. the free surface. and the interested reader might possibly start with publications by Breslin et al. Vorus (1976). is nevertheless extremely critical from the point of view of hull vibration." The oscillatory component of the propellerinduced hull pressure. Again if weak coupling is assumed between the hull and propeller flows. (1982). propellers operate in a flow field influenced by the presence of the ship. where the boundaries of the fluid domain may include nearby portions ofthe hull. For personal use only. the propeller is assumed to be operating in an unbounded fluid. which we do describe.
The numbers indicate the velocity deficit as a fraction of ship speed. 1986. a large modification of the inflow to the propeller could result. From Holden et al. This altered flow field is Equivelocity contours of the longitudinal component of the wake field of a supertanker.MARINE PROPELLERS 371 Annu. The assumption that the hull and propeller flows can be separated in this way breaks down if the presence of the propeller significantly alters the flow around the hull. For example. the wake flow in which the propeller is operating contains vorticity generated in the hull boundary layer. Fortunately. Downloaded from www. The result is that the flow into the propeller is not the same as it would be if the propeller were not there and is altered by the presence of the propeller. hull alone. if the region of boundarylayer separation on the hull were changed by the propeller's induced flow. while the line in the . Rev. so that the influence of the propeller on the viscous flow around the hull can generally be ignored. Figure 3 . upperright comer shows a portion of the hull surface. For personal use only. and the flow field of the propeller interacts with this rotational flow.org by UNIVERSITY OF MIAMI on 01/11/12. The circle indicates the axis of rotation of the propeller.annualreviews. However. ships are generally designed to avoid flow separation as much as possible. (1974). Fluid Mech.18:367403. in the presence of the freespace flow field generated by the propeller.
which is defined as (1) where Vs is the speed of the ship and VA is the speed in uniform flow at which the propeller would produce the same thrust as that measured behind the model. Several decades passed after the experimental discovery that the effective wake and the nominal wake are different before any attempt was made to develop a theoretical explanation. . This means that a propulsion experiment must be performed in order to obtain the information needed for the propeller design. Brockett (1985) suggests that the effective wake be defined as the total velocity at any point in the fluid with a propeller operating minus the potential component of the propellerinduced velocity. except in the sense that one can hope to iterate to a converged solution or possibly settle for a simple approximation to the effective wake. termed the "effective wake.annualreviews. the propeller problem has not been separated at all. it would first have to be scaled in order that its mean value be equal to VA' If this were not done. We now consider these two possibilities. If one wishes to use the measured velocity distribution in the design of the propeller. 1986. The temporal variation is due to the fact that the propeller's induced velocity field is a function of time in a fixed coordinate system containing the wake as a result of both the rotation of the propeller and its unsteady loading." as contrasted to the "nominal wake" which exists in the absence of the propeller. Fluid Mech.org by UNIVERSITY OF MIAMI on 01/11/12. However. With this definition. For personal use only.372 KERWIN Annu. A stock propeller of roughly the same characteristics will yield essentially the same value of the thrust identity wake.18:367403. Downloaded from www. This complex interaction results in changes to the propeller onset flow that are functions of both space and time. Since the kinematic boundary condition involves the effective onset flow. it has been found that the propeller used in this test need not correspond to the final design. The value of VA determined in this way is generally greater than the average value of the velocity measured behind the model in the position of the propeller. One of the quantities determined is the thrust identity wake fraction. the propeller design would prove to be incorrect. Rev. the propeller problem is reduced to one of finding (a) the velocity potential in an unbounded fluid for a flow that satisfies the kinematic boundary condition on the propeller surface and (b) a kinematic and dynamic boundary condition at the trailing edge and on the trailing vortex sheets behind the blades. It is customary in developing a major ship design to test a model together with a propeller in a towing tank.
:.. 1982). Van Houten (see Breslin et al. _ . and n the number of propeller revolutions per unit time./ �.. 1 /!if I I = = U . Dyne (1980).25 } \. V .8 0. Fluid Mech.org by UNIVERSITY OF MIAMI on 01/11/12. p the fluid mass density... Results are given for two different values of nondimensional thrust coefficient CTS.!. corresponding to two values of the advance coefficient J These coefficients are defined as follows: V ' where T is the propeller thrust. ... V the ship speed.. Huang & Groves (1980). 1. These include contributions by Goodman (1979). v.2 0.0 0. /.annualreviews.. .. 8 1. from which the detailed structure of the effective wake can be derived. and R. Eff cti ve . Total ! .. .l Jy I '\ Ue 0. .370 . For personal use only." V = __ . 1986.. Rev. In addition.2 1. __ . taken from Huang & Groves (1980).....8 0.!..:. ./ �_/ .. The basic idea is presented in Figure 4. who treat the case of a propeller operating behind an axisymmetric Annu...7 0..6 0. From Huang & Groves (1980). J.V . .. 4u 0...18:367403.6 1. . 1 . ..654.0 0..9 1.4 0.5 0.0 1.6 1/ . Total 0..MARUNE PROPELLERS 373 Several theoretical treatments of the effectivewake phenomenon have appeared in recent years./ 0.. Rp the propeller radius.1 Figure 4 Typical total and effective axial velocity profiles computed from the measured nominal axial velocity. //{Crs Jy / /ftCrs � upe . Downloaded from www. .4 1.07 = } 1. Nominal V / /// Effectlve_. . \. the introduction of the laserDoppler velocimeter has made it possible to measure flow fields just ahead of an operating propeller.3 Rp Ux . ·· '\ : .
374 KERWIN Annu. symmetrically arranged blades attached to a hub that is rotating at constant angular velocity ill about the xaxis. Rev. The result is the effective wake. Dyne (1980) cites experimental evidence that propellers designed on the basis of a scaled nominal wake have too small a value of blade angle at the inner radii. Huang & Groves (1980) find this by solving the vorticity equation with the boundary condition that the flow at large radii is unchanged. An example of analytical progress in this area is the current work of Brockett (1985). Downloaded from www. body. For personal use only. which we designate the key blade. is independent of the axial coordinate. An equivalent cylindrical coordinate system in which r is the radial coordinate and () 0 on the yaxis is also used here.org by UNIVERSITY OF MIAMI on 01/11/12. Propeller onset flows are generally not axisymmetric. and also that its distribution over the radius is now different. The yaxis is chosen to pass through the midchord of the root section of one blade.annualreviews. This propellerinduced flow accelerates the fluid as it approaches the propeller. The zaxis completes the righthanded system. 1986. the circumferential vorticity that it contains is stretched. even if the nominal wake can be regarded as independent of longitudinal position. as is evident from the Report of the Propeller Committee (1984) of the Seventeenth International Towing Tank Conference. so that an effective wake is three dimensional in nature. The propeller induces an axial velocity field that can be considered as a first approximation to be the difference between the total velocity and the inflow. The hub is either idealized as an axisymmetric body as shown or ignored completely. the alteration of the inflow by the propeller varies over the axial extent of the propeller. A simple scaling of the nominal wake to produce the correct mean is clearly insufficient. Fluid Mech. the flow field can be represented by a volume distribution of circumferential vorticity whose strength. If we assume that axial velocity gradients are small compared with radial gradients. This reduces the magnitude of the radial velocity gradient in the inflow. In addition. in the absence of the propeller. FORMULA TION OF THE PROPELLER As shown in Figure 5. The geometry of the blades and hub is prescribed in a Cartesian coordinate system rotating with the propeller. we consider a propeller consisting of K identical. which is consistent with the trend shown in Figure 4.18:367403. and as a result. = POTENTIALFLOW PROBLEM . This is an active field of research at present. It is evident from this result that the mean onset flow is increased. and thus one must deal with a much more complex problem in which circumferential gradients are present. which is also shown in Figure 4. The axial component of the inflow velocity in this typical example ranges from about 30% of free stream at the hub to 80% at the tip.
