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Women Typographers
Their Faces
Carol Twombly Sibylle Hagmann Zuzana Licko
by andrea nordstrom

3

introduction 5 carol twombly chaparral myriad adobe caslon 7 9 15 21

sibylle hagmann 25 odile 27 zuzana licko base 9 filosofia mrs eaves 31 33 37 41

credits 44

2

3

the art of creating and setting type has undergone vast changes since Gutenberg’s press in 1439 and has seen radical inventions and typographical revivals in the last two-hundred years. Experimentation with letter forms, printing processes, and refinement of classical typefaces have broadened the possibilities of expressing

Typographical Genius
language, creating wonderful opportunities to give life and voice to words in unprecedented ways. Some of the finest typographers and typeface designers are those at work today. However, women make up a very small portion of them. Advances in the technologies used to create and set type and protracted progression towards gender equality in this arena provide the opportunity for women to take a leading role. This book introduces you to the faces of some of the leading women type designers and highlights several of their finest type designs.

4

introduction 5

After returning to work for Bigelow and Holmes for four years, Twombly was hired to be a type designer for Adobe Systems. Her typeface Mirarae had already been created and awarded first prize in the Latin text category at the Morisawa type competition in Japan. While working at Adobe for the following nine years, she created eight more typefaces that display profound historical sensibility (as in the faces Adobe Trajan and Adobe Caslon), as well as an adventurous spirit that push the stylistic bounds of letterforms. She was the recipient of the Charles Peignot award from the Association of Typographique Internationale in 1994 for her many contributions to her field, making her the first woman and second American to receive this fine award. Though she is now pursuing other artistic interests, Twombly left an incredible legacy in the world of type design, contributing some of the most preferred typefaces in use today.

Carol Twombly's typefaces often go unnoticed, though we interact with them every day. Whether it's Adobe Trajan on the latest blockbuster poster or Myriad on your iPod and your laptop's keyboard, Twombly's work is widely recognized and loved by typographers for its extreme legibility, grace, and historic legitimacy. Possessing vast artistic talents and interests, Twombly's first collegiate pursuits earned her a degree in architecture from the prestigious Rhode Island Institute of Design as she aimed to be a sculptor. It was during her studies at RISD that Twombly was first introduced to the world of type design by her professor Charles Bigelow and his partner, Kris Holmes, for whom she worked in their studio during her summer breaks. Following a year of working after graduation, Twombly was selected as one of five students to be a part of a new (short-lived) digital typography program at Stanford University. Two years later she was awarded a Master of Science degree for her studies in computer science and type design.

Carol Twombly

typefaces by twombly: * Adobe Caslon (1990) * Chaparral (2000) Charlemagne (1989) Lithos (1989) Mirarae (1984) * Myriad (1992) Nueva (1994) Trajan (1989) Viva (1993)

7

Chaparral is a hybrid slab-serif which marries the grace of traditional serifs and the sleekness and modernity of slab serifs to create a highly readable, yet relaxed typeface.

Chaparral
1234567890

Light Caption Display Subhead

Regular Semibold Bold

ABCDEFGHIJKLMNOPQRSTUVWXYZ ABCDEFGHIJKLMNOPQRSTUVWXYZ abcdefghijklmnopqrstuvwxyz fiflffffifflfjffj₡€ℓ,.'[]{}-=;"!@#$%^&*()
9

Sixty zippers were quickly picked from the woven jute bag. light Sixty zippers were quickly picked from the woven jute bag.
caption

Sixty zippers were quickly picked from the woven jute bag. display Sixty zippers were quickly picked from the woven jute bag. subhead Sixty zippers were quickly picked from the woven jute bag. regular Sixty zippers were quickly picked from the woven jute bag.
semibold

Sixty zippers were quickly picked from the woven jute bag. bold
weight comparison at 162 pt.

