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Q.No01 How identified that heater tube is puncture.

Ans-- More black smoke in stack, analyzer showing more co-co2 , radiation temperature high. Q.No.001 How can identified coke formation in heater tube. Ans Skin temperature high & process temperature low. Q.No.01 Type of draft? Ans 1- Natural draft 2- Balance draft 3- Induced draft 4- Force draft. Q.No.01 How create draft in heater. Ans-- Due to difference in molecular weight by heat. Q.No.01-- Which type reaction occur in cracking & treating reactor. Ans In cracking reactor acidic reaction, & in treating metallic reaction. Q.No.01 What happen when excess sulphur present in feed. Ans Temperature increase in treating reactor & it can also effect on product quality. Q.No What is the main different between reciprocating & centrifugal compressor. Ans Centrifugal compressor give variable flow & reciprocating compressor give fixed flow. Q.No.01-What is Temp Excursion. Ans-It is possible to generate more heat from the reaction then the flowing stream can remove from reactors. If this happen the temp may increase very rapidly. This condition is called as Temp Excursion or temp runaway. Q.No.02-Why sulfiding is necessary.

Ans- Activation of base metal catalyst by sulfiding is necessary to ensure optimum catalyst performance . A fresh or newly regenerated catalyst will be subject sulfiding. CH3-S-S-CH3+3H2 2CH4+2H2S MoS2 +3H2O.

Sulfurization of Molybdenum oxide Mo O3 +2H2S+H2 Sulfurization of Cobalt Oxide 9Co O+8H2S+H2


Q.No.03- Why DMDS(Di methyl Di sulfide) using as a sulfiding agent. Ans-DMDS has low decomposition temp(200.c) in comparison to other sulfiding agent. This allow the lower temp to the start the sulfiding process. Q.No.04- How much sulfur present during sulfiding in the startup oil. Ans.- the startup oil sulfur must be less then two wt (2) percent throughout sulfiding including the amount of any added organic sulfur compound. Q.No.05- What is the maximum H2S level in back through in recycle gas. Ans.- In recycle gas , Back through, can be considered when H2S level is more then 3000 PPM Q.No.06-What is the region of catalyst deactivation. Ans. Coke formation, Metal poisoning, Presence of Ammonia, Severity of operation. Q.No.-07-How can coke formation occur. Ans. Coke formation can occur from the high molecular weight compound contained in the feed or from the condensation reaction of PNA (poly nucleic aromatic) in high molecular weight and low content hydrogen. Q.No.-08-How to control coke formation.

Ans. The high partial pressure of hydrogen and the hydrogenation activity of catalyst control the coke formation due to the condensation reaction . Also controlled by fresh feed quality. Q.No.-09- What is testing method of high molecular weight hydrocarbon. Ans. The heptanes insoluble test is used to measured undesirable high molecular weight aromatics. Q.No.08- what is high molecular weight aromatics. Ans.- In general the molecular weight is about 5000 or more then 5000 is known as high molecular weight aromatics . Q.No.09- How Ammonia generate in in cracking reactor. Ans.- Organic nitrogen compound in the feed are converted in Ammonia due to catalyst. Q.No.10- What is the function of hydro treating process. Ans.-To protect the hydro cracking catalyst from organic sulfur ,nitrogen & other similar compound. Q.No.11-What is the function of hydrogen. Ans.-The function of hydrogen is to promote the saturation of olefins , aromatics and cracked hydrocarbon . Hydrogen also protect the condensation reaction that form coke. Q.No.12- How many form of organic sulfur contain in fresh feed of cracking unit. Ans.- Merception, sulfide, disulfide cyclic sulfide, & thiophenic are some sulfur compound generally contain in fresh feed. Q.No.13- How ammonia deactivate the catalyst. Ans.- Ammonia is a basic compound its try to react with normal reactants for the acid site of the catalyst and deactivate the catalyst.

Q.No.14- How many type of reaction take place in cracking reactor. Ans.- Alkyl aromatic hydrcracking can involve numerous reaction including Isomerism dealylation paring cyclization and alkyl group migration. Q.No.15- What is Zeolite catalyst. Ans- Crystalline synthetic silica-alumina known as Zeolite, It is regarded as a copolymer of alumina and silica with ion exchange capacity. Q.No.16- What is the property of hydro cracking catalyst. Ans.- The cracking catalyst are composed of an alumina bound substrate containing amorphous silica/ alumina and Zeolite as an active support for hydrogenation metals , Both amorphous and Zeolite catalyst have been used in cracking process. Q.No.17- Why Zeolite catalyst is use in MHU. Ans.-When product flexibility is desired or When the catalyst activity and stability increased, operating severity are more critical then distillate selectivity, Then Zeolite catalyst should be select. When distillate selective then Amorphous catalyst is use . Q.No.18- What is LHSV. Ans.- LHSV is the ratio of volumetric feed rate per hour to the to the catalyst volume. Feed Flow M3/hour LHSV = ----------------------------------Catalyst volume M3 Q.No.19- What is CFR. Ans.- The liquid recycle rate is normally adjusted as a ratio with fresh feed . This variable is called combined feed ratio. Fresh feed Rate+ Liquid Recycle Rate CFR= ------------------------------------------------Fresh Feed Rate Q.No.20-- In Unicracking which reaction is more difficult. Ans- Aromatic saturation are the most difficult & more exothermic. Q. No.21- How Asphaltenes measured. Ans.- Asphaltenes is measured by Heptanes insoluble Test. Q.No.21- What is concentration of Neutralization solution. Ans.- For Neutralization solution the concentration of soda ash (Na2Co3) is ,3 wt percent.

To avoid exposing the austenitic stainless steel equipment to a concentration of chloride. Q.No.22.- Why ammoniated nitrogen is used. Ans.- Ammoniated nitrogen is use for pursing or blanketing an austenitic stainless steel system to protect from corrosion. Q.No.23- What is austenitic stainless steel. Ans.- It ia a alloy. The composition of which of nominally 18% chromium and 8% of nickel. Because of there inherent high temp strength , properties and high corrosion resistance they are suitable for use in hydro processing in area of moderate and high temp and where substantial resistance to hydrogen sulfide ( H2S). Q.No.24- What is Polythionic acid. Ans.- The action of water and oxygen on the sulfide scale forms weak sulfuras type acid . This acid known as Polyphonic acid which can attack austenitic stainless steel and causes intergranular corrosion and cracking. Q.No.25- How form Nickel Corbonyl toxic gas. Ans.-In between temp 205 to 260c if the concentration of carbon mono oxide is more then 10 ppm it form nickel carbonyl toxic gas. Q.No.26- What effect if concentration of CO+CO2 is high in reaction section. Ans.A- If the CO +CO2 content exceed the recommended limit (20ppm) the catalyst temp should not be increase to compensate for the resulting decrease in conversion. B- Both CO & CO2 have similar effect on the Unicracking catalyst , they are converted on the active site of the catalyst in the presence of hydrogen to methane and water.

Q.No.27- What is gas to oil ratio. Ans.- It can be calculated in two way. A- Gas to oil ratio for the Hydro treating catalyst Total Gas Flow To Rx Inlet Fresh Feed+ Recycle Oil To Rx in M3 B-Gas to oil Ratio for the Hydro Cracking catalyst.

Total Gas Flow To Rx Inlet +Quench Gas To Hydro Treating Catalyst bed Outlet -------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------Fresh Feed + Recycle Oil To Rx Q.No.28- When high pressure depressurization system is activate. ABCDELoss Of Feed Temperature Excursions Loss Of Quench Gas flow Charge Heater Tube Rupture Power Failure

Q.No.29- When Low pressure depressurization system is activate. A- Loss Of Recycle Gas B- High Pressure Steam Failure C- Instrument Air Failure Q.No.30- :-What is Hydrcracking. Ans.- A process in which hydrocarbons is converted under hydrogen pressure & high temp into product of lower molecular weight, in the presence of an acidic catalyst Q.No.31- What is the Paraffin . Ans-- They are saturated hydrocarbon containing either straight or branched carbon chain without any ring structure. They have general formula Cn H2n+2 Q.No.32- What is the feed boiling range in GDP? Ans.- A typical feed is a 370C+ (700F+) boiling range vacuum gas oil, but atmospheric gas oils and distillate range materials can also be components of the feed blend. Q.No.33- What happen if operating pressure is lower then design. Ans.- Reduction in operating pressure bellow the design will have a negative effect on the catalyst and will accelerate catalyst deactivation due to increased coke formation.

Operating higher than design pressure is usually not possible due to due to design limitation. Q.No.34- Why recycle hydrogen injected in the upstream of charge heater. Ans.- To maintain sufficient gas flow to each reactor charge heater pass to avoid over heating the tube. Q.No.35- What is the partial pressure during normal operation. Ans.- The hydrogen partial pressure is chosen based on the type of Feed stock to be proceed, desired conversion, and product quality. Q.No.38- At which temp. design feedstock start in reactor. Ans.- At 290 c start the design feed stock in the reactor. Q.No.39- Which reaction take place during oxygen removal.. Ans- Organically oxygen is removed by hydrogenation of the carbon hydroxyl bond forming water and the corresponding hydrocarbon. Q.No.40- What is MPT. Ans.- The alloy need minimum temp, for pressurization due to the MOC , this is known as MPT. Q.No.41- What is the feed composition of the reactor. Ans.- The composition of the feed isSp gr-0.859, Total sulfur-0.94%, Nitrogen-155ppm, Aromatics- 33.7% ( mono-17% Di-9% Poly-7.5% ). Q.No.42- What is drying of heater. Ans- It is divided in two part; 1- The first is the drying it self that is to say water removal. 2- The second step is the curing of the refractory brick work or refractory cement/ concrete , which allow insulating. Q.No.43- What is exposure limit of nickel. Ans- The exposure to nickel dust inhalation limit is 1.0 milligram of nickel compound per cubic meter of averaged over an 8.0 hour. Q.No.44- How can avoid Runway reaction. Ans- Do not exceed an average temperature rise (average outlet temperatureaverage inlet temperature) of 17C or a maximum temperature rise (maximum bed temp- minimum bed temp) of 28C (50F) across any one catalyst bed with higher activity zeolitic catalyst . Do not exceed an average temperature rise (average outlet temperature average inlet temp) of 28 c or maximum temp rise

(maximum bed temp- minimum bed temp ) of 33 c across any one catalyst bed with lower activity zeolitic catalyst For hydro treating catalyst the maximum bed delta T should not exceed 42 c. Q.No.45- What is the important internals in cracking & treating reactors. Ans.-Important internal are Trays, Distributors, diffuser, Catalyst support grid, Outlet collector & Vortex breakers quench distributor, mixing chamber. Q.No.46- What is Trip & Throttle valve & how it is working. Ans.-The T & T valve service as the primary Turbine shut down device . The valve features a trip cylinder, which instantly close the valve on loss of pressure in the oil circuit and a manual to prevent from sticking in the open position. Q.No.47- Which reaction is known as paring reaction. Ans- Hydrcracking reaction of cycloparaffin is known as Paring reaction, In which methyl group are selectively removed from cycloparaffin without severely affecting the ring itself. Q.No.48- What is the requirement of Hydrogen in unicracking. Ans.- Hydrogen requirement is determined by, A-Chemical Hydrogen consumption, B- Solution losses, C- Mechanical losses D-Venting losses. Q.No.49 When Zeolite catalyst is use in cracking process in spite of Amorphous catalyst. Ans High cracking activity, high naphtha selectivity, better temperature performance then the Amorphous catalyst. Ans To maximize naphtha yield Zeolite catalyst are formulated with low hydrogenation acidic ratio in order to maximize aromatic and branch paraffin product. Q.No.50 For which purpose quench recycle gas used? Ans A quench gas stream is used to reduced interbred temperature before each catalyst bed. For what work H P stripper use? Ans Stripper is to remove the H2S from feed in order to allow the fractionators to produce a sweet product. Q.No.52 Why L P Stripper is use in unicracking unit.? Ans For stripped of lightened & water by reboiled in the low pressure stripper. Q.No.-53- What factor affect the Hydrogen quality. Ans- There are three factor to effect the Hydrogen quality. A-Hydrogen purity B- Nitrogen & Methane content C- CO + CO2 content.

Q.No.54 What is Asphaltenic hydrocarbon. Ans Hydrocarbon having high molecular weight sulfur & nitrogen compound, & which have high coke formation tendency called as Asphaltenic hydrocarbon. Ans Asulphanate are formed by oxidation of Polycyclic Aromatic hydrocarbon. Primarily Hydrogen and carbon with 1 To 3 sulfur, nitrogen or oxygen atom per molecule. Q.No.55- What is spalling? Ans. For decoking only steam is admitted to the heater coil at fairly high rate, while the furnace is fired Known as spalling. Q.No.56 What is burning? Ans For decoking both air & steam flow through the coil, and the remaining coke removed by the direct oxidation is called Burning. Q.No.57-- What is PSI? Ans Pound Per Squire Inch,,,,, 1 PSI=6.9 k Pa. Q.No.58 What is the range sulfur present in the crude oil ? Ans-- Range of sulfur in cruid oil is from 0.05% To 6.5% . Q.No.59 What is Naphthenes ? Ans Cycloparaffin are known by the name Naphthene in Petroleum industry . They are saturated hydrocarbon having one or more ring . Q.No.60- What is natural Gasoline. Ans Natural gasoline is a mixture of hydrocarbon extracted from natural gas containing mostly pentane and similar hydrocarbon heavier then pentane. Q.No.61 What is natural gas. Ans Natural gas is naturally occurring mixture of hydrocarbon & non hydrocarbon gases found in porous formation below the earth surface . The main contain gases is methane, together with small amount of heavier hydrocarbon and some non hydrocarbon gases like nitrogen, carbon dioxide, H2s,and helium. Q.No.62 What is stripping section. Ans In distillation column below the feed point is stripping section. Q,No.63 What is rectifying section? Ans-- In distillation column above the feed point is rectifying section. Q.No.64 How paraffin convert in lower molecule hydrocarbon in hydrogenation. Ans Reaction of paraffin start with formation of olefin at the metallic site, and the formation of carbonium ions from these olefin at the acid site. This olefin is then rapidly adsorbed on an acid site to form a carbonium ion. This carbonium ion may isomerizes to form a more stable carbonium ion. This cracking reaction

occurs at a bond that is beta to the carbonium ion charge. Carbonium ion can react with olefin to transfer charge from one fragment to other. In this way charge can be transferred from smaller hydrocarbon fragment to a larger fragment that can bee better accommodate the charge. Finally olefin hydrogenation complete the reaction. Q.No.65 Why cracked hydrocarbon again circulate in treating reactor? Ans The hydrcracking reactor effluents allowed to pass through hydro treating reactor to conserve on recycle gas requirement and heat integration. Q.No.66 Is large molecule react more rapidly then the low molecule. Ans Yes, large molecule such as paraffin tend to react more rapidly then smaller molecule. Q.No.67 Why API gravity preferred over sp, gr? Ans-- API gravity preferred over ordinary because the of various crude oil lie very close to e3ach other and the API gravity alone can magnify these difference. Q.No.68 What is crude oil pore point ? Ans The pore point of crude oil measured to have knowledge of there pump ability. Crude oil pore point usually vary from -60 to +30 oC. Q.No.69 Why recycle gas injected before heater & Exchanger. Ans-- The object is to maintain sufficient gas flow to each reactor charge heater pass to avoid overheating the tube. Q.No.70 What is the catalyst regeneration procedure. Ans-- The regeneration itself is a relatively simple procedure in which the carbon and sulfur which have accumulated on the catalyst are burned off. Nitrogen gas is circulated throughout the reactor circuit with the recycle gas compressor. Air is injected using the makeup compressors to give a controlled oxygen level in the gas going to the reactors. The effluent gas exiting the reactors is scrubbed with caustic solution in order to remove SO2 from the recycle gas. Q.No.71 Why cold separator water found in green color. Ans-- Possible that the monel lining in the separator is reacting with an acidic condition from water and H2S. The wash water injection rate has not been increased for increased nitrogen content of the feedstock. Q.No.72 What happen when cold high pressure separator temp is high? Ans Higher temperature in cold high pressure separator H2 Purity & H2 ratio. Q.No.73 Why recycle oil again feed to cracking & treating reactor?


Ans-- It is a very stable reactant to put back to the catalyst because it will have been totally desulfurized and almost completely saturated. Therefore, it will only generate the amount of heat liberated from hydrcracking reactions. For this reason, recycle oil functions as a heat sink, that is, increased mass flow through the catalyst bed to carry heat away. In some cases, without liquid recycle the temperature rise across the catalyst would be excessive to the point where reaction would be difficult to control. A second important function of liquid recycle is to reduce the severity of the operation. Q.No.74 Where is the steam injected in fractionators? Ans-- The steam is injected into the Fractionators column just below the bottom tray. Q.No.75 What is the rate of Hydrogen when feed rate is less then design? Ans-- Since the feed rate could be less than design, the hydrogen to hydrocarbon ratios will be high Q.No.76 What is the action if charge heater tube rupture? Ans-- Stop adding hydrogen and hydrocarbons to the fire in the heater box through the process lines, and purge with steam/nitrogen to the rupture to prevent air from entering the process lines and equipment. By separating a reactor into Q.No.77 Why reactor divide in multi beds? Ans For better distribution & redistribution of fluid also better contact with whole volume of catalyst. Q.No. What is specification of green diesel? Ans-- This diesel is a high quality product with low sulfur and moderate to low aromatics content. Q.No.79 Where is the LP steam injected in the fractionators.? Ans-- The steam is injected into the Fractionators column just below the bottom tray. Below this injection the unconverted material is removed from the bottom of the column. Q.No.80 What is the name of hydro cracking catalyst. Ans HC-120 LT. Q.No.81-- What is the name of hydro treating catalyst. Ans KF-848-1.3Q & KF-846 Q.No.82 What is the specification of feed? Ans-- Specific Gravity 0.8595, Sulfur, wt % 0.94, Nitrogen, ppm 155. Q.No.83 What is high & low pressure depressurization rate.

Ans High pressure depressurization rate 14 Kg/cm2/minute & Low pressure depressurization rate is 7kg /cm2/minute. It calculated from highsest pressure to first minute of depressurization. Q.No.84 What is reactor temp & pressure during oil introduction. Ans-- During oil introduction reactor temp is maximum 140oC & 55 Kg pressure. Q.No.85 What is the use of quench gas.? Ans-- A quench gas stream is used to reduce Reactor interbed temperatures before each catalyst bed. Q.No.86 What is the indication of end point.? Ans Indication of end point is the draw temperature. Q.No.88 What is the primary Hydrotreating reaction. Ans-- The primary hydrotreating reactions are sulfur and nitrogen removal ae well as olefins saturations. Q.No.89 What is purpose of snaffling steam in Heater. Ans To remove the hydrocarbon/gas from fire box. Q,No.90-- What is Trip parameter of Heater. Ana 1- Pilot Fuel gas pressure low. 2- Burner fuel gas pressure high.3- Pilot burner flame out. 4- Emergency puss button activated. 5- Heater draft pressure high. Ans.-71--More detail about Cracking Reactor-D-003 1-Type of catalyst Hc-120 LT 2-Total catalyst Quantity in volume 55.8m3 3-Total Inert Ceramic ball quantity 2.88m3 4-Design Pressure 129kg 5-Design Temp-- 440 0c 6-Test pressure 180 kg 7- pressure & Temp Pressure IN OUT SOR 108.5 102.9 EOR 107.6 102.9 Temp IN OUT SOR 357 376 EOR 383 407

8- Maximum T 24 oC 9- Reactor Dimeter 1800mm 10- Reactor height 26700mm.


11-Maximum P-6.0 kg 12- Total Four catalyst Bed. 13- MOC-2,1/4Cr-1Mo Ans.72- More detail about Cracking Reactor-D-004 1-Type of catalyst KF-848-1.3Q 2-Total catalyst Quantity in volume 0000 3-Total Inert Ceramic ball quantity 00000 4-Design Pressure 123kg 5-Design Temp-- 440 0c 6-Test pressure 180 kg 7- pressure & Temp Pressure SOR EOR Temp IN LET 102.6 102.6 IN LET OUT LET 98.4 98.3 OUT LET 8- Maximum T 34 oC 9- Reactor Dimeter 4200mm 10- Reactor height 13100mm. 11-Maximum P-4.0 kg 12- Total Two catalyst Bed. 13- MOC-2,1/4Cr-1Mo . Q.No.73- How many type of normal shutdown. Ans.- Normally three type of normal shutdown. 1- Reactors under hot circulation at full pressure when the shutdown will be of short duration. 2- Reactors under cooled condition(150, 0c) without gas circulation and fractionation section in shutdown . 3- Reactors cooled and depressurized for complete shutdown for catalyst dumping. Remember1- Avoid catalyst coking by keeping temp. under control. 2- Avoid the potential formation of highly toxic nickel carbonyl compound when the reactors is cooled down below 260,0c.

SOR 344 377

EOR 378 408


3- Avoid the exposure of personal to toxic condition when the catalyst is dumped or when the equipment is entered. 4- Avoid possibility of fairs due to explosive, hydrogen oxygen mixture, exposure of pyrophoric material to air when the reactor is open. 5- It is normal for a temp rise to develop when oil is first introduced through the catalyst bed due to heat of adsorption.

Process Variables A-- Do not exceed an average temperature rise (average outlet temperatureaverage inlet temperature) of 17C (30F) or a maximum temperature rise (maximum bed temperature-minimum bed temperature) of 28C (50F) across any one catalyst bed with higher activity zeolitic catalysts. B-- Do not exceed an average temperature rise (average outlet temperature average inlet temperature) of 28 (50F) or a maximum temperature rise (maximum bed temperature-minimum bed temperature) of 33C (60F) across any one catalyst bed with lower activity zeolitic catalysts . For hydro treating catalysts, the maximum bed delta T should not exceed 42C (75F). C-- When making changes in feed rate, increase feed rate first, then increase catalyst temperature. Conversely, decrease catalyst temperature first, then decrease feed rate. Always make catalyst temperature increases gradually and smoothly. D-- The rate at which temperatures can be safely increased will depend on the age of the catalyst and the severity of the operation. Fresh catalyst is very sensitive to temperature. Increases above about 345C (650F) on fresh catalyst should not exceed 3C/hour (5F/hour). E-- If any upsets in flows are observed, immediately reduce reactor inlet temperatures. Loss of any of the streams flowing through the reactors will result in less heat removal capability and could lead to a temperature runaway. Compressor Q. No.01- What is the work of primary seal in centrifugal compressor? Ans Primary stage seal against full process pressure.

Q.No.02- What is the work of secondary seal in centrifugal compressor? Ans Secondary seal against the leakage pressure of the primary seal, that is very near of atmospheric pressure. Q.No.03 What is the important of Separation seal. Ans-- To prtect the seal from lube oil. Start-up Permissive of any Turbine driven Compressors 1-Rundown tank level not low. 2-Primary buffer supply pressure not low. 3-Lube oil supply pressure not low. 4-Control oil supply pressure not low. 5-T & T valves full close. 6-Compressure not trip. 7-Process side ready for start. Turbine- Compressors trip interlocks Emergency puss botton HXPB 203 Pressed. Lube oil supply pressure low low 2 out of 3. Process side trip. Over speed trip 2 out of 3. Primary seal vent pressure High High (F/E) 2 out of 3. Primary seal vent pressure Low Low (F/E) 2 out of 3. Primary seal vent pressure High High (D/E) 2 out of 3. Primary seal vent pressure Low Low (D/E) 2 out of 3. Compressors discharge temperature high high 2 out of 3. Governor over speed trip 2 out of 3. GOV compressor fault/ External trip. Compressor surge trip. Compressor vibration common high high. Turbine vibration common high high. Compressor bearing temperature high high. Turbine bearing temperature high high. Turbine The main parts of an impulse turbine are nozzles and blades. Nozzles produce a jet of steam of high velocity and the blades change the direction of the jet, thus producing a change in momentum and a force that propels the blades. Q.N.01 What is Impulse Turbine?


Ans-- There is no pressure drop across moving blades steam energy is transferred to the rotor entirely by the steam jets striking the main blades. Since there is no pressure drop, negligible thrust is produced. Q.N.02 What is Impulse Reaction Turbine? Ans Steam expends in both the stationary and moving blades. Moving blades also act as nozzles. High axial thrust is produced. Q.No.03 What is function of the gland condenser? Ans-- The gland steam condenser is installed to eliminate steam condensate from turbine chest, T & T valve and governor to protect turbine. Impulse-Reaction turbine - There are a number of rows of moving blades attached to the rotor and an equal number of fixed blades attached to the casing. The fixed blades are set in a reversed manner compared to the moving blades, and act as nozzles. Due to the row of fixed blades at the entrance, instead of nozzles, steam is admitted for the whole circumference and hence there is an all-round or complete admission. Q.No.04-- What is the principal of operation of steam turbine. Ans-- The motive power in a steam turbine is obtained by the rate of change in momentum of a high velocity jet of steam impinging on a curved blade which is free to rotate. The steam from the boiler is expanded in a nozzle, resulting in the emission of a high velocity jet. This jet of steam impinges on the moving vanes or blades, mounted on a shaft. Here it undergoes a change of direction of motion which gives rise to a change in momentum and therefore a force. Steam turbines are mostly 'axial flow' types; the steam flows over the blades in a direction parallel to the axis of the wheel. 'Radial flow' types are rarely used. Q.No.05-- Pressure compounded impulse turbine Ans.-- This involves splitting up of the whole pressure drop from the steam chest pressure to the condenser pressure into a series of smaller pressure drops across several stages of impulse turbine. The nozzles are fitted into a diaphragm locked in the casing. This diaphragm separates one wheel chamber from another. All rotors are mounted on the same shaft and the blades are attached on the rotor. Q.No.06-- What is Velocity compounded Impulse Turbine Ans-- Velocity drop is arranged in many small drops through many moving row of blades instead of a single row of moving blades. It consists of a nozzle or a set of nozzles and rows of moving blades attached to the rotor or the wheel and rows of fixed blades attached to the casing. Q.No.07 What is the difference between impulse & reaction turbine.

