Preceded by Succeeded by
10000 B.C.E
Göbekli Tepe
7500 B.C.E
37.2233°N 38.9224°E. A Neolithic (stone-age) hilltop sanctuary erected at the top of a
mountain ridge in southeastern Anatolia, some 9 miles northeast of the town of Şanlıurfa
(formerly Urfa / Edessa). It's the oldest known human-made religious structure.
10000 B.C.E
Nevalı Çori
8400 B.C.E
37°31′6″N 38°36′20″E. An early Neolithic settlement on the middle Euphrates, in the
province of Şanlıurfa (Urfa), eastern Turkey. Famous for having revealed some of the world's
most ancient known temples and monumental sculpture.
9500 B.C.E
2012 C.E.
31°51′19.60″N 35°27′43.85″E. Located near the Jordan River in the West Bank of the
Palestinian territories. Jericho is the lowest permanently inhabited site on earth. It is also
believed to be the oldest continuously inhabited city in the world.
9000 B.C.E
1517 C.E.
34°0′25″N 36°12′14″E. A town in the Beqaa Valley of Lebanon situated east of the Litani
River. It is famous for its exquisitely detailed yet monumentally scaled temple ruins of the
Roman period, when Baalbek, was then known as Heliopolis.
9000 B.C.E
2012 C.E.
33.513°N 36.292°E. The capital and the second largest city of Syria after Aleppo. In addition
to being one of the oldest continuously inhabited cities in the world, Damascus is a major
cultural and religious center of the Levant.
8338 B.C.E
Bosnian Pyramids
500 B.C.E
43°59′33″N 18°10′21″E. Near the Bosnian town of Visoko, northwest of Sarajevo. The idea
that it constitutes an ancient artificial edifice was publicised by Bosnian author and
metalworker Semir Osmanagić. He notes the 213-metre (699 ft) Visočica hill.
7500 B.C.E
5700 B.C.E
37°40′03″N 32°49′42″E. A very large Neolithic and Chalcolithic settlement in southern
Anatolia. It is the largest and best-preserved Neolithic site found to date. Located overlooking
wheat fields in the Konya Plain, S.E. of present day Konya (Iconium).
Saturday, August 2, 2014 Page 1 of 41
7500 B.C.E
2012 C.E.
32°3′N 34°45′E. An ancient port city believed to be one of the oldest in the world. Jaffa is
famous for its association with the biblical story of the prophet Jonah. The name of the city is
mentioned in Egyptian sources and the Amarna Letters as Yapu.
7200 B.C.E
6600 B.C.E
38°12′59″N 39°43′35″E. It is located forty kilometres north-west of Diyarbakır, at the foot of
the Taurus mountains. Çayönü is possibly the place where the pig (Sus scrofa) was first
domesticated. First excavations were conducted by Robert John Braidwood.
7000 B.C.E
4950 B.C.E
35°34′N 44°55′E. Known as the oldest agricultural community in the world. The high point is
likely to have been between 6,200 and 5,800 BCE. Consisted of some twenty five houses,
with adobe walls and sun-dried mud roofs, which rested on stone foundations.
7000 B.C.E
2600 B.C.E
"Kachi plain" of Balochistan, Pakis
29°24′21″N 67°35′55″E. One of the earliest sites with evidence of farming (wheat and barley)
and herding (cattle, sheep and goats) in South Asia. Located near the Bolan Pass, to the west
of the Indus River valley. They lived in mud-brick houses.
7000 B.C.E
1218 C.E.
32.18922°N 48.257785°E. Archeologists have dated the first traces of an inhabited Neolithic
village to 7,000 B.C.E.. Evidence of a painted-pottery civilization has been dated to 5,000
B.C.E.. *Acropolis & Apadana; 4000 B.C.E.. **King Memnon of Aethiopia.
6230 B.C.E
2012 C.E.
34°07′25″N 35°39′04″E. Byblos is the Greek name of the Phoenician city Gebal. According to
fragments attributed to the semi-legendary pre-Trojan war Phoenician historian
Sanchuniathon, it was built by Cronus as the first city in Phoenicia.
5500 B.C.E
4800 B.C.E
Iraq {Tell es-Sawwan}
Came from the north and founded the non-semetic Sumerian culture. The Samarran Culture
was the precursor to the Mesopotamian culture of the Ubaid period. “Samarra” is derived
from the Arabic phrase “Surra man ra’a” translating to “A joy for all who see”.
5500 B.C.E
Sumerian 'Faith'
1940 B.C.E 'Sumerian Faith'
Saturday, August 2, 2014 Page 2 of 41
5400 B.C.E
2039 B.C.E
30°48′57.02″N 45°59′45.85″E. Ancient Sumerian city in what is now Tell Abu Shahrain, Dhi
Qar Governorate, Iraq. Eridu was considered the earliest city in southern Mesopotamia, and is
one of the oldest cities in the world. Cff. Sumerian King's List *Enki
5400 B.C.E
1940 B.C.E
Samarra Akkadian Empire
Noted as the world's first civilization with a founding from Eridu by the Samarra culture, till
the end of the Uruk III period. Built the cities of Agad (Akkad) & Assur (Ashur). *Potter's
Wheel, Oldest Writing System Yet Deciphered, & Invented Arithmetic
5000 B.C.E
2012 C.E.
14°7′N 38°44′E. A city in northern Ethiopia which was the original capital of the eponymous
kingdom of Axum. Arbitrarily identified as Abyssinia, Ethiopia, and India in medieval
writings. *1,700 Year Old Obelisk of Axum **Church of Our Lady May of Zion
4400 B.C.E
Naqada Culture
3000 B.C.E
Egyptian Dynasties
Predynastic Egyptians in the Naqada I period traded with Nubia to the south, the oases of the
western desert to the west, and the cultures of the eastern Mediterranean to the east. Imported
obsidian from Ethiopia to shape blades and other objects.