On many letterforms, one side of the serif features strong angles, while the other curves in towards the body of the form like a traditional serif face. Good examples of this are in the letters C and S.

light

caption

display

subhead

regular

semibold

bold

10

chaparral 11

Mr.
12

Chaparral showcases a slight calligraphic style on several of its terminals, adding to its truly hybrid nature.

The serif on letters such as m, n, r, h, etc, are very irregular, showing a gentle bracket to the left of the stem and a slightly bulging form.

Type well used is invisible as type, just as the perfect talking voice is the unnoticed vehicle for the transmission of words, ideas.
Beatrice Warde The Crystal Goblet: sixteen essays on typography, 1955

13

Myriad
ideal for headlines and corporate branding.
used by: Apple Computers Wells Fargo Wal-Mart University of Virginia

Known by many artists and designers as the default typeface in Adobe software or the typeface of ubiquitous Apple products, Myriad can often be disregarded in its overexposure. Its slightly calligraphic strokes and airy counters make this humanist typeface the choice of many multinational companies and leading universities, and

Loyola University, Chicago Cambridge University Hong Kong metro University of Ottawa

by Carol Twombly and Robert Slimbach for Adobe in 1992

15

yea!
open counters slanted finial short descenders

Often confused with the typeface Frutiger, the two share many qualities.

ABCDEFGHIJKLMNOPQRSTUVWXYZ abcdefghijklmnopqrstuvwxyz 1234567890!?

HOW TO IDENTIFY MYRIAD:

Unlike Frutiger, Myriad has distinctive slants that set it apart from many other similar sans serifs, such as in the letter M and number 5.

16 myriad

M 5

Aa

Generally more condensed than Frutiger, Myriad shares many similar shapes but with a shorter x-height, smaller counters, and rounded tittles.

Myriad Frutiger

«««

17

since Twombly and slimbach's original design in 1992, they have worked alongside other designers to add several weights that diversify the voice they give to language.
light condensed light semicondensed lIght light semiextended

Aa Bb cc dd ee Ff gg hh ii Jj Kk ll Mm nn oo Pp Qq Rr ss tt Uu Vv Ww Xx Yy Zz
condensed

Aa Bb cc dd ee Ff gg hh ii Jj Kk ll mm nn oo Pp Qq Rr ss tt Uu Vv Ww Xx Yy Zz
semicondensed

Aa Bb Cc Dd Ee Ff gg hh Ii Jj Kk ll Mm Nn Oo Pp Qq Rr Ss tt Uu Vv Ww Xx Yy Zz
ReGULAR

Aa Bb Cc dd ee Ff gg hh ii Jj Kk ll mm nn Oo Pp Qq Rr ss tt Uu Vv Ww xx Yy Zz
semiextended

Aa Bb cc dd ee Ff Gg Hh Ii Jj Kk Ll Mm nn oo Pp Qq Rr ss Tt Uu Vv Ww Xx Yy Zz
semibold condensed

Aa Bb cc dd ee Ff Gg Hh ii Jj Kk Ll mm nn oo Pp Qq Rr ss Tt Uu Vv Ww Xx Yy Zz
semibold semicondensed

Aa Bb Cc Dd ee Ff Gg Hh Ii Jj Kk Ll Mm Nn Oo Pp Qq Rr Ss Tt Uu Vv Ww Xx Yy Zz
semibold

Aa Bb Cc dd ee Ff Gg Hh ii Jj Kk Ll mm nn Oo Pp Qq Rr ss tt Uu Vv Ww xx Yy Zz
semibold semiextended

Aa bb cc dd ee Ff Gg Hh ii Jj Kk ll mm nn oo Pp Qq Rr ss Tt Uu Vv Ww Xx Yy Zz
bold condensed

Aa bb cc dd ee Ff Gg Hh ii Jj Kk ll mm nn oo Pp Qq Rr ss Tt Uu Vv Ww Xx Yy Zz bold semicondensed Aa bb cc dd ee Ff Gg Hh ii Jj Kk ll mm nn oo Pp Qq Rr ss Tt Uu Vv Ww Xx Yy Zz
black semicondensed