Ana-- The main parts of an impulse turbine are nozzles and blades. Nozzles produce a jet of steam of high velocity and the blades change the direction of the jet, thus producing a change in momentum and a force that propels the blades.

Utility Failure 1-Fresh Cooling Water Failure In the event of total cooling failure, a complete shutdown of the unit is required du to excessive temperature of lube oil of compressors and trim coolers of the process. 2- Power Failure In the event of total total unit power failure all electrically operated equipment will stop with the exception of equipment connected to an emergency power generator. This condition will required shut down to the unit. 3-Instrument Air failure In the event of instrument air failure the low pressure depressurization control valve (fail to open) open and automatic shut down the unit. 4-Fuel Gas failure In the event of fuel gas failure heaters will automatic shut down. Vacuum Distillation Q.No.01-What is Vacuum Tower Packed Bed Flooding. Ans Flooding due to high vapor rate is indicated by poor separation and excessive column pressure drop. Q.No.02 How High Over head Temperature develop. Ans High over head temperature leading to loss of vacuum level may be caused by insufficient vacuum tower heat removal by the pump around beds. Check tower operating temperature, pressure and make necessary adjustment to pump around or product flow. Q.No.03 What isPump Cavitations. Ans Caused by corresponding accumulation tray level & level instrument problem. It canoccur by if differential pressure is disturbed. Q.No.04 What is Flash Zone. Ans In the vacuum tower light product is separated from the feed as a vapor called flash zone. Q.No.05 What isDry Vacuum System.

Ans In the vacuum system the precedencer is installed after ejector called as dry vacuum system. Q.No.06 What is Wet vacuum System. Ans In the vacuum system the precondencer is installed before ejector is called wet vacuum system. Q.No.07--What is Barometric Condenser Single or multi-stage steam jet ejectors are often used to create a vacuum in a process vessel. The exhaust from such ejector system will contain steam (other condensable vapor) as well as non condensable vapors. Such exhaust streams can be routed in to a barometric condenser, which is a vertical vessel where the exhaust stream are cooled and condensed by direct contact with downward flowing cold water injected into the top of the vessel. The vessel is installed so that its bottom is at least 34 feet (10.4 meter) above the ground , and the influent cooling water and condensed vapors flow through a 34 foot length of vertical pipe called barometric leg, into a small tank called a ,, hot well ,, The ,barometric leg allows the effluent coolant and condensed vapors to exist no matter what the vacuum is in the process vessel. Such a system is called as Barometric Condenser. Q.No.08 What is Induced draft Fan. Ans A fan that is mounted above the tube is known as induced draft fan. Q.No.09 What is Forced Draft Fan. Ans A fan mounted bellow the tube known as forced draft fan. Q.No.10 What is Barometric Leg. Ans A barometric leg is basically a condensate drain line, which height minimum 34 feet. It is used for remove the liquid from vacuum system. Q.No.11 What is flood point? Ans A situation at which the velocity of the up coming vapors is so high that is obstructs the down coming reflux, and the column suddenly floods with liquid. Q.No.12 What is internal reflux? Ans the liquid normally running down in side the column is called internal reflux.

Q 1- What is specific gravity?
Ans : Specific gravity is used to measure liquid density

Q 2-

How do you convert Sp. Gravity ( 0.8020 ) to API gravity ?

Ans : API == 141.5 - 131.5 = 44.993


0.8020 Q 3- How do you calculate Sp.gravity of a crude oil at a given API 45 ? Ans : 141.5 131.5 + 45 Q 4- What is density? Ans : Density is mass per unit volume D= Mass / Volume = 0.8017

Q 5- What is the maximum allowable propane content in LPG? Ans- 50% Q.6- Give two examples of Inert gases? Ans : Nitrogen and Carbon dioxide. Q.7- Why do we treat lowers API gravity crude to meet product specification? Ans :Lower API crude requires high temperature and longer retention time to meet proper oil product specification. Q.8- What is heat ? Ans. It is an energy associated with the motion of molecules in a substance. Q.9- What is the basic principle of heat transfer ? Ans. Heat transfer is the transfer of heat from hot place to cold place .Q.10- What is temperature? Ans-. It is a measure of how hot something is. Q.11- What are the four types of devices commonly used to measure temperature. Ans 1. Mercury thermometer 2. Filled system temperature indicater 3-Bimetaallic thermometer 4-RTD Resistance temperature detector Q.12- How do you convert 108 degrees F to degrees C. Ans . 108 - 32 == 42.2 degrees F


1.8 Q.13- How do you convert 210 Degrees C to Degrees F. Ans : 210 X 1.8 + 32 = 410 Degrees F Q.14- How do you convert - 10 Degrees F into Degrees C -10 -- 32 1.8 Q.15- What is a sensible heat ? Ans . Sensible heat is that which is used for increasing liquid temperature to Boiling Point. Q.16- What is latent heat ? Ans. Latent heat is the amount of heat required to change the state of liquid at it's boiling point. Q.17- How is gas volume is calculated? Ans : Gas volume is normally calculated at standard temperature ( 60 oF) X Standard pressure 14.7 Psi. Q.18- What is a boiling point? Ans : It is a temperature at which a liquid turns into vapor state. Q.19- What is the effect of boiling point in relation with pressure? Ans : Boiling point increases at high pressure and decreases at low pressure. Q.20- what happens to vapor pressure when it reaches to boiling point? Ans : At boiling point vapor pressure of a liquid equalizes to the pressure of the surrounding atmosphere. Q.21- What is a vapor pressure? Ans. When molecules start to leave the liquid as vapor, it will create vapor Pressure. Q.22- What happens to the temperature, pressure and volume of gas when it is Compressed ? Ans. When gas is compressed the pressure and temperature will increase and volume decreases.

== -- 23.3

Q.23- What is vaporization? Ans. It is a quick change from the state of liquid to gas (vapor) due to boiling. Q.24- What are the four process variables? Ans : Four process variables are Temperature, Pressure, Flow and Level. Q.25- What is level ? Ans : Level is a measure of how much liquid is contained in a tank or vessel. Q.26- What is flow rate ? Ans : It is a measure of the amount of fluid that moves past a point in a certain time . Q.27- What is an atom ? Ans. An atom is the smallest part of an element. Q.28- What does an atom consists of ? Ans- An atom consists of Electrons, Protons and Neutrons. Q.29- What is a compound ? Ans. A compound is a new product by the bonding two or more elements by chemical reaction having new physical properties. Q.30- Give two examples of compounds? Ans : H2O, CO2 Q.31- What is the specific gravity of water? Ans : Specific gravity of water is considered as 1. ( One ) Q.32- What is an inert gas? Ans: An inert gas is that which do not react chemically or non-flammable. Q.33- What does molecule contain? Ans : Molecule contains two or more atoms from the same kind by chemically bonded together. Q.34- Give examples molecules .

Ans : O2, N2 , H2 Q.37- What is LEL & UEL. Explain ? Ans : LEL is lower explosive limit - Minimum lower limit of gas and a mixture concentrations which will form an explosive mixture . UEL Upper explosive limit - The limit at which air / gas explosive Mixture present. Q.38- What is a fire triangle? Ans : A fire triangle combines Air, Fuel and Heat to form a fire. Q.39- What is a natural gas? Ans. Natural gas is produced from organic compounds or hydrocarbons during the process of crude oil / gas production operations from an oi reservoir. Q.40- Why do we consider methane is the lightest gas ? Ans : Methane has only one carbon atom. Q.41- What is a sedimentary rock ? Ans : Throughout millions of years sediments are formed by the weight increasing on the layers which has been accumulated to a new bed called Sedimentary rock. Oil and natural gas are found in sedimentary rocks. Q.42-What is RVP ? Ans : Reid Vapor Pressure. The pressure caused by the vaporized part of a liquid and the enclosed air. Q.43- What is viscosity? Ans : Viscosity is the resistance of a liquid to flow. Q.44- What is pressure? Ans : Pressure is the measure of force applied to a unit area. Q.45- How do you calculate pressure of 100 pound block measuring 25 Square inches on each side ? Ans : 100 = 4 psi.

25 Q.46-Why do we use vacuum scale? Ans : Vacuum scale is used to measure pressure in vessels which are below atmospheric (Absolute). Q.47- What reading on a mercury vacuum gauge corresponds with the atmospheric pressure. Ans : Zero in Vacuum gauge is equal to the atmospheric pressure. Q.48-What is a perfect vacuum? Ans : Zero pressure absolute Psia equals the pressure in a perfect vacuum. Q.49-What is RTD ? Ans : RTD is resistance Temperature Detector. ( Heat creates by electrical Resistance). Increase the heat means increases the resistance. Q.50- What is the unit of electrical resistance? Ans : Unit of electrical resistance is Ohms at 0 degrees C . Q.51- Why do we use Centrifugal pumps? Ans . Centrifugal pumps are used when large volumes of fluids to be moved. Q.52- Which part of the centrifugal pump move liquid. Ans . In a centrifugal pump the impeller moves liquid Q.53- Which part of centrifugal pump is giving power to pump liquid? Ans- A centrifugal pump is powered by a driver to pump liquid. Q.54- Write the start up procedure of a typical centrifugal pump Ans . The following minimum precautions an operator should observe before starting a centrifugal pump : 1-Ensure area is safe to start the pump. 2-Open suction valve full and discharge must be in cracked position. 3-Prime the pump to remove vapor or gas. 4-Check for any leak and ensure there is no abnormal alarms on the pump panel. 5-Inform control room. then start the pump . Open the discharge valve full. Q.55- What action should an operator takes , if a pump is having any abnormalities?

Ans. Stop the pump . Inform control room. Investigate and take proper corrective action. Q.56- Why do we use lubricating oil system in a centrifugal pump ? Ans . Lubricating oil system is to remove heat from pump bearings & avoid friction. Q.57- What are the safe guarding systems of a centrifugal pump? Ans. 1. Pre-warning alarms (Unit Alarms)2-- Trip switches 3-Safety relief valves

Q.58- What is the difference between single stage pump and multistage pump ? Ans . Single stage pump has only one impeller and multistage pump has two or more impellers Q .59- What types of bearings are used in a pump? Ans. Sleeve bearings and ball bearings are used in pump. Q.60- What will happen to bearing, if it is too hot? Ans. If the bearings are too hot they can seize the shaft. Q,61- How do we remove heat from an operating pump? Ans. Excessive heat can be removed from pump by ambient air temperature or by circulating cooling water through water jackets. Q.62- What is a centrifugal force ? Ans. A force, which tends to move an object away from the center of rotation, is called centrifugal force. Q.63- How a pump driver is connected to pump ? Ans : Pump driver is connected to a pump by coupling. Q.64- What is the function of bearing? Ans. Pump bearings control the side to side movement or radial movement of the Shaft. It also controls the forward and backward movement or thrust of the Shaft.. Q.65- What is the largest part of a centrifugal pump? Ans : Pump casing is the largest part of a centrifugal pump. Q.66- Which part of a centrifugal pump, prevents leakage?


Ans. Pump packing is used to prevent leakage from a pump. Q.67 - Where do we use reciprocating pumps in our process system? Ans. Reciprocating pumps are commonly used in Chemical injection where we require high pressure pumping. Q.68- What should be the position of suction and discharge valves while starting a reciprocating pump? Ans. Suction and discharge valves must be in full opened position and remove air / gas completely from the pump before starting a reciprocating pump. Q.69- Which part of the reciprocating pump, actually moves liquid ? Ans. Piston and cylinder helps to move liquid in a reciprocating pump. Q.70- Reciprocating pumps can not increase the pumping capacity and it can pump only fixed quantity. Why ? Ans. Cylinders and pistons are designed to pump fixed quantity. So reciprocating pumps can not increase amount of flow. Q.71- What is a mixture ? Give two examples. Ans- Mixture is a composition of two or more molecules of an element that not chemically bonded and can be physically separated. Q.72- What is a pump cavitation? Ans : . When there is no enough ( low )suction head pressure, liquid, which is in the eye of the impeller will move faster causing high temperature t produce vapor. This vapor lock will produce knocking sound to escape . This will cause pressure surging and loose the efficiency .It can damage the pump . This is called cavitation.. Q.73- Explain what is PTB Ans. PTB = Parts per thousand barrels Q.74- What are the safety protections installed on a separator ? Ans : 1- Unit alarms 2- Trip alarms 3- Relief valves Q.75- What is name of the chemical that is used to inject to prevent emulsion?


Ans : Demulsifier Q.76- What is the effect of overdosing or under dosing of chemical injection rate in oil treating.? Ans. Over dosing and under dosing will produce reverse action. Emulsion will become tight emulsion and waste of money . Q.77- What are the major valve actuators? Ans : 1- Solenoid 2- Hydraulic 3-Pneumatic 4- Motor operated Q.78- Where are the globe valves mainly used for in a process system? Ans : Globe valves are used to control flow, mainly as control valves. Q.79- Where are butterfly valves commonly used in a process system? Ans : Butterfly valves are commonly used in low pressure pipelines. Q.80- Which part of the centrifugal compressor allows the compressed gas leaves out Compressor? Ans : Compressor discharge. Q.81- What happens to the volume of gas more from one stage to the next stage? Ans- Volume reduces when compressed gas move out from one stage to the next stage. Q.82- Why do centrifugal compressors need to operate at higher speed than centrifugal pumps ? Ans. Centrifugal compressors use gas to compress. Gas is lighter than liquid. So centrifugal compressors need high speed than pumps. Q.83- What are the main three types of compressors that are used for gas compression? Ans. 1. Centrifugal compressors 2. Reciprocating Compressors 3. Axial compressors Q.84- What is function of Lead (Duty )and Lag (Stand by) switch of compressor? Ans. Lead (Duty) compressor will be always on line while Lag (Stand by ) compressor on standby . In case of lead compressor fail to provide enough discharge pressure, Lag compressor will automatically start and increase the discharge pressure.

Q.84- What is the purpose of an inter cooler of a compressor? Ans. Inter cooler will help to cool discharge gas / air between one stage to another stage. Q.85- What is the purpose of an after cooler of a compressor? Ans. After cooler is used to reduce the temperature of a compressed gas / airfrom the final stage of compression. Q-86- What are the functions of pre-filters and after filters of an instrument air system? Ans. Pre- filter before drier is used to remove oil mist and liquid from compressed air and after filter is used to remove any suspended particles from the drier unit to supply a high quality clean air for instrument system. Q.88- Why do we monitor the dew point of instrument air system ? Ans. Instrument air supply is continuously monitored by meter to check the required dew point reading to avoid condensation and ensure high quality dry air supply. Q.89- What is bourdon tube? Ans- Spiral tube inside the pressure gauge having elliptical cross section Q.90- What electrical value can be measured across the copper and zinc rods? Ans. Voltage. Q.91- What does a fuse protect against in a circuit Ans. High current. Q.92- What unit is used to measure an electrical resistance? Ans. Ohms. Q.93- What are the major parts of an electrical motor? Ans. 1- Motor enclosure 2- Stator 3- Rotor 4- Shaft, 5- Bearings Q.94- How do you measure motor speed ? Ans. Rotation per minute ( RPM ) Q.95- What is unit of measurement electrical load ? Ans. Ampere ( Amps)

6-End fan cover.

Q.96- What is pH reading of a normal fresh water ? Ans. pH reading 7. If it is below 7 is acidic and above 8 is alkali or base. Q.97- What is the function of an air failure close valve and where does this normally installed in a process separator? Ans. Air fail close valve will close in case of no instrument air supply. This valve is normally used as liquid level control valve in a separator to secure the oil level inside separator in case of a shut down.. Q.98- What is the function of an air fail Open valve and where does it normall installed in a process separator ? Ans. Air fail Open valve in normally installed on the gas outlet line as PCV. This PCV will open in case of an instrument air failure or ESD to protect the vessel from over pressuring by releasing the pressure to maintain low pressure in vessel. Q.99- What is the name of the thermometer based on the principle that different metals have different coefficient of thermal expansion ? Ans. Bimetallic thermometer. Q100- What is the characteristic of an RTD element metal ? Ans. RTD element metal has a resistance 100 Ohms at Zero degree C. Q.101- What are the four major parts of a process control loop? Ans- 1. Sensing element 2. Transmitter 3. Controller 4. Control valve. Q.102- Why do pig our export lines? Ans. Pigging operation is periodically conducted to remove water , sludges and other impurities from a pipe line for better effeiciency and also to prevent corrosion. Q.103- What are the major types of pigs that ADMA -OPCO use for pigging operation? Ans. Brush pig, Foam pig, Bi-directional pig, sphere pig and intelligent pig. Q.104- What is pyrophoric iron sulphide? How it is formed ? Ans. Pyrophoric iron sulfide is normally found in process lines by the chemical reaction of iron and sulfur from hydrogen sulfide.


Q.105- How is a separator pressure is controlled? Ans. A separator pressure is controlled by pressure control valve ( PCV ) by the help of a pressure control loop Q.106- What could happen if the level controls failed and the separator vessel became empty? Ans. Gas will escape from the vessel through liquid out let line causing extensive damage to process safety. Q.107- List of various parameters that could cause a separator to trip or shut down? Ans. PALL PAHH LALL LAHH

Q.108-- What is tachometer? Ans- rpm measuring device Q.109- How is the gas flow measured from a separator? Ans. Gas flow is measured from a separator by using the differential pressure across the orifice plate on the gas outlet line. Q.110- How is the discharge pressure of a centrifugal pump controlled and maintained? Ans. Discharge pressure of a centrifugal pump is controlled and maintained by pressure control valve and recycle valve. Q.111 What is Bubble cap.

Ans.It is an inverted cap with a notched or slotted periphery to disperse the vapour in small bubbles beneath the surface of the liquid on the bubble plate in distillation column. Q.113 What is Blowout.

Ans- A sudden and violent escape of gas & oil from a drilling well when high pressure gas is encountered. Q.114- When a spool piece of a pipe line connection change out is required explain how pipe diameter and material quality is decided by referring to a drawing? Ans- From piping classification details of the relevant P&ID.


Q.115- What part of the diesel engine release diesel fuel under pressure to vaporizes in Cylinder? Ans. Fuel injector Q.116- What part of the diesel engine provides the force those turns the crankshaft? Ans. Power stroke. Q.117- What is static electricity. Ans. When electrons move by friction from their normal position in their atom Static electricity is produced. Q.118- Explain what is Ampere? Ans. The current of an electron flow in a conductor is measured in Ampere. Q.119- What is a horsepower? Ans. It is force of 550 pounds applied over a distance of one foot in one Second Q.120- Why do we check three phase motors backward run after certain electrical repairs? Ans. If the phase sequence is reversed while connecting power cable, motor will run backward which may cause serious damage to equipment. Q.121- What must be done to crude oil before it is placed in floating roof storage Tank? Ans. Oil must be stabilized to remove all easily separated gas, before storing into floating roof tank. Q.122- Why do we use vacuum relief valves on a doomed roof tank or fixed roof tank? Ans. Vacuum relief valve prevent forming vacuum in side tank when product is being removed. This valve open automatically if the pressure in the tank falls below 0.2 psig. Then this valve allow air flow into dome of the tank. Q.123- What is the fire / explosive protection provided on a storage tank? Ans. To prevent fire and explosion protection vent pipes are fitted with flame or spark arrestor. Q.124- What is the purpose of a meter prover loop? Ans. Prover loop is for testing meter accuracy which is associated with the meter bank or LACT system.

Q.125- What is a meter factor ? Ans. Meter factor is the reading generated for calculation after comparing the accuracy of prover loop and mechanical meter reading. Q.126-Why do we use electric automatic sampler in meter bank? Ans-Electric automatic sampler grab system is to collect a small portion of the Product into a vapor proof container at certain fixed intervals to monitor theQuality of crude oil passing through the LACT mater. Q.127- What are the four emulsifying agents ? Ans. 1. Heavy paraffin's 2- Heavy naphthenic acid 3- Organic solids 4- Inorganic solid Q.128- What are the five major sections in a gas turbine engine ? Ans. 1- Starter section 2-Compressor section 3- Cumbustion section 4- Turbine section 5Exhaust section. Q.129- Which section of a gas turbine engine is capable to produce power? How is this section protected? Ans. The turbine section of gas turbine is the power producing section .The cylinder of this section is made by thick steel to protect any damage Q.130- Which part of the gas turbine control the shaft rotation by regulating fuel flow? Ans. Governor of the gas turbine engine. Q.131- How does a gas turbine is protected from over speed? Ans. Over speed trip switch cut off the fuel supply to the combustion chamber to trip the gas turbine to prevent over speed. Q.139- What do you understand by the term PPE? Give five names of PPE items. Ans. PPE is Personnel protective equipment. --- Safety shoe Safety glass Ear plug Safety belt. Hard hat Gloves

Q.141- Which part of process pipes line is a source of potential leak ? Ans. Flanges and joints. Q.143- When you observe a broken ladder or railing ,what action you will take ?

Ans. Inform your supervisor and identify the area with proper demarcation tape. Q.144- What is the function and purpose of a pipe line insulation? Ans. Pipeline insulation protects person from very hot and very cold pipes. Q.145- If you observe any damaged critical piping insulation, what action you will take ? Ans- Report to supervisor Q.146- When you are working in your operating area of responsibility , if there is an oil spill ,what action you will take in the capacity of an operator? Ans. Report to supervisor and if possible, clean the area to remove the oil spill. Q.147- How do you understand that an X- ray test is being conducted in a process area ? Ans. The area should be protected with radiation warning signals and proper tapes. Q.148- If you observe an X ray test is being carried out in a process area without any warning signal, what will be your first action ? Ans. Report to your supervisor. Q.149- Long period of exposure to radiation can be dangerous to you. Why? Ans. Radiation can cause cancer by killing the cells in your body. Q.150- If a car is allowed to enter into a restricted area inside process plant, what are the precautions do we observe? Ans. All vehicle entry to process restricted area must be controlled by Permit to work system Q.151- What are four characteristics of H2S ? Ans 1. Color : Colorless, Smell : Rotten egg smell, Heaviness : Heavier than air. Solubility : Soluble in water forming corrosive acid Q.152- What will happen to a person, if he is working in H2S concentration above 100 ppm. ? Ans. He will loose the sense of smell Q.153- What is the threshold limit value ( TLV) of H2S ? Ans. Below 10 ppm. At this level a person can work . long term exposure limit.


Q.154- What will happen to a person, If he is working in H2S concentration above 30 ppm level ? Ans. Respiratory problems and eye irritations.

Q.156- - Define MMSCFD ? Ans- Million Metric Standard Cubic Feet per day. Q.157- If high concentration of H2S may be present, what kind of system ( device) gives signal to the control room? Ans. Electric detectors and sensors will give signal to CCR. Q.158- All Chemical-handling areas in a process system is to be equipped with warning signs. What you understand by the term MSDS? Ans. Material Safety Data Sheet. This card will tell you the safe way of handling chemical. This should be available on each chemical injection tanks. Q.159- What do you understand by the term LSA or NORM? Ans. LSA means Low Specific Activities. NORM means Naturally Occurring Radioactive Material Hydrocarbon processing pipelines and vessels may have scales . These scales may have radioactive materials. This radioactive material, if it exceeds background limit ,may cause damage to our environment and persons. This radiation is be monitored for excessive level and activities to be limited to minimum duration. This is called low specific activities. Since it is occurring naturally it is called NORM. Q.160- What is Organic theory? Ans. Oil and gas comes from the remains of plants and animals by heat and Pressure. Q.161- What do you understand by light crude and heavy crude ? Ans. Light crude contains the lowest number of Carbon atoms per unit volume.Heavy crude contains highest number of carbon atoms. Q.163- What is Khuff gas recovery ? Ans. Khuff gas is a non-associated gas under extremely high pressure with high concentration of H2S from very deep reservoir.