This flow is defined in a fixed coordinate system in which the x and Xo axes are identical. By advancing a distance ±!c(r} along a helix of pitch angle <{>p(r}. respectively. . If we ignore the variation of the effective onset flow.�nNE PROPELLERS 375 Annu. The propeller is operating in an unbounded. incompressible fluid. The blade is formed starting with a midchord line defined parametrically by the radial distribution of skew angle Om(r} and rake xm(r}. where s is a curvilinear coordinate along the helix. and the surface formed by the helical lines at each radius form the reference upon which the actual blade sections can be built. For personal use only. we can write down the velocity components in the following generally accepted = Figure 5 Propeller blade geometry. and the y and Yo axes are coincident at time t O.18:367403. These sections can be defined in standard airfoil terms by a chordwise distribution of camber f(s} and thickness t(s}. Rev. in a prescribed effective onset flow. 1986.org by UNIVERSITY OF MIAMI on 01/11/12. and make use of the cyclic nature of the flow.annualreviews. both with respect to time and longitudinal position XQ. Fluid Mech. one obtains the blade leading edge and trailing edge. as described in the preceding section. Downloaded from www.
r.18:367403. Downloaded from www. since they are the same for any incompressible flow around a threedimensional lifting body. For personal use only. velocity vector of the undisturbed onset flow. q) 0 on 1 o 1 � dS . where <p(q) R(p. q) <p(q) R(p.r. (�: = <p n = u". n=l '" '" (2) Annu. Transformation from the fixed to the rotating coordinate system simply involves replacing 00 with Owt in the argument of the trigonometric functions. = ff U'" = unit normal vector outward from the body. distance between points p(x. and as a distribution of normal dipoles over the ff /1<p w = = . q)] II [ II/1<p(q) : R�. thus introducing a periodic time dependency in the flow. containing the singular point p. Rev. = Rq = p n = field point where the velocity potential is to be calculated. () (R normal velocity at the body boundary = J(X_�)2+(Y_1'f)2+(Z_()2). The governing equations for the velocity potential representing this flow are well known. source point where the source or normal dipole is located. V ' q(�. The velocity potential at any point on the surface of the body can be expressed in terms of a surface integral over the body and wake using Green's formula: 21t<p(p) = . 1986.annualreviews. integral over the wake surface..t)(r) cos nOo + L B�x. ) = Equation 3 can be interpreted as a distribution of sources and normal dipoles over the body.n . potential jump at the wake surface. z) and 1'/. q dSq + w n (3) �: = ss.t)(r) sin nOo.376 form: KERWIN n=O L A�x.org by UNIVERSITY OF MIAMI on 01/11/12. ss. integral over the body surface S. y. Fluid Mech. excluding an infinitesimal region S.
MARINE PROPELLERS 377 Annu. we may regard the boundary of the potentialflow region as consisting of the physical boundaries of the blades and hub. wake. and finally the analysis of a propeller in unsteady flow. the hydrodynamic design of a propeller is accomplished in two steps. . The problem as formulated so far does not consider the action of viscous forces. Betz (1919) first developed the basis for determining the radial distri bution of circulation that would result in optimum efficiency for a propeller operating in uniform inflow. However.annualreviews. in principle. Rev. Formulating the problem in such a general way is obviously much easier than solving it! The combination of the nonuniform onset flow. Following the usual boundarylayer approximation appropriate to high Reynolds numbers. and that the dynamic boundary condition of zero pressure jump across the trailing vortex wake must be applied. considering in turn the design of propellers for a given load distribution. and the need to establish the geometry of the free vortex sheets makes the solution of the propeller problem extremely difficult. The latter condition requires that the vorticity in the wake be everywhere convected by the local flow. Downloaded from www. To complete the formulation of the problem. As a first approximation.18:367403. the position in space of the vortex sheets. subject to considerations of efficiency and cavitation. one finds the shape of the blade that will produce this prescribed distribution of circulation. Alternatively.org by UNIVERSITY OF MIAMI on 01/11/12. the normal dipoles can be replaced by an equivalent distribution of vorticity whose strength is equal to the derivative of the strength of the dipoles. an interpretation that many find more physically intuitive. opened up the way for the development of a propeller design method following Prandtl's concept of the lifting line. which thus returns us to the original problem. thus establishing. He found that the optimum propeller in this case developed a trailing vortex system that formed a rigid helicoidal surface receding with a constant axial velocity. which requires that the velocity be finite at the trailing edges. the complex geometry of the blades. however. One first establishes a radial and chordwise distribution of circulation over the blades that will produce the desired total thrust. but with a rational basis for adding viscous tangential stresses in the final determination of forces. it was not until Goldstein (1929) that the potential problem posed by Betz was actually solved. We next review the progress made in the solution of this problem. Fluid Mech. In the second step. the related problem of analyzing a given propeller in steady flow. the Kutta condition must be imposed. The wake then consists only of sheets of vorticity. PROPELLER DESIGN Stated simply. Goldstein's work. augmented by the displacement thickness of the boundary layers. For personal use only. 1986. the displacement thickness can be ignored.
Rev..org by UNIVERSITY OF MIAMI on 01/11/12. An intuitive explanation of the presence of induced curvature is that the velocity induced by the trailing vortex sheets is greater at the trailing edge than at the leading edge. the ratio of their span to mean chord. is high.e.378 KERWIN If the aspect ratio of the blades. It was recognized at an early stage that liftingline theory could be made applicable to loweraspectratio surfaces by introducing a correction to the camber of the twodimensional sections to account for the induced curvature of the flow. . As a result. propeller design is based on experimental data.18:367403. Fluid Mech. marine propeller designs based on liftingline theory could not be expected to be satisfactory. It is therefore reasonable to conclude that prior to the 1950s. analytical methods for propeller design were not yet ready for practical application. By combining this information with theoretical or experimental twodimensional section data. The extension of Goldstein's liftingline theory to the case of propellers with arbitrary radial distributions of circulation in both uniform and radially varying inflow was presented in a landmark paper by Lerbs ( 1952). There is no theory extant which will enable the efficiency and the capacity to absorb power of a given screw to be calculated for actual ship conditions. or from the usual experimental data for aerofoil blades. is generally quite nonuniform. For personal use only.annualreviews. marine propellers were inevitably designed on the basis of systematic series of model experiments." The situation soon changed. Downloaded from www. However. and that the flow at each radial section could be regarded as two dimensional in an inflow field altered by the velocity induced by the free vortex system shed from the lifting lines. While initial acceptance was slow because of the intricacy of the theory and the lengthy calculations required. Goldstein's solution for the optimum propeller in uniform flow provided the means to calculate the velocity induced by the free vortex sheets. Prandtl (1921) deduced that the threedimensional problem could be solved by concentrating the circulation around the blades on individual lifting lines. but it was not until 1 7 years later that precise results obtained by computer were published by Cox (1961). either from purely theoretical data. In addition. Approximate calculations of camber correction factors for a few limited cases were made by Ludwieg & Ginzel ( 1944). the pro cedure was computerized in the late 1960s. one could design an optimum propeller. the onset flow to a propeller. as indicated in the previous section. As a result. This approach was extremely successful for aircraft propellers. since their lift coefficient must be severely limited to prevent excessive cavitation. marine propellers are gener ally forced to have lowaspectratio blades. . A textbook of that time period by Baker (1951) states: "In all marine work. which generally had very highaspectratio blades and operated in front of the aircraft in relatively uniform flow. The Lerbs method is still the Annu. 1986. i. .
For personal use only. In the meantime.18:367403. developed by Kerwin. a sudden burst of publications of computerbased propeller liftingsurface design methods occurred in 19611962. Sparenberg (1959) formulated the basis for a propeller liftingsurface theory. with liftingsurface corrections to camber and angle of attack.org by UNIVERSITY OF MIAMI on 01/11/12. even though they use very different numerical methods. these initial efforts all involved simplifying assumptions of various sorts. Notable contributions at this stage were made by van Manen (1957) and by Eckhart & Morgan (1955). which would later be programmed. based on a combination of the original Goldstein or the more general Lerbs liftingline theory. Kerwin (1961). and the form of the radial distribution of circulation all had a major influence on the correction factors. enable the designer to do a more accurate job. van Manen & Bakker (1962). The two methods are PROPLS. which have since been found to be unnecessary as a result of rapid advances in computer hardware and in the development of efficient computational methods. By this time. and it was becoming clear that the blade outline. which uses a vortexlattice procedure. (1968). Rev. Then. Actually. but their methods were probably considered to be too laborious for widespread adoption. however.annualreviews. and English (1962). However. developed by Brockett ( 1981). the skew. . However. and efficiency of a propeller. and PBDlO. in principle. power. These would.MAR� PROPELLERS 379 universally accepted procedure for establishing at the early design stage the radial distribution of circulation and the resulting thrust. numerical liftingsurface methods were evolving as a direct consequence of the growing availability of digital computers. and that the growing availability of computers would soon render this type of procedure obsolete. 1986. this was also the time period for early developments of a true propeller liftingsurface theory. which evaluates the resulting singular integrals by direct numerical integration. it was also becoming evident that the problem was too complicated to be reduced to a simple tabular/graphical hand calculation. which had initially been portrayed by a single graph. Downloaded from www. This included contributions by Pien (1961). During this time period design methods were developed. Fluid Mech. We therefore jump to the present time and describe two current lifting surface computational methods that are essentially equivalent in their basic formulation and provide almost identical results in a comparative calcu lation. The presence of the hub as a solid boundary is ignored in both of these Annu. The design method developed by Kerwin and an analysis procedure developed by Greeley were published jointly by these two authors in 1982 (Greeley & Kerwin 1982). More extensive correction factors were computed and published by Morgan et al. Strscheletzky (1950) and Guilloton (1957) published numerical methods together with hand calculations.
