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Nwabrije Ugochukwu Emmanuel (Virtualization & windows

PART 1: Difference between Windows server 2008, Solaris and Ubuntu

In this part of this assignment I would be comparing windows server 2008, oracle Solaris and Ubuntu server These three different windows are variants of different operating system, such as windows server 2008 for Microsoft windows, oracle Solaris for Unix While ubuntu server for Linux. Windows server 2008 vs Solaris vs Ubuntu Process Management: A process is an object that is executable in a physical memory page and contains specific memory segments with executable instructions. Windows server 2008: Unlike Linux windows server 2008 and Unix Solaris process management are a quiet similar. Windows has long multi processor system, which implies that threads can be distributed to separate processors within a computer. Since shared memory files in windows share the same physical memory, for the commands to access those file it has a distinct virtual address to access the map file in the kernel. Also windows 2008 uses procedure calls, interrupts and exception handlers, the same way Solaris uses interrupts command such as kill() and wait() to interrupt a process. Finally, since in Unix Operating system (Solaris) threads are executed in the kernel based on a system call, and the fact that in Solaris data are stored in the kernel where in windows server 2008, the kernel is used to maintain and store date values. Solaris: Solaris has a multi thread characteristics and in its operating system, which implies that every threads that can be executed by the operating system would also be executed as a kernel thread.

Nwabrije Ugochukwu Emmanuel (Virtualization & windows


In Solaris a thread called the user thread is created so that the user process can be executed, the user threads are located with Lightweight Process (LWP) linked to it. The LWP helps the user enter threads in the kernel and also execute programs in the kernel. In Solaris, the kernel makes use of a process structure proc_t. also in the process management of Solaris, the process always start from a disk file. In Solaris a user can call the system call by simply entering fork() in that instance the process which called the system call is named the parent process while the new process is named the child process. Some of the command in Solaris that are in the process management. Terminating process which is also called the killed command.exit() when ever the term exit system call is entered into the kernel all threads in the kernel ends. Finally when user wants to exit system call it calls the command wait () would capture the exit system call status of its child process and then free its entry from process table.

Ubuntu: Ubuntu is a variant of the Linux operating system its process management is quite different from UNIX (Solaris) and windows operating system (windows server 2008). Ubuntu starts it process from priority zero (0), because the rule of thumb stated that the lower the number the greater the priority. This in turn implies that priority zero is the highest priority in ubuntu. In ubuntu the user can tell the ubuntu software which process to run on which priority and which not to run, but it does not happen like that in Solaris or in windows server 2008 There are two major ways to manage the process of ubuntu software and they are: Use of System monitors and command terminal.

Nwabrije Ugochukwu Emmanuel (Virtualization & windows


2. Memory Management Windows Server 2008: In windows 2008, applications refers to memory by using Virtual memory address, this virtual memory are often translated into physical address by the hardware. In windows server 2008, when the memory that is to be used exceeds the available RAM, in other to manage the memory the operating system moves pages of one or more virtual address space to the computers hard disk. By doing these the RAM frames becomes free for other uses. Furthermore, in other to manage the memory the page out pages would be stored in more than one file in the root of partition. Solaris. In Solaris 10 management schema random access memory is divided into pages. Pages size often differs because of the platforms. In Solaris 10, paging is used to indicate where the files are to be relocated to in the physical and also paging indicated where the location must be read when it is required by the physical memory. In other to access the physical memory in Solaris 10, it implements translation mechanism from virtual memory to physical memory. However in Solaris 10, there is a mechanism named page fault the work of the page fault is to interrupt process execution when a memory access cannot be completed without kernel intervention. There are three main types of page fault in Solaris 10 memory management schema, and they are Major fault: this type of fault occurs when a process accesses a memory address which does not have a physical page linked to it and also does not exist in the physical memory. Minor fault: this type of fault occurs when a process accesses a memory address which exists in the page (Physical page) but it is not linked to a virtual address space.