Aa bb Cc dd ee Ff Gg Hh ii Jj Kk ll mm Nn oo Pp Qq Rr ss Tt Uu Vv Ww Xx Yy Zz
bOlD

Aa bb Cc dd ee Ff Gg Hh ii Jj Kk ll mm nn oo Pp Qq Rr ss tt Uu Vv Ww xx Yy Zz
bold semiextended

Aa bb cc dd ee Ff Gg Hh Ii Jj Kk ll Mm nn oo Pp Qq Rr ss Tt Uu Vv Ww Xx Yy Zz
black condensed

Aa bb Cc Dd Ee Ff Gg Hh Ii Jj Kk ll Mm Nn Oo Pp Qq Rr Ss Tt Uu Vv Ww Xx Yy Zz
black

Aa bb Cc dd ee Ff Gg Hh ii Jj Kk ll mm nn oo Pp Qq Rr ss tt Uu Vv Ww xx Yy Zz
black semiextended

aa bb cc dd ee Ff Gg Hh Ii Jj kk ll Mm nn oo Pp Qq Rr ss Tt Uu Vv Ww Xx Yy Zz

aa bb cc dd ee Ff Gg Hh ii Jj kk ll mm nn oo Pp Qq Rr ss Tt Uu Vv Ww Xx Yy Zz

aa bb cc Dd Ee Ff Gg Hh Ii Jj kk ll Mm Nn Oo Pp Qq Rr Ss Tt Uu Vv Ww Xx Yy Zz

aa bb cc dd ee Ff Gg Hh ii Jj kk ll mm nn Oo Pp Qq Rr ss tt Uu Vv Ww xx Yy Zz

QQQ QQQ QQQ
Myriad Futura Officina Sans Univers Gill Sans Helvetica Avenir Meta Frutiger

oh, the many weights of myriad

Quirky Personality
You can tell a lot about a typeface by comparing a single letterforms with other. here some of the most common sans serif Qs showcase the personality of the font family to which they belong.

18 myriad

myriad 19

b

Adobe Caslon

First designed in 1734 by William Caslon, who is considered the first British type designer, Caslon was most prominently used in the setting of the Declaration of Independence and is one of the most favored typefaces of the classics. In 1986 Adobe Systems commissioned Carol Twombly to create a variation of the typeface.

regular Aa Bb Cc Dd Ee Ff Gg Hh Ii ABCDEFGHIJKLMNOPQRSTUVWXYZ
1234567890,.'[]{}-=;"!@#$%^&*()

Jj Kk Ll Mm Nn Oo Pp Qq Rr Ss Tt Uu Vv Ww Xx Yy Zz

italic Aa Bb Cc Dd Ee Ff Gg Hh Ii
1234567890,.'[]{}-=;"!@#$%^&*()

Jj Kk Ll Mm Nn Oo Pp Qq Rr Ss Tt Uu Vv Ww Xx Yy Zz Jj Kk Ll Mm Nn Oo Pp Qq Rr Ss Tt Uu Vv Ww Xx Yy Zz

semibold Aa Bb Cc Dd Ee Ff Gg Hh Ii

ABCDEFGHIJKLMNOPQRSTUVWXYZ
1234567890,.'[]{}-=;"!@#$%^&*()

bold Aa Bb Cc Dd Ee Ff Gg Hh Ii
1234567890,.'[]{}-=;"!@#$%^&*()

Jj Kk Ll Mm Nn Oo Pp Qq Rr Ss Tt Uu Vv Ww Xx Yy Zz

21

Practicality
slightly forward-leaning a short ascenders short descenders Many typefaces have been released under the name Caslon since the original of 1734. Most carry the essence of William Caslon's work, but liberties have been taken in the almost twenty fonts released with the name Caslon. Adobe Caslon 1734, 1986 ITC Caslon 224, 1883 Caslon 540, American Type Founders, 2001 The curved connecting point of the serif and the stroke makes these bracketed serifs a distinguishing feature.