Q.164- What are the special precautions required to well head casing of a Khuff gas well Head fittings and flow lines? Ans. All Khuff Gas well heads must be cemented into all the way to the bottom of the well due to extreme pressure and temperature. Flow lines also to be well protected to withstand high pressure, high temperature and H2S. . Q.165- Which type of valve, is normally used on a well head assembly ? Ans. Gate valves Q.166- What is ' Solution gas' and ' Bubble point' ? Ans. Gas which is inside a solution and is coming out is called solution gas. The point at which all gas comes out from a solution , we call bubble point. Q.167- What do you understand by the term Stonewall ? Ans. In compressors, if the suction pressure drops abnormally low level and surge valves cannot control compressor surge, knocking sound will produce from the compressor. This phenomena is briefly called stonewall. Q.168- How do you control compressor surge in centrifugal compressor? Ans. By antisurge control valves that are installed on each stage and keep Compressor flow and speed from enough apart from surge curve. Q.169- What do you understand by the term fixed pitch and variable pitch of a fin fan cooler? Ans. Fixed pitch controls the fan performance on a fixed speed. But variable Pitch controls fin fan cooler outlet temperature by temperature controller. It Gives signal to fin fan cooler to adjust the louvers and fan blade pitch to Monitor the heat exchange. Q.170- How many refineries are operating in India at present? Ans- Running 17 Q.171- What is average density of crude oil? Ans- 0.845 Q.174- What is baring? Ans- From operational point, barring is referred to rotation of compressor at a lower RPM for uniform cooling of the shaft. Which may otherwise sag due to gravity.

.Q.175- What is the meaning of "warming up of a pump"? Ans- Warming up of pump means opening the warm up line, which by passes the NRV in pump discharge. This allows the stand by pump to remain warm as hot liquid passes from discharge line to suction of the stand by pump. Q.176- What is maggering? Ans- Magger value is an indication of health of the insulation, specially in motor winding. When a motor is kept under cold condition for long time, the insulation may become ineffective due to moisture in surrounding air. Q.177-- What should be the ideal color of oil flame in heater? Ans- Golden yellow. Q.178- What are flame front lines? Ans- Lines used for flame front propagation for lighting the pilot of flare. Q.179- What is the weathering temperature of LPG? Ans- +2 oC Q.180- What is the odoring component added in Domestic LPG? Ans- Ethyl Mercaptan. Q.181- Why it is added? Ethyl mercaptan. Ans- For easy detectable by nose . Q.182- Name two other processes, which can substitute merichem process for kerosene? Ans- Merox, HDS Q.183- Why ammonia dosing is substituted by amine type dosing at column top? Ans- Brass tube corrosion, Ammonium chloride is formed which fouls the tubes. Q.184- What is the hot spot? How it is formed? Ans- It is localized heating of furnace tubes, which can be seen in the form of a hot spot. It results when heat transfer rate from tube skin to the moving fluid reduces due to coke formation inside the tube. Hot spots can also be created by flame impingement


Q.185- Generally what differential pressure we maintain between steam and fuel oil at furnace burner? Ans- 1.5 times F.O. pressure. Q.186- What are the processes in the refinery, which produce high-octane gasoline? Ans- CCR, FCC Q.189- What are the non-sparking tools? What material is used for it? Ans- Brass, Grease coated. Q.190- What is the difference between safety shoes and normal lather shoes. Ans- A steel toe is provided in safety shoe to protect foot from injury that may result from falling of a heavy object. Q.191- Valve stem of a gate valve in flare header should face upwards or downwards and why? Ans- Downwards since among most frequent failures in gate valve is falling down of gate. If stem is facing downwards, gate will remain intact. Q.192- What is peephole? Ans- Small hole with a door to monitor furnace conditions Q.193- What is octane number? Ans- Octane number of a fuel indicates its ant knocking characteristics. Q.194- At what temperature, bitumen is stored? Ans- 170 0C. Q.195- Water is conductive or non-conductive of electricity? Ans- Non conductive Q.196- What is the full form of CPI? Ans- Corrugated plate interceptor used in water treatment. Q.197- What is the pressure of LPG in domestic cylinders?


Ans- LPG is a mixture of propane and butane and vapor pressure of the mixture is around 7 KG/cm2. Q.198- Will LPG cylinder float if put in water? Ans- Yes. Q.199- What is zone-0, where is it in refinery? Ans- As per BIS classification of hazardous area zone zero is where explosive atmosphere is continuously present like vapor space in tanks which are open to air and contain hydrocarbon or flammable material which for explosive mixture with air. Q.200- What is steam desuperheater. Ans- In which BFW is injected in order to desuperheat the superheated steam. Q.201- What is supply temperature of tempered water? Ans- 80 deg C Q.202- Where is positive displacement pump required? Ans- For less flow and high head like chemical dosing. Q.203- What is TSV and Where do we use it? Ans- TSV (Thermal safety valve) is used to take care of pressure build up due to thermal expansion. It is provided at places where a liquid can remain in blocked up state with no room for expansion due to temperature rise. Q.204- What is critical speed (for rotary compressors)? Ans- In the rotating equipment, the center of mass does not coincide with geometric center. At normal speed the rotation takes place around geometric center but at critical speed, the equipment tries to rotate around center of mass which causes vibrations. Q.205- What is the difference in flash point and fire point? Ans- Flash point is the lowest temperature at which application of test flame causes vapor above the Hydrocarbon liquid to ignite. Fire point is the lowest temperature at which application of test flame causes vapor above hydrocarbon liquid to ignite and continue to burn for 5 seconds.


Q.206- What is the concentration of salt in seawater Ans- Aprox 3.5 % Q.207- How do we control TDS (total dissolved solids) in boilers? Ans- By regular blowdown. Q.208- In nitrogen generation unit N2 is stored in liquid or gaseous state? Ans- Liquid Q.209- At what temperature sulfur product is sent to storage? Ans- 140 deg C Q.210- What is the reference fuel for cetane number testing? Ans- Normal cetane (100) and Hepta Methyl Nonane (15 CN) Now days HMN has been replaced by Alpha Methyl Naphthalene (0 CN) .Q.211- What is the difference between Cetane index and cetane number? Ans- Cetane number - experimental, CI - ASTM 4357 calculated from sp gr, 10, 50, 90 % recovery temp. Diesel index = (Aniline point in 0F * API)/100 Diesel Index = (Centane Number 10)/0.72 Aniline point is the lowest temperature at which the oil is completely miscible with an equal volume of aniline high aniline point indicates presence of paraffinic components and hence better diesel index Q.212- What is LNG, CNG, NGL Ans- A. LNG Liquefied natural gas which is 87%-99%methane, remaining C2, C3 etc. B. CNG Compressed natural gas the non-condensable components of the gas (C1, C2) which is sold in gaseous phase. C. NGL Natural gas liquid similar to naphtha the light H/C liquid remaining after removal of LNG and CNG. Q.213- A warning is written on most air compressors Do not use compressed air for blowing dust etc. from the body or clothes . What is the reason?

Ans- Compressed air may enter the body through small nicks and cuts, if any, and cause stoppage of blood flow, clotting etc which may have serious consequences. Q214- What would you do if hydrochloric acid falls on one of your worker s body. Ans- Wash with water. Caustic or alkaline solution should never be used since the neutralization reaction will generate heat and cause further damage. Q.215- What is a foot valve (hint - in centrifugal pumps) Ans- Foot valve is provided in suction lift pumps (where fluid level is below pump location). This helps in initial priming up of the pump. Q.216- Where do we use screw pump and gear pump Ans- For high viscosity service. Q.217- What is upper and lower explosive limits of LPG Ans- UEL-9.6% & LEL- 1.8% Q.218- Refinery fire generally falls under which class? Ans- Class B and C Q.219- What is the flue gas temp at the stake outlet of Furnace. Ans- >170 deg C ; to prevent Dew point corrosion Q.220- Which is the main component of low MW fuel gas? Ans- Hydrogen Q.221- Expand the term "MINAS" Ans- Minimum National Standard for air and water pollution Q.223- What lab tests will be required before a vessel entry permit is given? Ans- Oxygen deficiency test, Test for hydrocarbon and explosive mixture presence. Q.224- What should be the dew point of instrument air? Ans- -40 C Q.225- Which chemical is used as antistatic agent


Ans- cromium salt of alkylated salisylic acid, calcium disulfosuccinate, organic polymer Q.226- What is the inlet pressure of steam to turbo generator? Ans- 62.5 kg/cm2g Q.227- Which stream contains napthenic acid. Ans- Untreated kerosene Q.228- Which stream contains carbonyl sulfide (COS) Ans- Cracked LPG from FCCU Q.229- Space between two trays in a distillation column is known as? Ans--Vapor disengaging space Q.230- What reagent is used for doctor's test Ans- Sodium plumbite Q.231- Name two refinery products that can be used as feedstock for petrochemicals Ans- LPG and Naphtha Q.232- When is national safety day observed every year Ans- 4th march Q.233- What is STEL Ans- Short term exposure limit Q.234- What is EIA Ans- Environment impact assessment Q.235- What is EPA Ans- Environment protection act Q.236- For which type of services a floating tube head exchanger is used Ans- For hot service where expansion of tubes may be there. The fixed tube may buckle in hot service


Q.237- Name the three acid neutralizing agent Ans- Ammonia, Caustic Solution, Amine Q.238- What type of reaction mechanism is involved in Thermal Cracking Ans- Free radical mechanism Q.239- What type of reaction mechanism is involved in Catalytic Cracking Ans- Carbonian ion formation Mechanism Q.240- What is the full form of OISD? Ans- Oil industry safety directorate Q.241- Name two most commonly used methods for Heat Exchanger Tube Cleaning. Ans- Hydrojetting ( with high pressure water jet) and Roding Q.242- What is the maximum allowable noise level in refinery for 8 Hours Ans- 85 decibel Q.243- The reaction dehydrocyclisation takes place in which part of the refinery. Ans- Reformer Q.244- In case of H2S leak in the refinery, which Personal Protective Equipment you should use? Ans- Self Contained breathing apparatus Q.245- In which section of the refinery the term molecular seal is associated. Ans--Flare. Q.246- What is the full form of BOD. Ans- Biochemical Oxygen demand. Q.247- What is the term Deriming Ans- Drying of the system of cryogenic services Q.248- How does automatic sprinkler deluge system work?


Ans- Due to high temperature (above 60 deg C) during fire the fluid inside the quartz bulb will expand and will break the bulb releasing the instrument air pressure on the fire water valve thus opening the valve. Sometime infra red sensors are also used which Resistance of filament due to rise in temperature as a result of catalytic combustion of hydrocarbon. Q.249- For velocity measurement in a large diameter pipe, the device used Ans- For velocity measurement in a large diameter pipe, the device used is a Pilot Tube. Q.250- What are the two major physical properties of the rock, which bears crude oil? Ans- Porosity and Permeability Q.251- What type of IC engine, a diesel engine is? Ans- Compression Ignition IC engine Q.252- What is the normal BS&W range present in the crude Oil? Ans- 10 to 200 ptb Q.253- Name three metal impurities present in Crude oil? Ans- Ni, V, Fe Q.254- What is SAT in our refinery context? Ans- Site acceptance test Q.254- Why furnace drying is important before it is commissioned for the first time. Ans- Furnace with new refractory contains moisture which may get vaporized fast and cause the refractory to collapse if heated rapidly. Q.256- Does a cooling tower face fire hazard Ans- Yes particularly when hydrocarbon from the coolers leak into water (where H/C pressure is higher than CW) Q.257- What is backflushing? Ans- Water coolers (specially when sea water or muddy water) may become choked over a period, to remove the debris, the water flow is reversed which cleans up the waterside of coolers. Q.258- What is the difference between alloy and amalgam

Ans- Mixing of mercury with a metal or plastic mixing of any two substances is called amalgam. Alloy consists of any two metals. Q.259- What is unit for measurement of corrosion rate? Ans- Mil/year. 1 mil is thousandth of an inch.It is a measure of thickness for thin sheets from .5 mm to 7 mm. Q.260- What will happen to fouling rate of a heat exchanger if the flow is reduced? Ans- Fouling rate will increase Q.261- What happens to energy efficiency when a plant is operated at reduced throughput. Ans- Energy consumed per ton of feed processed goes up if the plant is operated at lower than designed throughput. Q.262- What happens to heat transfer rate if superheated steam is used instead of saturated steam. Ans- Heat transfer rate will go down since coefficient for condensation is much higher than convective heat transfer coefficient. Q.263- What refrigerant is used generally for creating cryogenic conditions in cryogenic storage of a product? Ans- Normally same product is used as refrigerant Q.264- Which is safer and why LPG stored under pressure or LPG stored under cryogenic condition. Ans- LPG stored under cryogenic condition. Any leakage that may occur will cause slower evaporation and vapor cloud generation. Q.265- What should be the feed stock for propylene production? Ans- Cracked LPG from UGS Q.266- What hazards exist when a sour water handling equipment is opened for maintenance? Ans- H2S - toxic gas and iron sulfide which may catch fire when it comes in contact with oxygen. Q.267- Foaming is the result of which scientific phenomena


Ans- Reduction in surface tension due to process conditions or due to presence of foreign material in process fluids. Q.268- What risk is involved in operating fuel oil coolers at a lower throughput? Ans- A lower throughput means lower pressure inside the cooler, any leak in the tube may result in water entering the fuel oil stream which may be dangerous if fuel oil is stored above 100 deg C (like PFO) Q.269- What does viscosity index indicate about the lube oil? Ans- It indicates the change in viscosity with temperature. For lube oils it is desirable that viscosity does not vary much as the oil gets heated up. Q.270- What is windbreaker? Where will you find it? Ans- A helically welded metal strip on the furnace stacks to deflect wind and reduce wind load. Q.271- How much is the pressure in DCP extinguisher when not in use? Ans- Atmospheric pressure. The cylinder gets pressurized when the CO2 cartridge inside is broken by pressing the lever at the top of extinguisher Q.272- CNG is lighter or heavier than air Ans- lighter Q.273- At what temperature, RVP is measured? Ans- 100 deg F or 38 deg C Q.274- What do you understand by recovery in diesel? Ans- We should be able to recover 90%vol of diesel when heated upto 366 deg C. After 2000 it will be 95% at 375 deg C Q.275- How will you correct HSD if it is off on recovery? Ans- Mostly by blending. Q.276- What should be the hydrotest pressure in terms of design pressure? Ans- Usually 1.5 times the design pressure. Q.277- What is PONA -arrange them in descending order for crudes.

Ans- Paraffins, Olefins, Napthenes, Aromatics, Q.278- Give three reasons which cause poor vacuum ( for steam jet ejector system) Ans- Leakage, Steam quality, high pressur, low pressure, condenser fouling, CW temp high, seal legs plugged, ejector nozzle worn out. Q.279- Above what temperature the sulfur compounds in crude decompose into H2S? Ans- 230 deg C ( 450 F) Q.280- What is the basic difference between chemistry of hydrocracking and catalytic reforming. Ans- In catalytic reforming, napthenes are converted to high-octane aromatics while in hydrcracking aromatics are converted into napthenes. Q.281- What will be the significant effect due to reduction in column pressure for same product yield? Ans- Redacting in heater duty Q.282- If the gas burner flame is blue what will happen to its color if excess air is there and when air is deficient? Ans- 1. Blue white 2. Yellow Q.283- What do you understand by recovery in diesel? Ans- It refers to the ASTM distillation done on product. We should be able to recover 90%vol of diesel when heated upto 366 deg C. After 2000 it will be 95% at 370 deg C. Q.284- With what class of petroleum products do you associate viscosity index? Ans- Lube oil blend stocks, lubricants Q.285- What is a catalytic converter (in vehicles) and why unleaded petrol is required for these vehicles Ans- It converts CO into CO2 in vehicle exhaust. It contains platinum-based catalyst, which is attacked and rendered ineffective by lead from leaded petrol. Q.286- At what temp deg C is equal to deg F Ans- (-40) C

Q.288- What is the formula to convert Diesel index to cetane no? Ans- C.N. = 0.72 DI + 10 Q.289- Aniline Point of Diesel is a measure of its . Ans- Aromatic Content Q.290- What is the design ratio of fuel oil supply and return flow and why. Ans- Ratio 2:1 so that certain return flow is always there in the header - to avoid congealing of line. Q.291- What is intrinsically safe equipment. Ans- Equipment or wiring which is incapable of releasing sufficient electrical or thermal energy under either abnormal or normal conditions to cause ignition of a specific hazardous atmospheric mixture in its most easily ignited concentration. Q.293- What is TEMA Ans- It stands for Tubular Exchanger Manufacturer's Association. This is a body, which gives guidelines for design, manufacture, inspection and maintenance of heat exchangers. Q.294- What is static velocity of liquids in pipes? Ans- Velocity above which static charge is likely to develop. For non conductive petroleum products it is 6 m/s and for conductive petroleum products like ATF it is 3m/s. Q.295- What is the correlation between Pressure and Flow rate of liquid? Ans- P is proportional to Q2 Q.296- What is azeotropic mixture? Ans- When two different liquids at certain composition exhibit a property in which, evaporation results same composition vapor as the liquid, it is azeotropic mixture. Due to this property, separation through simple distillation may not be possible. Q.297- What is the correlation between Kinematics viscosity and absolute viscosity? Ans- Vis(centistokes)=Vis(centipoise)/density gm/cc Q.298- How do you define specific gravity of gases? Ans- Ratio of molecular wt of gas to air or ratio of density of gas to air.

Q.299- In which range will be reynold's no for turbulent flow Ans- above 4000 Q.300- In a glass tube, water surface is concave while mercury surface will be convex, why is it so . Ans- Cohesive forces of water are weaker as compared to adhesive forces with glass, this causes the concave shape, the reverse happens in case of mercury. Q.301- What is the boiling point of propane at atmospheric pressure? Ans- -42 deg C Q.302- In a fired heater, heat transfer from burning fuel to the moving fluid inside the tube takes place by conduction/convection or radiation? Ans- All three- from flame to the metal tube through radiation and convection (in radiation and convection sections of heater), and from tube metal wall through conduction. Q.303- What is the unit of specific heat. Ans- K cal/kg (degC) or Btu / lb (degF) Q.304- What is the definition of specific heat Ans- Heat required to raise the temperature of one unit mass of fluid by 1 degree. Q.305- What BWG stands for in context of heat exchanger tubes? Ans- Burmingham wire gauge Q.305- What is the unit of Reynold's number. Ans- None Q.306- How many no. of molecules will be there in 1 mole of Substance Ans.-6.0223 X 1023 Q.307- What is phase Rule? Ans- P+F=C+2 , C=Component No., P=No. of Phases F= Degree of Freedom Q.308- what is third law of thermodynamics


Ans- "At the absolute zero temp. The entropy of every perfectly crystalline substance become zero This is known as Third law of Thermodynamics Q.309- Name the flow meter, which uses area to measure the flow. Ans- Rota meter Q.310- What is the range of electric current to operate control valve from 0% to 100% Ans- 4 to 20 mili amp. Q.311- What is the unit of light intensity Ans- Lux Q.312- Name the law, which states that the radiation emitted by a body is proportional to the fourth power of the absolute temperature. Ans- Stefan Boltzmann law Q.313- What is the minimum difference required between NPSHr and NPSHa? Ans- 0.6m Q.314- How a pump will behave with two liquids having different specific gravity? Ans- Differential head will remain same but discharge pressure and load will vary. Q.315- What is the principle of corrosion Ans- lectrolytic Unit cell Phenomena Q.316- What is Oxygen scavenger Ans- Hydrazene, to remove oxygen From BFW Q.317- What is the meaning of the term Frigories Ans- Cold Energy Q.318- The maximum attainable velocity of a particle while passing through a fluid in a settling process is known as Ans- Terminal Velocity Q.319- What will happen to furnace status if ID fan trips


Ans- Stack damper wil open Q.320- What will happen to furnace status if both FD fans trip Ans- Furnace will trip. Q.321- What is the function of governor in the rotating Equipments? Ans- Controls rpm Q.322- What is the use of test ring? Ans- For shell tesh Q.323- What is test bench? Ans- Place (platform) where psv, pressure gauge, valves, etc., are tested. Q.324- What is level troll? Ans- Pipe connected to level tapings for Pipe connected to level tapings for instrument provision - a float will be there usually inside this troll which will give signal to level gauge. Q.325- What is thermo well? Ans- Thermo well is used for installation of thermocouples and their protection. Direct contact of fluid with the thermocouple is prevented by this. Q.326- What is Diaphragm compressor. Ans- Diaphragm compressor is - positive displacement or rotating compressor? positive displacement.


1 -- A 1.1 ABSOLUTE PRESSURE: -Pressure measured with respect to zero pressure, as distinct from pressure measured with respect to some standard pressure such as atmospheric pressure. Thus, 2 bar gauge (i.e. atmospheric) is equivalent to 3 bars absolute. (Atmospheric pressure being 1 bar absolute)


1.2 ABSOLUTE TEMPERATURE: - A temperature at which zero is an absolutely free of heat and equivalent to -459 f or -273 c. to convert temperature on Fahrenheit scale to degree absolute, add 459 or 273 respectively. 1.3 ABSORPTION PROCESS: - separations process a weak chemical reaction, by which certain component of a gas are condensed in an absorption liquid (lean oil) with which the gas is brought into contact. The absorption liquid with the absorbed components is called fat oil. The fat oil leaves the bottom of the absorber & is separated from the absorbed component in following fractionators (regenerator) whence the fresh lean oil is returned to the absorber .For example, Adip & Sulfinol Process for the H2S+CO2 Removal. 1.4 ACCELERATOR: - 1- A substance that hastens a reaction, usually by acting as catalyst as in the vulcanization of rubber. 2-Any of several automobile attachment for increasing the speed at will, especially a foot operated throttle. 1.5 ACCUMULATOR: - A vessel for the temporary storage of a gas or liquid, usually used for collecting sufficient material for a continuous charge to some refining process. 1.6 ACETYLENE C2H2:- A highly unsaturated hydrocarbon gas usually made by the action of water on calcium carbide & by pyrolysis of natural gas. It is largely used in industry for cutting & welding metals. Several intermediates have been synthesized from acetylene but a cheaper route via ethylene has now been developed for many of them. 1.7 ACID: - A member of an important and fundamental category of chemical substances characterized by having an available reactive hydrogen & requiring an alkali to neutralize them. Acid solutions usually have a sour, biting and tart test, like vinegar. 1.8 ADDITIVE: - A member of an important and fundamental category of chemical substance characterized by having an available reactive hydrogen and


requiring and alkali to neutralize them. Acid solutions usually have a sour. Biting and tart test, like vinegar. 1.9 ADDITIVE: - A substance added to a product in order to improve its properties. 1.10 ADIP TREATING: - A process for removal of hydrogen sulphide from hydrocarbon gases and LPG by a specific regenerable solvent. Carbon dioxide and, to a certain extent, carbonyl sulphide can be remove at the same time. The solvent employed is an aqueous DIPA solution. 1.11 ADSORPTION PROCESS: - A fractionation process based on the fact that certain highly porous materials preferentially adsorb certain types of molecules on their surface .e.g. PSA units. 1.12 AEROBIC: - Existing in the presence of oxygen. 1.13 AEROMETER: - An instrument for ascertaining the weight or density of air or other gases. 1.14 AGGREGATE: - As applied to non bituminous materials, the inert material, such as sand as sand, gravel. Or broken stone, with which cementing material is mixed to from a mortar or concrete. 1.15 AIR-BLOWN ASPHALT: - Asphalt produced by blowing air through residual oils or similar mineral oil product at moderately elevated temperature. 1.16 AIR HEAT EXCHANGER: - A heat exchanger in which air is used as the cooling medium. 1.17 AIR SWEETENING: - In this process sour gasoline fraction are sweetened by dissolving air in the hydrocarbon phase followed by contacting with a strong Noah aqueous solution. The reaction products formed are disulphide which dissolves in the sweetened gasoline and water remaining in the aqueous phase. 1.18 ALCOHOLS: - A class of organic compound containing oxygen (as a hydroxyl) of which ethyl alcohol (the alcohol of potable spirits& wines) is the best known. They can react with acid & form esters. They are largely used as solvents. 1.19 ALGAE: - Plants of the group comprising practically all seaweed and allied freshwater or nonaquatic forms, such as ponds scum s stonewort, ECT. 1.20 ALIPHATIC HYDROCARBONS: - Hydrocarbon in which the carbon atoms are arranged in open chain, which may be branched. The term includes paraffins


1.22 1.23 1.24 1.25




1.29 1.30


and olefins and provides a distinction from aromatics and naphthenes which have at least same of their carbon atoms arranged in close rings. ALKALI:-In chemistry any substand having marked basic property .in its restricted and common sense, the term is a pplied only to hydroxides of ammonium lithium, potassium, and sodium. They are soluble in water; they have the power of neutralizing acids and forming salts with them and of turning red litmus blue. In more general sense, the term is also applied to the hydroxides of the so-called alkaline earth metals barium, calcium, and, strontium. ALKALITEST:-a test of determine the presence or absence of free alkali in finished oils after chemical purification. ALKALINE:-having the properties of analkali, opposite to acidic. ALKALINITY:-the amount of free alkali in any substance. ALKATION:-a reaction in which a straight-chain or branched-chain hydrocarbon group, which is called an alkali group or radical, is united with either an aromatic molecule or a branched-chinhydrocarbon.used for detergent or petroleum manufacture. Usually catalyses by hydrofluoric or sulphuricacid. ALLOY:-a substance composed of two or more metals or of a metal and a nonmetal, intimately united. Usually by being fused together and dissolved in each other when molten. AMERICAN PETROLEUM INSTITUTE:-an association incorporated in the United States. Having as its object the study of the arts science connected with the petroleum industry in all its branches and the fostering of foreign and domestic trade in American petroleum products. American society for testing materials: - An association incorporated in the United States for promoting knowledge of the properties of engineering materials and for standardizing specifications and methods of testing. Amine:- Hydrocarbon with attached Ammonia group having absorbent properties, making its useful in treatment processes.(ADIP,SULFINOL) AMMONIA NH3:- Ammonia is manufactured by the direct combination of hydrogen and nitrogen under pressure over a catalyst. Anhydrous ammonia is mainly used for the manufacture nitrogenous fertilizers, but is used at NZRC for Ph control in various processes. A colorless, gaseous compound, NH3 is of extremely pungent smell and test and is very soluble in water. ANAEROBIC :- Existing in an oxygen free condition