3800 B.C.E
2012 C.E.
33°33′38″N 35°23′53″E. In Genesis, Sidon is the son of Canaan the grandson of Noah. Its
name coincides with the modern Arabic word for fishery. It is the third-largest city in
Lebanon. On Dec. 4, 1110; Sidon was sacked in the First Crusade. *King Baldwin
3650 B.C.E
Minoan Civilization
1450 B.C.E
A Bronze Age civilization that arose on the island of Crete & flourished from approximately
the 27th century - 15th century B.C.E.. The early inhabitants of Crete may have settled as
early as 128,000 B.C.E., during the Middle Paleolithic age. *2,700 Rise
3500 B.C.E
1200 B.C.E 'Canaanite Faith'
3500 B.C.E
1200 B.C.E
Phoenicia; Philistines
Called Phoenicia after 1,200 B.C.E.. 'Canaan' is a historical Semitic speaking region roughly
corresponding to modern-day Israel, Palestine, Lebanon, and the western parts of Jordan and
Syria. Jericho was located in Canaan. *Egyptian 'Retenu'
Saturday, August 2, 2014 Page 3 of 41
3400 B.C.E
Kura-Araxes Culture; 'Early trans-Caucasian culture'
2000 B.C.E
Armenia, Georgia, Azerbaijan, Che
Caucasian Iberia (იბერია); Colchis
The earliest evidence for this culture is found on the Ararat plain; thence it spread to Georgia.
Archaeological evidence of inhabitants of the Kura-Araxes culture had shown that ancient
settlements were found along the Hrazdan river.
3300 B.C.E
Harappan (Indus Valley) Civilization
325 B.C.E
Indus Valley; Modern Pakistan &
The Indus Valley is one of the world's earliest urban civilizations, along with its
contemporaries, Mesopotamia & Ancient Egypt. The mature phase of Indus Valley
Civilization is known as the Harappan Civilization, after the first of its unearthed cities.
3200 B.C.E
539 B.C.E
The Elamites called their country Haltamti. Part of the early urbanization during the
Chalcolithic period (Copper Age). Its culture played a crucial role in the Gutian Empire,
especially during the Achaemenid dynasty that succeeded it.
3180 B.C.E
Skara Brae
2500 B.C.E
59°02′55″N 3°20′35″W. A large stone-built Neolithic settlement, located on the Bay of Skaill
on the west coast of Mainland, Orkney, Scotland. Older than Stonehenge and the Great
Pyramids, it has been called the "Scottish Pompeii".
3100 B.C.E
Egyptian Dynasties
334 B.C.E
Naqada Culture Kingdom of Egypt
The Archaic or Early Dynastic Period of Egypt immediately follows the unification of Lower
and Upper Egypt. Before the unification of Egypt, the land was settled with autonomous
villages. The earliest hieroglyphs appear just before this period.
3100 B.C.E
Egyptian Unification; Dynasties 1 & 2
2686 B.C.E
3rd Dynasty
It is generally taken to include the First and Second Dynasties, lasting from the Protodynastic
Period of Egypt until about 2686 BC, or the beginning of the Old Kingdom. With the First
Dynasty, the capital moved from Abydos to Memphis. *Menes or Narmer
3000 B.C.E
Cycladic Civilization
2000 B.C.E
Cyclades, Greece in the Aegean Se
The significant Late Neolithic and Early Bronze Age Cycladic culture is best known for its
schematic flat female idols carved out of the islands' pure white marble centuries before the
great Middle Bronze Age ("Minoan") culture arose in Crete.
3000 B.C.E
2012 C.E.
31°47′N 35°13′E. During its long history, it has been destroyed twice, besieged 23 times,
attacked 52 times, and captured and recaptured 44 times. 'The capital of Israel', though not
internationally recognized as such. Holy City to Abrahamic religion.
Saturday, August 2, 2014 Page 4 of 41
3000 B.C.E
Kingdom of Ebla
1600 B.C.E
Famous for the Ebla tablets, an archive of about 20,000 cuneiform tablets found there, dated
2,250 BCE, written in Sumerian script to record the Eblaite language — a previously
unknown language, now the earliest attested Semetic language after Akkadian.
3000 B.C.E
Three Sovereigns & Five Emperors
2100 B.C.E
Yellow Emperor
A group of semi- mythological rulers and culture heroes from ancient China. In myth, the
three sovereigns were demigods who used their abilities to help create mankind and impart
essential skills and knowledge. It is claimed that they introduced fire use.