compute the total fluid velocicy at a number of points on the surface. However. 1986. since a discretized representation of the propeller is Annu. the radial distribution of chord length. . One therefore obtains an exact inviscid solution for a set of zero thickness surfaces representing the blades and vortex wakes. However. are given in Greeley & Kerwin (1982). The process is repeated using the adjusted surface as the new reference surface until convergence is obtained. so that the blade and wake can simply be projected onto stream surfaces formed by the undisturbed flow. and thus linear theory is generally not sufficiently accurate. so that the singularities distributed on both sides of the blades in accordance with Equation (3) merge.org by UNIVERSITY OF MIAMI on 01/11/12. This may seem surprising until one realizes that the inner radii contribute little to overall propeller forces as a result of the low rotational velocity in this region. The trailing vortex wake is similarly aligned with the resultant flow. However. In linear theory. The procedure employed in PBDlO is to start with some initial prescription of pitch and camber. in the limit. The source strengths are directly proportional to the stream wise derivative of the thickness function. The radial distribution of pitch and the chordwise and radial distribution of camber are to be determined. Fluid Mech. In the design problem. the geometry of the blade surface is only partially known. and then adjust the surface in such a way as to annul its normal component. the perturbation velocities due to the propeller are assumed to be small compared with the onset velocities. rake. The details of the vortexwake alignment procedure. It is further assumed that the blades are thin. in most practical cases the resulting blade surfaces deviate substantially from this. an extension of the vortexlattice method in which the hub boundary is accounted for is discussed later in this review. Perhaps the term "exact" is an overstatement. as illustrated in Figure 6. Downloaded from www. which is also employed in the equivalent steadyflow analysis procedure. Specifically. whereas the vortex strengths are prescribed. For personal use only. Differentiation of (3) with respect to the three coordinate directions results in singular integrals for the components of the induced velocity on the mean surface representing the blade. and skew.annualreviews. Rev. and the chordwise and radial distribution of thickness are prescribed in advance. The resulting expressions are obviously lengthy owing to the complicated nature of the geometry involved and are not reproduced here. the source and vortex distributions representing the blades and wake must first be placed on suitable reference surfaces in order that their induced velocity field can be calculated.18:367403.380 KERWIN I theories and has generally been ignored in the past. upon which a linearized thickness solution is superimposed. into a single sheet of sources and either normal dipoles or vortices.
The integration is therefore first (0) WAKE FOL LOWING UNDISTURBED INFLOW TRANSITION WA K E � ULTIMATE WAKE Ir� �� Figure 6 Illustration of vortex lattice representation of the trailing vortex wake before and after alignment with the local flow. Brockett's (1981) procedure for evaluating the induced velocities on the blade is one of direct numerical integration. used and the alignment of the trailing vortex wake involves some approximations.18:367403. Note the substantial increase in pitch after alignment. Since the integrals over the other blades and the trailing vortex wakes are nonsingular. Rev. Fluid Mech. For personal use only. (b) WAKE ALIGNED WITH FLOW . the integrands are fitted by trigonometric polynomials over a prescribed set of chordwise and radial intervals. Downloaded from www. In PROPLS. 1986. The integral for the induced velocity at a point on the key blade contains a Cauchy principalvalue singularity.MARINE PROPELLERS 381 Annu. this difference is minor. the blade reference surface is helicoidal. Since the maximum camber of propeller sections is generally of the order of 23% of the chord. with an arbitrarily specified radial distribution of pitch. It is therefore equivalent to PBDlO with a specification of zero camber.annualreviews. . The integration for the induced velocity and the second integration required to obtain the mean line shape are then performed analytically using precomputed weighting functions. The trailing vortex wake consists of constantradius helical lines whose pitch may be chosen to correspond either to that of the undisturbed onset flow or to the pitch of the blade reference surface.org by UNIVERSITY OF MIAMI on 01/11/12.
it is important to recognize that this is not a case of false convergence.382 KERWIN Annu. For personal use only. since the value of the local pressure at a given position near the leading edge would converge to the right answer as the number of elements increased. . the continuous distributions of vortices and sources are replaced by a set of concentrated straightline elements. and the singularity is then factored out of the remaining chordwise integrand. 1986. However. This avoids the difficulty associated with the evaluation of singular integrals and reduces the problem to a geometric one of finding points on the mean surface and of calculating the velocity field of a simple line vortex and source. The regular part of the integrand is next fitted with a cosine series. Fluid Mech. Lan (1974) showed that the arrangement of vortex locations Xv and control point locations Xc represented by xin) = 2 Icos 1 { [ !)n]} (n N ' n = 1. James treated the case of constant spacing of vortices over the chord and proved that the commonly used 1/4chord 3/4chord arrangement of vortices and control points within each subinterval was correct. Velocities are then computed at suitably placed control points between the elements. 2.annualreviews. and if they do not.18:367403.4% too low as the number of elements became large. He also showed that the local pressure obtained from the solution of the vortex element closest to the leading edge approached a value that was 1 1. those individuals with more rigorous inclinations have frequently been suspicious of the accuracy of vortexlattice methods and would prefer a direct approach as exemplified by Brockett's (1981) method. performed in the radial direction. The latter step involves only the evaluation of elementary integrals. An example of the vortex/source lattice arrangement used in PBDI0 is given in Figure 2. which then yields a series of integrals whose Cauchy principal value was derived by Glauert (1948). whose end points lie in the mean blade surface. Rev. . Downloaded from www. In the vortexlattice scheme employed in PBDI0.org by UNIVERSITY OF MIAMI on 01/11/12. while the place where the answer was inaccurate would move closer to the leading edge. in that a wide variety of spacing algorithms do converge to the right answer. the error is generally local. James (1972) and Lan (1974) both provided rigorous proofs of the convergence of vortexlattice methods in twodimensional flow. .N (4) . . Vortexlattice methods are generally very robust. Understandably. One must be careful in setting up the geometrical arrangement of lattice elements and control points or the method may not converge properly. However.
The induced velocities at the tip panel are seen to be completely wrong and diverge as the number of panels is increased. which are now moved to the midpoints of the intervals between vortices.5236 1.4017 53. Exact (1. Table 1 shows the convergence of the calculated induced velocity at the tip panel of a lifting line with elliptical circulation using cosine spacing. The values labeled "midpoint" are the results obtained by keeping everything the same as in the previous calculation except the position of the control points. gave exact results for the total lift of a flat plate or parabolic camber line and was more accurate than the constantspacing arrangement in determining the local pressure near the leading edge.5588 40 80 10 160 • The control points are either cosine spaced or at the midpoints of the panels.0000 Midpoint 0.5707 (1.3357 12.4787 1. and it is evident that 10 to 20 elements yield results that are accurate enough for any practical purpose. However. Also shown is the total induced drag obtained by summing the elementary drag forces over all the panels.5469 1. Downloaded from www.5579 1.9999 1. so that the values of induced velocity given in Table 1 for the tip panel apply to all of the panels.5708) Cosine 0.3948 1.5706 1. Table 1 Vertical velocity induced at tip panel and total induced drag for an elliptically loaded lifting line using a vortex lattice with cosinespaced vortices· Velocity at tip panel Panels 5 20 Total induced drag Cosine 1. This choice.org by UNIVERSITY OF MIAMI on 01/11/12. There is no exact solution to compare with in the case of the propeller.�nNE PROPELLERS 383 Annu. the results over the rest of the span.18:367403. 1986. Table 1 also shows what happens in a vortexlattice scheme if the control points are not located in the correct position. are not as bad.annualreviews.5676 1. In the case of elliptical loading.9959 0.6831 26. Similar spacing arrangements can be used in a vortexlattice represen tation of the liftingline problem. which are not tabulated.9836 0. can also be seen as related to the conformal trans formation of a circle into a fiat or parabolically cambered plate by the Joukowski transformation. the error in the computed induced velocity is constant over the span.8123 Midpoint 1. Rev. Theconvergence is approximately quadratic in this case.5198 1. this is indicated by the fact that the total induced drag appears to be converging to the right answer.3357 5.9990 0.0000) . For personal use only. commonly referred to as cosine spacing.2443 1. whose exact solution is well known.5441 2. Fluid Mech.9997 0.5700 1.
and this represents a difference between the two methods.. Figure 7 shows the radial distributions of pitch and camber obtained by these two methods.2 0 . trailing vortexwake alignment was suppressed in PBD10.6 0 . For personal use only.6 1. although small dis1.04 �  0:: w Iw � <t . . then one can believe the converged solution. However.annualreviews. Rev.02 0:: 0:: w (l) . Fluid Mech. The results are very similar.. .2 P/O PROPLS PBO 10 0 0 il: I<t I. Downloaded from www. but one can be reasonably confident that if a vortexlattice arrangement is used that converges to the correct answer for both twodimensional flow and a lifting line. 1986. We close our discussion of the propeller liftingsurface design problem by comparing the results obtained by the two methods discussed.org by UNIVERSITY OF MIAMI on 01/11/12. 0:: �+ . To make a consistent comparison.. and its pitch distri bution was set to conform to PROPLS.01 � <t U 0 1. The detailed geometry of the test case is given by Brockett (198 1).4 Figure 7 NON DIMEN SIONAL . The convergence of a propeller vortexlattice method calculation with increas ing numbers of chordwise and radial elements is illustrated by Greeley & Kerwin (1982). highly skewed propeller whose geometry is similar to that of the propeller illustrated in Figure 10.18:367403. The test case is a fivebladed.384 KERWIN Annu. the blade reference surface in the PBD10 calculation was automatically adjusted to its converged value.2 .0 Comparison of radial distributions of pitch/diameter and camber ratios obtained by current liftingsurface methods by Brockett (PROPLS) and Kerwin (PBDIO). .6 r/R .4 1.4 .030 P B O 10 I<t 0 ::c u Ia..