1.32 ANALYSIS: - The process of determining the composition of a substance by chemical or physical method. 1.33 ANHYDROUS: - Free of water. 1.34 ANILINE POINT:-The minimum temperature for complete miscibility of equal volumes of the chemical aniline and a petroleum product. In conjutiction with API gravity the aniline point may be used to calculate the net heat or combustion of aviation fuels or the diesel index of diesel fuels. The lower temperature at wich an oil product is completely miscible with amine in a 1:1 volumetric ratio. 1.35 ANNEALING: - Heating and slowly cooling to increase the ductility or remove internal stresses, as of metal of glass. 1.36 ANTI-FOAM AGENT: - An additive used for controlling foam. Antifoam agent is used in some lubricating oils. At NZRC, used as additives in ADIP, Sulphinol and BDU units. 1.37 ANTI-KNOCK:- An adjective signifying resistance to detonation (pinking) in spark-ignited internal combustion engines. Anti knock value is measured in terms of octane number of gasoline engines and of cetane number for diesel fuels. 1.38 ANTI-KNOCK AGENT: - A chemical compound such as tetra methyl-lead which, when added in small amounts to the fuel charge of an internalcombustion engine, tends to lessen knocking. 1.39 ANTIOXIDANT: - A chemical added to gasoline, lubricating oil.etc to inhibit oxidation. 1.40 ANTI-STATIC ADDITIVE: - An additive for reducing static properties, notably in kerosene. 1.41 API GRAVITY: - In the USA an arbitrary scale known as the API degree is used for reporting the gravity of a petroleum product. The degree API is related to the specific gravity scale (15C/15C) by the formula: Degree API=141.5 / Sp Gr. 15C/15C = 1.42 AROMATICS BLEND: - A mixture made by the addition of component or stock essentially aromatic in nature to impart to the mixture some property of the aromatic. 1.43 AROMATICS: - A group of hydrocarbons characterized by their having at least one ring structure of six carbon atoms, each of the latter having one valency outside the ring. If these valencies are occupied by hydrogen atoms, hydrocarbon radicals, or inorganic groups one speak of condensed aromatics. These hydrocarbons are called aromatics because many of their

1.44 1.45 1.46



1.49 1.50


derivatives have an aromatic odour. They are of relatively high specific gravity and process good solvent properties. Certain aromatics have valuable anti-knock characteristics. Typical aromatics are benzene, toluene, xylene, phenol (all mono aromatics) and naphthalene (a di aromatic). Aromatics can cause smoke and freeze point problems in Kerosene. ASH: - The solid residue left when Combustible material is thoroughly burned. ASH CONTENT: - The percent by weight of residue left after combustion of a sample of fuel oil or other petroleum oil. ASPHALT :- This term have several meanings: 01. It refers to a mixture of bitumen and material aggregate, as prepared for the construction of roads or for other purposes. 02. In the United States it refers to the product which is known as bitumen elsewhere. Black to dark-brown solid or semisolid cementitious material which gradually liquefies when heated and in which the predominating constituents are bitumens. These occur in the solid or semisolid from in nature; are obtainable by refining petroleum: or are combinations with one another or with petroleum or derivatives thereof. 03. At NZRC-very heavy fuel oil produced as bottom product from BDU (short residue with DA O removed) ASPHALTENES: - Polyaromatics constituents of asphaltoc bitumen characterized by being insoluble in aromatic-free low boiling petroleum spirit, but soluble in carbon disulphide. ASPHALTIC BASE CRUDE OILS: - Crude oils which contain little or no paraffin wax but usually contain asphaltic matter. Now often referred to as naphthenes base crude oils. ASPHALTIC BITUMEN: - The full name for bitumen adopted by the permanent International Association of Road Congresses. ASPIRATOR :- An apparatus which serves to create a partial vacuum through pumping a jet of water , steam, or some other fluid or gas past an orifice opening out of the chamber in which the vacuum is to be produced. ASSOCIATED NATURAL GAS: - Natural gas associated with oil accumulations by being dissolved in the oil under the reservoir temperatures and pressure (solution gas) and often also be forming a gas cap of free gas above the oil (gas cap gas).


1.52 ASTM DISTILLATION: - Any distillation made in accordance with an ASTM distillation procedure; and, especially, a distillation test made on such products as gasoline and kerosene to determine the initial and final boiling points and the boiling range. 1.53 ASTM GUM TEST :01. An analytical method for determining the amount of existing gum in a gasoline by evaporating a sample from a glass dish on an elevated temperature bath with the aid of circulating air. 02. Any gum test carried out in accordance with an ASTM gum test procedure. 1.54 ASTM MELTING POINT: - The temperature at which wax first shows a minimum rate of temperature change, also known as the English melting point. 1.55 ATMOSPHERIC PRESSURE:1-The pressure of air 2-More specifically the pressure of the air 3-As standard the pressure at which the mercury barometer stands at 760mm, or 30in (equivalent to approx 14.7 psi) 1.56 ATOM:- The smallest complete particle of an element which can be obtained yet retain all physical and chemical properties of the element .According to the present theory , the atom consists of a nucleus of neutrons and positively charged protons , surrounded by negatively charged particle called electrons. 1.57 ATOMIS To: - divide a liquid into extremely minute droplets, either by impact with a jet of steam or compressed air, or by passing through some mechanical device. 1.58 ATTEMPERATOR: - See desuperheater. 1.59 ATTRITION:-The act of wearing out by rubbing or grinding, or the state of being so worn or ground. Granular catalysts or absorbents may suffer such attrition as a result of movement. 1.60 AUTO IGNITION POINT: - The temperature at which the vapour given off by sample will ignite in air with out any ignition source. 1.61 AVERAGE BOILING POINT :- Unless otherwise indicated , the um of the ASTM distillation temperatures in steps of 10 degree centigrade from the

1.62 1.63 1.64 1.65 1.66


10-percent point to the 90- percent point , inclusive , divided by 9. Some time half the initial and half the maximum distillation temperature are also added, and the sum them divided by 10. AVGAS: - High octane aviation gasoline for piston type engine. Not made by NZRC. AVIATION GASOLINE: - Any of the special grades of gasoline suitable for use in certain aeroplane engines. Not made by NZRC. AVTAG: - Wide range aviation turbine fuel, gasoline type, about identical to the JP 4 type fuel. Not made by NZRC. AVTUR :- Kerosene type aviation turbine fuel, (Jet A 1) AZEOTROPE :- Two (or more) components are said to form an azeotrope if there is mixture of those components which has no boiling range but whose boiling point and dew point are the same. AZEOTROPIC DISTILLATION: - A distillation process characterized by the fact that the relative position of the components boiling points is influenced by the addition of a compound. This selectively forms an azeotrope with one or a group of the components. The added compound is called the azeotrope former. E.g. furfural, used in the extraction of aromatics. Forms an azeotrope with water. B

2.01 BACK PRESSURE:1. The pressure on the outlet or downstream side of a flowing system 2 In an engine, the pressure which acts adversely against the piston, causing loss of power 2.02 BAFFLE: - A partial restriction, generally a plate, located so as to change direction, guide the flow, or promotes mixing within the equipment in which it is installed. 2.03 BALANCED DRAUGHT: - A method of furnace air control using both forced and induced draught fans. 2.04 BAR OVER: -To manually or mechanically rotate a compressor or turbine to ensure free movement or enable even heating/ cooling.

2.05 BAROMETER: - An instrument employed to determine atmospheric pressure. 2.06 BAROMETRIC CONDENCER: - A device for condensing steam by direct contact with water. It produced a partial vacuum in refinery equipment such as vacuum distillation plant. 2.07 BAROMETRIC LEG: - Water filled tube for sealing vacuum system 2.08 BARREL: - A standard method of crude oil quantities equivalent to 35 imperial gallons. 42 gallons or 159 liters. 2.09 BASIC SEDIMENT AND WATER: - A heavy material which collect in bottom of storage tanks, usually composed of oil, water, and foreign matter. Also called bottoms, bottom settling etc. It is measured in all incoming feedstock. 2.10 BATCH: - Any quantity of material handled or considered as a unit in processing. 2.11 BATCH PROCESS:- Any process in which a quantity of material is handled or considered as a unit. Such process involve intermittent as contrasted to continuous operation. 2.12 BATTERY:-A series of individual items of refinery equipment operated as a unit. 2.13 BATTERY LIMIT: - A term used when a unit or a battery is to be built in refinery by an outside contractor or construction company. It specifies the area within which the contractor shall supply all service, and defines the limits beyond which this shall be done by the refinery. Also define plant interface limits. 2.14 BEARING:-A support for holding a shaft in correct position. Examples journal bearing to confined radial motion, thrust bearing to control axial movement, and rolling element bearing which are used in both services. 2.15 BENZENE:- The parent compound of aromatic hydrocarbon series. It is used in the manufacture of a large number of chemical including phenol, styrene, detergent alkylate & insecticides & is a major component of platformet.

2.16 BIOCHEMICAL OXYGEN DEMAND:- Important water test that show the amount of bio-degradable matter in the water. Amount of oxygen required for aerobic organism for breakdown of organic matter in water over a 5 day period. 2.17 BIODEGRADATION: - Degradation of solid materials by bacterial consumption 2.18 BIOTREATER:-Process for biological degradation of effluent water. 2.19 BITUMEN:-A non-crystalline solid or semi solid cementitious material derived from petroleum consisting essential of compounds composed predominantly of hydrogen & carbon with some oxygen & sulphur , its gradually softens when heated. Bitumen s is black or brown in colour. They may occur naturally or may be made as end products from the distillation of, or as extracts from selected petroleum oil. 2.20 BLACK PRODUCTS: - Fuel oil, bitumen, & residues. 2.21 BLANK: - See spade. 2.22 BLEEDING: - Divert or release a small portion of the material contained in a line or vessel, usually by opening a valve slightly. 2.23 BLEND: - Any mixture prepared for a special purpose, e g, Te products of a refinery are blended to suit market requirement. 2.24 BLENDED FUEL OIL: - A mixture of residual and distillate fuel oil. 2.25 BLENDING: - Mixing of the various components in the preparation of a product of required properties. 2.26 BLENDING STOCK: - Any of the stocks used to make commercial gasoline. These include straight-run gasoline, cracked gasoline, & synfuel among others. 2.27 BLENDING VALUE(ANTI-KNOCK):- Some anti-knock blending agents possess the property of apparently increase the rated octane number of certain

gasoline base stocks to higher octane number then there own value in term of octane numbers. This property is known as the blending value. 2.28 BLOCK VALVE: - A valve used for isolation of equipment. 2.29 BLOCKED OPERATION: - The use of single process unit alternately in more then one operation. 2.30 BLOW BACK: - A system in which a liquid or gas is continuously bled through the lead lines of an instrument meter into the main line. This prevents the main line fluid from coming in contact with the meter body, thus eliminating vaporization, corrosion or plugging. 2.31 BLOW-BY:- In internal-combustion engines, the escape of combustion gases or unburned fuel from the combustion chamber past the pistons and ring into the crankcase during the power stroke or the compression stroke. 2.32 BLOWDOWN:- The act of flushing or cleaning of pressurized equipment by blowing to a drain (or similar) term is often used by boiler men, continues blow down indicating blow down from the steam drum or scum level, & intermittent blow down from the bottom header of a boiler. 2.33 BLOWER: - Usually an enclosed fan used in a forced / induced/balanced draught furnace provides the combustion air. 2.34 BLON BITUMEN: - A type of bitumen prepared by the oxidation of short residues normally by blowing air at an elevated temperature. 2.35 BLUE SMOKE: - A blue exhaust smoke from a diesel engine indicating that only a part of the fuel is being burned, also called cold smoke. 2.36 BOILING POINT (AT A GIVEN PRESSURE):- The temperature at which a liquid, contained in a closed vessel under a given pressure, will form a first bubble of vapour on the addition of heat. Further heating of the liquid at its boiling points results in evaporation of part or all of the liquid. 2.37 BOILING RANGE: - Petroleum products (which are mixture of many compounds, each having a different boiling point) do not have a simple

boiling point but have a boiling range instead the temperature range from boiling point to dew point. 2.38 BOMB: - A small pressure vessel, such as used for taking samples of HP gases & LPG. 2.39 BOND: 01) Epically, a unit link between atoms; in graphic chemical formulas, it is often represented by a short line or dash. 02) Electrically, a common grounding system, bonding wires used between the fuel tanker and petrol station ground tank or air port delivery system and air craft. 2.40 BOOSTER STATION: - An auxiliary station consisting of suitable storage tanks, motive power & pumps for pumping oil through pipeline. 2.41 BOTTLED GAS: - Ordinarily, butane or propane or butane-propane mixture, liquefied & bottled under pressure for domestic used. 2.42 BOTTOMS: - The bottom product from a distillation of petroleum, also the liquid layer left in a tank or similar container after draining to the level of the pump suction 2.43 BOX-IN: - To isolate a peace of equipment, usually by block valve. 2.44 BOX-UP: - The act of closing up a piece of refinery equipment following construction, maintenance, inspection ECT. 2.45BRAKE HORSEPOWER: - The horsepower delivered by an engine to a brake or dynamometer. It is less then the indicated horsepower by the amount lost in transmission bearing, gear teeth, belts, ECT. 2.46 BREAKER POINT:-The point of contact actuated by a cam to break the primary circuit in the ignition system & thereby causes a current surge in the secondary circuit which produces the spark.


2.47 BREATHING:- When a storage tank containing volatile products is heated by solar radiation, some of the liquid contents evaporate. The excess vapour thus formed is blown out to the atmosphere. On cooling the less volatile components of the vapour contents condense & a slight vacuum is created, causing air from outside to be sucked in to the tank. This double action is referred to as breathing of the tank. The movement of gas (oil vapours or air) in & out of the vent line of the storage tank as a result of alternate heating or cooling. 2.48 BRINE: - Water which is nearly saturated with salt. 2.49 BRITISH THERMAL UNIT (BTU):- The quantity of heat required to raise the temperature of 1 lb of water through 1 F.1.000Btu=252kcal. 2.50 BRITOLITE: - A drying solvent used by BP. Manufactured from hydro cracked Naphtha & Tops. 2.51 BUFFER:1- A vessel for temporary storage of liquid (buffer drum). 2- A chemical used to maintain another within set limit of PH. 3- A device to polish the 4- An old navel name for a person in-charge of the deck of the ship. 2.52 BUG COUNT: - Microscopic estimation of active bacteria in a sample. 2.53 BULK CRUSHING STRENGTH: - Test to determine the mechanical strength of a catalyst. 2.54 BULK DENSITY: - The weight of solid particles which can be held by a container of known dimensions compared to the weight of the water which can be held by the same container. 2.55 BUND WALL: - See fire wall. 2.56 BUNKER FUEL: - Any fuel oil or diesel fuel taken in to the bunkers of ships.

2.57 BURNING OIL:-An illuminating oil, such as kerosene, mineral seal oil etc. suitable in a wick lamp. 2.58 BUTANE C4H10:- Commercial butane is a mixture of two gaseous paraffins, normal butane & isobutene. When blended in to gasoline in small quantities it improves volatility & octane number. Butane can be stored under pressure as a liquid as atmospheric temperature (bottled gas) & it is widely used for cooking & domestic heating. 2.59 BUTANE DE-ASPHALTING:- A solvent extraction process whereby a short residue is split into components having low (D.A.O.) & high (asphalt) asphaltic content by contact with liquid butane. 2.60 BYPRODUCT: - A secondary or additional product not a primary importance (sulphur). 3 C

3.01 C1 C2 C3 C4 C5:- A common way of representing fractions containing of hydrocarbons of 1 2 3 4 or 5 carbon atoms, respectively, without reference to hydrocarbon type. 3.02 CALIBRATION: - The determination of fixed reference points on the scale of any instrument by comparison with a known standard & the subsequent subdivision or graduation of the scale to enable measurements in definite unit to be made with it. Also the process of measuring or calculating the volumetric contents or capacity of a receptacle 3.03 CALMING SECTION TRAYS: - Fractionating trays characterized by the presence of calming section on the tray of the grid, sieve, or valve variety (hence the names: cs grid tray, cs sieve tray, & cs valve tray). Calming section is actually down comers, carefully designed & distributed over the tray area so as to ensure the best distribution of liquid.


3.04 CALORIE: - The amount of heat required raising the temperature of 1 gram of water through 1. 0c (from 14.5.0c to 15.5 0c). In calculation 3.05 CALORIFIC VALUE: - The calorific value of combustible material is the quantity of heat produced by complete combustion of unit weight of the material. the unit in which the calorific value is usually given are 1- calories per gm and 2- British 1 calories per gm =1.8btu per lb . 3.06 CANDLEPOWER: - The illuminating power of a standard candle employed as a unit for determining the illuminating quality of kerosene and other illuminants. One international candle or one American candle equals 1.11 Hefner candle. 3.07 CAPILLARITY:- That physical action by which the surface of a liquid, where it is in contact with a non horizontal solid surface (as in vertical capillary tube ) , is elevated above or depressed below the level of liquid . Its magnitude is determined by the interfacial tensions involved. 3.08 CARBON: - A non metallic element existing in diamonds, graphite and numerous amorphous forms, combined as carbon dioxide carbonates, and in all living thing. Carbon is unique in forming an almost infinite number of compounds (it is present in all organic compound. 3.09 CARBON (FIXED CARBON):- In the case of coal, coke and bituminous material, the solid residue other than ash contained by destructive distillation 3.10 CARBONDEPOSIT: - Engine deposits containing soot from over-rich fuel mixture and the carbon residue and tars from decomposed lubricating oil. Road dust, metal partials, gum and tarry substances also from a part of such deposits. 3.11CARBON DIOXIDE: - A heavy, colorless gas, CO2, which will not support combustion. Dissolved in water, it forms carbonic acid. It is exhaled by lungpossessing animals as a waste gas, but is inhaled by certain plants which absorb its carbon and release it oxygen as a waste gas.

3.12 CARBON MONOXIDE: - A colourless, odorless, CO; a product resulting from the incomplete combustion of carbon. It is very poisonous. 3.13 CARBURETTOR: - A device for metering the correct mixture of air and gasoline to an internal-combustion engine. 3.14 CARRYOVER: - Relatively nonvolatile contaminating material which is carried over by the overhead effluent from a fractionating column, absorber, or reaction vessel. It may be carried as liquid droplets or finely divided solids suspended in gas, a vapour, or a discrete liquid. 3.15 CASCADE TRAY: - A fractionating device consisting of a series of parallel troughs arranged in stair-step fashion. Liquid from the tray above enters the uppermost trough. Liquid thrown from this thrown by vapour rising from the tray below impinges against a plate and a perforated baffle. Liquid passing through the baffle enters the next lower of the troughs. 3.16 CATALYSIS: - The alteration of the rate of a chemical reaction by the presence of a foreign substance (catalyst) that remains unchanged at the end of the reaction. 3.17 CATALYST: - In technology this word means a substance added to a system of reactants which will accelerate the desired reactions, while emerging virtually unaltered from the process. The catalyst allows the reaction to take place at a temperature at which the uncatalyzed reaction would proceed too slowly for partial purposes. Used extensively in secondary process. 3.18 CATALYST POISON: - Generally, coverage of the catalyst surface with nonreactants.If a large fraction of the catalyst surface is covered selectively by any one strongly adsorbed chemical, the catalytic reaction will be drastically reduced in rate. This circumstance is called poisoning and selfpoisoning can result when one reactant of product is much more strongly adsorbed than another reactant. May be reversible, but can destroy entire catalyst inventory.


3.19 CATALICK PROCESS:-Any process which employs catalysis. E.g. hydro cracking, plat forming and hydrotreting. 3.20 CATALYTIC REFORMING: - Process of changing the molecular structure of the component of straight-run gasoline fraction by subjecting the gasoline to thermal treatment in the presence of catalyst (for example platinum). By this process the anti-nock performance of the gasoline improved. 3.21 CATHODIC PROTECTION: - Method of protecting tank, ship, pipeline & jetties against corrosion. By reversing the electric current which flow away from the corroding metal, a corrosion process can be arrested. 3.22 CAUSTIC SODA: - The name used in industry for sodium hydroxide (Noah) on account of its property of corroding the skin. It is strongly alkaline. Used extensively in water treatment or pH control in process unit. 3.23 CENTRIGRADE (CELSIUS) SCALE: - A thermometer scale on which the interval between the freezing point & the boiling point of water is divided in to hundred parts or degree centigrade, so that 0c corresponds to 32f & 100 0c to 212f. Also called Celsius after Anders Celsius who first described it. 3.24 CENTIPOISE, CENTISTOKES: - A centipoises (cp) is 1/100th of poise (p) which is the fundamental unit of dynamic viscosity in the centimeter-gram-second system of unit. The viscosity of water at 20 0c approximately 1 cp. The centistokes (cs) is 1/100th of a stoke (s) which is the fundamental unit of kinematics viscosity in that system. The two c viscosity are related by the density, I, e, number of centistokes= number of centipoises divided by liquid density (in g/cm2). 3.25 CENTRIFUGAL COMPRESSURE: - A machine in which pressure is built by mean of rotating fan or blades. 3.26 CENTRIFUGAL PUMP: - A pump that derives its pressure increase from the centrifugal force generated when the impeller throws the liquid outwards at high speed.


3.27 CENTIFUGE: - A whirling instrument for separating liquids & solid or liquid of different sp. gr by use of centrifugal force. 3.28 CERAMIC BALLS: - Balls of chemically inert ceramic, used as filler & support in reactors ect. 3.29 CETENE NUMBER: - The cetane number of a diesel fuel is a number of equal to the percentage by volume of cetane in a mixture with alph-methylnaphthalene having the same ignition quality as the fuel under test. 3.30 CFR ENGINE: - A standard single cylinder variable compression engine developed by the Co-Op Fuel Research Council, to determine the anti knocks value of motor gasoline or the ignition quality of diesel fuels. 3.31CHANNELING:- Non uniform flow of process fluid through a reactor bed. 3.32 CHARCTERISATION: - Identifying a feed or product by its properties e.g. distillation carbon-hydrogen reaction density etc. 3.33CHAR VALUE: - In the 24 hour kerosene burning test the amount of char formed on the wick under prescribes condition is measured & reported as mg/kg. 3.34CHECK VALVE (NONE RETURN VALVE):- A automatic valve which permits fluids to pass in one direction but close when the fluid attept to pass in the opposite direction. 3.35 CHEMICAL OXIGEN DEMAND: - Total amount of oxygen needed for oxidation of all organic matter in water to Co2 & H2O. 3.36 CHLORINATION:- A chemical reaction in which chlorine react with hydrocarbon & one or more of the hydrogen atoms are replaced by atoms of chlorine, or chlorine reacts with an unsaturated hydrocarbon & two chlorine atoms (one molecule) are added to the double bond. 3.37 CHROMOMETER: - See colorimeter.


3.38 CLADDING: - A homogeneous bonded or resistance-welded metallic liner applied to a base metal such as carbon steel. Used in lines, vessels & heat exchanger equipment to reduce corrosion & increase service life. Also called lining. 3.39 CLAUSE PROCESS: - Process for the manufacture of sulphur from H2s comprising oxidation of the part of the H2s to So2 in a thermal reaction stage, followed by catalytic reaction of the remaining H2s with the So2 formed to give sulphur. 3.40 CLEAR GASOLINE:- A gasoline which is free anti-knock additives such as tetraethyi - iead in making comparative eongine tests between leaded and unleaded gasoline is sometimes referred to as straight gasoline base ,base fuel , or as gasoline neat . 3.41 CLOUD POINT: The temperature at which a fuel, when cooled, begins to congeal and present a cloudy appearance owing to the formation of minute crystals of wax. 3.42 COAGULATION: The precipitation from solution or suspension of fine particles which tend to unite in clots or curds 3.43 COALESCER: A vessel packed with steel wool, glass wool, poly propylene wool or felt used to remove fine droplets of treating liquids or water from a petroleum product. 3.44 COASTAL TANKER Ltd (CTL): Accompany responsible for coastal tanker movement in NZ 3.45 COEFFICIENT OF EXPANSION: The ratio of the increase of length area, or volume of a body for a given rise in temperature (usually 1 f) to the original length, area, or volume of the body. 3.46 COFFERDAMS: The empty spaces fore and aft in a tanker, which traverse the whole breath of the vessel and isolate the cargo tanks from the rest of the ship (fire protection)

3.47 COKE: Hard carbon deposit, usually formed by the unintentional thermal cracking of heavy residues. 3.48 COKE DRUM: A vessel in which coke is formed or collected and cut off from the process for cleaning. 3.49 COLD FILTER PLUGGING POINT: The highest temperature at which a fuel ceases to flow through a test filter. 3.50 COLORIMETER: an instrument for determining the colour of oil product by measuring the percentage transmission of monochromatic light liquid 3.51 COMBINED FEED RATIO (CFR): The ratio of the 2nd to 1st stage feed on the Hydro cracker. 3.52 COMBUSTION: The process of burning; rapid caused by the union of oxygen of the air with a material. 3.53 COMBUSTION CHAMBER; The space in which the process of burning takes place e.g. in a jet engine. 3.54 COMPATABILITY: Ability of additives or products mix together without separation or reaction. 3.53 COMPOUND:- A substance formed by the combination of two or more ingredient in definite proportion by weight, & possessing physical & chemical properties entirely different from those of the ingredient e. g. table salt paint. 3.56 COMPRESSION:- In general the act of increasing the pressure of gas or vapour. It is usually attended by reduction in volume. 3.57 COMPRESSION IGNITION:- The combustion which takes place when fuel are injected in a fine spray into the hot compressed air (500 c) in the cylinder of a diesel(compression ignition) ENGINE. The heating of the air is due to its rapid compression by the piston.