3000 B.C.E
100 B.C.E
39°57′27″N 26°14′20″E. A city, both factual and legendary, located in northwest Anatolia in
what is now Turkey, southeast of the Dardanelles and beside Mount Ida. Best known for being
the setting of the Trojan War. Became Ilium under the Romans.
2900 B.C.E
1759 B.C.E
34°32′58″N 40°53′24″E. An ancient Sumerian and Amorite city, thought to have been
inhabited since the 5th millennium BCE when it was sacked by Hammurabi. The Mari
Tablets belong to a large group of tablets that were discovered by a French archaeologists.
2750 B.C.E
2012 C.E.
33°16′8″N 35°12′59″E. Tyre is an ancient Phoenician city and the legendary birthplace of
Europa and Elissa (Dido). Today it is the fourth largest city in Lebanon and houses one of the
nation's major ports. Known for the Roman Hippodrome.
2697 B.C.E
Yellow Emperor of China
2598 B.C.E
Three Sovereigns & Five Emperors Emperor's: Shaohao, Zhuanxu, Ku, Zi, Yao, & Shun
Included among the Three Sovereigns and Five Emperors. Traditionally credited with
numerous inventions and innovations, he is regarded as the initiator of Chinese civilization
and said to be the ancestor of all Huaxia Chinese. *Shou Qui Steles
2686 B.C.E
Egyptian 3rd Dynasty
2613 B.C.E
Unification of Egypt; 1st & 2nd Dynasties 4th Dynasty
After the turbulent last years of the 2nd dynasty which may have included civil war, Egypt
came under the rule of Djoser and this marks the beginning of the Third dynasty. The Turin
King List & the Abydos King List record 5 kings; the Saqqara Tablet, 4.
2613 B.C.E
Egyptian 4th Dynasty
2494 B.C.E
3rd Dynasty 5th Dynasty
Characterized as a "golden age" of the Old Kingdom. Dynasties III, IV, V and VI are often
combined under the group title the Old Kingdom, which often is described as the "Age of the
Pyramids". The capital at that time was Memphis.
Saturday, August 2, 2014 Page 5 of 41
2600 B.C.E
Classical Maya
600 C.E.
Yucutan & Guatemala, Central Me
Olmec Quiché Maya
Noted for the only known fully developed written language of the pre-Columbian Americas,
as well as for its art, architecture, & mathematical & astronomical systems. First found at
Cuello, Belize the Maya peoples never disappeared. Tikal, Palenque, Copán.
2598 B.C.E
Chinese Emperor's: Shaohao, Zhuanxu, Ku, *Zi, Yao, & Shun
2100 B.C.E
Yellow Emperor Xia Dynasty
The five emperors were exemplary sages possessed of great moral character. *per Sovereign
Series Zhi is not listed. There are many variations of who classifies as the three sovereigns or
the five emperors. There are six to seven known variations.
2494 B.C.E
Egyptian 5th Dynasty
2345 B.C.E
4th Dynasty 6th Dynasty
How Pharaoh Userkaf founded this dynasty is not known for certain. During this dynasty,
Egyptian religion made several important changes. The earliest known copies of funerary
prayers inscribed on royal tombs (known as the Pyramid Texts) appear.
2400 B.C.E
1200 B.C.E
Kingdom of Ebla Aramean; Babylonian
Called the 'Martu' by the Sumero-Akkadians; a semetic people who built Babylon in 1894
B.C.E. & ruled there until 1595. They were absorbed into the Arameans (Aram) in 1200. First
Babylonian Empire. Amurru refers to them, as well as their principle deity.
2345 B.C.E
Egyptian 6th Dynasty
2181 B.C.E
5th Dynasty 7th Dynasty
Dynasty VI was founded by Teti, who had married Iput, commonly believed to be the
daughter of the Dynasty V pharaoh Unas. Manetho claimed that Teti was eventually murdered
by his own bodyguard, but no contemporary sources confirm this.
2334 B.C.E
Akkadian Empire
2154 B.C.E
Noted as 'The First Empire'; Founded by Sargon the Great of Akkad, a semetic Akkadian.
Speakers of the Akkadian language seem to have already been present in Mesopotamia at the
dawn of the historical period. Defeated Lugal-Zage-Si in the Battle of Uruk.
2300 B.C.E
1700 B.C.E
Central Antolia, Turkey
The oldest name for Anatolia, "Land of the Hatti" was found for the first time on
Mesopotamian cuneiform tablets from the period of Sargon the Great of Akkad, on those
tablets Assyrian traders implored the help of the Akkadian king Sargon. *Proto-Historic
2284 B.C.E
Assyrian Empire
605 B.C.E
Under Sumero-Akkadian rule until 2030 B.C.E. with the rise of King Ushpia. The City of
Assur dates from 2600 B.C.E.. Originally evolved as a minor Akkadian kingdom; subject to
Sargon the Great of Akkad. *Tudiya; First Assyrian King. **Subartu
Saturday, August 2, 2014 Page 6 of 41
2254 B.C.E
1300 B.C.E
Northern Mesopotamia
Kingdom of Matanni
By the Early Iron Age, the Hurrians had been assimilated with other peoples, except perhaps
in the kingdom of Urartu. The first known Hurrian kingdom emerged around the city of
Urkesh.*Kingdom of Mitanni founded by Kirta after fall of Babylon; 1500 B.C.E.