The velocity field thus generated by the hub is then similarly added to the onset flow in the next iteration of the blade solution. In addition.annualreviews. as before. a large negative camber is required to generate the desired circulation distribution in this region. from the point of view of cavitation and viscous drag. As might be expected. Annu. Downloaded from www. The largest differences are in the camber at the inner radii. For personal use only. In any case. In some cases. These sections are therefore not as good as they could be. The exact shape required to achieve a prescribed circulation distribution for this artificial tip may be very complex. This is because the inner boundary of the blade becomes. and therefore that one should not attempt to calculate section shape in this region but instead should smoothly extrapolate the results obtained over the rest of the blade.18:367403. The hub is a body of revolution of known shape on which the normal component of the total fluid velocity must vanish. and it is possible that these are due to the iteration of the blade reference surface by PBDlO.� PROPELLERS 385 crepancies exist. An iterative solution is used in which the velocity field generated by the initially hubless blades is treated as a given onset flow for the hub solution. in effect. the circulation on the blades is specified and their shape is to be determined. while justifiable from the point of view of overall propeller performance. the hub is continu ously repaneled to match the blade at the hub juncture. differences as small as these would be almost impossible to detect by means of a model test. and the chordwise distribution of camber may have a pronounced "s" shape. Rev. The neglect of the hub in these design methods. which are aligned with the corresponding elements on the blades at the hub juncture. Of course. Since the blade shape changes during each iteration. This problem has been recently treated by Wang (1985). 1986. the effect of the hub is negligible over the outer portion of the blade but results in a reduction in pitch and camber in the immediate vicinity of the hub. Fluid Mech.org by UNIVERSITY OF MIAMI on 01/11/12. requiring finely spaced elements to obtain an accurate solution to the wrong problem! If the hub boundary condition is to be ignored. The computing times are substantially greater than for the hubless case but would not be considered excessive for a final propellerdesign calculation. it would seem better to recognize that the solution in the immediate vicinity of the hub will be incorrect. On the other hand. This results in a mixed design/analysis problem. who combined Kerwin's vortexlattice method with a surfacepanel representation of the hub. neglecting the hub actually makes the determination of the local shape at the inner radii more difficult. a better approach is to include the hub in the problem. a free tip with a large squaredoff chord. This procedure generally converges within three or four iterations. The surfacepanel elements were also chosen to be concentrated vortices. results in substantial local errors in section shape at the inner radii. .
. since the method for arriving at the prescribed circulation distribution near the hub may be arbitrary. the singular integral equation is inevitably replaced by a system of linear algebraic equations whose solution presents no problems if the number of unknowns is not excessive. The circulation distribution over the blades. The governing equations are the same as in the design problem. Since the blade geometry in the hub region is very sensitive to the prescribed distribution of circulation. If the pressure distribution were not acceptable. Fluid Mech. This is discussed further in the next section. In that case. which was prescribed in the design problem. The singular integral that yields the velocity induced by a known distribution of circulation in the design problem becomes an integral equation in the analysis problem.386 KERWIN Annu. it is questionable whether this type of design approach is always appropriate. the abrupt change in shape in this region may be impossible to build. and that the spacing between blades at the hub juncture is of the same order of magnitude as the blade thickness. in principle. It would also make sense if a surfacepanel method were used for this kind of analysis. The smoothed design would be subject to an analysis. One would then modify this shape. Downloaded from www. the shape would then be systematically altered in a smooth way and the analysis repeated. but the unknowns are reversed. One of the earliest analysis procedures consisted simply of inverting the liftingline design methods of van Manen (1957) or Eckhart & Morgan . and the resulting pressure distribution near the hub would be examined to determine if it is acceptable from the point of view of cavitation and/or boundarylayer characteristics.18:367403.org by UNIVERSITY OF MIAMI on 01/11/12. whereas the shape of the blade is now given. this difference becomes relatively unimportant once a numerical solution is employed. more difficult from a mathematical point of view. Rev. In addition. An alternative would be to design the shape of the blade for a prescribed circulation distribution. if necessary. While the latter is. fillets are generally present. so that the actual geometry is quite different from that assumed in present liftingsurface procedures. 1986.annualreviews. ANALYSIS IN STEADY FLOW Background In the analysis problem we are given the geometry of the propeller and wish to determine the flow field that it generates. The reasons are that the blade sections near the hub tend to be thick for structural reasons. to insure that the shape was smooth and buildable. rather than a liftingsurface method as used in the design. either without accounting for the influence of the hub or with a simple hub image approximation. is now the unknown. For personal use only. On the other hand.
Rev. 1983) developed a procedure for propeller analysis in both steady and unsteady flow based on the acceleration potential. However. unskewed blade shapes.annualreviews. and Greeley (1982). which was found to introduce much larger errors in the steady solution than in the unsteady solution. Current Partially Linearized Analysis Methods We consider in this category methods that are linearized to the extent that the How field is constructed from singularities located on the mean blade surface. The method worked fairly well for simple. van Gent (1977).org by UNIVERSITY OF MIAMI on 01/11/12. However. and the other was chosen to be the form of the twodimensional loading of the propeller's camber line. 1986.18:367403. which he has designated as PSF2. but it would obviously be unable to handle current complex propeller forms. The mode approach was combined with a vortexlattice representation of the blades by Cummings (1973) to solve the steadyHow analysis problem. Rather than using spanwise and chordwise mode functions to describe the unknown circu . The procedure was simplified by restricting the chordwise modes to two. Fluid Mech. One such method was developed by Kerwin ( 1959). in which the flow field is constructed from singularities located on both sides of the actual blade surface. The PSF2 program uses a vortexlattice representation of the blades that is identical to the design procedure described earlier. While this method worked fairly well. Represented in this category are methods by Tsakonas et al. Tsakonas et al. The earlier versions of Tsakonas' procedure were based on a strictly linearized theory. we limit our review to the essentials of the procedure developed by Greeley. Downloaded from www. and where the positions of the blade and trailing vortex wake are allowed to deviate from a stream surface of the undisturbed flow. the error introduced by the limited representation of the chordwise load distribution could not be readily evaluated. as indicated by Tsakonas et al. who employed an iterative solution to match the twodimensional section characteristics at each radius with the approximate induced inflow obtained by interpo lation of tabulated values of the Goldstein function. 1973. (1983). His approach was to represent the unknown loading by a summation of chordwise and radial mode functions whose amplitudes could be determined. later refinements improved the accuracy of the steady solution. Kerwin & Lee (1978). For personal use only.�nNE PROPELLERS 387 Annu. (1983). although the results given were obtained by hand and involved some simplifications. A liftingsurface analysis method was published by Yamazaki (1962). but where induced velocities are not necessarily considered small compared with the velocity of onset How. This is in contrast to boundaryelement methods. one consisted of the loading form of a twodimensional Hat plate. (1955). (1968.
The time required to solve a linear system of equations of this size is much less than the time needed to compute the required influence functions. It is therefore necessary to incorporate some form of detachedvortexsheet model in a propeller analysis procedure. Additional considerations enter into the analysis problem if the propeller is operating offdesign. in this case. it has been found that converged results can be obtained with roughly 100 to 200 elements. anything close to a rigorous solution. so that economization in the number of unknowns is not significant. . two levels of iteration are required. and hence in the wake. Annu. While this would be a disadvantage if the number of vortex elements became very large.org by UNIVERSITY OF MIAMI on 01/11/12. Keeping this circulation fixed. the circulation distribution is recomputed and the entire process repeated until no further changes occur. Rev. The overall lift of the tip region of the blade is increased because of the reduced induction of the vortex as it moves off the blade surface. but from the leading edge starting at some radius farther inboard. the wake is aligned with the flow in an iterative way. each spanwise vortex element is treated as an unknown that is to be found by collocation using an equal number of control points on the blade. with numerous marine and aerodynamic applications. However.annualreviews. For personal use only. particularly as the angles of attack of the thin outboard sections are increased beyond their design value. is first found based on an assumed geometry of the wake. This avoids convergence difficulties. However. The distribution of circulation on the blades. 1986. in addition. The presence of a leadingedge vortex has two important consequences. involving both the proper alignment of the free vortex sheet and the treatment of the viscous effects that initiate it. Fluid Mech. which thus delays the inception of cavitation relative to that which would be predicted on the basis of inviscid attached flow. which must receive careful attention in a mode collocation scheme.388 KERWIN lation distribution. even if it were. PSF2 uses a trailingvortexwake alignment scheme that is identical to that used in the PBDlO design program. a vortex sheet tends to form not from the tip. and is governed by the viscous behavior of the flow near the leading edge. the local pressure reduction at the leading edge is attenuated. is not yet at hand.18:367403. The field of vortexsheet separation is currently an active one. When this has converged to a specified tolerance. the computing effort would be so great as to make such an analysis scheme impractical for routine design studies. but at the expense of a larger number of unknowns. As illustrated in Figure 8. The first effect can be inferred from the fact that propeller thrust and torque measured under conditions of high angle of attack are generally greater than the values calculated assuming an attached vortex sheet. The mechanism for the formation of this vortex is believed to be similar to that for a highly swept wing. Downloaded from www.