3.58 COMPRESSION RATIO:- The ratio of cylinder volume when the piston of the an engine is at the crank end of the cylinder , to the volume when the piston is at the head end. 3.59 COMPRESSOR: - A device which draws in air or other gases, compress it at a high pressure. 3.60 CONDENSATE: - Liquid hydrocarbon which is some time produced together with natural gas. In general the liquid that is formed when a vapour cool. 3.61 condensations;-The transfer of a material from the vapour phase into the liquid phase, for example by the withdrawal of heat. 3.62 condenser:-a special type of heat exchanger for the removal of the heat from the top of a fractionating column. 3.63 condenser box;-a large box shaped structure in which the condenser, which may consist of coil or tube, is submerged in a heat-absorbing medium, usually water 3.64 conductivity:-a materials ability to conduct an electrical charge. Important in water treatment (as an indication of impurities) and some hydrocarbons (static risk). 3.65 CONGEAL: - To changes from a liquid to a semi solid or solid state. 3.66 CONTINUOUS CATALIST REGENERATOR: - See fluid bed operation 3.67 CONTINUOUS DISTILLATION: - An operation in which the steps of charging, heating vaporization, fractionation and collection of products are performed continuously rather than in a batch wise manner. The unit employed is known as a continuous still. 3.68 CNTROL LOOP:-Combination of control signal, feedback signal and instrumental response that characterizes an automatic control system. 3.69 CONTROLLER:-The actual control instrument is the controller. However the word is often used in reference to the control valves that act on the process.

3.70 CONVECTION:-THE FLOW OF HEAT THROUGH LIQUID BY ACTUAL MIXING OF THE FLUIDS. 3.71 CONVECTION SECTION:-That portion of the furnace in which tubes receives heat by convection from the flue gases (contact with radiant section). 3.72 CONVENTIONAL PRODUCTS:-Petroleum products which are manufactured from crude oil by physical separation process. (See primary process). 3.73 CONVERSION PROCESSES:-Manufacturing processes which involve a charge in the structure of the hydrocarbons (see secondary process) 3.74 COOLER:-A heat exchanger whose primary purpose is to reduce the temperature of one of the passing fluids. 3.75 COOLING TOWER:-A unit or structure, for the purpose of cooling by evaporation. 3.76 COPPER STRIP CORROSION: - A qualitative method of determining the corrosivity of a product by its effect on small strip of polished copper suspended or placed in product. One of the kerosene quality tests. 3.77 CORRECTED ENERGY AND LOSS (CEL):-Yard stick used for monitoring refinery efficiencies 3.78 CORROSION: - The gradual eating away of metallic surface as the result of chemical action such as oxidation. It is caused by corrosive agent such as acid. 3.79 COUNTER CURRENT FLOW:-A system in which one fluid flows in one direction and an other fluid flows in opposite direction. 3.80 CRACKING:-Process where by the large molecules of heavier oils are converted in to smaller molecules of a gasoline type. When it is brought by heat alone, the process is known as thermal cracking. If catalyst is also used the process is referred to as catalytic cracking (in speech generally abbreviated to cat. Cracking) or Hydro cracking if the process is conducted

over special catalyst in a hydrogen atmosphere. Other processes include visbreaking and hycon. 3.81 CREDITORS: - Account payable. 3.82 CREEP Change in the micro structure of a metal. The continuous stretching which occurs when metal is under stress or pressure, especially apparent when at high temperature. 3.83 CRITERIA REFERENCED INSTRUCTION:-Method of instruction based on meeting specified criteria. 3.84 CRITICAL PRESSURE The pressure necessary to condensate a gas at the critical temperature. 3.85 CRITICAL TEMPERATURE: - The maximum temperature at which a gas can be liquefied by pressure (critical pressure), above this temperature the gas can not be liquefied, no matter what pressure is applied. 3.86 CRITICAL VELOCITY: - The rate of flow in a pipe at which streamline flow changes in to turbulent flow. 3.87 CRUDE NAPTHA: - Light distillate mad in the fractionation of crude oil. 3.88 CRUDE OIL TYPES: - See appropriate sub-heading for description. Paraffin-base crude oil Asphaltic-base crude oil Mixed-base crude oil. 3.89 CRUDE WAX: - Crude wax also called petroleum wax or slack wax, is an unrefined mixture of high melting hydrocarbon. Mainly of the normal straight-chain type, still containing a fairly high percentage of oil. It is obtained by filtration (as such or after addition of a solvent) from high boiling distillates or residual oil. Slack wax is primarily obtained as by-product in the


manufacture of lubricating oils. The crude wax made from distillate oils is refined to make a range of microcrycrystalline waxes. 3.90 CRYSTALISATION: - A fractionation process based on the difference in freezing point of the various constituents of the mixture to be fractionated. The process is, for example, used in the separation of paraffins from the lube oil (de-waxing). 3.91 CUSTODY TRANSFER TANK: - Tank which receive products from external sources or deliver products to external sources. 3.92 CURRENT RATE: CURRENT assets----Current Liabilities.

3.93 CUT: - Refinery term for a fraction obtained direct from fractionation unit. Several cuts can be blended for the manufacture of a certain product. 3.94 CUT POINT: - (between two process stream) the boiling point at atmospheric pressure of the component distributed in equal percentage in both process streams. 3.95 CYCLISATION:- A reaction for example platinum-catalyzed, by which a straight chain paraffin hydrocarbon is converted in to a napthene & then into a aromatic. The process of changing an open-chain hydrocarbon structure to a closed ring (hexane to benzene). Accompanied by production of hydrogen. 3.96 CYCLONE SEPARATOR: - A chemical vessel provided with tangential inlet for gas stream containing finely divided solids or liquid, droplets, normally designed with a centrally located overhead withdrawal line. Powdered solids or cingulated liquids are separated by centrifugal force & pass downward along the incline 9conical) to a centrally located outlet. In catalytic cracking a pipe known as dip leg, is connected to this bottom outlet & serves to convey the solid back to the catalyst bed. 4 D


4.1 DAMPER: - Usually a flap or shutter to control air flow in a furnace (may be in the supply & or the fuel ducting). 4.2 DECATIVATION: - Reduction in catalyst activity by poisoning or coating of catalyst particles by contaminants, or by a change in the physical structure of the catalyst particles. 4.3 DEADWEIGHT:-The amount of cargo, stores & fuel which a vessel carries when loaded to the appropriate draught allowed by law. The difference between deadweight & displacement is the actual weight of the vessel. 4.4 DEARATOR: - Device for the steam stripping O2 & other gases from boiler feed water. 4.5 DEBTORS: - Account receivable. 4.6 DECOMPOSITION: - The breaking up of compound into smaller chemical forms through the application of heat, change in other physical condition, or introduction of other chemical bodies. 4.7 DEFERRED TAXATION:- Provision for tax payable in the future, but deferrer in the current year because of timing difference between the company account & the accounts required by the inland revenue department. 4.8 DEHYDRATION:- The removal of water from crude oil, from gas produced in association with oil, or from gas from gas-condensate wells. 4.9 DEHYDROGENATION:-A reaction process in which hydrogen atoms is eliminated from a molecule. 4.10 DEHYDROCYCLISATION: - Any process involving both dehydrogenation & cyclisation reaction. 4.11 DEIONIZED WATER: - Water that has had all the free ions removed by ionexchange, also called demineralised water. 4.12 DEISOLATION: - The opposite of isolation. To energies a piece of equipment.


4.13 DEMISTER: - Any device used to stop passage of liquid droplet. A demister section in vacuum column is to stop the asphaltenes from the residue getting in to the waxy distillate. 4.14 DEMULSIFIER: - An additive used to prevent the formation of an emulsionapplicable in crude/water emulsions in desolater. 4.15 DEMURRAGE: - Amount payable to ship owner for failure to lode or discharge ship within time allowed. 4.16 DENITRIFICATION: - Removal of nitrogen compound on feedstock by hydrogenation. N2+3H2=2NH3 4.17 DENSE BED LOADING: - Catalyst loading system of raining the catalyst on to the bed which achieves a higher loaded density then sock loading. 4.18 DESALTING: - A process to remove inorganic salt & other impurities from crude oil by mixing with water followed settling in an electrostatic field. 4.19 DEOXIGENATION: - Removal of oxygen on feedstock by hydrogenation. O2+2H2=2H2O 4.20 DESULPHURISATION: - See Hydrodesulphurization; the removal of sulphur or sulphur compound from charge stock. 4.21 DESUPERHEATER: Equipment used to reduce the temperature of superheated steam. 4.22 DETERGENCY:-The ability of a substance to clean and to wash away undesirable substance. Detergents may be either oil- soluble or water Soluble. Soap and synthetic detergents help to wet, disperse, and deflocculate solide particles. Oil-soluble detergents are used in motor oils to disperse, loosen, & remove carbon, dirt, etc from interior surfaces of internal-combustion e gins. 4.23 DETERGENT OIL:-A lubricating oil possessing special slude-dispersing properties for use in internal -combustion engines these properties are usually conferred on the oil by the incorporation of special additives.

Detergent oils hold sludge particles in suspension and thus promote engine cleanliness. 4.24 DETONATION: - Detonation or knocking is the sharp metallic sound emitting from the cylinders of spark- ignition engines under certain condition. It occurs when condition in a cylinder are such that self ignition of an unburnt mixture of fuel & air takes place. It reduces power output. 4.25 DEW POINT (at a given pressure):- The temperature at which a vapour, contained in a closed vessel under the given pressure, will form a first drop of liquid on the subtraction of heat. Further cooling of the vapour at its due point results in condensation of part or all of the vapour as the liquid. The due point of normal gasoline is approximately the same as the temperature at which 70%by volume distils over in the ASTM distillation test. The due point of a pure compound is the same as its boiling points. 4.26 DEWAXING: - The process of removing paraffin wax from lubricating oils. 4.27 DIESEL ENGINE: - As internal-combustion engine in which air drawn in by the suction stroke is so highly compressed that the heat generated ignites the fuel, which automatically sprayed into the cylinder under high pressure. 4.28 DIESEL FUEL: - A general term covering oils used as fuel in diesel & other compression ignition engines. 4.29 DIESEL INDEX: - A measure of the ignition quality of a diesel fuel; the index is calculated from a formula involving the gravity of the fuel & its aniline point (API gravity times the aniline point (determining by ASTMD611-71T) divide by 100.) 4.30 DIFLOROETHANE: - A catalyst promoter used on the hydro-cracker. 4.31 DILUENT: - A liquid used to dilute or thin out another liquid. 4.32 DIPPING: - A process for measuring the height of a liquid in a storage tank. This is usually done by lowering a weighted graduated steel tape through the


tank roof &noting the level at which the oil surface cuts the tape when the weight gently touch the tank bottom. 4.33 DISTILLATE: - The liquid obtained by condensing the vapour given off a boiling liquid. Also the top product taken off a fractionating column, & in its broadest sense: any fraction other then the bottom product of the fractionators. 4.34 DISTILLATION (fractional):-A fractionation process based on the difference in boiling point of the various constituents of the mixture to be fractionated. It is carried out by evaporation & condensation in contact with reflux. When applied to the separation of gasoline, kerosene, etc, from a crude oil, to leave a residual fuel oil or asphaltic bitumen, the process is frequently called tapping. Distillation is normally carried out in such a way as to avoid decomposition (cracking) in the case of higher boiling distillates, such as a long residue, this is accomplished by carring out the distillation under vacuum (which requires a lower temperature). 4.35 DISTILLATION CURVE: - Curve made by the percentage of gasoline (or other petroleum product) distilled versus the temperature. 4.36 DISTILLATION LOSS:-The difference, in a laboratory, distillation between the volume of liquid originally introduced in to the distillation flask & the sum of the residue & the condensate recovered. 4.37 DISTRIBUTOR (LIQUID/GAS):- A device for distributing a 2 phase flows correctly with in vessel. E.g. encouraging separation. 4.38 DISULPHIDE: - A compound containing a s.s linkage. Such compounds are colorless liquid completely miscible with hydrocarbons and insoluble in water. The lower members, when pure, posses a nauseating sweet odor which is particularly clinging and penetrating. Although disulphide are normal constituents of the lighter distillates, they are also formed as a result of the oxidation of mercaptans. Sour distillates become sweetened in this way.


4.39 DIVIDEND COVER: -Net profit after tax and before extraordinary items / dividend for year. 4.40 DOCTOR SOLUTION: - A solution (sodium plum bite) made from led oxide and sodium hydroxide, used to treat gasoline or other light petroleum distillate to remove mercaptan sulphur. The doctor test is used for detection of sulphur compounds in light petroleum distillates which reacts with sodium plum bite. 4.42 DOCTOR TREATMENT:- A process of sweetening sour gasoline- by conversion of the mercaptans by means of a solution of lead oxide in caustics soda together with sulphur. Not used at NZRC. 4.43 DOLPHIN: - Separate pile in jetty system used for mooring. 4.44 DOWNCOMERA means of conveying liquid from one tray to the next below in a tray column. 4.45 DOWNSTREAM:-Towards the later end of the process e.g. final blending, product tankage. In the business sense marketing of finished products, filling stations ECT. 4.46 DRAW OFF: - A connection which allows liquid to flow from the bottom of a vessel or to remove the contents from a draw off tray. 4.47 DRY GAS:-Natural gas which does not contain liquid hydrocarbons at storage pressure. Also often used for a petroleum gas consisting of no other compounds (e. g hydrogen, nitrogen etc) and the hydrocarbons methane, ethane propane, propane some time also hydrogen sulphide). 4.48 DUAL PUROPOSE KEROSENE: - An export grade kero that meets both premium and vtur specifications. 5 E


5.01 EARNINGS PER SHARE (CENTS):-Net profit after tax and before extraordinary items. Number of shares. 5.02 ECONOMISER: - Equipment for preheating boiler feed water by use of low grade flue gas. 5.03 EJECTOR:-A device that use the venture effect to pull a partial vacuum. Usually driven by steam and associated with condensing plant. 5.04 ELASTOMER:-A synthetic polymer with rubber-like characteristics. Examples of commercial product are styrene-butadiene rubbers. Butyl rubber, chloroprene rubber, polyurethane rubber and silicon rubber. 5.05 ELECTRICAL ISOLATION CERTIFICATE: -Permit required to isolate pr deisolate any electrical equipment. 5.06 ELECTROLYSIS:-Chemical decomposition by the action of an electric current. 5.07 EMULSIFIER:-A substance used to promote or aid the emulsification of two liquids and to enhance the stability of the emulsion. 5.08 EMULSION:-A dispersion of fine droplets of liquid (the disperse phase) in the bulk of another liquid (the continuous phase) with which it is immiscible. A third substance is sometimes necessary to keep the droplets dispersed as a stable emulsion. 5.09 END POINT:-The point indicating the end of some operation or at which a certain definite change is observed. In titration, this change is frequently a change in colour of an indicator which has been added to the solution, or the disappearance or excess of one of the reactants which is coloured. In the distillation of liquid, such as gasoline, the end point is the maximum temperature which occurs during the test (F.B.P.) 5.10 ENDI THERMIC:-Relating to or designating a reaction which occurs with the absorption of heat, so that the temperature of the reacting bodies is lowered (i.e. heating is required).


5.11 ENGINE OIL:-A term applied to oils used for the bearing lubrication of all types of engines, machines, and for cylinder lubrication in other than stem engines. 5.12 ENGLER DISTILLATION: - A standard test for determining the volatility of a gasoline by measuring the percent distilled at various specified temperatures. 5.13 ENTRAINMENT: - See CARRYOVER 5.14 EROSION:-To gradually wear away e.g. Catalyst circulation causes erosion. 5.15 ETHANE C2H6:-A colourless, odorless gas of the methane series. Along with methane one of the main constituents of natural gas. 5.16 ETHENE:-The normalized name of ethylene. A hydrocarbon gas and first member of the olefin series. 5.17 EVACUATION: - Act pf pulling a vacuum on a vessel at atmospheric pressurethus evacuating the air/gas present. 5.18 EVAPORATION: - The conversion of a liquid in to vapour, usually by means of heat. 5.19 EVAPORATOR:-A vessel which receives the hot discharge from a heating coil and by reduction in pressure, flashes off over head the light products and allows the heavy residue to collect in the bottom. 5.20 EX SITU REGEN: - Where catalyst is removed from a reactor & regenerated elsewhere (usually at a catalyst specialist own plant). 5.21 WXOTHERMIC: - Relating to or designating a reaction which occurs with the evolution of heat, so that the temperature of the reacting bodies is raised (cooling is required). 5.22 EXPANSION JOINT: - A joint or coupling designed so as to permit an endwise movement of its part to compensate for expansion or contraction.


5.23 EXTRACT:- The portion of an unrefined petroleum product (often a kerosene or lubricating oil ) resulting from a solvent extraction process & consisting mainly of those component which are best soluble in the solvent. Generally the extract, after removal of the solvent consist largely of aromatic hydrocarbon. 5.24 EXTRACTION:- A fractionation process based upon the difference in solubility, in a given solvent, of the various constituents of the mixture to be fractionated. The process is, for example, used in the separation of deasphalted oil from short residue. 5.25 EXTRACTION DEPTH:- Depth to which DAO may be extracted from short residue on BDU unit the greater the extraction depth, the higher the DAO yield, although too deep an extraction may affect DAO specification. 5.26 EXTRACTOR: - Column in which an extraction process is carried out. 5.27 EXTRAORDINARY ITEMS: - Items of expenses or income that are not related to the main activities operation of the company. 5.28 EXTREME PRESSURE LUBRICANTS: - A term applied to lubricating oils or gases which contain a substance or substances specifically introduced to prevent metal to metal contact in the operation of highly loaded gear & bearing. In some cases this is accomplished by the substance reacting with the metal to form a protective film. 6 F

6.01 FAECAL COLIFOM (F.COLI):- Bacteria found in intestines of humans & animal. Indicative of sewage contamination. 6.02 FATIGUE:-The tendency of a metal to become brittle & fracture under condition of repeated cyclic stressing at stress level below its tensile strength.


6.03 FEED PREPARATION UNIT: - High vacuum unit to split a long residue into a short residue & waxy distillate fraction with a low metal content, the latter fraction is used as Hydro cracker feed. 6.04 FEEDSTOCK: - Stock from which material is taken to be fed (charge) into a process unit. 6.05 FILTER: - A porous material on which solid particles are largely caught & retained when a mixture of liquid & solid is passed through it. 6.06 FILTRATE:- The liquid which has passed through a filter, the product from a filtration process. 6.07 FIN FAN:- See air heat exchanger. 6.08 FIRE WALL:- An earth bank or cement wall built around an oil storage tank compound to prevent the spread of the oil in case of fire or bursting of the tank. Height normally calculated to contain content of largest tank within compound. 6.09 FIXED-BED OPERATION:- A type of operation in which the catalyst remain stationary in the reactor. The catalyst may be regenerated inset or exsitu periodically. To be contrasted with fluid-bed operation. 6.10 FLAME ARRESTOR: - An assembly of perforated plates or screens enclosed in a case & attached to the breather vent on petroleum storage tanks, & on bitumen or sour water gas line prior to burning the gas in a furnace. 6.11 FLAMMABLE: - Capable of being easily set on fire, combustible. 6.12 FLASH:01) A sudden release in pressure resulting in partial or complete vaporization 02) Sudden burst of light; a momentary blaze.


6.13 FLASH DISTILLATION:- The process of heating a liquid to a temperature within the boiling range of the liquid which causes the evaporation of part of the liquid. The vapour may then be taken off & then condensed. 6.14 FIASH POINT:- The lowest temperature under a closely specified condition at which a combustible material will give off sufficient vapour to form an inflammable mixture with air in a standardized vessel. Flash point tests are used to assess the volatilities of petroleum products. 6.15 FLEXIBLE VOLATILITY INDEX: a measure of the volatility of gasoline, s calculated by the formula 6.16 FLOATING HEAD: An end of heat exchanger into which tubes are fitted, constructed, to allow for the expansion and contraction of the exchanger tubes. 6.17 FLOATING ROOF: A special tank roof with floats upon the oil. Applied to do away the vapor space in storage tanks and thus reduce losses by breathing and hazards explosions. 6.18 FLOC: Any small, tufted or flake-like mass of matter floating in a solution, e .g as produced by precipitation. Used in water treatment for removal impurities. 6.19 FLOPCCULATION: Process of forming and removing floc and associated impurities 6.20 FLOODING: In a fractionating column, the filling up with a liquid. 6.21 FLUE GAS: gas from the fuel, the heating effect of which has been substantially spent and is, therefore, discarded to the flue or stack its constituents are principally co2 co o2 n2 and h2o 6.22 FLUIDP: Non rigid substance consisting of particles that moves freely amongst themselves. 6.23 FLUID BED OPERATION: - Where catalyst moved from the reactor to a regenerated platformet or cat cracker processes

6.24 FOAM: a preparation designed to smother oil fires. it consist of a solution which , on mixing which water produces a mass of foam many times the volume of the original liquids 6.25 FOAMING: 1) The formation of froth or foam on lubricating oils other oils as a result of aeration or release of gas dissolved in the oil. 2) The formation of bubbles on the surface of boiled water the foam may entirely fill the steam space of the boiler or may be of minor depth in case it causes appreciable entrainment of boiler water with steam 3) caused in dip system by presence of liquid hydrocarbons or fines affecting tension solution 6.26 FORCED DRAUGHT: Air forced into a by means of a fan or blower to improve combustion 6.27 FRACTION: - A portion of petroleum separated from other portion in the fractionation of petroleum products it is often characterized by a particular boiling range 6.28 FRACTIONAL CONDENSATION : A separation the components of vaporized oil coming off during distillation by condensing the vapor in stages the oil of highest boiling point will condense firs and be removed in the liquid stage allowing the portion still in the vapor state to pass on the stage condenser 6.29 FRACTIONATING COLUMN: An apparatus in which fractionation is carried out it consists of a vertical cylindrical metal vessel, containing equipment for the proper contesting of flashed liquid and vapor. Heat is often supplied at the bottom of the column in a recoiled, wineries heat can also be supplied or withdrawn at intermediate heights of the column, if beneficial to the process the oil to be fractionated is fed into the column at one or more predetermined locations throughout the height of the column the contacting equipment is formed by fractionating trays in the oil and chemical industry in general although for some applications various packing materials are used


6.30 FRACTINATING TRAYS :- Equipment aimed at promoting contact between vapor and liquid for fractionation the flow can be of a single type or of the dual type the former type is promoted by is promoted bin the provision of down comers for the liquid various arrangement of down comers lead to various systems of trays .analogously there may be different provisions for the vapor passage again leading to various possibilities of trays for further information see bubble cap trays calming section trays sieve trays and valve trays 6.31 FRACTIONATION: The general name for a physical process of separating a mixture into its constituents or into groups of these constituents called fraction examples are: absorption azeotrope distillation crystallization decanting distillation extraction extractive distillation and flotation. 6.32 FREE ON BOARD (FOB):- The unit price at the loading port. 6.33 FREE WATER: - Water with is not dissolved bound in a fuel or feedstock. 6.34 FREEZE POINT:-An important characteristic of aviation fuels the test for jet a 1 is to cool unit solid then reheat the temperature at which the solid MELTS is called freeze point. 6.35 FREEZING POINT:-The temperature at which crystals first appear when a liquid is cooled under specified condition. 6.36 FRESH GAS:-In the Hydro cracker, fresh H2 from the reformer to replace H2 used up in the process. Otherwise any imported gas as distinct from recycle gas. 6.37 FRICTION: - Resistance to the motion of one surface against another. 6.38 FUEL AIR RATIO: - The ratio of weight of fuel to air supplied to an engine, furnace or boiler at any time. 6.39 FUEL CELL:- An electrochemical device to convert chemical energy directly in to electricity. It is similar in some respects to a storage battery, the fuel cell produced electricity by chemical reaction. Unlike a storage battery, however

the fuel cell continues to produced electricity as long as fuel is added. In the fuel cell continues 6.40 FUEL GAS; - Any gas used for heating by combustion. 6.41 FUEL OIL: - Any liquid or liquefiable petroleum product burned for the generation of heat in a furnace or firebox or for the generation of power in an engine, exclusive of oils with a flash point below 100 f. 6.42 FUNCTIONAL LOGIC SCHEME: - Diagram used to show the interaction of plant trips, both cause & effect. 6.43 FUNCTIONAL LOGIC SYSTEM: - System of plant protection whereby loss of signal indicate a failure or trip of part of the unit. This trip will then shutdown all or part of the unit. 6.44 FURACE: - That section of the refinery process in which the combustion of fuel & takes place. 6.45 FURNACE PASS:- For more even heat transfer, the product to be heated is usually split in to 4 or more individual pipe (passes) & then recombined at the furnace exit 7 G

7.01 GAP: 01) In adjacent fraction the temperature difference between the initial boiling point of the higher boiling fraction and the end point of the lower boiling fraction. Specially the term gap is only used when this different is positive (e.p overlaps) 02) The mid-position where a pair of gap-acting split range controllers is both closed


7.02 GAS HOLDER:- A tank for the storage of gas. It usually floats on a liquid seal, buoyed up by the pressure of the stored gas. 7.03 GAS OIL: - Another common name for diesel fuel (A.G.O.) 7.04 GAS/OIL RATIO:The volume of gas atmospheric pressure produced per unit volume of oil produced (from oil wells). 7.05 GASOLINE: - Light petroleum fraction with a boiling range between the approximate limit of 30 and 200 deg. Centre gate. 7.06 GAS TURBINE:- An engine in which gas (as distinct from steam) is directed under pressure, against a series of turbine blades. The energy contained in the rapidly expanding gas is converted into rotary motion. 7.07 GATHERING STATION:- Oil field installation which receives the production from several wells in it vicinity. It provided s facilities to separate the gas and the water to gauge the production of oil, gas and water and to transport the oil to the main storage tanks. 7.08 GEAR OIL: - A lubricating Oil for use in standard transmissions, most types of differential gears, and gears contained in gear cases. 7.09 GLAND: - The outer portion of a stuffing box, consisting of a tubular projection which embraces the rod and extends into the bore of the box, thus bearing against the packing. 7.10 GOVERNOR: - A device used to control the speed of a turbine the best known example being the wood ward governor. 7.11 GRAVITOMETER: - Instrument used for measuring changes in the specific gravity of oil flowing in a pipeline. 7.12 GRID TRAYS: -Fractionating tray consisting of parallel bars of flat or round section. The flow is essentially of the dual type, but this character may be reduced by the provision of down comers (see fraction trays).