Nwabrije Ugochukwu Emmanuel (Virtualization & windows


Protection Fault: this type of fault occurs when a process accesses a memory address violating security. The virtual memory management traps the interruption and creates an exception. Ubuntu: In Linux Operating system, when we talk about memory management the first thing that comes into our mind is swapping of files and data. Ubuntu since it is a version of Linux operating system it uses much memory than windows and UNIX, but despite the fact that it uses this much memory it also has its own advantages in terms of memory management over UNIX and windows. Example: A user of a system has RAM of 500MB, and the programs that is running is a 100MB. In Linux the memory would be used to cache data and files that are used in the central processing unit. Linux Operating system caches data because it takes longer processing time for the CPU to access data in the hard drive. So since it takes longer time to access data on the hard drive, caching using the main memory would be faster. However, caching is not used in windows server 2008, which leads to waist of memory space.

3. File System Management: The file system management of Solaris UNIX enterprise and ubuntu Linux enterprise are quiet similar compared to the file system of windows server 2008. In both Solaris and ubuntu server there is a term called directories which is often referred to as folders in windows server 2008 and the previous version of windows. Actually since Solaris is a variant of Unix and Unix is of the same family with Linux, I would say that Linux operating system has only one directory, everything in Solaris and Ubuntu begins in the directory which is I .

Nwabrije Ugochukwu Emmanuel (Virtualization & windows


While Solaris and ubuntu platform use one directory windows server 2008 has more than one hierarchical directory, these directories depends on the amount of hard drive in the system. Example in windows server 2008, if there are drives it would be labeled drive C:/D:/ and F:but in Solaris and ubuntu, even if there are other hard drives, there would be only one root directories because they are variants of Un ix and Linux and they behave based on the characteristics of the parent operating system.

4. I/O Management. Whenever we talk about input and output management one of the things we have to know is input and output scheduler. I/O management in windows server 2008 is handled by a set of layered of drivers whose functions are being carried out by I/O manager. Drivers in the Operating system communicate with one another using I/O request packets. Nevertheless, windows 2008, there is a term known as disk cache manager, the disk cache manager increases the performance of input and output drivers or appliances. When it comes to managing I/O, The cache manager uses loads of physical memory in the system, however if the user request to use memory the NT would release the specified memory needed. Actually, in most cases input/ output scheduler are a little but similar to a process scheduler in process management, for example both schedule must resource among multiple users. In Solaris input/output are managed by ZFS I/O Scheduler, the ZFS I/O Scheduler they are used to track a priority and a deadline for each input and output. Nevertheless, within each deadline group would be scheduled based on the availability and in systematical order in the logical block address. However Ubuntu has different ways of managing their input/output and they includes different types of I/O Scheduler in Linux Operating System.
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Nwabrije Ugochukwu Emmanuel (Virtualization & windows


CFQ, Noop Scheduler, anticipatory and deadline scheduler are the ways I/O are managed in terms of scheduling in UBUNTU. CFQ: this type of I/O Scheduler is also referred to as complete fair queuing. Noop Scheduler: it is an I.O scheduler it is based on FIFO Queuing concept Anticipatory Scheduler: this type of I/O Scheduler is used to manage hard disk input/output as well previous scheduler which was replaced by CFQ. Deadline Scheduler: this type of I/O Scheduler it guarantees a user a start time for his/ her request. Application Support. In terms of Application support windows 2008 have more hardware related to its operating system than Solaris and Ubuntu. It is so because in todays market windows has the highest share when it comes to operating system, so the owners of this hardware or designer of this hardwares want to benefits with their design so they design the hardware based on windows platform instead of Unix or Linux operating system. In terms of software, the same way the vendors design most of their hardware to support windows 2008 server and windows operating system, is the same way they design the software to support windows 2008 and other windows version. But despite the fact that the vendors design their system based on todays market values, they also include specification for Solaris(Unix) and ubuntu server(Linux) users, so that they can also get the software or the hardware, with the specification attached to the software or hardware, the Solaris and ubuntu users would know how to install or configure the hardware and softwares to their computers.