. the actual blade tip. As shown in Figure 9. (Top) The (Bottom) The propelIer is operating at a low advance coefficient and a leading edge vortex is evident. Downloaded from www. The spanwise Annu. Figure 8 Illustration ofleadingedge vortex formation made visible by cavitation.18:367403. propelIer is operating at its design point.annualreviews. For personal use only. and the vortex leaves from the tip.org by UNIVERSITY OF MIAMI on 01/11/12. Rev. is replaced by a vortex lattice with a finite tip chord. 1986. Fluid Mech. which is generally rounded.�UNE PROPELLERS 389 A simplified representation of a separated leadingedge vortex sheet was devised by Kerwin & Lee (1978) and incorporated by Greeley (1982) in PSF2.
annualreviews. Downloaded from www. (5) .18:367403. this one is included to show that problems still exist in offdesign analysis. Rev. together with the results of the theory. or Reynolds number scaleeffect problems in model tests. For personal use only. which shows experimental results for the same model conducted at two different facilities. However. As a next step in the refinement of separated leadingedge vortex flow. occasional discrepancies exist. While most comparisons are not this bad. Discrepancies between tests of the same propeller model in different facilities and lack of repeatab. Greeley (1982) developed a semiempirical method for predicting the point of leadingedge separation. He found that existing data for swept wings could be collapsed reasonably well by expressing a critical nondimensional leadingedge suction force as determined from inviscid theory. magnitude of 11 has been exaggerated. but large discrepancies occur at low advance coefficients. Fluid Mech. 1986. For clarity. inaccuracies in model manufacture. This relatively crude representation of the leadingedge vortex sheet generally results in substantially improved correlation with experimental data. which may be due to deficiencies in the theory.lity of tests of the same model (due possibly to deterioration of the blade leading edges) make it difficult to draw any definite conclusions at present. the vortex lines in the tip panel are continued by free vortex lines that depart from the surface of the blade and join in a "collection point.org by UNIVERSITY OF MIAMI on 01/11/12. Good agreement exists near the advance coefficient for which the propeller was designed." which then becomes the origin of the outermost element of the discretized vortex sheet. This situation is illustrated in Figure 10.390 KERWIN Annu. The position of the collection point is established by setting the pitch angle of the leadingedge free vortex equal to the mean of the undisturbedinflow angle and the pitch angle of the tip vortex as it leaves the collection point. Figure 9 Il1ustration of a simplified leadingedge vortex separation model.
V (6) where Fs Un = component of the inflow normal to the leading edge.org by UNIVERSITY OF MIAMI on 01/11/12. rn radius of curvature of the leading edge in a plane normal = = suction force per length of leading edge. Q .18:367403. A plot of this empirical relationship is reproduced in Figure 1 1 . Fluid Mech. The nondimensional thrust and torque coefficients are K where Q is the propeller torque and all other symbols are as defined in Figure 4 legend. Rev. ' .annualreviews. v = to the edge. U". freestream velocity. Figure 10 Comparison ofcalculated and measured propeller characteristics f the propeller or illustrated operating in a unif orm onset flow. 1986. Downloaded from www.  Q 32pn2R.�nNE PROPELLERS 391 as a function of a local leadingedge Reynolds number RLE _  U ". Annu. rn . = kinematic viscosity of the fluid. For personal use only.
� e Z 6 � W . Applying the same criterion to two distinctly different propellers. Greeley (1982) found reasonable correlation between the predicted and observed radial positions ofthe initiation of the leadingedge vortex. W KERWIN COMPUT E D Cs O I 20 rr.. A Partially Linearized Method Including the Hub Incorporation of the hub in the liftingsurface analysis problem was recently accomplished by Wang (1985).annualreviews.. Once the starting point of the sheet is established. ' From Greeley (1982).. For personal use only. Greeley (1982) developed a "first order" model in which the free vortex sheet was placed at a height equal to the blade boundarylayer thickness. SUCTION DUE TO BUBB L E BREAKDOWN tl o 20 f 1r SHORT BUBBLE OR ATTACHED TURBULENT FLOW RESIDUAL SUCTION AFTER BUBBLE BURST (20 DATA ONLY) __  Figure 11 OO LEADIN�DGE5E�R���BLE��� ��N . However.E.. As a first step.. Rev. this was only a first step. the analysis problem is in some respects simpler than the design problem. Downloaded from www. one still needs to trace its path over the blades. ::> a.. who used the same vortexlattice representation as in the PSF2 and PBDlO programs. since the position of the blade surface is fixed and the blade and hub paneling can be established at the outset. 1986.18:367403.__ O � __ L___L__ __�__ __ �__ __ L___ __� � __ __ __ __ __ __ 103 3 x 10 3 1 04 3 x 104 105 L E A DI N G EDGE REYNOLDS NUMBE R . R L E Empirical relationship between the value of the leadingedge suction force coefficient at the point of flow breakdown as a function of leadingedge Reynolds number.i LIMITING SUCTION FORCE ( 20 AND 3D DATA ) LOSS OF L. The observation of the vortex sheet in the experiments was made by reducing the tunnel pressure to the point where the sheet was just starting to cavitate. Fluid Mech..392 . and one must consider that this is still a field for active research.org by UNIVERSITY OF MIAMI on 01/11/12. The number of unknowns is increased when the . and the resulting change in the predicted chordwise pressure distribution as compared with that of the attached flow was then found. In this case. R LE § it � z w u UI U 80 60 40 LONG (BURST ) BUBBLE OR SERIRATED FLOW Annu.� ::E I OO ( BEST F I T TO AVA ILA BLE DAT ) A @ FLOW BREAKDOWN vs..
18:367403. For personal use only.J <{ 0 to a l!... From Wang (1 985). Wang chose the latter option in order to minimize changes in the existing PSF2 code.20 0.60 0.� PROPELLERS 393 Annu. which is in bette� agreement with the measurements. Downloaded from www. 1986. � <a� Ien 0 :J ID 20 0 A Mea s u r e d by LOA j u s t blades 0 <{ a:: . He found that the process converged rapidly as a result ofthe weak interaction between the portions of the blades and hub that were not in the immediate vicinity of their intersection. Figure 12 D I STAN C E FROM S H A F T C E N T E R r / R Calculated radial distribution of circulation both with and without the inclusion of . Rev. Shown in addition is the radial distribution of circulation obtained experimentally by measurement of the circumferential mean tangential velocity just downstream of the blades using a laserDoppler velocimeter. It is evident that the inclusion of the hub in the theory increases the predicted circulation at the inner radii. 0 Z 0 i= ct: :J u 30 () A x Q.org by UNIVERSITY OF MIAMI on 01/11/12.I.J a:: 40 () a A Ig nored Ig nore d I n c l u d ed Included 8 18 18 8 E lemen t s 8 9 8 9 u l. Figure 12 shows the radial distribution of circulation for a particular propeller obtained both with and without the inclusion of the hub. d ow n s tre a m of 0. �Q.. hub is introduced. and one has the choice ofsolving a larger matrix or using an iterative technique. 00 the hub compared with experimental results obtained with a laserDoppler velocimeter.. N "z Q I<{ .. Fluid Mech. 8 0 1 .annualreviews.. The sharp spike in the measured results near the hub is 60 r<"I 0 ct: I:: Vortex l a t tice ca l cu l a t i ons Symbol Hub Cord w i s e Sponwi s e E lements x x VI > 50 j:. 40 0.