2181 B.C.E
Egyptian 7th & 8th Dynasties
2160 B.C.E
6th Dynasty 9th & 10th Dynasties
The three sources which provide our knowledge on this period is exceedingly difficult to work
with. Manetho's full history does not survive intact, but is known through other writers who
quoted from it. Cff. Abydos King List & The Turin Cannon
2160 B.C.E
Egyptian 9th & 10th Dynasties
2025 B.C.E
7th & 8th Dynasties 11th Dynasty
Dynasty IX was founded at Herakleopolis Magna, and Dynasty X continued there. At this
time Egypt was not unified, and there is some overlap between these and other local dynasties.
The Turin Cannon lists eighteen kings for this royal line.
2125 B.C.E
Egyptian 11th Dynasty
1985 B.C.E
9th & 10th Dynasties 12th Dynasty
Manetho's statement that Dynasty XI consisted of 16 kings, who reigned for 43 years is
contradicted by contemporary inscriptions and the evidence of the Turin King List, listing
seven kings who ruled for a total of 143 years. "Intef the Great, son of Iku"
2100 B.C.E
Chinese Xia Dynasty
1600 B.C.E
Emperor's: Shaohao, Zhuanxu, Ku, Zi, Yao, & Shun Shang Dynasty
First dynasty in China to be described in ancient historical chronicles such as Bamboo
Annals, Classic of History and Records of the Grand Historian. Established by the legendary
Yu the Great after Shun, last of the Five Emperors gave his throne to him.
2055 B.C.E
1550 B.C.E
United Kingdom of Israel and Judah
First appeared in Egypt during the eleventh dynasty. By the fifteenth dynasty, they ruled
Lower Egypt, and at the end of the seventeenth dynasty, they were expelled. Introduced the
composite bow and the horse-drawn chariot into Egypt.
2000 B.C.E
1500 B.C.E
36°46′23″N 66°52′25″E. An ancient city and centre of Zoroastrianism in what is now northern
Afghanistan. The ancient city of Balkh was under the Greeks renamed Bactra, giving its name
to Bactria. It was one of the major cities of Khorasan.
2000 B.C.E
1180 B.C.E
Northern Anatolia, Turkey
Indo-Europeans. The early Hittites, whose prior whereabouts are unknown, borrowed heavily
from the pre-existing Hattian culture, and also from that of the Assyrian traders — in
particular, the cuneiform writing and the use of cylindrical seals. *Hattusa
Saturday, August 2, 2014 Page 7 of 41
2000 B.C.E
Sea Peoples
Exact date and origin is unknown, l
The identity of the Sea Peoples has remained enigmatic to modern scholars, who have only the
scattered records of ancient civilizations and archaeological analysis to inform them. Their
motives were unknown to the Egyptians. *Obelisk Temple at Byblos
1985 B.C.E
Egyptian 12th Dynasty
1773 B.C.E
11th Dynasty 13th - 17th Dynasties
This dynasty was founded by Amenemhat I, who may have been vizier to the last pharaoh of
Dynasty XI, Mentuhotep IV. The chronology of the 12th dynasty is the most stable of any
period before the New Kingdom. Manetho stated that it was based in Thebes.
1900 B.C.E
Mycenaean Greece
1100 B.C.E
Bronze Age Greece
The last phase of the Bronze Age in Ancient Greece, it is the historical setting of much
ancient Greek literature and myth, including the epics of Homer. From a chronological
perspective, the Late Helladic period (LH, 1550-1060 BC) *Minoan & Cyclades.
1845 B.C.E
539 B.C.E
Amorites Kassite Babylon, Chaldean Babylon
Founded by the Amorites from Syria, it became over-ran by the Kassite & Chaldean, replacing
& displacing the Amorite people. *First Babylonian Dynasty; 1,830-1,531 B.C.E. **February
9, 1659 BC; Lunar Eclipse/Hittite Invasion of Babylon. Cff. Aram
1800 B.C.E
350 B.C.E
The Olmec were the first major civilization in Mexico. They lived in the tropical lowlands of
south-central Mexico, in the modern-day states of Veracruz and Tabasco. Pre-Olmec cultures
had flourished in the area since about 2,500 B.C.E..
1773 B.C.E
Egyptian 13th - 17th Dynasties
1550 B.C.E
12th Dynasty 18th Dynasty
This dynasty is usually described as an era of chaos and disorder. However, the period may
have been more peaceful than was once thought since the central government in Itj-tawy near
the Faiyum was sustained during most of the dynasty.
1700 B.C.E
1200 B.C.E
39°57′27″N 26°14′20″E. An important Pre-Columbian archaeological site in western Bolivia.
Recognized by Andean scholars as one of the most important precursors to the Inca Empire.
The ruins are near the south-eastern shore of Lake Titicaca.
1600 B.C.E
Chinese Shang Dynasty
1046 B.C.E
Xia Dynasty Zhou Dynasty
Sima Qian's "Annals of the Yin" begins by describing the predynastic founder of the Shang
lineage, Xie 契, as having been miraculously conceived when Jiandi (简狄), a wife of
Emperor Ku, swallowed an egg dropped by a black bird.