7.13 GUM: -Oxidation of gasolines may produce a sticky 0substance known as gum . When unstable gasolines are stored for long periods, the gum content may increase. Gum forming is retarded or retarded or prevented by using certain inhibitors, e.g. Tppanol 8 H

8.01 HAMER LINE BLIND:- A spectacle blind-type blanking device which has only 3 retaining bolts, these are a type of wing not. 8.02 HEADER: - A common manifold in which a number of pipeline are united. Also used in reference to the U bend connection between two consecutive tubes in a coil. 8.03 HEAT CAPACITY: - Amount of heat /kg/.c change in temperature. 8.04 HEAT EXCHANGER: - An apparatus for transferring heat from one fluid to another. Specifically, a piece of equipment having a tubular piping arrangement which affects the transfer of heat from a hot to a relatively cool material by conduction through the tube walls. 8.05 HEAT OF COMBUCTION:- The heat created when a substance is burned in oxygen. The calorific, thermal, or heating value of a fuel is the total amount of heat developed by the complete combustion of a unit quantity of fuel; it is reported as calories /gram or Btu/gram. 8.06 HEATER: - The furnace & tube arrangement which normally furnishes the principal element in a processing unit. 8.07 HI-FI TRAYS:- Similar to calming section trays, except there is a greater down comer area. 8.08 HIGH VACUUM UNIT:- A unit for the production of vacuum gas oil & waxy distillate from long residue, by mean of distillation at very low pressure I, e high vacuum.

8.09 HORSEPOWER: - A unit of rate of operation, one mechanical horsepower equal 33000 Ft-Ib/ minute or 550 Ft/ second. This is just one from of horse power there are more. 8.10 HORTON SPHERE: - A spherical tank used to store volatile liquid under high pressure e.g. Butane. 8.11 HOT OIL:- Any oil used for the transfer of heat as in the 700 unit. 8.12 HOT SPOT:01) A finite area in the combustion zone of an engine which remain at a temperature higher then that of the immediate surrounding thus aggravating detonation or pre ignition. 02) An area on the wall of a vessel or line which is appreciably above normal operating temperature. Often as a result of the deterioration of an eternal insulating liner which exposes the line or vessel shell to the temperature of its contents? 8.13 HUMIDITY: - A measure of the moisture contained in the atmosphere. 8.14 HYDRATE: - A compound formed by the chemical union of water with a molecular of some other substance such as gypsum, from which water may be separated by a simple readjustment of the molecular structure. Gas hydrates, formed from water &, for example methane, may cause plugging of the tubing & flow line of gas wells. 8.15 HYDRATION: - The addition of water to a double bond, no breakdown of the molecular structure being involved. 8.16 HYDRAULIC FLUID;- Fluid used in the hydraulic system of aircraft in industrial equipment etc. 8.17 HYDROCARBON:- A compound containing only hydrogen & carbon. The simplest hydrocarbon are gases at ordinary temperatures; but with increasing molecular weight they change to the liquid form &, finally to the solid state. They form the principal constituents of petroleum.

8.18 HYDROCHLORIC ACID;- A strong mineral acid, HCL. It is also called muriatic acid. 8.19HYDROCRACKING:- A process in which hydrocarbons is converted under hydrogen pressure into product of lower molecular weight, in the presence of an acidic catalyst. 8.20 HYDRO DEALKYLATION:- A process to remove side-chain on aromatic molecules, either thermally or catalytically, under hydrogen pressure. 8.21 HYDRO DESULPHURIZATION: - The elimination of containing sulphur molecules in crude s or distillates by the action of hydrogen under pressure over a catalyst. 8.22 HYDROGEN: - The lightest of all gases, occurring chiefly in combination with oxygen in water, also in acid bases, alcohol, petroleum & other hydrocarbons. 8.23 HYDROGEN BLISTEING:- A form of corrosion, Blistering of steel is caused by trapped molecular hydrogen formed as aromatic hydrogen during attack of steel by hydrogen sulphide. 8.24 HYDROGEN SULPHIDE: - A compound of hydrogen & sulphur, specifically the monosulphide; a colorless flammable poisonous gas H2S having a disagreeable odor, also called sulphureted hydrogen. 8.25 HYDROGENATION:- The filling of the free place in unsaturated structure by hydrogen atoms. The chemical addition of hydrogen to a material. In non destructive hydrogenation, hydrogen is added to a molecule only if & where, unsaturation with respect to hydrogen exists. In destructive hydrogenation the operation is carried out under condition which result in rupture of some of the hydrocarbon chain (cracking) hydrogen is added where the chain breaking have occurred. This process is known as hydro cracking. 8.26 HYDROLYSIS: - The decomposition molecular structure by the action of water. A chemical decomposition in which a compound is broken up &

resolved into other compounds by reaction with water. In many cases it is induced by the presence of a small amount of dilute acid. 8.27 HYDROMETER;- A graduated instrument for determining the gravity of liquid, usually made of hollow glass & weighted at one end so as to float upright. On immersion, the lighter the liquid, the lower the instrument sinks because the buoyancy force is less. Some hydrometer is marked to read percentage of constituent, or some other property related to gravity. The instrument used in measuring petroleum products usually read degrees API or specific gravity directly. 8.28 HYDROSTATIC HEAD: - The pressure exerted by a column of fluid equaling the height of the column times, the fluid density times, the acceleration of gravity. An expression of the pressure existing at a certain point, in term of weight of a superimposed column of fluid. 8.29 HYDROSTATIC TEST: - A pressure test using water to check the reliability of equipment prior to being bought into service. 8.30 HYDROTREATING: - A vapour phase process used to treat petroleum fraction boiling up to approximately 250 c. The process involves passage over a fixed bed of catalyst (usually prepared by depositing the metals Cobalt 7Molybdenum on an alumina base) in a hydrogen atmosphere. The process achieves. 01) Hydrogenation of the sulphurous contaminants in the feedstock to hydrogen sulphide. 02) Saturation of unsaturated component compound such as olefins. 9 I

9.01 IGNITION POINT: - The point or temperature at which a substance takes fire. 9.02 IGNITION QUALITY:- A measure of the ignition delay of a fuel in a diesel engine.

9.03 IMMISCIBLE: - Not capable of mixing tending to form two layers, e g oil& water. 9.04 INCOMPATIBLE: - Applied to a substance which, for chemical, physical, or physiological reasons, can not be mixed with another without changing its nature or affect. 9.05 INDIGENOUS FEEDSTOCK: - Local crude or condensate. 9.06 INDUCED DRAUGHT: - Air drawn into a furnace by mean of a fan to improve combustion (compare forced draught). 9.07 INERT ENTRY: - Specialized entry in to a vessel under N2 atmosphere, by use of B.A. & special safety precaution. Used in Hydrocracker catalyst change operation. 9.08 INERT GAS: - Nitrogen on the refinery, scrubbed flue gas on the tanker. Used for air (O2) exclusion to reduced fire/ explosion risk. 9.09 INERT FILLER: - Non reacting packing / support material e.g., ceramic, stainless steel ECT. 9.10 INFLAMMABLE: - Very flammable- not to be confused with non-flammable. 9.11 INHIBITOR: - A substance, the presence of which in small amounts in a product prevents or retards undesirable changes in the quality of the product, or in the condition of the equipment in which the product is used. In general, the essential function of inhibitors is to prevent or retard oxidation. Examples of uses include the delaying of gum formation in stored gasoline & of colour change in lubricating oils; also the prevention of corrosion g rust prevention by inhibitors in turbine oils & fuels. 9.12 INITIAL BOILING POINT:-According to ASTM method D 86 the recorded temperature when the first drop of liquid falls from the end of the condenser.


9.13 INJECTOR:- A mechanism which may be used in different form of spraying fuel oil into the combustion chamber., or for feeding water in to steam boiler. 9.14 INLINE BLENDING: - A system in which all component of pumped simultaneously into a common discharge pipe (header) at rates of flow corresponding to the required proportion, the rates of flow being controlled. Blending takes place in the lines between the header & the storage tank into which the blend is discharged. 9.15 INORGANIC: - Pertaining to substance not organic, nonliving I e which is not carbon compounds, with the possible exception of the oxides & sulphide of carbon. 9.16 INSITUREGEN: - Catalyst regeneration carried out with in the reactor. Carbon is burned off under controlled conditions of heat /air less effective, but cheaper and usually quicker than ex-situ. 9.17 INSTITUTE OF PETROLIUM: -The organization in Great Britain primarily responsible for the advancement of the study of petroleum and its allied products in all their aspects. It is recognized British standardization authority for methods of testing petroleum products. 7.18 INTERCEPATOR: - Equipment to remove oil from waters either for process separation or pollution control. Weir, parallel and tilted plate type are used. 7.19 INTERNAL COMBUSTION ENGINE: - An engine which operates by means of combustion of a fuel with in its cylinder. 7.20 ION EXCHANGE RESION: -Preparation used in water softening Anion and Cation resin s are used. 9.21 ISOLATE: -Any means of positive separation from a risk source: 1 To electrically disconnect. 2 To valve / spade isolate a piece of line work / equipment.

9.22 ISOMER: -Two substances composed of equal amounts of the same elements but differing in properties owing to variation in structure are called isomer. 9. 23 ISOMERISATION: - The conversation of a compound into its isomer for e.g. butane converted in to isobutene. A reaction which alerts the fundamental arrangement of the atoms in the molecules without adding or removing anything from the original compound. In the petroleum industry, straightchain hydrocarbons are converted catalytically to branch chain hydrocarbons of substantially higher octane number by isomerisation. 9.24 ISO OCTANE C8H18 (2, 2, 4-TRIMETHYLPENTANE) : -A colorless liquid used with n-heptane to prepare standard mixture to determine anti-knock properties of gasoline. 9.25 ISOTOPE: - Any one of a number of atomic species differing in atomic weight but having the same atomic number. Used in some refinery instruments and for radiography.


10.1 JET A1: -See Avtur. 10.2 JET ENGINE : -An engine which converts fuel and air into a fast- moving stream of hot gases which effect propulsion of the device of which the engine is part . 10.3 JET FUEL: -Fuel meeting the required properties for use in jet engine and aircraft turbine engines. It is subject to intense testing and quality control as laid down in DERD and AFQRJOS documents internationally. 10.4 JETTY HOSE: - Large bore counterbalance heavy hose used loading /unloading ships. 11 K

11.1 KELVIN:-The unit as absolute temperature scale, i.e. zero Kelvin is absolute zero, 273 is 0 deg. Centigrade. The Kelvin degree has the same dimensions as the Celsius degree. 11.2 KEROSNE:-Any petroleum products with a boiling range between the approximate limit of 140 and 270 deg. Centigrade. Which satisfies certain quality requirements (for lamp oil jet fuel)? 11.3 KETTLE REBOILER:-A reboiler with facilities for separation of liquid and vapor. 11.4 KNOCK : - Related to internal combustion engines the noise associated with detonation of a portion of the fuel- air mixture in a cylinder ahead of the advancing flame front. 11.5 KNOCKOUT (DRUM OR VESSEL):-A vessel constructed with baffles, through which a mixture of gas and liquid is passed to disengage one from the other. As the mixture comes in contact with the baffles, the impact frees the gases and allows them to pass overhead, the heavier substance falls to the bottom of the drum. 12 L

12.1 LAGGING: -A converting to retain heat, such as mineral wool wrapped on steam pipes. 12.2 LASER ALIGNMENT:-Method of alignment rotating equipment shofts using a laser beam. 12.3 LATENT HEAT:-Heat required for a change of state without a change of temperature 1. The latent heat of fusion, or the amount of heat necessary to change a unit mass of solid into a liquid with out change of temperature.

2. The latent heat of vaporization, or the amount of heat necessary to change a unit mass of liquid into vapour with out change of temperature. 3. The latent heat of condensation. Effectively the opposite of 2 (above). 12.4 LEAD:-Industry parlance for the motor fuel anti-knock additive compounds tetraethyl- lead, Tetramethyl-lead, or for other organometallic lead antiknock compound. 12.5 LEAD ACETATE: - A method of detecting the presence of hydrogen sulphide in a sample using lead acetate paper, which will change from white to brown upon detection. 12.6 LEAD SUSCEPTIBILITY:-Ability of gasoline s to respond to the addition of tetraethyl-lead or other organ metallic lead anti-knock compound, as reflected in the increase of anti-knock quality (often number) with increase of lead content. 12.7 LEADED GASOLINE:- Refers to gasoline containing Tetramethyl-lead or other organometallic lead anti-knock compound. 12.8 LEAN ADIP:- Adip that has been regenerated & had H2s removed. 12.9 LICHEN:- Simple that is sensitive to So2 & can thus be used as an indication of So2 (stack emission) pollution. 12.10 LIGHT DISTILLATE:-A term applied to distillates the final boiling point of which dose not exceed 300 c. 12.11 LIGHT ENDS:- The lower-boiling point component of a mixture of hydrocarbon. 12.12 LIGHT TOPS:- The lower-boiling point of naphtha. 12.13 LINER PROGRAMME (LP) :- A mathematical representation of an operation which can be optimized according to a set of economic criteria.


12.14 LIQUEFIED NATURAL GAS (LNG) ;- Natural gas can be liquefied at atmospheric pressure by cooling to about 160 c(256 f). 12.15 LIQUEFIED PETROLEUM GAS (LPG):- Liquefied of the gases hydrocarbon propane & the butanes can be liquefied under relatively low pressure & at ambient temperature & are then known as liquefied petroleum gas. Light hydrocarbon materials gaseous at atmospheric temperature 7 pressure, held in the liquid state by pressure to facilitate storage, transport & handling. Commercial liquefied gases consist essentially of propane, butane or mixture thereof. 12.16 LIQUID PHASE: - The describing a product or substance when in the form of liquid. 12.17LIQUID SEAL:-A quantity of liquid used to prevent the emission of a gas through an orifice. To be completely effective the hydrostatic head exerted by the liquid must be greater then the pressure of the gas & the gas must be insoluble in the liquid. 12.18 LITRE The primary standard of capacity in the metric system, equal to the volume of one kilogram of pure water at maximum density, at approximately 4 c & under normal atmospheric pressure. 12.19 LIVE STEAM:- As contrasted to exhaust steam, steam coming directly from a boiler before being utilized for power or heat. 12.20 LOAD-ON-TOP SYSTEM:-System of cleaning the tank of a crude oil tanker by collecting washing from each tank in one tank, allowing the water to separate from the oil, then discharging the water overboard, leaving the oil residues in the tank. The next crude oil cargo is loaded on top of the residues. 12.21 LOADING RACK:- A structure built alongside railroad tracks or at road depots for the purpose of loading tank cars or road tankers with products. 12.22 LOGIC:- See functional logic.

12.23 LONG RESIDUE:- The residue resulting from the atmospheric distillation of crude oil. 12.24 LOST TIME ACCIDENT (LT):- Any work injury that result in the worker being unable to recommence work on the day after the injury. 12.25 LOW VISCOSITY INDEX: - See viscosity index. 12.26 LOWER EXPLOSIVE LIMIT (LEL):- Leanest mixture that will explode. A greater air hydrocarbon ratio will not ignite. 12.27 LUB OIL:-Lubricating oil. 12.28 LUBRICANT:-A substance, especially oil grease, or a solid such as graphite, which may be interposed between moving part of machinery, thus reducing friction by preventing contact between the bearing surface. The lubricant has an important function in removing heat & dirt from the region of the bearing surface. 12.29 LUBRICATING OIL:- A fluid lubricant used to reduce friction between bearing surface. Petroleum lubricating oil may be produced either from distillates or residue; amount of other substance, known as additive, may be added to import or improve certain required properties.\ 12.30 LUBRICATION:- The state of being lubricated, or the act of applying lubricating substance which are capable to reducing friction between & removing heat from moving mechanical parts. 13 M

13.1 M CAP DECK:- A de-entraimment draw of tray used on HVUII. 13.2 MANIFOLD :- A piping arrangement with allows , aoe stream of liquid or gas to be divided into tow or more streams or which allows several streams to be collected into one


13.3 MANOMETER: - An instrument for measuring the expansion or the expansive power of gases or vapours a pressure gauge or vacuum gage 13.4 MASS SPECTOROMETER :- A device for analyzing a substance in terms of the mass- to charge ratios of its constituents it is so designed the beam constituents of a given-mass-to-charge ratio are focused on an electrode or measured electrically the mass spectrum shows the distribution in mass or the mass-to charge ratio of ionized atoms molecules or molecular fragments 13.5 MELTING POINT: - Temperature at which a solid substance melts or fuses. for asphalt the melting point is defined as the temperature at which the asphalt is soft enough to permit a steel ball to drop through a disk of asphalt supported in a ring suspended in water the grease melting point is determined by placing a small amount of the grease on the bulb of a thermometer and heating in hot air until the greases begins to run off. 13.6 MERCAPTANS:- Mercaptans or alkyl-hydrosulphides are organic compound of carbon, hydrogen, & sulphur. They have a bad odor & frequently occur in unrefined gasoline. Mercaptans must be removed from gasoline or converted to the unobjectionable disulphide by suitable refining (by sweetening). 13.7 METHANATOR:- Part of the reformer process that convert unwanted carbon oxide to methane which is more acceptable to the Hydrocracker. 13.8 METHANE:- A light, odorless, inflammable gas. It is the chief constituent of natural gas. It is also often produced by a partial decay of plant in swamps (marsh gas), so that its occurrence is commonly misinterpreted by the layman as an indication of presence of petroleum. 13.9 METHANE SERIES:- A homologous series of open- chain saturated hydrocarbon of the general formula CnH2n+2 of which methane (CH4) is the first number of the type; generally called the paraffin s. 13.10 METHYL CHLOROFORM:- Used as a catalyst promoter in the plat former.


13.11 METHANOL: - Methyl-alcohol, CH3OH. The first member of the class of organic compound known as alcohol. It is a liquid boiling at 66 c. Methanol is inflammable & poisonous. It is used in the production of gasoline. 13.12 METHYL TERTIARY BUTYL ETHER (MTBE):- An oxygenated compound which can be used as a blending compound in gasoline to boost octane. 13.13 METRIC SYSTEM:- A system of weight & measure derived from the meter. The system includes; measures of length, wherein the meter is the unit, measure of surface, wherein the square meter is the unit, measure of capacity, wherein the liter is the unit, & weight, where is the gram is the unit. 13.14 MICROCRYSTALLINE WAXES: - Waxes have a very fine crystal structure, & consisting mainly of iso- & cycloparaffins with some aromatic. They are produced mainly from heavy lubricating oil residue & have melting point from 60-90 c. 13.15 MIDDLE DISTILLATE: - One of the distillate obtain between kerosene &lubricating oil fractions in the refining process. These include light fuel oil & diesel. Fuel. 13.16 MINERAL OIL:- Generally speaking this term refers to a wide range of product s derived from mineral substance. 13.17 MINIMUM STOP:- A setting used to restrict the closer of a control valve. There are two way of achieving this;-1- Mechanical, by use of a collar or nut on the spindle, diaphragm. 2- Pneumatically, by restricting the minimum air signal from the control instrument. 13.18 MISCIBLE:- Capable of being mixed (stability & uniformity throughout the mixture are usually inferred). 13.19 MIXED BASE CRUDE:- A crude oil which is mixture of paraffin s & napthenebase crude.

13.20 MIXER:- Device used of mixing partially im-miscible liquid in process plant or to prevent layering in tanks a propeller or jet mixture may be used. 13.21 MIXING VALVE: - A valve which creates turbulence within a pipe to effect mixing of the material flowing through the pipe. 13.22 MIXTURE:- The intermingling of two or more substance, each retaining its original properties. 13.23 MOLE PERCENT:- An expression of the percent composition of a mixture in term of mole. These relative numbers of moles are computed by dividing the number of unit of weight of the individual constituents by their respective molecular weight. 13.24 MOLECULAR WEIGHT:- The sum of the atomic weight of the atoms composing a molecule. 13.25 MOLECULE:- The smallest portion of an element or a compound which retains chemical identity with the same particular substance en masses e.g. unit of water. 13.26 MOTOR GASOLINE:- A complex mixture of relatively volatile hydrocarbon, with or without small quantities of additives, which have been blended to form a fuel suitable for use in automotive internal combustion engines. 13.27 MOTOR OCTANE NUMBER (MON):- The octane number of motor-gasoline determined in a special laboratory test engine under high engine-severity condition, giving a rough measure of the high speed knock properties of the gasoline. 13.28 MOTORISED VALVE:- A valve incorporated in automatic control system to regulate the rate of flow of material through a section of pipe. It is actuated either hydraulically, electrically, from a control instrument. 13.29 MULTIGRADE OIL:- One of the multi-viscosity number oils in which one oil combines three SAE viscosity number grade. For example, multi-grade SAE 10w-30 grade may be used where SAE 10w, SAE20-20w, or SAE 30 grade

specified. Multi-grade oil are usually made to meet the requirement of API service MS, DG, & DM. They have been made possible by improved refining processes & the use of improved additives. 13.30 MULTI STAGE PUMP:- Pump with more then one impeller. Generally used in high pressure / medium flow application. 14 N

14.1 NAPHTHA:- Naphtha s are straight-run gasoline fraction boiling low kerosene. Being generally unsuitable as a blending component from premium gasoline; s they are used as a feedstock for plat forming. Other important outlets for naphtha, s is their use as chemical feedstock (e.g, ethylene manufacture) & as feedstock for town gas manufacture. 14.2 NAPHTHENE:- A class of saturated cyclic hydrocarbon of the general formula CnH2n. One of a group of cyclic hydrocarbon also turned cycloparaffins or cycloalkanes. Polycyclic member are found in the hi 14.3 NAPHTHENIC ACID;-Naturally occurring acidic compounds commonly found in Naphthenic crudes. 14.4NAPHTHENIC CRUDE:- crudes (both oils equally well refined)by Crude oil containing a relatively large percentage of napthene. An oil obtained from a Naphthenic crude is said to be a napthene base oil .lubricating oils made from such crudes are normally distinguished from similar oils made from paraffinic lower gravity, lower carbon content and pour point, and lower rating viscosity index. 14.5 NATURAL DRAUGHT:-A flow of air into the combustion chamber of a heater which is neither induced nor forced but derives solely from the fact that the pressure inside the heater is lower than that of the ambient atmosphere (due to effect of stack).