BoundaryElement Methods The two principal shortcomings of the liftingsurface approximation to a propeller blade are the local errors near the leading edge and the more widespread errors near the hub. generally referred to as panel methods. including flows around complete aircraft configura tions and ship hulls. in this case. it is not known whether the Lighthill correction remains accurate as the slope of the leading edge increases toward the tip. which makes it particularly suitable for the outer part of the propeller blade. The first problem can be overcome by the application of a local correction due to Lighthill (1951). Panel methods are currently being applied to a variety of problems. Downloaded from www. A panel method for propellers has recently been developed by Hess & Valarezo (1985). Their method is an adaptation of the one developed by Hess & Smith (1967) for nonlifting bodies and extended by Hess (1975) to include general lifting bodies. The number of different panel methods is rapidly growing. For personal use only. The dipole distributions are extended into the wake by an equivalent distribution of discrete trailing vortices. is not included in the theory. the latter being essentially the same as the vortex Annu. the blades and hub are represented by a large number of quadrilateral panels. in which the flow around the leading edge of a twodimensional. It is fortunate that it is in this region that accurate pressure distributions are needed for the prediction of cavitation inception. In addition. where the blade thickness is large and where the blades are in close proximity. A distribution of sources with constant density is placed within each panel.annualreviews. . However. of course.394 KERWIN circulation induced by the rotating hub by the action of viscous stresses. However. In addition. to the propeller analysis problem. As illustrated in Figure 13. As a result.18:367403. the error introduced by the liftingsurface approximation to the thick hub sections will also not be reduced by a leadingedge correction except in a very local sense.org by UNIVERSITY OF MIAMI on 01/11/12. 1986. the panels on the blades contain distributions of normal dipoles that are constant over an entire chordwise strip. Rev. Fluid Mech. parabolic halfbody is matched to the three dimensional flow near the leading edge of the blade obtained from lifting surface theory. The accuracy of the Lighthill correction is greatest for thin sections. A good single source for a derivation of a variety of panelmethod algorithms is a recent text by Moran ( 1984). there is current interest in the application of discretized boundaryelement methods. quadrilateral panels are located on both sides of the blades as well as on the hub. This. The appearance is superficially similar to the vortexlattice representation of a propeller shown in Figure 2.
annualreviews. 1986. . but the former is computationally more efficient and may well be equally accurate. Rev. in which the vortex sheet is rolled up into one helical vortex line from each blade. lattice representation discussed earlier. The latter may be closer to physical reality. whose velocity field can be found in closed form. While the representation of the trailing vortex wake is fundamentally the same as for a vortexlattice method. together with results computed by Kim & Kobayashi ( 1984) and measurements by Versmissen & van Gent ( 1983). The strengths of the individual source panels and the dipole strengths associated with each chordwise strip are found by requiring that the normal component of the total fluid velocity vanish at a centrally located control point within each panel. This is quite different from the ultimate wake representation used by Greeley & Kerwin (1982). The hub is considered a nonlifting element. Fluid Mech. Hess & Valarezo (1985) have initially simplified the geometry of their transition wake to that of a pure helix. Their ultimate wake is modeled as a serni infinite cylindrical wake of an infinitely bladed propeller. and thus its panels are exclusively sources.MARTiNE PROPELLERS 395 Annu. Downloaded from www. From Hess & Valarezo (1985). A typical chordwise pressure distribution for a section of a ship propeller obtained by Hess & Valarezo (1985) is shown in Figure 14. For personal use only.18:367403. Kim & Kobayashi's results were obtained from their extension of the PSF2 vortexlattice program to include the Figure 13 Illustration of propelJer blade and hub panelling.org by UNIVERSITY OF MIAMI on 01/11/12.
FRACTION OF CHORD. which Hess & Valarezo point out as being an advantage of the panel method. For personal use only.PSP METHOD .1 0. This is clearly an important area for future research. However. Thin sections develop a sharp pressure peak located close to the leading edge.4 0. some caution is called for at this point. The dashed line (identified as PSP METHOD) was obtained by Kim & Kobayashi (1984) using a vortexlattice method based on PSF2.3 0. 0.. Lighthill's rule will give the correct peak value in twodimensional flow in the limit of small section thickness.. Downloaded from www. However. a panel method may not be obviously superior to a vortexlattice method augmented by Lighthill's rule in this particular case.0 . The two experimental curves were obtained by Versmissen & van Gent (1983) using pressure transducers embedded in a OA8m diameter propeller model.." 0.2 0. The solid line (identified as PRESENT METHOD) was obtained by Hess & Valarezo (1985) using their surfacepanel code.EXPERIMENT 2 Figure 14 Comparison of calculated and measured chordwise pressure distributions.6 lie 0.0 . their procedure does not include a Lighthill correction at the leading edge and can therefore not be expected to properly capture the local pressure minimum.396 KERWIN Annu. so that extremely fine paneling may be needed near the leading edge in order to capture the peak value. 0. computation of local surface pressures.18:367403.3 0..EXPERIMENT 1 .' 6.PRESENT METHOD .8 1 . The panel method result shows the presumably correct pressure minimum.2 0.0 Cp (lOCAl) 0. Rev. The difference between the duplicate experimental results is indicative of the difficulty in carrying out th is type of experiment. On the other hand. Fluid Mech.annualreviews.1 0.org by UNIVERSITY OF MIAMI on 01/11/12. Consequently. 1986.
The unsteady problem is complicated by the presence of shed vorticity in the wake that depends on the past history of the circulation around the blades. 1986. For personal use only. Current LiftingSur ace Methods f Unsteady Flow f or Annu. One of the first investigators to publish a complete theory for the unsteady problem was Hanaoka (1962). With the onset flow represented in terms of its circumferential harmonic components. Early attempts to calculate propeller unsteady forces used a variety of approximations. it is known that the unsteadiness of the flow becomes significant for values of the reduced frequency of roughly one tenth or higher. which is defined as the product of the frequency of encounter and the local semichord. Thus the response of a propeller to all circumferential harmonics of the onset flow is unsteady. divided by the relative inflow speed. the reduced frequency correspond ing to the first harmonic of the onset flow is of the order of one half. which unfortunately we are able to treat only briefly. The nondimensional parameter that characterizes the degree of unsteadiness of the flow is the reduced frequency k. in the sense that the lift is considerably smaller than the equivalent quasisteady value and is shifted in phase relative to the inflow. Figure 1 5. 1 973). For a typical marinepropeller chord length. the study showed that a large spread existed in the results obtained by the different methods. Fluid Mech. which was discussed earlier in connection with the steadyflow analysis problem. while the value for the harmonic corresponding to the number of blades will be of the order of two or three. Downloaded from www. and with the assumption that the propeller responds linearly to changes in the onset flow. A number of such semiempirical methods were applied to a specific case in an international cooperative study conducted by Schwanecke (1975) . became widely used during this time period for the prediction of unsteady propeller forces.org by UNIVERSITY OF MIAMI on 01/11/12. The fundamental problem of an airfoil or hydrofoil in unsteady flow has an extensive literature. the problem can be reduced to one of finding the response of the propeller to each harmonic. ranging from a purely quasisteady approach to ones that employed twodimensional unsteady airfoil results. ( 1968. The theory developed by Tsakonas et al. although numerical evaluation of his theory was not published until 1969 (Hanaoka 1969).�UNE PROPELLERS 397 UNSTEADY PROPELLER FLOWS Background We now come to the important problem of unsteady propeller forces.18:367403. Rev. including recent contributions by McCroskey (1982) and Crighton (1985) in this series.annualreviews. From the classical twodimensional �olution for an airfoil traversing sinusoidal gusts. taken from .
PUF2 (Kerwin & Lee 1978)...18:367403. and with the flow solution obtained in the time domain rather than in the frequency domain..6 :::l Il: :t Iz C!) _ r.B lV) :::l a: J: I> U z w :::l O w a: u..4 w O /'/. Figure 15 EXPANDED AREA RATIO._ ' .. Kerwin & Lee (1978) used a different approach. (Tsakonas et aI. Rev. Boswell et al.. with the blades represented by a vortex lattice in a manner similar to the steadyflow problem described earlier. 1983).:.. Downloaded from www.annualreviews. shows good correlation between Tsakonas' theory and measurements for a series of propellers with varying blade area. Fluid Mech. 6 0.. From Boswell et aI. O..I In Ir. For personal use only. ..2 1' . LOW ASPECT RATIO (Brown 1981)... A / A O E Bladefrequency thrust correlation over a range of expanded area ratios AE/Ao.n 0. with the propeller rotated in discrete angular increments through three or four complete revolutions until a steadystate oscillatory solution was obtained. Results obtained with the unsteady liftingsurface theories of Hanaoka.org by UNIVERSITY OF MIAMI on 01/11/12.  . 1973). Tsakonas.. ( 1 983). 1986.. w 0 ct .n 0.."""::: .'�' : � ' ' � ' 0.. '/ J o . .5 (QUASI/ ULS (PPEXACT) ULS ( P U F2 ) � � EXPERIMENT as (T:�� �A H I l �A '"s LOW ASPECT RATIO 0.. TANIBAYASHI (Tanibayashi 1980).9 .. UNSTEADY 20 . � . The problem was solved as an initialvalue problem starting from the steady solution. (1983).. and others (also compiled by Schwanecke) were found to be in much closer agreement than the semiempirical methods. .398 KERWIN Annu.2 The various programs are identified as follows : QUASI (McCarthy 1961).0 r. PLEXVAN (Tsakonas et aI. UNSTEADY LL (Brown 1964). � U N STEADY LL ULS (PLEXVAN) . ". which can be seen to give results either far above or far below the measurements." .3 1 . UNSTEADY . PPEXACT 2D (Boswell & Miller 1968).._ 0: . The motivation for using a timedomain solution was largely in 1 .r ' � � 0. Also shown in Figure 1 5 are results obtained by various approximate theories..::::.