Most versions typefaces bearing the name 'Caslon' have this distinctive notched apex in the capital A.

This specimen sheet from 1734 is one of several type samples of the original Caslon face that Carol Twombly studied in creating her version of Caslon for Adobe Systems.

22 adobe caslon

adobe caslon 23

Sibylle Hagmann

Odile was released and presented the Swiss Federal Design Award in 2006. Odile was inspired by William Addison Dwiggins' 1936 typeface, Charter. The expressive quality of Charter posed a challenge to setting body type, but Hagmann met the challenge by creating a beautiful yet functional homage to Dwiggins' work. Her most recent type family, Elido, is the sans-serif compliment to Odile, and, along with Odile, is a testament to her extreme attention to detail. Each of her typefaces come with an extensive family of assorted weights, widths, ligatures, and ornamentations. Her typefaces are distributed by Emigre and the type co-op Village. Hagmann is often sought out to present at typography conferences and design schools, both in the US and abroad. The notoriety of her work has greatly contributed to the slowly growing acceptance of women in the feld of type design, and she has been instrumental in raising awareness of the need for more women to contribue their skills and be recognized.

Sibylle Hagmann's notable career in type design began after receiving her BFA from the Basel School of Design in Switzerland and moving to the US to complete her MFA in typography and type design at the California Institute of the Arts several years later. Before moving to Houston, Texas, where she currently teaches at the University of Houston, School of Art in the Graphic Communications program, she taught at several universities in California. In 1999 she completed her first

typeface, Cholla, commissioned by the Art Center College of Design. In 2001 Cholla was awarded at bukva:raz!, the type design competition of the Association Typographique Internationale (ATypI). In 2000 Hagmann opened the design studio Kontour in Houston, Texas. She has tailored her design work to not-for-profit organizations and various art museums and councils while still devoting much of her developing new typefaces. Her type designs continued to accumulate awards when

typefaces by hagmann: Cholla Sans (1999) Cholla Slab (1999) Elido (2010) * Odile (2006) TwinCities (2003)

25

27

Odile

Though Odile's letterforms are disconnected, they clearly have a decorative script quality to them—fluid, theatrical terminals blended with a soft angularity create gracefully regimented forms that can work well in titling, as well as in body type.

initials

Aa Bb Cc Dd Ee Ff Gg Hh Ii Jj Kk Ll Mm Nn Oo Pp Qq Rr Ss Tt Uu Vv Ww Xx Yy Zz 123456789 ,.'[]{}-=;"!@#$%^&*()
deco initials

An early sketch of William Addison Dwiggins' Charter, which served as the inspiration for Odile. The similarities are most evident in the deco intial M and E.

ME

Aa Bb Cc Dd Ee Ff Gg Hh Ii Jj Kk Ll Mm Nn Oo Pp Qq Rr Ss Tt Uu Vv Ww Xx Yy Zz 123456789 ,.'[]{}-=;"!@#$%^&*()

G R
odile 29

28 odile

Zuzana Licko

It was the birth of the Macintosh computer in 1984 that gave life to Licko's design

career. Licko (pronounced Litchko) emigrated to the US as a young girl from Bratislava, Czechoslovakia. She, along with her partner, Rudy Vanderlans, whom she met at the University of California at Berkeley, started the esteemed type foundry Emigre, where they designed and distribute their own typefaces and produced a magazine about type from 1984 to 2005 under the same name. The low-resolution, bitmap fonts of the Macintosh computer inspired Licko's first design. She used the functional screen font as the inspiration for Low-Res, a very pixelated bitmap font that served as the blueprint for Base 9 that would come 10 years later. Since Low-Res, Licko has created more than two dozen original typefaces. Not only has she given credibility to bitmap fonts (which are not obsolete despite the emergence of scalable type technologies), she has been praised for the elegance of Filosofia and Mrs Eaves, which were inspired by the classics Bodoni and Baskerville respectively.