14.6 NATURAL GAS:-Naturally occurring mixtures of hydrocarbon gases and vapours, the more important of which are methane, ethane, propane, butane, pentane, and hexane. The gas which occurs naturally with crude oils, but also in reservoirs which contain only a few heavier constituents. It consists mainly of the lighter paraffin hydrocarbons. Natural gas is usually classified as wet dry; depending on weather the proportions of gasoline constituents which it contains are large or small. Most gas reaches the surface through the tubing, but in some pumping wells it is taken off at the top of the casing (casinghead gas). 14.7 NATURAL GAS: - Gasoline extracted from wet natural gas consisting of butane, propane and heavier hydrocarbons. After stabilization the removal of the lighter compounds. The gasoline is blending into motor gasoline. 14.8 NET ASSET BACKING/SHARE: -Share holders investment/number of share 14.9 NET PROFIT AFTER TAX: -Income from all sources less operation costs, depreciation and tax. 14.10 NET PROFIT BEFORE TAX: -Income from all sources less operating costs and depreciation. 14.11 NEUTRAL: -Neither acid nor alkaline. 14.12 NEUTRON: An uncharged particle having the mass of the proton. Generally together with the protons, neutrons make up the nucleus of atom. 14.13NITROGEN:-element of atomic number 7, in group V of periodic system, colourless, odorless, tasteless diatomic gas constituting approximately fourfifths of the air ,chemically rather inert, soluble in water. Derived from liquid air by fractional distillation. Used extensively in refineries for inerting process plants (air exclusion) 14.14 NITROGEN BASE ;-A compound, such as amine, which may be considered a substation product of ammonia, a compound containing trivalent nitrogen, capable, like ammonia, of combining with acids in the formation of salts containing pentavalent nitrogen.

14.15NON-ASSOCIATED NATURAL GAS: - Gas accumulation which exists independently of any oil accumulation. 14.15 NON-CUSTODY TRANSFER TANKS:- tanks which receive products from internal sources or deliver products to internal sources. 14.16 NORMALISE:- Correction made to a calculated figure(e.g.WABT) to allow for the effect of other variables. 15 O

15.1 OCTANE: -The octane number of a fuel is a number equal to the percentage by volume of iso-octane in a mixture of iso-octane and normal heptane having the same resistance to detonation as the fuel under consideration in a special test engine. It is measure of ant-knock value of a gasoline and in the case of the special test engine. The higher the octane numbers the higher the anti-knock quality of the gasoline. 15.2 OIL RING: -A loose ring, the inner surface of which rides a shaft or journal causing the ring to rotate. The ring dips into a reservoir of lubricant, from which it carries the lubricant to the top of the shaft for distribution to a bearing. Also the ring on an internal-combustion engine piston which controls the lubrication of the position and cylinder walls, as contrasted to the compression rings. 15.3 OIL SHALE: -A compacted sedimentary rock consisting mainly of consolidated mud and clays and containing organic matter which yields oil when destructively distilled but not appreciably when extracted with the ordinary solvents for petroleum. 15.4 OLIFINS: -A class of unsaturated, non-cyclic, aliphatic hydrocarbons of the general formula CnH2n (mono olefins) .Ethane is the parent member of the group. Not very in abundant in crude oils. 15.5 ONCE-THROUGH: - An adjective describing:

1. A condition or operation in which no portion of the products is recycled. 2. The products from such an operation. 15.6 ON STREAM: -The length of time a unit is in actual production. 15.7 ORGANIC: -It is a branch of Chemistry, treating in general of the compounds produced in plant and animals, or of carbon-hydrogen compounds of synthetic origin, contrasted with inorganic. 15.8 ORIFICE MEATER: -An instrument which measures the flow through a pipe by use of the difference in pressure on the upstream and downstream side of an orifice plate. 15.9 ORIFICE PLATE: -An device for restricting the flow through a pipe. 15.10 OSMASIS: -Migration of ions or species from an area of high concentration to one of lower concentration. 15.11 OUTPUT: - The pneumatic or electronic control signal sent from the control instruments to the valve. 15.12 OVERHEADS: -In a distillation operation that portion of the charge which is vapourised and removal as the total stream from the top of column. 15.13 OVERLAP: - In adjacent fractions, the temperature difference between the initial boiling point of the higher boiling fraction and the end point of the lower boiling fraction. Specifically the term overlap is only used when this difference is negative (of GAP) 15.14 OXIDATION: -The reaction of oxygen with molecules that may or may not already contains oxygen. Oxidation may be partial, resulting in the incorporation of oxygen into the molecule or in the elimination of hydrogen from it, or it may be complete, forming carbon dioxide and water (combustion) contast with reduction. 15.15 OXIDIZING FLAME: -Term applied to a flame in which there is an excess of air or oxygen.


16.1 PACKED TOWER: -A fractionating or absorber tower which is filled with small objects (packing) to affect an intimate contact between rising vapour and falling liquid. 16.2 PACKING: 1. Typically PALL or RASCHING ring of stainless steel or ceramic as used in a packed tower. May be DUMPED or STRUCTURED the latter being assembled rather than tipped in which results in lower p.d. and increased vapour /liquid contact thus greater efficiency. 2. Any material used to pack, as a layer of material put between the surfaces of a flange or used in a stuffing box to prevent leakage. 16.3 PALL RING: -Usually of stainless steel, similar to rashing ring, but with internal venes (to increase surface area). 16.4 PARAFFINS-BASE CRUDE: -Crude oil which contains paraffin waxes little or no asphaltic matter. 16.5 PAAFFINS: -Straight (N) or branched (ISO) open chain saturated hydrocarbons. 16.6 PARAFFIN WAX: -Wax of solid consistency having a relatively pronounced crystalline structure, extracted from certain distillates of petroleum, shale oil etc. Refined paraffin wax has a very low oil content, it is white with some degree of translucency, almost tasteless and odorless and slightly greasy to the touch. 16.7 PARTIAL CONDENSER: -A heat exchanger, which condenses part of a vapour stream. For example partial condensers are used to condense the reflux


liquid stream and liquid top products from the overhead vapours to the touch. 16.8 PARTIAL PRESSURE: -Partial pressure of a component of a mixture in vapourliquid equilibrium is that part of the pressure which is contributed by that component. 16.9 PENTRATION: - Consistency, expressed as the distance that a standard needle or cone pentrates vertically into a sample of the material under known condition of loading, time & pressure. A measure of hardness & consistency of asphaltic bitumen by a which a weighted special cone or needle will pentrate the sample in five second, the temperature, unless otherwise stated, being 25 c(77 f). 16.10 PERMIT TO WORK: - A permit raised for any job that is carried out in the restricted area. 16.11 PETROL MIXTURE (2 STROE MIX):- A lubricating system for small two strok gasoline engine, in which the lubricant is mixed in suitable proportion with a gasoline to make a petrol oil mixture. During its passage through the engine some of the heavier & unevaporated petrol oil fractions are deposit on bearing surfaces & so provide lubrication. 16.12 PETROL:- Term commonly used for motor spirit or gasoline. 16.13 PETROLEUM:- Material occurring naturally in the earth, predominantly composed of mixtures of chemical compound, of carbon & hydrogen with or without other nonmetallic element such as sulphur, oxygen, nitrogen, etc , petroleum may contain, or be composed of such compound in gases liquid, &/ or solid state, depending on the nature of these compound & the existing condition of temperature & pressure. 16.14 PETROLEUM NAPHTHA:- A generic term applied to refined, partly refined, or unrefined petroleum product & liquid products of natural gas, not less then 10% of which distill below 175 c (347 f), & not less then 95% of which


distill below 249 c (464 f) when subjected to distillation in accordance ASTM method D86. 16.15 PETROLEUM SPIRITS:- Refined petroleum distillate with volatility, flash point, & other properties making them suitable as thinners & solvent in paints, varnish, & similar products. 16.16 PETROLEUM WAX:- See crude wax . 16.17 PHENOL:- Hydroxyl derivative of aromatic hydrocarbon. Found in influent water- occur from contact with certain crude s. 16.18 PHOSPHATE:1- A salt of phosphoric acid. 2- At NZRC generally used to refer to TRISODIUM PHOSPHATE, an alkaline water treatment chemical. Na3Po4. 16.19 pH VALAU:- The logarithm of the reciprocal of the hydrogen ion concentration. This indicate the acid or alkaline condition of a substance, pure water & natural solution having a pH of 7, acid solution have a pH less then 7; alkaline solution, a pH greater then 7. 16.20 PIG:- Device sent down pipeline for various purpose. Types including Polypigs, swabs pig, brush pig, go-devil & linelongs pig. 16.21 PILOT PLANT:- A small version of full scale plant in which a laboratory pursues development work, after bench-scale investigation of new process has sown promise. 16.22 PIPELINE:- A line of pipe with pumping machinery & apparatus for conveying a liquid or gas. 16.23 PISTON:- In engine & pump, a reciprocating device in a cylinder or tube which receives pressure from, or delivers pressure to a fluid.


16.24 PISTON RING:- A ring used to maintain a gas tight seal between the piston & the cylinder wall lubrication. 16.25 PITTING:- Irregular corrosion in metalwork. 16.26 PLASTICIZERS:- Non volatile liquid or low melting solid which, when added to another material change certain physical & chemical properties of the material, mainly imparting greater toughness, improved stability & increased flexibility. 16.27 PLATFORMING:- A reforming process which make use of a catalyst containing platinum excess of hydrogen. Catalytic reforming of straight-run heavy gasoline (Naphtha) produced a product which is richer in aromatic & branched-chain paraffin s & poorer in napthenes & straight chain paraffins. The hydrogen produced in this process is used for hydrocracking & hydrosulphurisation . 16.28 POLYELECTROLYTE:- Substance used to encourage flocculation in water treatment unit. 16.29 POLYMER:- A substance produced from another by polymeristion i,e, the combination of a number of identical molecules to form a larger one. 16.30 POUR POINT:- The lowest temperature at which an oil will flow in a laboratory test measured under specified condition. 16.31 POWER RECOVERY TURBINE:- Equipment designed to utilized the energy given up where a process drops from high to a lower pressure. 16.32 PREDILUTION (RATIO):- Butane added to short residue to aid dispersal before entering the extractor in the B.D.U. Ratio of pre-dilution butane is short residue. 16.33 PREHEAT:-To heat, previous to some treatment; as an oil to subsequently distilled, or as body of gas or oil to be used as fuel. 16.34 PREHEATER:- Any form of apparatus in which heat is applied to a material prior to its introduction in to the main heating apparatus. The application of

heat is usually accomplished by mean of hot stream which have to be cooled & whose heat would otherwise be wasted . 16.35 PRESSURE:- The force or trust exerted on a surface, normally expressed as force per unit area. Pressure is exerted in all direction in a system. Common example ; air pressure in a tyre , or water pressure at some depth in the ocean. 16.36 PRESSURE DROP:- The decrease in pressure due to friction, which occurs when a liquid or gas passes through a pipe ,vessel or other peace of equipment. 16.37 PRESULPHIDE:- To added sulphur (as DMDS or CS2) in order to initially activate a catalyst by changing the oxide sites to sulphide. 16.38 PRIMARY:- A term used to describe the structure of certain classes of organic compound, such as alcohol & amines. For example, a primary compound is one in which one hydrogen atom in the carbinol or amino group is replaced by a univalent hydrocarbon radical. 16.39 PRIMERY AIR:- The air required for combustion in a furnace which is mixed with the fuel (gas, oil pulverized coal etc ) in & through the burner. 16.40 PRIMERY PROCESS:- A process based on physical separation e.g. Fractionation, gravity separation etc. 16.41 PRIME MOVER:- Any machine capable of producing power to do work. 16.42 PROCESS INTIGRATION:- A term denoting the selection & arrangement of refinery processes & the optimum uses of the heat contents of the various plant stream. 16.43 PROMOTER:- A substance which may be considerably increase the activity of a catalyst. For example the catalytic action of iron is greatly increase when the catalyst contains a small amount of oxide of aluminum or silicon etc,,eg C1-on plat- former & F- on hydro- cracking catalyst.


16.44 PROPANE C3H8:- A hydrocarbon of paraffin series used for heating, welding & metal cutting. At ambient temperature it can be stored under pressure as a liquid. 16.45 PROPYLENE C3H6:- A hydrocarbon of the offline series. Important base material for the chemical industry. Propylene is used to make iso-propanol, polypropylenes, plasticizers & glycol,s. 16.46 PROSS:- Shell computer for process control & optimization. This has passed into industry in 1999. 16.47 PUKING:- The foaming & rising of oil to the extent that part of the liquid id driven out of the vessel through the vapour line . 16.48 PURGING:- The removal of one liquid from a vessel or plant by introduction any subsequent evacuation of a second fluid. A common uses of this operation is in the removal of hydrocarbon vapour or air from plant by flushing with nitrogen. 16.49 PYROPHORIC:- Takes fire spontaneously upon contact with air. Certain forms of iron sulphide exhibit this tendency.(pyrophoric iron). 17 Q

17.1 QUENCH:- The suddenly cool hot material discharging eg into a vacuum column, by injecting cool oil into the base; its purpose is to check the cracking reaction quickly to avoid coking. 17.2 QUENCH GAS:- Cool gas between the hydrocraker beds used to control reaction temperature. 17.3 QUENCHING OILS:- Specially refined high-flash mineral oil used for hardening alloy steel. 18 R


18 .1 RADANT SECTION :- Section of a furnace exposed to the actual combustion of the foe 18.3 RADITATION:-The act of emitting energy , particularly rays of light or heat. 18.4 RADICAL :- In chemistry a group of atoms whose affinity for one another is so strong that in chemical rejections the group acts as a single atom and is replaced or introduced into a new compound whiteout rearrangement of the atoms bound together in the radical it can never exit alone as a separate compound. 18.5 RAFFINATE:- The product resulting from a solvent extraction process & consisting mainly of those component that are least soluble in the solvent. 18.6 RASCHIG RING:- Tower packing consisting of a small, hollow cylinder with length equal to its diameter, may be made of metal, ceramic, plastic or other material. 18.7 REACTION:- Any chemical change; the transformation of one or more molecules to other molecules. 18.8 REACTION TIME:- The interval during which the material being processed experience chemical change. 18.9 REACTOR:-Term applied to the part of a plant where a chemical reaction takes place. 18.10 REBOILER:- A special type of heat exchanger for the supply of heat to the bottom of fractionation column. 18.11 RECIPROCATING COMPRESSOR:- A displacement compressor relying on forward & backward piston movement. 18.12 RECIPROCATING PUMP:- A positive displacement pump consisting of a plunger or a piston moving back and forth with in a cylinder .With each stroke of the plunger or piston , a definite volume of liquid is drawn in

through the suction valves and subsequently pushed out through the discharge valves. 18.13 RECLAIMER:- Part of the reformer process used to reclaim valuable Sulfinol solution that would otherwise be lost as condensate. Also remove impurities (notably DIPA Oxazolidne) from reclaimed Sulfinol. 18.14 RECONTACTING:- Process of splitting a stream into separate gas/ liquid stream and then recontacting then under pressure. This improves the quality of both stream (i.e makes the gas lighter and liquid denser). Mainly used for maximizing C5 (pentane) retention as a Mogas blending component. 18.15 RECYCLE GAS:- Gas fed back from a later stage of process (usually from the separators) to the early stage. Usually impure and heavy. 18.16 RECYCLEOIL:- Oil recycled from a later stage of the process to an earlier one. HCU second stage feed is recycled from the HCU fractionators and consists of insufficiently cracked material (i.e. heavier than gas oil). 18.17 RECYCLE RATIO:-The quantity of recycle stock relative to to the quantity of fresh feed .the units of quantity in this relationship very with the plant concerned. See also combined feed ratio. 18.18 RECYCLING :A- The maintenance of reservoir pressure through re-injection into the reservoir of the produced gas, after extraction of the condensate in the gas plant. B-Continuously feeding back part of a substance obtained or used in a process for further processing or use. 18.19 REDUCED CRUED:- A residual product remaining after the removal, by distillation or other mean, of an appreciable quantity of the more volatile component of crude oil. 18.20 REDUCTION:- The removal of oxygen- or reduction of hydrogen of a compound. Effectively the opposite of the oxidation.

18.21 REFINERS MARGIN GROSS:- The difference in value between the product value ex-refinery & landed value of feedstock & blendstock. 18.22 REFINERS MARGIN NET:- The gross refiners margin less fixed & variable cost of refining. 18.23 REFINERY:-A plant, with all its included equipment, for manufacturing finished or semi-finished products from crude oil. 18.24 REFINERY FUEL & LOSS:- The difference between in intake & output due to the amount used as fuel as fuel & lost through tank breathing etc. 18.25 REFINING:- The separation of crude oil into its component parts, & the manufacture there form of products needed for the market. Important process in the refining are distillation, cracking, chemical treating, & solvent extraction. 18.26 REFLUX:- A part (if top product is in the liquid state) or all (if the top product is in the vapour phase) of the condensed top vapour of a fractionating column, which is returned to the top of the column. The purpose is to create an extra downward flow of liquid; if properly applied this liquid act as an absorbing agent, for the relatively heavy component which are the rejected from the product. 18.27 REFLUX CONDENSER:- A condenser which constantly vapours 7 return liquid to the original distilling unit or to lower levels of an fractionating tower. 18.28 REFLUX RATIO:1- The quantity of reflux per unit quantity of distillate removed from the process as a product(forward flow). 2- For design purposes, the ratio of fluid reflux to vapour at any given in a fractionating column . Values may range from zero to unit. 18.29 REFORMING:113

1- See catalytic reforming platforming. 2- Process for the manufacture of hydrogen from steam & light hydrocarbon. 18.30 REFRACTORY:1- Any material not easily effected by heat, such as firebrick. 2- Difficult to decompose, for example, in cracking gas oil to produce gasoline. 18.31 REFRACTORY BRICK :- A brick which is used as a lining of the interior of firebox in furnaces & boiler. Refractory brick is constructed so that it can withstand very high temperature, but it is not a very good insulator. 18.32 REGENRATION:1 the process of restoring a material to its original strength or properties. 2 in a catalytic process, the reactivation of the catalyst, usually done by burning off the coke deposits under carefully controlled condition of temperature & oxygen content of the regeneration gas stream. May be done in situ or ex situ. 18.33 REGENERATION: - Term applied to the part of a catalytic cracking unit or continuously regenerable plat former (CCR) where the spent catalyst is regenerated by burning off the cock. 18.34 REID VAPOUR PRESSURE (RVP):- The pressure caused by vaporized part of a liquid & the enclosed air & water vapour, as measured under standardized condition in standardized apparatus; the result is given in Kilo pascals at 37.8 c, although normally reported simply as RVP in kPa. There is no simple relation between the RVP & the true vapour pressure of the liquid. RVP give some indication of the volatility of a liquid eg gasoline lower in summer & higher in winter. 18.35RELIFE VALVE: - A sprig loaded valve fitted on any place of any equipment or plant where normal operating pressure are above atmospheric. This type of


valve automatically opens, thus releving internal pressure when thw latter exceeds the maximum permissible level. 18.36 RERUNNING :- The distillation of an oil which has been already distilled. Necessary when a finished batch has been pt off grade of any reason. 18.37 RESEARCH OCTAEN NUMBER (RNO):- The octane number of motor gasoline determined in a special laboratory test engine, under mild engine severity condition, giving a rough measure of the low speed knock properties of gasoline. 18.38 RESIDENCE TIME:- The average length of time a quantity of reactant spend in contact with catalyst, or within a particular part of the process. 18.39 RESIDUAL FUEL OIL:- Fuel oil consisting mainly of long, short or cracked residue(in contrast to gasoline fuel oil). 18.40 RESIDUE:- The heavy residual liquid from the atmospheric distillation of crude oil is called long residue. If such residue is further distilled under vacuum a still heavier residual liquid result, which is called short residue. 18.41 RESIN:- Organic compound produced by polymerization. 1- Water treatment resins are used for water softening. With a very large surface area, liken to a sponge. 2- Epoxy & polyester resins of various type are used as fillers, adhesives, & coating. 18.42 RETAINED EARNINGS:- Accumulated profits not distributed to shareholders. 18.43 RETURN BEND:-A, U shaped pipe fitting, used to contact parallel; pipe so that fluid flowing into one will return in the opposite direction through the other. 18.44 RICH ADIP:- Adip containing dissolved H2s.


18.45 RING COMPOUND:- Organic compound in which the atom of a molecule are arranged so as to form at list one closed ring, for example, napthenes, & aromatic. Also called cyclic compounds. 18.46 RISER:1 The portion of the bubble plate assembly which channels the vapour & causes it to flow upward to escape through the liquid. 2 Fixed vertical line used to get fire water to high level. 18.47 ROCKET FUEL:- Propellant consisting of two component, oxidizer 7 fuel, which react to give gases product & release energy. Rocket fuel are compared on the basis of specific empulse, which mean the pound of thrust produced per pound of fuel burned per second. Rocket fuel may be liquid or solid . In the latter case, the component must be intimately premixed. In some instance the liquid system may be a single liquid, in which case it is called a mono-propellant. 18.48 ROTAMETER:- Simple flow gauge utilizing a ball or flot in a tapered graduated tube. The greater the flow, the more it rise the ball up the tube. 18.49 ROTARY PUMP :- A positive displacement pump used mainly to pump liquid which are either too viscous or too difficult to obtain suction with a centrifugal pump. There are many type of rotary pump design. One of the most common is the gear type pump in which two gear mesh & rotate toward each other within a very close fitting casing. The liquid is trapped between the gear teeth & the casing & is carried around to the discharge side of the pump. The meshing gear teeth prevent the liquid from returning to the suction side. 18.50 RUNDOWN TANK:- One of the tank in which received the condensates from the stills, agitators or other refinery equipment, & from which the distillates are pumped to larger tank known as work tank or storage tank . Rundown tank are also known as pans or receiving tank. If the condensate were


received directly in to the large storage tank, possible puking of a still could unnecessarily contaminate a large quantity of distillate. 19 S

19.1 SEA CLASSIFICATION :- The SAE devised a system for the classification of motor oils and transmission oil .It is based on the viscosity at 0 or 100 deg. C. Motor oil are on the scale 5w-50 and transmission oil are 80-250. 19.2 SAFEGUARDING : - Total procedure for safety proofing plant. Includes relief systems, functional logic and emergency procedures. 19.3 SALT : - A compound in which a metal or other positive ion exists in place of the hydrogen of an acid (e.g. sodium chloride, in which sodium replaces the hydrogen of hydrochloric acid). 1. By direct replacement of the acid hydrogen with a metal. 2. By neutralization of the acid with an appropriate alkali. 3. By double decomposition. 19.4 SAMPLE : -ample of a process flow, tank etc. taken for laboratory analysis. 19.5 SATURATED HYDROCARBON : - A hydrocarbon of such molecular structure that all adjacent carbon atoms are connected by nor more than one valence or bond , or diagrammatically as follows c-c each valence not taken up by adjacent carbon atoms connects with a hydrogen atom. 19.6 SATURATION TEMPARATURE:- Of steam the temperature at a given pressure, at which steam exists in conjunction with water e.g. 100 c at atmospheric pressure. 19.7 SCAVENGERS:- Chemical additives remove or inactivate impurity or undesired material in a mixture or process, eg hydrazine is an oxygen scavenger used in water treatment.

19.8 SCHEDULING:- The day to day planning of refinery operation to meet long term programmes. 19.9 SCHOEPENTOETER:- Dutch for vane trumpet-an internal distribution device, may be sideways or downward pointing. 19.10 SEAL:- A devise to used to seal the contents of a pump/ copressure from the atmosphere. Occasionally more explosive & complex then the pump itself. 19.11 SCEONDARY AIR :- The air which provides the oxygen necessary for the complete combustion of fuel 9gas, oil, powdered coal etc) & which was not provided by the burner in the form of primary air. 19.12 SECONDARY PROCESS:- A process based on chemical change, eg Hydro cracking, plat forming, usually catalysed. 19.13 SIZE:- To stic or fail to function, as in engine bearing, because of expansion, caused by heat, friction, or scoring. Also called freeze . 19.14 SENSIBLE HEAT:- The heat added to, or taken from, a body when temperature is changed. Note that no change in stage of the body (eg solid to liquid) is involved. C f latent heat. 19.15 SEPARATOR:01 An apparatus in which heavy liquid impurities are separated from oil. 02 The part of distilling apparatus in which a partial separation of the vapours is effected by means of contact with cooling surfaces. 19.16 SEPARATION INDEX: - A measure of the degree of separation between components in distillation column. 19.17 SEPARATION PROCESS: - Manufacturing process based on differences in the physical


19.18 SETTLER: - A separator, a tub, pan, vat, or tank in which the partial separation of a mixture is made due to difference in density. The operation may be continuous or batch. The separation may be solids or gas, liquid from gas. 19.19 SETTLING POINT: - Laboratory test determining the temperature at which solidification of a molten wax begins. 19.20 SETTLING TANK: - A tank employed for separating two liquids which are not miscible. If the liquids do not form an emulsion. They separate into layers according to their specific gravities, and these layers can be drawn off from different levels in the tank, 19.21SHEREHOLDERS INVESTMENT: - Retained Earnings plus Capital Reserves plus Original Equity = investment made in the Company by Shareholders. 19.22 SHIFT REACTION: - Conversion of CO to Co2 by addition of water, following general reaction CO H2O- >CO2+H2 Both Hi and low temperature shift reaction are used. 19.23 SHORT RESIDUE: - The residue resulting from vacuum distillation of long residue. (Removal of vacuum gas oil and waxy distillate) 19.24 SIDE STRIPPER: - A fractionating column for stripping undesired volatile components from a side steam which is drawn off as a liquid from amain fractionating column. Various fractions may be drawn off from one main column, and be stripped in as many side strippers. 19.25 SIDESTREAM: - A liquid stream taken from any one pf the intermediate of trayed distillation column. 19.26 SIEVE TRAYS: - Fractionating trays consisting of service-like materials, generally perforated plate. The flow is essentially of the dual type, but this character may be reduced by the provision of down comers. 19.27 SIGHT GLASS: - Device used to directly show the level in vessel, boiler, etc by means of a glass tube.