Saturday, August 2, 2014 Page 8 of 41
1550 B.C.E
Egyptian 18th Dynasty
1295 B.C.E
13th - 17th Dynasties 19th Dynasty
Perhaps the best known of all the dynasties of ancient Egypt. As well as boasting a number of
Egypt's most famous pharaohs, it included Tutankhamun. Sometimes known as the
Thutmosid Dynasty because of the four pharaohs named Thutmosis.
1531 B.C.E
1155 B.C.E
An ancient Near Eastern people who gained control of Babylonia after the fall of the Old
Babylonian Empire, after 1531 B.C.E.-1155 B.C.E. (short chronology). The original
homeland of the Kassites is not well known, but may have been modern Iran.
1500 B.C.E
Kingdom of Matanni
1300 B.C.E
Northern Syria & South-East Antol
A loosely organized Hurrian-speaking state. Founded by an Indo-Aryan ruling class governing
a predominately Hurrian population, Mitanni came to be a regional power after the Hittite
destruction of Amorite Babylon created a power vaccum in Mesopotamia.
1500 B.C.E
732 B.C.E
Destroyed by the invading Hyksos. Pleshet or Peleset, were a people who occupied the
southern coast of Canaan at the beginning of the Iron Age. They ruled the five city-states of
Gaza, Askelon, Ashdod, Ekron & Gath, from the Wadi Gaza to the Yarqon River.
1295 B.C.E
Egyptian 19th Dynasty
1186 B.C.E
18th Dynasty 20th Dynasty
Founded by Vizier Ramesses I, whom Pharaoh Horemheb chose as his successor to the throne,
this dynasty is best known for its military conquests in Palestine, Lebanon, & Syria. Declined
as internal fighting between the heirs of Merneptah increased.
1200 B.C.E
Arameans (Aram)
911 B.C.E
A Northwest Semitic semi-nomadic and pastoralist people who originated in what is now
modern Syria. They never had a unified nation; they were divided into small independent
kingdoms across parts of the Near East, particularly Syria.
1200 B.C.E
Colchian (Kolkhis) Culture
600 B.C.E
Western Caucasus; Georgia
Kura-Araxes Culture; 'Early trans-Caucasian culture' Koban culture
Contributed significantly to the development of medieval Georgian statehood after its
unification with the eastern Georgian Kingdom of Iberia. In Greek mythology, Colchis was the
home of Aeëtes and Medea and the destination of the Argonauts.
1200 B.C.E
Hebrew Nation
2012 C.E.
Hyksos State of Israel
Began with their expulsion from Egypt and invasion of Canaan. 1030-930 B.C.E.; United
Kingdom of Israel & Judah. 930-586 B.C.E.; Kingdom of Judah. 5.14.1948; State of Israel.
1209 B.C.E.; Merneptah Stele. 840 B.C.E. Mesha Stele.
Saturday, August 2, 2014 Page 9 of 41
1200 B.C.E
2012 C.E.
Abrahamic Religion
Christianity, Catholicism, Islam
'Jewish Faith'
1200 B.C.E
65 B.C.E
Ancient Canaan: Israel, Lebanon, P
(2,300 B.C.E.) The Phoenician phonetic alphabet is generally believed to be the ancestor of
almost all modern alphabets, although it did not contain any vowels (these were added later by
the Greeks). In 65 B.C.E. Pompey incorporated it as part of Rome.
1186 B.C.E
Egyptian 20th Dynasty
1069 B.C.E
19th Dynasty 21st Dynasty
Pharaoh Setnakhte was likely already middle aged when he took the throne after Queen
Twosret. He only ruled for a short time when he was succeeded by his son Ramesses III. Egypt
was threatened by the Sea Peoples during this time period.
1180 B.C.E
Kingdom of Lydia
700 B.C.E
The endonym Śfard (the name the Lydians called themselves) survives in bilingual and
trilingual stone-carved notices of the Achaemenid Empire. Lydia arose as a Neo-Hittite
kingdom following the collapse of the Hittite Empire, who called it Arzawa.
1179 B.C.E
Latin Kings of Alba Longa
753 B.C.E
Italy; Vatican City
Etruscan Roman Kingdom
According to legend, after the fall of Troy, the Trojan prince Aeneas led a band of refugees
driven by destiny to found a new city, eventually arriving in Italy, and founded Alba Longa.
Ceased when its last king, Romulus, founded Rome. *Latin League
1100 B.C.E
125 B.C.E
Bozrah, Jordan; Southern Levant
A Semitic inhabited historical region of the Southern Levant located south of Judea and the
Dead Sea. May have been connected with the Shasu and Shutu, nomadic raiders mentioned in
Egyptian sources. Subdued by John Hyrcanus who incorporated them.
1070 B.C.E
Kingdom of Kush
350 C.E.
Republic of Sudan
Egyptian Empire Nobatia; Makuria; Aksumite Empire
During the New Kingdom of Egypt, Nubia (kush) was an Egyptian province, governed by the
Viceroy of Kush. With the disintegration of the New Kingdom around 1,070 BCE, Kush
became an independent kingdom centered at Napata. Expelled by Psamtik I in 656 BCE.