. unsteady propeller force measurements are extremely difficult to make. Rev. the effective onset flow must be determined. It is not clear at present how much the harmonic content of the wake field differs from that of the nominal wake. although to varying degrees depending on the advance coefficient of the propeller. which shows substantial disagreement between Tsakonas et al. This introduces a nonlinear coupling between the mean loading and the once Annu. For personal use only. in which the axis of the propeller slipstream is allowed to depart from the axis of propeller rotation. 1986. (198 1). since the propeller shaft and measuring system must be carefully designed and dynamically calibrated. Both theories underpredict the force compared with experimental results. First.org by UNIVERSITY OF MIAMI on 01/11/12.annualreviews. The combined results may be found in Kerwin & Lee ( 1978). if calculations are to be made corresponding to a given experiment. As indicated earlier. While Figure 1 5 shows good agreement between theory and experiment. taken from Boswell et al. Improved agreement at low advance coefficients is obtained by a refinement introduced by Kerwin ( 1979). and Kerwin & Lee in the prediction of the onceperrevolution alternating thrust force on a single blade.�nNE PROPELLERS 399 anticipation of extending the approach to the solution of propeller flows with intermittent cavitation. this interesting problem is beyond the scope of the present review. A weak link in the process of predicting unsteady propeller forces may well be in the prediction of threedimensional effective wakes . Unfortunately. Second. the harmonic content of the complex wake field shown in Figure 3 could be expected to be considerably different. It is possible that a pure single harmonic wake generated by a screen in a water tunnel will not be altered appreciably by the induced velocity field of the propeller. The latter problem is not a concern if the nonuniform inflow is generated as a result of the inclination of the rotation axis relative to the flow direction. A frequencydomain solution cannot be used in this case because of the highly nonlinear relationship between flow conditions and the length of the cavity. This is the case in Figure 16a. and the resulting output signals must be processed to remove noise. Results obtained by this theory were added to those compiled by Schwanecke ( 1975) and were found to lie in the middle of the group of results obtained by the other unsteady liftingsurface theories. Fluid Mech. the current interest in this topic is certainly justified. Downloaded from www. It would therefore be desirable to have a definitive set of experiments that could be used as a basis for deciding whether or not current theories for unsteady propeller flows are accurate. with additional favorable comparisons in a discussion to that paper prepared by Tsakonas.18:367403. there are many contradictory results in the published literature in this area. On the other hand. there are two considerations that make this task more complicated than one might think.
8 J ... ... V ( l wVM. II IPPEXACTI " � "McCorthy IQUASn ..Annu... » 20 25 1 l" ' 0 .. 30 0 0 Experiment PRQPELLER 4861 " • O OEG WITH SCREEN g 0 2S 15 � 10 1 / /'" /'" ".. ...annualreviews.6 1.../nO 1. Correlation between theory and experiment for first harmonic thrust fluctuation. . """ .org by UNIVERSITY OF MIAMI on 01/11/12.. 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 o� .0 1979).6 ! __ � __ � __ __ � O L __ __ � __ � � __ 0. Fluid Mech.4 Oei9l J I 0. 00 0 o OcPOO 00 0 ......4 1 .r__r�  35 Cb '.8 0... Program identification is the same as in Figure 15..8 1.. (1981)..��...�... '" .\ . For personal use only._ ...0 I . with the addition ofPUF2IS (Kerwin Figure 1 6 J • V (IWyMl/nD 1. Rev....0 1. 2 �  _ 20 15 / / rllkona . . Downloaded from www...:"0_ .lPUF2' 10 a 1 .�� 1 McCanhy (QUASI! mont I�'�=_ 00 == ' Ex....8 I 1. 35 � � � .' K_n & �  /" L..... The results in (b) are f a screengenerated axial wake.�. . II (PPeXACT'   � . From Boswell et aI. I I I b I ... � _ .2 or flow..�. �101" ... "'" . The results in (a) are for a 10° shaft inclination in uniform .0 01 J D.18:367403.6 0.. � ir .4 0. "..• 1. "" ...8 2.� "..2 I 2... 1986..
shows a similar correlation between theory and experiment for a circumferentially varying inflow generated by a screen. This may result from either the influence of the effective wake (since the onset flow contains vorticity in this case) or possibly the asymmetry of the slipstream. perrevolution timedependent loading. London : Birchall.annualreviews. J. Rev. 1951. Wiss. Ges. which in this case seems to be additive. correla tion with theory.org by UNIVERSITY OF MIAMI on 01/11/12. however. The most likely sources of error are in the prediction of the three dimensional effective wake. it does overpredict the once perrevolution unsteady thrust by roughly a factor of four in Schwanecke's (1975) survey. but none follow the experi mental trend at low advance coefficients. G. Resistance and Screw Propulsion. Schraubenpropeller mit geringstem Energieverlust. and this type of analysis is frequently used in the optimization of a design. S. The quasisteady method of McCarthy (1961) is shown in Figure 16a to give quite good results in this case . this would introduce a strongly nonlinear Reynoldsnumberdependent complication to an already complicated problem! In conclusion. Miller.18:367403. present unsteady liftingsurface theories are accurate enough to be of significant help to a designer wishing either to predict unsteady vibratory forces generated by a propeller or to estimate fluctuat ing loads on an individual blade as input to a structural analysis. The effect of changes in blade shape on unsteady forces can be readily studied. R.Phys.MARrNE PROPELLERS 40 1 Annu. If so. 1919. all three theories considered agree well at the design advance coefficient of the propeller. 206 pp. There seems to be no obvious explanation for this contradictory behavior. Here. and in the method of application of the Kutta condition at the trailing edge. 1968. as discussed earlier . it is possible that this could also affect unsteady flows. 1986. and parametric study.. K. Betz. M. Ship Design. we see that the reliability of unsteady force predictions is by no means perfect. L. However. in the modeling of the unsteady trailingvortex wake geometry. (1981). Klasse . It is known that this vortex formation increases lift at high angles of attack in steady flow. A. Unsteady propeller loadingmeasurement. in the neglect of unsteady leadingedge vortex separation. Downloaded from www. Literature Cited Giittingen Boswell. Fluid Mech. 2nd ed. Another phenomenon that may affect unsteady blade forces is the formation of a leadingedge vortex during part of one revolution of each blade. Baker. 1919 : 193217 Nachr. Figure 16b. also from Boswell et al. Math. ACKNOWLEDGMENT The writing of this review was supported by the Office of Naval Research Special Focus Program in Ship Hydrodynamics. For personal use only.
