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John Dalton(1766-1844) atom/ He is best known for his pioneering work in the development of modern atomic theory J.J.

. Thomson(1856-1940) electron/ He is credited for the discovery of the electron and of isotopes, and the invention of the mass spectrometer. Thomson was awarded the 1906 Nobel Prize in Physics for the discovery of the electron and for his work on the conduction of electricity in gases. Ernest Rutherford (1871-1937) protons/ was a New Zealand-born British chemist and physicist who became known as the father of nuclear physics.[2] In early work he discovered the concept of radioactive half-life, proved that radioactivity involved the transmutation of one chemical element to another, and also differentiated and named alpha and beta radiation, proving that the former was essentially helium ions. Niels Bohr(1885-1962) energy levels/ Danish physicist who made foundational contributions to understanding atomic structure and quantum mechanics Max Planck measure in discrete units; (1858 1947) was a German physicist who discovered quantum physics, initiating a revolution in natural science and philosophy. He is regarded as the founder of quantum theory, for which he received the Nobel Prize in Physics in 1918 Albert Einstein photon; 1879 - 1955) was a German-born theoretical physicist who developed the theory of general relativity, effecting a revolution in physics. For this achievement, Einstein is often regarded as the father of modern physics and one of the most prolific intellects in human history.[2][3] He received the 1921 Nobel Prize in Physics "for his services to theoretical physics, and especially for his discovery of the law of the photoelectric effect".[4] The latter was pivotal in establishing quantum theory within physics. Joseph Louis Proust (1754 1826) Arnold Sommerfeld made another model

Wolfgang Pauli Exclusion principle; (1900 1958) was an Austrian theoretical physicist and one of the pioneers of quantum physics. In 1945, after being nominated by Albert Einstein, he received the Nobel Prize in Physics for his "decisive contribution through his discovery of a new law of Nature, the exclusion principle or Pauli principle," involving spin theory, underpinning the structure of matter and the whole of chemistry. Louis de Broglie-15 August 1892 Louveciennes, France, 19 March 1987) Erwin Schrodinger Max Born Werner Heisenberg James Chadwick neutron Paul Dirac Carl Anderson PT Robert Boyle (25 January 1627 31 December 1691) phosphorus Antoine Lavoisier(1743 May 8, 1794 ) 33 elements Jons Jakob Berzelius20 August 1779 7 August 1848) table of atomic weights Stanislao Cannizaro atomic weights to elements Lothar Meyer a pt with 56 elements John Newlands 56 elements to 11 groups Dmitri Mendeleev 1834 and died in 1907 William Ramsay and Lord Rayleigh noble gases Glenn Seaborg actinides and lanthanides QM

Gustav Kirchhoff - blackbody radiation Josef Stefan - that the total energy emitted by a hot body was proportional to the fourth power of the temperature Ludwig Boltzmann for blackbody radiation, this time from theoretical considerations using thermodynamics and Maxwell's electromagnetic theory. The result, now known as the Stefan-Boltzmann law, does not fully answer Kirchhoff's challenge since it does not answer the question for specific wavelengths.