1069 B.C.E
Egyptian 21st Dynasty
945 B.C.E
20th Dynasty 22nd - 24th Dynasties
After the reign of Ramesses III, a long, slow decline of royal power in Egypt followed.
Described as 'Tanite' because its political capital was based at Tanis. Manetho of Sebennytos
states that "the 21st Dynasty of Egypt lasted for 130 years".
Saturday, August 2, 2014 Page 10 of 41
1046 B.C.E
Chinese Zhou Dynasty
256 B.C.E
Shang Dynasty Qin Dynasty
Lasted longer than any other dynasty in Chinese history, the actual political and military
control of China by the Ji (Chinese: 姬) family lasted only until 771 BC, a period known as
the Western Zhou. The use of iron was introduced to China.
1030 B.C.E
United Kingdom of Israel and Judah
930 B.C.E
Southern Levant
Hyksos Kingdom of Israel & Kingdom of Judah
There were 4 rulers of the United Monarchy – Saul ben Kish, Ishbaal, a son of Saul, David,
son-in-law of Saul through his marriage to Michal & from the tribe of Judah, & Solomon, son
of David and Bathsheba. King David established Jerusalem as the capital.
1000 B.C.E
Sparta; 'Lacedaemon'
146 B.C.E
Greek Dark Ages Achaean League
A prominent city-state in ancient Greece. Emerged as a political entity around the 10th
century BCE, when the invading Dorians subjugated the local, non-Dorian population. From
650 BCE it rose to become the dominant military land-power in ancient Greece.
945 B.C.E
Egyptian 22nd - 24th Dynasties
715 B.C.E
21st Dynasty 25th Dynasty
The kings of the Twenty-Second Dynasty of Egypt were a series of Meshwesh Libyans who
ruled from 943 BCE-720 BCE. Manetho states that the dynasty originated at Bubastis, but the
kings almost certainly ruled from Tanis, their capital where tombs exist.
930 B.C.E
Kingdom of Israel (Samaria)
720 B.C.E
Southern Levant
United Kingdom of Israel and Judah State of Israel
'Northern Kingdom'. It was thought to exist roughly from the 930's BCE until about the 720's
BCE, when the kingdom was conquered by the Assyrian Empire. The major cities of the
kingdom were Shechem, Tirzah, and Shomron (Samaria).
930 B.C.E
Kingdom of Judah
586 B.C.E
Southern Levant
United Kingdom of Israel and Judah Yehud (Babylonian province); State of Israel
A Jewish state established in the Southern Levant during the Iron Age. It is often referred to as
the "Southern Kingdom" to distinguish it from the northern Kingdom of Israel. The Jewish
Dark Ages came to an end in 164 B.C.E.. *Exilarchs **Mesha Stele
860 B.C.E
Kingdom of Urartu
590 B.C.E
Lake Van in the Armenian Highlan
Hayk Median Empire; Satrapy of Armenia
Nairi states and tribes became a unified kingdom under king Aramu, whose capital at
Arzashkun was captured by the Assyrians under Shalmaneser III. Roughly contemporaries of
the Uruartri, living just to the west along the southern shore of the Black Sea.
808 B.C.E
146 B.C.E
Greek Dark Ages Attalid Dynasty; Seleucid Empire; Ptolemaic Kingdom
The rise of Macedon, from a small kingdom at the periphery of Classical Greek affairs, to one
which came to dominate the entire Hellenic world, occurred under the reign of Philip II & saw
its greatest growth & prominence under Alexander the Great.
Saturday, August 2, 2014 Page 11 of 41
768 B.C.E
264 B.C.E
Tuscany, Italy
A civilization of ancient Italy in the area corresponding roughly to Tuscany. The ancient
Romans called its creators the Tusci or Etrusci. Thier origins are lost in prehistory. Probably
stemming from the Villanovan culture or from the Near East.
753 B.C.E
Roman Kingdom
509 B.C.E
Alban Kings of Rome Roman Republic
Romulus & Remus. Little is certain about the history of the Roman Kingdom, as nearly no
written records from that time survive, and the histories about it were written during the
Republic and Empire and are largely based on legend.
747 B.C.E
Egyptian 25th Dynasty
664 B.C.E
22nd - 24th Dynasties 26th Dynasty
A line of rulers originating in the Nubian Kingdom of Kush and most saw Napata as their
spiritual homeland. Began with Kashta's invasion of Upper Egypt and culminated in several
years of war with the Assyrians. Ushered in an age of renaissance.
700 B.C.E
Dʿmt (ዳሞት)
400 B.C.E
Kingdom of Aksum 'Aksumite Empire'; Abyssinia
Few inscriptions by or about this kingdom exist but very little archaeological work has taken
place. It is not known whether Dʿmt ended as a civilization before Aksum's early stages,
evolved into Aksumites, or united with the Aksumite Kingdom. *Yeha
684 B.C.E
Haryanka Dynasty of Magadha
413 B.C.E
Brihadrathas Dynasty Shishunaga Empire
Bimbsara was a King, and later, Emperor of the Magadha empire. Bimbsara was
contemporary of Lord Mahavir and devout follower of Buddha. He remained a devout devotee
and follower of Buddha throughout his life. Contemporary of Mahavira and Gautama.