Machine computation of marine propeller characteristics. Hydrodyn. Trans. Eng.. Nav. Comput. S. 1982.. Int. Pressure distribution on propeller blade sur ace using f . Prediction of steady and unsteady marine propeller per formance by numerical liftingsurface theory. Techno!. The solution of propeller lifting surface problems by vortex lattice methods. New York : Soc. 35778 a propeller in a shear flow. Proc. For personal use only. Methods Appl. Des..org by UNIVERSITY OF MIAMI on 01/11/12. Ann. Dep. 6 : 34354 Kerwin. 0. pp. J. Q. Periodic propeller forces in nonuniform flow. Res. Sontvedt. K.. Dep.. E.. 1980. Periodic singleblade loads on propellers in tangential and longitudinal wakes. The application of a simplified lifting surface technique to the deSign of marine propellers. Mar. Goldstein. Rep. Rep. Numerical methods for propeller design and analysis in steady flow.30/62. Nav. 23 : 24252 Greeley. 1974. J. B. 1973. E.. 8 : 1137 Hess. A I23 : �5 Goodman. 1929. Ship build. 1985. No. Archit.402 KERWIN Cent. K.H. Rep. Jessup. London Ser. 823. 1979. Pract. Eng!. Inst. Annu. 24 : 2273 1 Eckhart. NSRDC Rep.. pp. J. Calcul des vitesses in duites en vue du trace des helices. 1972. L. L. Calculation of potential flow about arbitrary bodies. Rev. Cox. G. V pp. Minimization of un steady propeller forces that excite vibra tion of the propulsion system.. Methods Appl. Trans. Ocean Eng. Archit. 1955. Ship Res. D. Mar. Trans. L... A note on the design of wake adapted propellers. Theoretical and ex perimental propellerinduced hull pres sures arising from intermittent blade cavi tation. Archit. P. 1985. J. DC.. 1 7 : 1218 Dyne. Cambridge Brown. Van Houten. J. Nav. Proc.. Mech... Schiff's technik 4 : 1019 Hanaoka. Nav. English. Numerical prediction of propeller characteristics. 86 : 2 1 853 Kim. Brockett. Comput. Glauert. E. Calculation of steady flow about propellers by means of a surface panel method. Rep. E. Dep. Soc. Inst. 1957. Lab. E. Mecho Eng. Symp... Cambridge Greeley. 1981. Smith. Nav. The Kutta condition in unsteady flow. 79.A. 850283 Holden. G.S.. T. K. 2nd. 1982. 1959. Nav. Lee. J. Kim. Soc. A. Practical methods f predict or ing periodic propeller loads. R ep. J.F. Lin. T. D.. Ship Div. Va. Trans. 1961. Navo Archit. K. ix + 79 pp. Morgan. N. W. E. Boswell. lnst. Kerwin.. M. C. J. Soc. Numerical lifting surface theory of a screw propeller in nonuniform flow (Part 1 : Fundamental theory). Ship Res. 1986. Rep. Symp. R. A. Mass. Ocean Eng. A. S. Eng.. Ofsti. H. Mich. On stability and volume of marine propeller cavitation and corresponding spectral dis tribution in hull pressure fields. M. D. Mar. Ann Arbor Brown. Symp. J. D.. Mar. Navo Archit. 1 8 1202 a. T. T. and thickness. 13th. J. Kerwin.18:367403. H. 1981. Archit. T. Ship. Mar. Proc.. 1985. T. J. Effective wake : theory and experiment. Vir ginia Beach. W.. Ship Res. 65173 James.. Eng. Shipbuild. J. Techno!. Paper pre sented at Int. Cambridge Kerwin.. Washing ton. Washington. AIAA Pap. O.annualreviews. Dep. Symp. 647. R. loading. J. R. 1980. Kobayashi.. Press Hanaoka. R. S7. 1962. 1962. S.. Dep. 63 : 32574 Huang.. Tokyo Breslin. Tokyo 6(5) : 114 (In Japanese) Hess. Ocean Eng. T. The effect of trailing vortex asymmetry on unsteady propeller blade forces. M. Downloaded from www. loads and vortex sheet geometry. Marine propeller blade tip flows... Archit. SNAME Propellers '81 Symp. Proc. Eng. J.. Kim. Rep. 90 : 1 1 151 Brockett. Cambridge Kerwin. E.. Cambridge : Cam bridge Univ. Univ. Acad.. Virginia Beach. Eng. Press. 1964. N. J.. Mass. J. R. 1979. 294. Soc. Hydrodyn. G. Ship Res. W. R. 103 : 22743 Crighton. Feltham. Johnson. K. Review of integralequation techniques for solving potentialflow prob lems with emphasis on the surfacesource method. Trans. Eng. R. Techno!. Rev. Dev.. On the vortex theory of screw propellers. 198 1 . S. Inst. Ocean Eng. G. Nav. 1969. pp. Fluid Mech. Mass. Lifting surface hydro dynamics for design of rotating blades. Inst. 1967. Reissued by Dover. SNAME Propellers '81 Symp. 1961. SNAME Pub!. Nav. 1975. Aeronaut.H. Prog.. 90 : 41 553 Guilloton. Soc. Tokyo. Inst. C. Boswell. G. S. S. Valarezo. 1982. Mar.. Jessup. ii + 228 pp. On the remarkable accu racy of the vortex lattice method.. 2625. 5 : 14596 Hess. A propeller design method. 1 7 : 41 145 Cummings. Momentum theory of Proc. 4th. The Elements o Aero oil f f and Airscrew Theory. 1983.124. I : 5979 Kerwin. R. N. High Powered Propulsion Large Ships. SH R. Fluid Mech. DC : Nat!. Wageningen. Nat!. J. D. E. Neth. pp. 2033 1 . Groves. Phys. Techno!. 1978. O. E. D. Proc. Shear flow effects on propeller operation : Effective velocity. Mass. 1948. Eng. Hydrodynamics of an oscillating screw propeller. Sci. Corrections to the camber of constant pitch propellers. 1 984.. Prog.
1533. Ser. 14th. J. 19&4. Proc. B. 1986. Q. pp. Press Vorus. Morgan. K. 1968. W. Breslin. Rev. DC.. 1 1 : 5 1827 Lerbs. Hydrodynamische Tanibayashi. 4th. Cam bridge Yamazaki. Ship Model Basin. 60 : 731 17 Lighthill. 1978. Mar.Amsterdam.. Hydrodyn. Navo Archit.. Proc. Versuchsanst. and pressures . Stevens Inst. 1961. 1950. DC : Nat!.. Mar. Towing Tank Con{. Neth. NSMB Publ. Wet.. J . Md.  Report of the Propeller Committee. P. Symp. Application of lifting surface theory to ship screws. H. Jr. 1957. 1973. Rep. Tein. Hydrodyn. Virginia Beach. Fluid Mech. Free surface effects. S. Fluid Mech. R. D. J. David Taylor Nav. Hydrodyn. 1974. 27 : 3955 van Gent. H. 76 : 30947 403 Annu. Nav. Proc. Mass. 1968. Part B : Propul sion.. Bakker.org by UNIVERSITY OF MIAMI on 01/11/12. van Oent. J. A. W. 7th. Neth. J. Breslin. Nav. Pien.annualreviews. M. Meet . Hub e ects in propeller ff design and analysis. Eng. J. Numerical solutions of lifting surface sheet cavitation. H. J. 1951. 1983. MitGrund/agen zur Berechnung der Schiff s schrauben.. W. Nav. W. M. J. Zur Theorie der Breitblattschraube. 1 : 393430 . Rank. Dep. The calculation of marine propellers based on lifting surface theory. Wageningen Van Houten.. S. E. p. H. 1 4th. 1983. R. 128 Am. 1977. Proc. Tokyo Tsakonas. Silovic. L. Kerwin... Comm. 1962. Proc. Jacobs... 1983.18:367403.. V. J. Ship Res. 11 Wang. borg. Publ. Application of modem hydrodynamics to aeronautics. 1961. Trans. Jacobs. A. Acad. 5(2) : 1 14 Prandtl.H.. Propeller liftingsurface corrections. New York : Wiley. Practical approach to unsteady problems ofmarine propellers by quasisteady method of calculation. subishi Tech. Washing ton. Va. C. P. Bull. Techno!. B 62(5) : 28698 Strscheletzky. Inst. Ocean Eng. Navo Archit. J.... R. R.. 3 : 44147 Sparenberg. iii + 33 pp. 44/A/08. For personal use only. Uhlman. Report of the Propeller Committee. P. R. Aircr. Fundamentals of ship resistance and propulsion. Washington. W. Washington. E. N. R. B. Ann. J. 132a. Ship Res.. Ger. H. W. Eng. 257 pp. S. A quasivortexlattice method in thin wing theory. Ned. W. Cent. Ship Res.. McCarthy. J.. Davidson Lab. Calculation and comparison of propeller unsteady pressure forces on ships. Blade pressure distribution for a moderately loaded propeller. Proc. Symp. DC. Int. Ann. D TNSRDC Rep. On the theory of screw propellers. On the calculation of thrust and torque fluctuations of propel lers in nonuniform wake flow. J. 464 pp. 20th. No. O. W. Washington. 140 pp. Towing Tank Con 1 7th.�UNE PROPELLERS numerical lif tingsur ace theory. 3 : 193210 Ludwieg. '78. Karlsruhe : G. Advis. Towing Tank Corif. PhD thesis. 1921. Aeronaut. S. H. Aeronaut. Giite f. Proc. Ship Res. 787822. 1962. S. D. Ship Res. An "exact" linear liftingsurface theory for a marine propeller in a nonuniform flow field. Dev. Y. 1 : 140270 van Manen. J. 143. M. W. 14 : 2853 1 1 Moran. 157215 Schwanecke. Hydrodynamic pressure measurements on a ship model propeller. Aero dyn. 17 : 196207 Tsakonas.J. No. Comparative calcu lations of unsteady propeller blade forces. A new approach to thin aerofoil theory. J.. 1982. Symp. J.. 1984. pp. 1944. Proc. S. W. Ginzel. 1952. 1980. 12 : 1445 Tsakonas. 20 : 10717 Vorus.. Technol. Hoboken. Unsteady airfoils. Numerical results of Sparenberg's lifting surface theory for ship screws. Denny. 1975. Symp. P. 1985. Soc. DC. A n Introduction t o Theoreti cal and Computational Aerodynamics. Soc. 6377 Versmissen. On the use of lifting surface theory for moderately and heavily loaded ship propellers. Braun. Downloaded from www. P. R. Int. Rev. Rep. 1976. S.. Nat!. Ali. Gen. Bethesda. Unsteady propeller liftingsurface theory with finite number of chordwise modes... pp. van Manen. Moderately loaded pro pellers with a finite number of blades and an arbitrary distribution of circulation. 536. Akad. Jacobs. J. 4th. Ship Model Basin. Wageningen. Calculation of propeller induced hull forces. Lan. J. Gottingen. M. No. McCroskey. 1959. S.. force distributions. Paper pre ! sented at SNAME Propellers '84 Symp. Trans. J. Ship Res. pp. C. O. Ship Vib.
This action might not be possible to undo. Are you sure you want to continue?
We've moved you to where you read on your other device.
Get the full title to continue reading from where you left off, or restart the preview.