19.28 SILVER STRIP: - A very strict corrosion test for A VTUR. 19.29 SLACK WAX: - See crude wax. 19.30 SLIDE VALVE: - A type of valve for controlling offs the flow of catalyst in a continuous regeneration unit. 19.31 SLOPS: - A term loosely used to denote. 01) Crude oil containing excessive water contamination which must removed by settling before pumping to the crude distiller. 02) All products which are off-specification and must be reprocessed before marketing. Such products are for example produced during the start-up period. 19.32 SLUDGE:A) Acid sludge or acid tar: material formed during refining of oils with sulphuric acid. B) Engine sludge: insoluble product formed from fuel combustion products and from lubricating oils in internal combustion engines and deposited on parts outside the combustion space. C) Tank sludge: material collected at the bottom of oil stroge tank. 19.33 SMOKE POINT: - The maximum height of flame measured in millimeters at which a kerosene will burn without smoking when tested in a standard lamp for this purpose. 19.34 SOLER ENERGY: - Energy produced by radiation from sun. 19.35 SOLUBLE OIL: - Oil which readily forms stable emulsions or colloidal suspensions in water. Used as a cutting fluid in machine work. 19.36 SOLUTION: - A homogenous mixture of two or more chemically un-reacted fluids. be


19.37 SOLVENT: - A substance, usually liquid, capable of dissolving another liquid, gas or solid to forma homogenous mixture. 19.38 SOLVENT EXTRACTION: - See extraction. 19.39 SOVENT / FEED RATIO: - On the BDU, the rate of the total amount of butane (predilution and normal) to short residue. 19.40 SOOTBLOWER: - A device for removal of spoot from furnace tubes- to increase heat transfer generally using a steam blast nozzle. However, a shot drops system (as on the HCU) does the same job and is sometimes referred to as a soot blower. 19.41 SOURCRUD: - Crude oils containing an abnormally large amount of sulphur and sulphur compounds which break down upon refining to liberate troublesome quantities of corrosive sulphur compounds. This is a relative term. 19.42 SOUR GAS: - Gas which contains objectionable amounts of contaminants. E.g. hydrogen sulphide and other corrosive sulphur compounds. 19.43 SOUR GASOLINE: - Gasoline fractions which contain a certain amount of mercaptans and therefore must be sweetened. 19.44 SOUR WATER: - Water which contains objectionable amounts of dissolved contaminants, e.g. hydrogen sulphide, ammonia, phenols etc. 19.45 SPACE VELOCITY: - A convenient unit for expressing the relationship between feed rate and reactor volume in a flow process. It is defined as the volume of weight of feed (measured at standard conditions) per unit time volume of reactor or per unit weight of catalyst. 19.46 SPADE: - A solid plate inserted in a flanged joint to positively isolate one side of the flange from other. Also called blank, banjo. 19.47 SPALLING: - flaking of the surface of metals of refractories, leaving new surfaces exposed.

19.48 SPARGE: - Spray- usually with water (originally a brewers term). 19.49 SPARK ADVANCE :- In an ignition-type internal-combustion engine, the amount measured in degrees of crankshaft rotation, that the spark plug fires before the position reaches the point of its traverse closest to the cylinder head. 19.50 SPECIFIC GRAVITY: - The ratio of the weight of volume of a body, to the weight of an equal volume of some standard substance. In the case of liquids and solids, the standard is water, in the case of gases; the standard is hydrogen or air. 19.51 SPECIFIC HEAT: - The ratio of the quantity of heat required raising the temperature of a body by one degree to that required to raise the temperature of an equal mass of water by one degree. 19.52 SPECTACLE: - Or Spec blind. A figure of 8 shaped plate that can be either put to the open or closed position, but always stays in the line. 19.53 SPHERE- SEE HORTON SPHERE 19.54 SPLITTER: - A fractionating tower with overhead and bottom 19.55 SPOT: - Refers to prices of single cargoes traded on an open market basis. They can vary considerably with the supply/demand situation. 19.56 STABILISATION: The process of separating light gases from petroleum or gasoline, thus leaving the liquid stable in the sence that it can be handied or stored with less liability to change in composition. 19.57 STABLISED GASOLINE: - Gasoline after subjection to fractionation by which the vapour pressure has been reduced to a specified maximum. 19.58 STABILITY: - Resistance of petroleum products to chemical change. Gum stability mean the resistance of a gasoline to gum forming while in storage. Oxidation stability mean that the product is stable to oxidation, ie resist the action of oxidation which form gum, sledges etc.

19.59 STABILISER:- A fractionating column design to make a sharp separation between very volatile component & gasoline, ex-crude oil, casing head gasoline or pressure distillate; thus controlling the gasoline s Read vapour pressure. 19.60 STADIS: - An anti static additive. 19.61 STANDARD PRESSURE:- Pressure under which the mercury barometer stand at 760 mm, or 30in.(Equivalent to approxmetely14.7 psia). 19.62 STANDARD REFINARY FUEL (SRF):-A hypothetical refinery fuel with a gross calorific value of 10336kcal/kg. Allows all refinery fuel components to be converted to an SRF equivalent based on calorific values. 19.63 STAND BY: - A term used to designate emergency auxiliary equipment which is not used during normal operation. 19.64 STAND PIPE:- Any pipe that stands proud from a base, e.g. fireman s stand pipe for tapping into an underground main or vessels internal stand pipe to avoid ingress of dirt, scale etc. from the base of the vessel. 19.65 STATIC ELECTRICITY:-The electricity generated by the relative movement of unlike materials such as oil/ pipe line , oil/water, plastic granules/vessel , or by the operation of equipment such as driving belts. 19.66 STEAM/AIR DECOKIN:- In heavy oil furnaces over the period of a process run, the differential pressure across the furnace tubes may increase until it is uneconomical to continue the run. This high pressure drop is caused by carbon built on the inside of the tube. We can burn this carbon off by steam / air decoking. 19.67 STEAM DISTILLATION:- A distillation in which vaporization of volatile constituent is effected at a reduced temperature by introduction of steam directly into the charge. Steam used in this manner is termed open steam. 19.68 STEAM REFORMING: - As used in the reformer for manufacture of H2follows general formula CH4+H2O-> 3H2+CO.

19.69 STEEL: - A solid state mixture of iron & 1-4% carbon. Can have different structures e.g. 1- Austenitic- strong, ductile. 2- Pearlitic- low mechanical strength eventually occurs in furnace tube when subjected to flame impingement. 3- Martens tic- Very hard- used in valve faces etc. 19.70 stonewall:- The condition where a centrifugal compressor is delivering its maximum flow. 19.71 STRAIGHT-RUN:- A term applied to a product of petroleum made by distillation without conversion. 19.72 STRAINER:- Alternative term for filter. Used for removal of fine material. 19.73 STRAPPING:- The measurement of the external diameter of a cylindrical tank by stitching a steel tape around each course of the tanks plates & recording the measurement. 19.74 STRIPPING:- Removal of the lightest fraction from a mixture. The process is usually carried out by passing the hot liquid from a flash drum or tower into a stripping vessel or stripping section of column, through which open stream or inert gas is pass to remove the more volatile component of the cut. A fractionating process, closely related to distillation by which undesired volatile component are separated from a liquid mixture by fractional evaporation. The desired fraction is thus purified from lower boiling components. Stripping is generally effected by the introduction of steam, by the reduction of pressure, by vapour generated in a reboiler or a combination of these. In a laboratory nitrogen is often used as stripping agent. 19.76 STUFFING BOX:- A device affording the passage & the length wise & rotary motion of a piston rod, or some similar moving peace while maintaining a fluid-tight seal about the moving part.

19.77 SULFINOL PROCESS:- A process for removing contaminants such as carbon dioxide from gases by contacting with a regenerable solvent. Sulfinol is a three component solvent combining the chemical properties of the ADIP solvent with physical properties of Sulfolane & water. 19.78 SULFOLAEN:- Tetrahydro-Thiophen-Dioxide- A component of Sulfinol solution. 19.79 SULPHATE: - A salt of sulphuric acid, eg Sodium sulphate, Na2SO4 or ethylsulphate (C2H5)2SO4. 19.80SULPHIDE:- Any of the compound resulting from the combination of the sulphur ion(S=) with metallic or other positive ions, or organic radicals. 19.81 SULPHUR CEMENT: - At NZRC the final product from H2S removal. A non metallic element of lemon-yellow colour, some times known as brimstone. Sold in liquid from to fertilizer work. 19.82 SULPHUR CEMENT: - Hard high melting point solid formed by the mixing of refractory brickwork & liquid sulphur. 19.83 SULPHUR DIOXIDE: - A colorless gas, SO2, a by product of combustion of sulphurous fuels. 19.84 SULPHURIC ACID: -Traditionally known as oil or vitriol. A combination of sulphur trioxide with water (SO3+H2O=H2SO4). It is a very strong oily liquid an important water treating agent. 19.85 SUPERHEATER:-Apparatus which impart heats to a liquid above that required for vaporization. e.g. as used for a adding heat to steam above the saturation temperature. 19.86 SURFACE ARE:-The sum of the outer and inner surfaces. A porous solid may be said to have two different types of area one made up of the external, the geometric, or the outer surface of the particle, the other, called the inner made up the walls of capillaries, crevices, and cracks in the particle. The sum


of these is the total surface area. The ratio of total to outer area is some times known as the roughness factor. 19.87 SURFACE TENSSION:-The force exerted by the particles of a liquid at its surface which maintains a continuous surface. The surface tension is determined by measuring the energy required to increase the surface by the unit of area. That property due to the molecule attractive force and existing in the surface film of all liquids. Which tends to bring the volume contained in the liquid surface film into a form having the least surface area? 49.88 SURFACRANTS: - Surface active agent i.e. traces chemical species which can adversely affect the water shedding properties of fuel. 19.89 SURAGE: 1. An upheaval of fluid in a system frequently causing a carryover of liquid through the vapour lines (see also PUKING). 2. An undesirable condition of unstable flow occurring with in centrifugal compressors when the surge parameter drops below a critical value. A very dangerous conditions for the compressor, hence the need for surge protection (anti-surge line). 19.90 SURGE DRUM: - Vessel used to even out the flow into a unit, as the through put and the feed rate may vary. See also buffer. 19.91 SURGE PARAMETER: - Indication of nearness to storage condition based on process instrumentation. 19.92 SUSPENSION: - A heterogeneous mixture of one or more materials- distinct from a solution. The state of a solid or liquid when its particles are mixed with and buoyed in another liquid but are not dissolved by it. A suspension of a liquid in a liquid is called an emulsion. 19.93 SWEET GAS: - Hydrocarbon gas free from sulphur compounds. 19.94 SWEETENING: - The process by which petroleum products is improved in odour abd colour by oxiding or removing the sulphur-containing and

unsaturated compounds. The conversion of the mercaptans present in sour gasoline into non-smelling disulphide. 19.95 SYNFUEL: - A fuel made by the catalytic deoxidization of methanol using the MOBIL ZSM-S catalyst. It is blended by NZRC into gasoline or sold as unleaded 92 RON gasolines overseas. 19.96 SYNTHESIS: - The act or process of making or building up a compound by the union of simpler compounds or of its elements. 20 T

20.1 TANK CAR:-A cylindrical metal tank mounted on an under frame and trucks so that it can be run along a railroad. 20.2 TANK FARM: - Area in which a number of storage tanks are located 20.3 TANK VOLUME: - GROSS total amount of pump able material plus tank bottoms. NET-total amount of pumpable material only. 20.4 TANKAGE:-The capacity of a tank or of a series of tanks, in the same field. 20.5 TANKER: - A ship especially constructed for the transportation of oil. 20.6 TEMPERATURE: - An arbitrary measurement of the degree of heat possessed by a body. It should be distinguished from heat itself. Heat is a form of energy; temperature is a measurement of its intensity. 20.7 TEMPERATURE GRADIENT: - The difference in temperature between two location, e.g. between the top & bottom of a distillation column. Often expressed as temperature difference per unit length. 20.8 TEROMAN: - A computerized maintenance management system.


20.9 TETRAETHYL LEAD (TEL):- It is added to gasoline to prevent knocking (increase octane number) in internal combustion engine. 20.10 TETRAMETHYL LEAD (TML):- It is added to motor gasoline to prevent knocking in internal combustion engine. It is more effective then TEL in improving the road octane number of a gasoline at a certain RON level, as a result of its higher volatility. 20.11 THERM:-Unit of heat equal to 100000 Btu. 20.12 THERMAL CRACKING: - Process of backing down the larger molecule of heavy oils into smaller ones by the action of heat. In this way heavy oils can be converted in to lighter & more valuable product. 20.13 THERMOCOUPLE:- The junction of two wires of dissimilar metals, which develop an electrical potential that is a function of the temperature. An instrument for measuring temperature by mean of the electrical potential produced at a heated junction of two dissimilar metals. 20.14 THERMOSTAT: - An automatic device for regulating temperature. 20.15 TOLUENE C6H5CH3:- An aromatic hydrocarbon, used in the manufacture of the explosive TNT (trinitrotoluene) & in the production of dyestuffs & pharmaceutical. 20.16 TONNAGE (MARINE): - A marine measurement term. Gross tonnage is the total internal volume of the fuel & all superstructures, such as deck houses, etc being expressed in tons of 100 cubic feet or 2.83 cubic meters. Deadweight tonnage is the weight of the cargo, stores, bunkers & water which the ship can lift, expressed in long tons (2240ib or 1016 kg). 20.17 TOPANOL:- An inhibitor to prevent the formation of gum during storage of petroleum products. Gum form as a result of the polymerization of unsaturated hydrocarbon under the influence of peroxide. Topanol is added to prevent peroxide formation.


20.18 TOPS: - The lightest gasoline fraction obtained when distilling crude oils. Also generally the top product of any fractionating column. 20.19 TORQUE: - An engineering term defined as the product of force times the length of the lever arms. It is a measure of the ability to produce rotation. 20.20 TOTAL ORANIC CARBON (TOC):- Amount of organic carbon in sample, determined by oxidation of CO2. 20.21 TOTAL SUSPENDED SOLIDS (TSS):- A water specification, UN- dissolved solid matter greater then 1.5 microns. 20.22 TOWER: - An apparatus for increasing the degree of separation obtained during the distillation of oil in a still. Tower may be divided in to two general classes ; those which secure separation by fractionation & those which take advantage of partial condensation only .Tower of the first class are used when accurate work is necessary, as in the production of naphthas & gasoline. Condensation tower are used to divide roughly the vapour from a still in to several liquid portians. 20.23 TRANSFER LINE: - A pipe through which material being processed flows from one piece of equipment to another. 20.24 TRANSFORMER OIL: - Oil used in transformer to removed the heat generated in the core & coil & to provide insulation between live parts. Transformer oil as a rule is a highly refined spindle type oil. A high degree of refining is required to give the oil good dielectrical properties. 20.25 TRAP:1- A device or piece of equipment for separating one phase from another as liquid from a gas or condensate from steam. 2- Any geological formation that will trap hydrocarbon eg fault, salt dome, discontinuity. 20.26 TRAYS: - See fractionating trays.

20.27 TREATING PROCESSES:- Supplementary refining processes in which undesirable constituents (mainly olefin & oxygen nitrogen and sulphur containing compounds) are removed or converted in to less harmful compound so as to meet the product specification for further processing or for market. 20.28 TRIP SYSTEM:- A of fail safe partial and total shutdown mechanisms to protect the plants safety under extreme operating condition. 2.28 TRYCOCKS: - A series of valve for double checking the supposed level in a sight glass. 20.29 TURBINE:- A rotating prime mover actuated by either the reaction or the impulse or both, of a current of water , steam or gas, usually on a service of curved vanes attached to a central shaft. 20.31 TURBINE OIL: - specially refined, inhibited lubricating oil used to lubricate steam turbine. 20.32 TURBOJET ENGINE:- An engine in which air is compressed by a rotating compressor, is heated by fuel combustion at compressor pressure, released through a gas turbine which drive the compressor, and finally ejected high velocity through the rearward exhaust nozzle. 20.33 TURNAROUND:- The necessary to clean and make repair on refining equipment after a normal run. It is the elapsed time between drawing the first (shutting the unit down) and putting the unit on-stream again. 20.34 TURN DOWN:- Amount or percentage by which a unit or plant may be turned down from its maximum. Typically 50% is the minimum. (The plant are designed to run at/or close to maximum) 21 U


21.1 ULLAGE: - The volume of space in a container unoccupied by contents. Hence alleging, a method of gauging the contents of a take by measuring the hight of liquid surface from the top of the tank. See dipping. 21.2 UNSATURATED:- A term applied to organic compound in which some carbon atoms are held together by double or triple bond, so that these compound are under favourable conditions capable of combining with other element or compound. 21.3 UPPER EXPLOSIVE LIMIT (UEL):- The richest that will explode. A lesser air/ hydrocarbon ratio will not ignite. 21.4 UPSTREAM: - Toward the start of the process eg crude storage, feed pump, pretreatment etc. In the business sense, exploration % crude production from wells.


22.1 V50:-A viscosity index (at50C) which enables linear viscosity blending calculations. 22.2 VACUUM:- A space entirely devoid of matter( called specifically absolute vacuum) ,a space, such as the interior of a closed vessel exhausted to some degree by a steam ejector set or other artificial means. (Any vacuum less than absolute is a partial vacuum). 22.3 VACUUM DISTILLATION: - Distillation of a liquid under reduced pressure, aimed at keeping the temperature level as low as the prevent appreciable cracking. For example used to distill vacuum gas oil and waxy distillate feedstock from long residue, leaving the short residue as reminder, also used for manufacture of bitumen. 22.4 VALENCE: - The combining power of an element. As exhibited by the number of atomic weights of hydrogen with which one atomic weight of the element

will combine. Certain atoms are capable of combining with others in different proportions they are said to have a number of valences or are multivalent. 22.5 VALVE: - Apparatus used to control the flow or supply of gasses, liquids or fluidized solids. 22.6 VALVE TRAYS: - Fractionating tray consisting of a plate with holes for vapour passage, characterized by the presence of valves over these holes. These valves are aimed at preventing liquid passage (if liquid pressure should become too high) while allowing flexibility in vapour passage (depending on pressure of the vapour). The flow is meant to be of the single type, and down comers is generally provided. 22.7 VAPOUR: - Gaseous substance which can be at least partly condensed by cooling or compression. 22.8 VAPOUR DENSITY: - The weight per unit volume of gas eg gram per liter or pounds per cubic foot. 22.9 VAPOUR LINE: - The pipe through which vapours are led from a column to a condenser. 22.10 VAPOUR LOCK: - A condition which arises when a gas is vapour is present in the fuel line or fuel pump in sufficient volume to interfere with or prevent the flow of fuel to the carburetor of an engine. 22.11 VAPOUR PHASE: - The term describing a substance in the gaseous state, under condition in which it is capable of being liquefied either by pressure or cooling or a combination of both. 22.12 VAPOUR PRESSURE (AT GIVEN TEMPERATURE):- The pressure exerted by the vapours released from any material, at a given temperature, when enclosed in a vapour-container. The lower pressure at which a liquid, contained in a closed vessel at the given temperature, can remain in the liquid state without evaporation. Lowering the vessel pressure below the vapour pressure results in evaporation of part or all of the liquid. A

compound fraction with a high pressure requires a high pressure to be kept as a liquid, thus it is volatile. 22.13 VAPORISATION:-The conversion of a liquid to its vapour. Such as the changing of water in to stem. 22.14 VENTURI METER: - A specially designed tube for measuring the rates of flow of gases or liquids, having a constriction or throat with convergent upstream and divergent downstream walls, the angles of which are such that streamline or almost streamline flow through the tube is achieved. The rate of flow is measured by the pressure drop across the throat. 22.15 VENTURI TUBE: - A tube inserted in a line, whose internal surface consists of two truncated cones connected at the small ends by a short cylinder (the throat). As the velocity of flow of the fluid increases in the throat, the pressure decreases. The tube is used to measure the quantity of fluid flowing or, by jointing a branch tube at the throat, to produce suction. 22.16 VISCOSIMETER: - Instrument of measuring viscosities. A) Absolute viscosity is determined by a capillary type instrument. The time required for a sample to flow through a known length of glass capillary is registered. Results are often given in centistokes or Centipoises B) In the petroleum industry the viscosity is generally determined in standardized instruments consisting of a container with a hole or jet in the bottom. Various types are used, viz in the UK, the redwood 1 and Redwood 11, in the USA the Saybolt Universal and Saybolt furol and on the European continent the Engler viscosimeter. Results with the Redwood and Saybolt viscosimeters are expressed in the seconds, those with the Engler in Engler degrees. 22.17 VISCOSITY: -The dynamic viscosity of a liquid is measure of its resistance to flow. It is defined as the force per unit surface required to shear a layer of unit thickness at unit velocity. The kinetic viscosity is equal to the dynamic


viscosity divided by the density of the liquid. If no distinction is made the dynamic viscosity is usually meant. 22.18 VISCOSITY INDEX: - A method of indicating the ciscosity/tempreture of an oil. Oils are generally classed as high, medium and low viscosity index oils. (HVI, MVI, LVI) 22.19 VOLATILE: - Term applied materials which have a sufficiently high vapour pressure at normal temperature to evaporate readily at normal atmospheric pressure and temperature. It implies a high degree of volatility.


23.1 WASH OILS: -Petroleum fractions employed for the absorption of the relatively and easily liquefiable components of a mixture of gases (to reduce gas stream density) 23.2 WASH WATER: - Water injected into a process either for scrubbing a recycle gas or for corrosion protection in critical parts of the unit. 23.3 WASTE HEAT BOILER: - Equipment used for generation of steam etc.from excess heat in stack gases. 23.4 WATER BOTTOM: - Water accumulated at (or sometimes added to) the base of the oil in a storage tank. In cases where the tank bottom is very uneven, the water level assists in the accurate measurement of the oil content of the tank. 23.5 WATER SOFTENING: - Process of removing free ions from water-see deionised water. 23.6 WAXY DISTILLATE: - A fractional cut about equal to the middle section of long residue. Hydrocracker-Feedstock.


23.7 WEAR: - The attrition or rubbing away of the surface of a material as a result of mechanical action. 23.8 WEATHERING: - The often undesired process of slow evaporation of volatile fractions from a petroleum fraction during storage. It is promoted by breathing. 23.9 WEIGHTED AVERAGE BED TEMPRATURE (WABT): 01) The some of individual bed temperature weighted for the amount of catalyst in each bed, Divided by the total catalyst weight. 02) The WABT is often normalized , to take account of changes in the feed type or reaction severity, to allow direct comparison on the same base. 23.10 WEIR: - A wall or partition for maintaining a level of liquid used in fractionator s trays and kettle reboilers. 23.11 WET GAS: - Petroleum gas containing such quantities of the lower members of the paraffin hydrocarbon series (propane, butane etc.) that the recovery of liquid product from that gas may be economical. A gas containing a relatively high proportion of hydrocarbons which are recoverable as liquids. 23.12 WHESSOE: - Tank gauging systems used in oil movements. 23.13 WHITE OIL: - Generic name applied to highly refined, colourless hydrocarbon oils. 23.14 WHITE PRODUCTS: - Light petroleum products such as gasoline, white spirit and kerosene. 23.15 WHITE SPIRITS: - Fractions intermediate between gasoline and kerosene with a boiling range of approximately 150-200 C. They are used in paints and dry leaning. Not an NZRC Product. 23.16 WIDE RANGE DISTILLATE: - A distillate with a wide boiling range. As a combination of gasoline and kerosene fractions it is used for aircraft powered by gas turbines.


24.1 XRAY: - otherwise known as Rontgen rays. One of the highly penetrating radiations similar to Gamma rays; they do not come from the nucleus of the atom, but from the surrounding electrons. They are produced by electron bombardment. Applications; analysis (fluorescent x-ray spectroscopy); nondestructive testing, e.g. tube walls in furnace. 24.2 XYLENE C6H4 (CH) 2:- An aromatic hydrocarbons of which there are three isomers (ortho, Meta, ane Para). An important constituent of gasoline. 25 Y

25.1 YARD PIPE (YP):- Any of the pipes within the Tank farm used for rundown, transfer, shipping etc. As distinct from the pipes within the unit battery limits. The yard pipes are numbered. 25.2 YIELD: - The amount of a desired product or products obtained in a given process, expressed as a percentage of the feedstock. There are many yields, each of which should be specifically defined when used, e.g. saleable yield is the volume % of feedstock turned into sakeable product.