664 B.C.E
Egyptian 26th Dynasty
525 B.C.E
25th Dynasty 28th - 30th Dynasties
The last native dynasty to rule Egypt before the Persian conquest. Also called the Saite Period
after the city of Sais. When the Nubian King Shabaka defeated Bakenrenef, son of Tefnakht,
he likely installed a Nubian commander as governor at Sais.
660 B.C.E
The Imperial House of Japan; "The Imperial Family"; 'Yamato Dynasty'
2012 C.E.
Edo Castle in the heart of Tokyo, J
Jōmon & Yayoi Periods
February 11, 660 B.C.E.—Traditional founding date of Japan by Emperor Jimmu. The oldest
continuing hereditary monarchy in the world. The current emperor is His Imperial Majesty the
Emperor Akihito. Emperors resided in Kyoto for nearly eleven centuries.
650 B.C.E
Carthaginian Empire
146 B.C.E
North Africa
Tyre, Lebenon; Phoenicia Roman Rule
A civilization centered on the Phoenician city-state of Carthage, located in North Africa on
the Gulf of Tunis, outside what is now Tunis, Tunisia. It was founded in 814 BCE. Gained
independence around 650 BCE. At war with Rome through the Punic Wars.
Saturday, August 2, 2014 Page 12 of 41
626 B.C.E
Chaldean Empire of Babylon
539 B.C.E
Kassite Rule of Babylon Achaemenid Empire (Persian) Rule of Babylon
After the death of Assurbanipal in 627 B.C.E., Babylonia rebelled under Nabopolassar the
Chaldean the following year. In alliance with the Medes, the city of Nineveh was sacked in
612 B.C.E., and the seat of empire was again transferred to Babylonia.
625 B.C.E
Median Empire/Confederation
549 B.C.E
*Kingdom of Urartu Achaemenid Empire
In the 7th Century B.C.E., a unified Median state was formed which together with Babylonia,
Lydia, and Egypt became one of the four major powers of the ancient Near East. An alliance
with the Babylonians helped the Medes to capture Nineveh in 612 B.C.E..
600 B.C.E
K'iche' Kingdom of Q'umarkaj ''Quiché Maya''
1524 C.E.
Guatemala, Yucatán Peninsula
Classical Maya
1,200 CE: The "K'iche' Forefathers" arrived. The meaning of the word "k'iche'" is "many
trees." In pre-Columbian times, one of the most powerful states in the region. They were
conquered by the conquistador Pedro de Alvarado in 1524. *Chichen Itza Temple
600 B.C.E
600 C.E.
'Iranian/Persian Faith'
590 B.C.E
Satrapy of Armenia; Orontid Armenia
331 B.C.E
Kingdom of Urartu Armenian Empire; Lesser Armenia
The Orontid Dynasty, or known by their native name, Yervanduni, was a hereditary Armenian
dynasty and the rulers of the successor state to the Iron Age kingdom of Ararat. One of the
satrapies of the Achaemenid Empire, later became independent.
550 B.C.E
Achaemenid Empire
334 B.C.E
Iran "Persia"
Selucid Empire rule; Parthian (Arsacid) Empire
'First Persian Empire', founded by Cyrus the Great who overthrew the Median confederation.
Ended by a Macedonian rule led by Alexander the Great. Controlled: Egypt, Indus Valley,
Thrace, & Macedon. {Zoroastrianism}
550 B.C.E
Persian Nation
2012 C.E.
Achaemenid Empire
The origin of the ethnic Iranian/Persian peoples are traced to the Ancient Iranian peoples, who
were part of the ancient Indo-Iranians & themselves part of the greater Indo-European
linguistic family. Persian translates to "from or of Persis"; Pars, Iran.
509 B.C.E
Roman Republic
27 B.C.E
Roman Kingdom Roman Empire
The Republic (a government headed by two consuls, elected annually by the citizens and
advised by a senate) was founded after a revolt of native Roman aristocrats led by L. Junius
Brutus. S.P.Q.R.; Senatus PopulusQue Romanus "The Senate & People of Rome"
Saturday, August 2, 2014 Page 13 of 41
500 B.C.E
Kingdom of Magadha
321 B.C.E
Maurya Empire; Gupta Empire
Formed one of the sixteen Mahājanapadas or kingdoms in ancient India. The core of the
kingdom was the area of Bihar south of the Ganges. The earliest reference to the Magadha
people occurs in the Atharva-Veda. Considered the Indian "Golden Age".
477 B.C.E
Delian League
404 B.C.E
The Athenian Empire (454-404 BCE). An association of Greek city-states, members
numbering between 150-173, under the leadership of Athens, whose purpose was to continue
fighting the Persian Empire after the Greek victory in the Battle of Plataea.
424 B.C.E
Nanda Empire
321 B.C.E
Shishunaga Empire Maurya Empire
Originated from the region of Magadha. Described as "the destroyer of all the Kshatriyas",
died at 88; was the ruler of the Nanda dynasty for all but 12 of the dynasty's 100 years.
Described as the first empire builders in the recorded history of India.