Nwabrije Ugochukwu Emmanuel (Virtualization & windows


Conclusion: In comparison of windows server 2008, with Solaris and ubuntu server, I have been able to understand more on these various variant of operating system and also It has expand my knowledge in Operating system as a subject and as a topic. Also based on this topic, I have been able to Understand how this various operating system and their different types of servers works, in terms of process management, memory management, file management, I/O management and finally in terms of their Application support. Finally I also have been able to know the functions of several commands in a process state which is used to either interrupt a process or kill a process.

Nwabrije Ugochukwu Emmanuel (Virtualization & windows


Part II: Virtual: just as the term goes virtual simply means something real or something actual. So what is the meaning of the term Virtualization? Virtualization: Can be define as the process by which the physical characteristic of an operating system is hidden and to organize and mobilize the way other users, system and applications interact with the resources. Types / Categories of Virtualization. There are different types of virtualization in our market today, and they include: Server Virtualization: just as the name implies this virtualization has to do with servers, and their man function includes recognizing and identifying the physical characteristic of a physical server and its end users of the server. Example or techniques of server Virtualization are: 1. Virtual machine model which is also referred to as VMM. 2. Paravirtual machine model. 3. Operating System virtualization. Storage virtualization: This type of virtualization deals with more than one network storage devices which looks like or appear to be a single storage unit. When talking about storage virtualization we also need to put in to due consideration the term storage area network which is also called SAN. Because in most SAN Cases storage virtualization is used. In other hands what I am implying is that both the SAN and storage virtualization often works hand in hand. Nevertheless, SAN has a very good storage device with high speed networks or sub networks, also SAN support machine operation such as archiving, back up and restoring. In most cased of storage virtualization are used in a Software Application. Network Virtualization: This is the third and last type of the virtualization category, this type of virtualization just as its name implies has to do with splitting the available bandwidth into various channels.
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Nwabrije Ugochukwu Emmanuel (Virtualization & windows


Network virtualization helps improve the speed, reliability, flexibility and security of a network. In network virtualization a user that owns a computer has the right to share his resources around the network. Also network virtualizations are much effective in networks that create large and unforeseen surges in the usage of that network. Pros and cons of Virtualization. Since virtualization has loads of advantage in an information technology environment, such as hardware, network and even server. Lets us use this means to know the ways in which virtualization has served as an advantage or beneficial to out IT environment. Pros of Virtualization: 1. Virtualization helps Increases Efficiency: Virtualization increase efficiency of a

system by taking care of the processing power of that particular computer and by doing this the amount of power that need replenishing or backup would be low.

2. Virtualization enhances reliability, security and protection: Virtualization enhances reliability because it supports the power backups, This in turn make it possible for the computer processing power speed to be faster, since the backup power is for the processing of the computer. 3. Virtualization enables green technologies: virtualization enables green technology based on the fact that the server virtualization and storage virtualization reduces the energy consumption, by doing this virtualization enables green technologies

Cons of Virtualization: 1. Virtualization makes performance slower: Since most users who are into virtualization might not have hardware virtualization. And they have software virtualization embedded to their machine, the presence of the software virtualization and the absence of the hardware virtualization makes the machines performance to be slower.

Nwabrije Ugochukwu Emmanuel (Virtualization & windows


2. Virtualization Is Expensive to set up: Virtualization is expensive to set up because if a user should have an operating system that does not support or have a virtual machine, that user requires money to get a machine that supports virtualization. Lets use an instance most operating system do not run on software virtualization and require the user to purchase a hardware virtualization, by purchasing new virtualization it would be expensive and even more expensive if the user dont have a central processing unit with a hardware virtualization in it. 3. Compatibility: Virtualization is a nice concept but it has problem in terms of compatibility, in the sense that your operating system or machine may not support virtualization. These cause panic to the user of this operating system because it requires to check the operating system and to see it has any compatibility with the required virtual machine. Features of some virtualization software, which is available in the market today? Some of the virtualization software that is available in the market today includes? 1. VMware player 2. Windows Visual pc 3. Microsoft virtual server 4. Sun virtual box. 5. VMware server

I did mentioned five virtualization software that are available in our markets today, now I would list and describe the features of two software that is available in todays market.