Mr Eaves Sans (2009) * Base 9 (1995) Mr Eaves XL Sans Base 12 (1995) Base 900 (2010) * Mrs Eaves (1996) Base Monospace (1997) Mrs Eaves XL (2009) Narly (1993) Citizen (1986) Oblong (1988) Dogma (1994) Puzzler (2005) Elektrix (1989) Senator (1988) * Filosofia (1996) Soda Script (1995) Hypnopaedia (1997) Solex (2000) Journal (1990) Tall Pack (1990) Lo-Res (1985, 2001) Tarzana (1998) Lunatix (1988) Totally Gothic (1990) Matrix II (1986) Matrix II Display (1992) Triplex (1989) Variex (1988) Modula (1985) Modula Round (1995) Whirligig (1994)

typefaces by licko:

31

ABCDEFGHIJKLMNOPQRSTUVWXYZ abcdefghijklmnopqrstuvwxyz 1234567890!?
Originally developed as a screen font for the Emigre website along with Base 12, the printer (scalable) version soon followed. Featuring distinctive terminals and thick, simplistic strokes, Base 9 makes an excellent display font and shines when given plenty of room to breathe

Base 9

Regular Italic Bold

33

INTENDED USAGE When using the Base 9 and Base 12 fonts in situations where character display and spacing on the screen are of primary importance, such as in multi-media, these fonts should be used at point sizes which are multiples of their "base." For example, Base 12 is best used at 12 point, 24 point and above. Base 9 is best used at 9 point, 18 point and above. – Zuzana Licko

In these pages, the progression of Licko's first bitmap family, Low-Res 9, to the letterforms of Base 9 is clearly visible. Given Licko's fluency in bitmapped letterforms, the correlation of the methodology behind them to the finished Base 9 typeface. The Wide Bold weight of Low-Res 9 is most similar to the forms of Base 9.

34 base 9

"

BASICALLY BEAUTIFUL
Base 9 exemplifies the beauty that can be created without incredibly intricate forms. Many of the letterforms within Base 9 are identical to others in shape, such as in the mirroring B and D, P and Q. Also, most of the closed counters, save the E counter, are interchangeable.

n

"

Aa

abcdefg b hijklmno l il pqrstuv p wxyz v
base 9 35

Filosofia
ABCDEFGHIJKLMNOPQRSTUVWXYZ ABCDEFGHIJKLMNOPQRSTUVWXYZ abcdefghijklmnopqrstuvwxyz 1234567890,.'[]{}-=;"!@#$%^&*()
36 filosofia

Regular Grand Bold Unicase

37

FilosoFia + Bodoni
Licko used Bodoni as her inspiration for Filosofia, aiming to update Giambattista Bodoni's 1795 typeface that became the most prominent typeface of the Romantic period. He abandoned organic forms for geometric lines and stark contrasts between the thick and thin strokes. Filosofia is a refreshing update to this classic that attempted to keep the distinguishing personality of Bodoni while easing it's high contrast and rounding its serifs to make it more readable in body text.

Sixty zippers were quickly picked from the woven jute bag.
FILOSOFIA

Sixty zippers were quickly picked from the woven jute
BODONI

OE
ligatures & swashes unicase

• modern proportions • vertical orientation of weight axes. • strong contrast between thick and thin lines. • simplistic, “modern” appearance.