VMware server features:

1. The VMware server allows or enables easy installation: user can install the virtual server just as they install every other software application. 2. Operating System Support: this virtualization software has the broadest operating system support of any host based virtualization platform that is currently available.

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Nwabrije Ugochukwu Emmanuel (Virtualization & windows


This software also support windows server 2008 operating system, Red hat Enterprise Linux 5 and ubuntu 8.04 3. Support virtual machine Interface: the supporting of VMI has to do with Linux Operating system in other to improve the performance of Linux Operating System. 4. It supports hardware: This VMware server standard x86hardware because it supports hardware virtualization. 5. It has volume shadow copy service. It allows back up of the windows virtual machine when using snapshot feature to maintain data integrity of the application that is processing in virtual machine.

Windows Virtual PC Features: 1. It supports USB: this type of virtualization software is for windows only, the function of this feature is to allow user to access the USB devices that are attached to the host from virtual window xp. For example: USB devices include scanners, printers, pen drive, memory disk, external hard disk and digital camera,

2. It provides and enhances clipboard sharing: It allows the user to cut and paste in their windows 7 host and VM. 3. Printer redirection: User of the windows virtual pc can print directly from the virtual machine. 4. It as a known Folder Integration between host and quest: This features of virtual pc allows the user to go through his or hers folder. The user can open folders such as pictures, music, videos and so on.

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Nwabrije Ugochukwu Emmanuel (Virtualization & windows


Conclusion and Summary. Virtualization is playing a very huge role in todays Information technology environment, it has so many software in todays market with loads of tremendous features where by a user of a virtual personal computer can print datas or information direct from the virtual machine. Also virtualization was derived from word virtual which means something that is actual, something that is real. Conclusively, virtualization allows multiple operating systems to run on the same machine, for Instance a user has two operating system in his or her pc, and he has windows server 2008 and ubuntu 8.04. Also , the types of virtualization is based on the function of that virtualization, when hardware virtualization is mentioned the user ought to be aware that it is based on hardware that is running in an operating system. Also the end user needs to know that this hardware can also run in a Linux and UNIX platform it does not require specification to run, with virtualization software such as VMware workstation installed the hardware can also be used in Linux operating system in the users pc if it has multiple operating system. Finally, researching about the term virtualization did not only expand my knowledge in this topic, but it also made me to understand the importance of virtualization in out computers and in the Information technology environment.

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Nwabrije Ugochukwu Emmanuel (Virtualization & windows

References: 1. Tsveti GeorgievaDisadvantageofVirtualization (http://www.suite101.com/content/disadv antage -of-virtualization-a170745) Posted On: Nov 17th 2009. 2. Sergio Esposito Solaris Process Management ((http://computersight.com/operatingsystems/linux/solaris-process-management/) Posted on: august 9th 2003 3. Sergio Esposito Solaris 10 Memory Management pat 1 ((http://computersight.com/hardware/sol aris-10-memory-management-part-1/) posted on: august 9th 2003 4. Sergio Esposito Solaris 10 Memory Management pat 3 ((http://computersight.com/hardware/sol aris-10-memory-management-part-3/) posted on: august 9th 2003 5. VIVEK GITE Linux exchange the I/O Scheduler for a hard disk. (http://www.cyberciti.biz/faq/linux-change-io-scheduler-for-harddisk/) Posted On: July 9th 2008. 6. Johnson M. Hart windows system programming: Process management ( http://www.informit.com/articles/article.aspx?p=1564827) Posted On: February 25th 2010

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