FilosoFia
The history of type design is rooted in the use of heavy machinery and lead founding, which have traditionally not been considered women’s work. Today, the discipline is available to any artist who embraces computer technology, but it is one of the more technical specialities within visual design. A type designer does benefit from some understanding of computer programming - another field that women traditionally seldom enter, though maybe this will change. Certainly, the field of type design is more open to women than it ever has been. –Zuzana Licko

Bodoni
The history of type design is rooted in the use of heavy machinery and lead founding, which have traditionally not been considered women’s work. Today, the discipline is available to any artist who embraces computer technology, but it is one of the more technical specialities within visual design. A type designer does benefit from some understanding of computer programming - another field that women traditionally seldom enter, though maybe this will change. Certainly, the field of type design is more open to women than it ever has been. –Zuzana Licko

fffiflffiyz}Æzxwwx
Occasionally type families come with a unicase version that blends majuscule and miniscule letterforms along the cap height to create a playful, unique alternative.

ssaaoorr
38 filosofia

• less contrast than Bodoni • more playful, stylized • more condensed • often preferable for headlines

Sixty zippers were quickly picked from the woven jute bag.
filosofia 39

an ode to

Mrs Eaves
sarah ruston eaves was John Baskerville's housekeeper who eventually became his mistress. They lived together sixteen years before they married in 1764. She eventually became an asistant to Baskerville, working alongside him in his studio. This typeface pays homage to his namesake typeface of 1757 that was revolutionary in its fusion of traditional and modern characteristics. Though very similar to Baskerville, Mrs Eaves has its own personality that gives the feel of letterpressed type.

41

The italic version of Mrs Eaves is quite condensed and has an elegant, swashlike quality to it. Note the downward turning terminals of the K, the dramatic tail of the Q, and the looped crossbar of the lowercase W.

Baskerville 160 pt. Mrs Eaves 160 pt.

small x-height

Both Mrs Eaves and Baskerville have a nearly vertical stress that broke from the usual right-lean of Old Style typefaces.

42 mrs eaves

og
Aa Aa Bb Bb Cc Cc Dd Dd Ee Ee Ff Ff Gg Gg Hh Hh Ii Ii Jj Jj Kk Kk Ll Ll Mm Mm Nn Nn Oo Oo Pp Pp Qq Qu Rr Rr Ss Ss Tt Tt Uu Uu Vv Vv Ww Ww Xx Xx Yy Yy Zz Zz F 1234567890

ligatures give a good type designer the chance to show off her skills to create delightful nuances that enhance legibility. OpenType technology allows for thousands of ligatures to exist within a typeface so that software can use ligatures where applicable automatically. Many professional typefaces include some number of ligatures, but few offer as many as Licko's Mrs Eaves.
Mrs Eaves boasts an extensive library of ligatures that make this typeface ideal for setting delicate and formal bodies of text

Mrs Eaves reflects Baskerville's buoyant ear and disconnected bowl of the G.

adagio frolicky daffiest
mrs eaves 43

AAAVAÀAÃAÂAÁAÄAÅFFFIFLFÍFÎFÏFÌHEHÊHËHÈHÉLALÀLÃLÂ LÁLÄLÅMBMEMDMPMÊMËMÈMÉOCOGOOOÇOÓOÔOÒOÕOÖTHEThTETR TTTWTYTÊTËTÈTÉTŸTÝUBUDULUPURVAVÀVÃVÂVÁVÄVÅaeaéaèaêaëctck yckýckÿeeeéeèeêeëfiflffffifflffbffhffjffrfftfbfhfjfrftffyfyggygggigyip itkykÿkýoeoéoèoêoëpypÿpýspstttytttytwtÿtýttÿttýßßàeáeçtòe

Lupton, Ellen. Thinking with Type. New York: Princeton Architectural Press, 2004. Monem, Nadine Käthe. Font, the Sourcebook. London, UK: Black Dog Pub., 2008. Samara, Timothy. Typography Workbook Gloucester, Mass.: Rockport; 2006. Warde, Beatrice, Henry Jacob, and Bruce Rogers. The crystal goblet: sixteen essays on typography. Cleveland: World Pub. Co., 1956.
carol twombly:

http://typophile.com/node/16061 http://new.myfonts.com/person/Carol_Twombly/ http://www.kontour.com/ http://www.aiga.org/content.cfm/non-existent-design-women-and-the-creation-of-type

sibylle hagmann:

zuzana licko:

http://www.emigre.com/Licko.php

©andrea nordstrom 2010

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