413 B.C.E
Shishunaga Empire
345 B.C.E
Haryanka Dynasty of Magadha Nanda Empire
Shishunaga, the founder of this dynasty was initially an amatya (minister) of the last
Haryanka dynasty ruler Nagadasaka & ascended to the thone after a popular rebellion. The
capital of this dynasty initially was Rajagriha, later shifting to Pataliputra.
404 B.C.E
Egyptian 28th - 30th Dynasties
343 B.C.E
26th Dynasty
The Twenty-Eighth Dynasty of Egypt had one ruler, Amyrtaeus, who was a descendant of the
Saite kings of the Twenty-Sixth Dynasty, and led a successful revolt against the Persians on
the death of Darius II. Left no known monuments of his reign.
336 B.C.E
Alexandrian Empire
323 B.C.E
Ancient Greece
Macedonian Empire Wars of the Diadochi
Alexander III of Macedon (Alexander the Great); Tutored by Aristotle until the age of 16, by
the age of thirty, he had created one of the largest empires of the ancient world. Founded some
twenty cities that bore his name, most notably in Egypt.
331 B.C.E
Armenian Empire
428 C.E.
Hayk; Urartu; Satrapy of Armenia "Ornotid Armenia" Byzantine & Persian Armenia
Kingdom of Urtartu; 860-590 B.C.E.
120 clan territories ruled by 'Nakharars'
Arsacid (Arshakuni) Dynasty; 54-428
331 B.C.E
Lesser Armenia
72 B.C.E
Orontid Armenia
Refers to the Armenian populated regions, primarily to the west and northwest of the ancient
Armenian Kingdom. All of Armenia became a Roman province in 114 C.E. under Roman
emperor Trajan, who abondoned it in 118 C.E..
Saturday, August 2, 2014 Page 14 of 41
323 B.C.E
Hellenistic Greece
30 B.C.E
Alexanders Greece Roman Rule; Battle of Actium
Taken to begin with the death of Alexander; may either be seen to end with the final conquest
of the Greek heartlands by Rome in 146 BCE, or the final defeat of the last remaining
successor-state to Alexander's empire, the Ptolemaic kingdom of Egypt.
322 B.C.E
Mauryan Empire
185 B.C.E
Kingdom of Magadha, Nanda Empire Sunga Empire, Kushan Empire, Satavahana Empire
Founded by Chandragupta Maurya, who had overthrown the Nanda Dynasty. By 320 B.C.E.
the empire had fully occupied Northwestern India, defeating and conquering the satraps left
by Alexander. *The Lion Capital of Asoka at Sarnath, national emblem of India.
312 B.C.E
Seleucid Empire
63 B.C.E
Seleucia, Iraq
Achaemenid Empire; Macedonian rule Parthian (Arsacid) Empire
A Greek-Macedonian state that was created out of the eastern conquests of Alexander the
Great. Seleucus I Nicator was a Macedonian officer of Alexander the Great and one of the
Diadochi. Seleucus established the Seleucid dynasty and the Seleucid Empire.
303 B.C.E
Ptolemaic Dynasty of Egypt
30 B.C.E
Egypt; Macedonian General
Macedonian Empire Provincia Ægyptus
Ptolemy, one of the six somatophylakes (bodyguards) who served as Alexander the Great's
generals and deputies, was appointed satrap of Egypt after Alexander's death in 323 BCE. In
305, he declared himself King Ptolemy I, later called "Soter" (Saviour).
302 B.C.E
Caucasian Iberia (იბერია)
580 C.E.
Kura-Araxes Culture
Provided a basis for later Georgian statehood and along with Colchis (early western Georgian
state) formed a core of the present day Georgian people (or Kartvelians). Area was inhabited
in earlier times by several related tribes in Kura-Araxes culture.
282 B.C.E
Attalid Dynasty; Kingdom of Pergamon
133 B.C.E
Macedonian Empire
A Hellenistic dynasty that ruled the city of Pergamon after the death of Lysimachus, a general
of Alexander the Great. The Attalids ruled Pergamon until Attalus III bequeathed the kingdom
to the Roman Republic to avoid a likely succession crisis.
280 B.C.E
'Achaean League'; κοινὸν τῶν Ἀχαιῶν; Koinon ton Achaion
146 B.C.E
League of Corinth Roman Province
A Hellenistic era confederation of Greek city states on the northern and central Peloponnese,
named after the region of Achaea. An inscription from ancient Orchomenus states that
members of the Achaean Federation must invoke Zeus and Athena.
280 B.C.E
264 B.C.E
Named for the immigrant Gauls from Thrace, who settled here & became its ruling caste in
the 3rd century BCE, following the Gallic invasion of the Balkans in 279 BCE. The Galateans
themselves were not literate, & their name for themselves is unknown.
Saturday, August 2, 2014 Page 15 of 41
247 B.C.E
Parthian (Arsacid) Empire "Ashkâniân"
224 C.E.
Iran "Persia"
Seleucid Empire ruled, Old Persian Achaemenid Empire Sassanid Empire
Its latter name comes from Arsaces I of Parthia who, as leader of the Parni tribe, founded it in
the mid-3rd century BCE when he conquered the Parthia region. Mithridates I of Parthia
greatly expanded the empire by seizing Media & Mesopotamia.
230 B.C.E
Satavahana Empire (Andhra Empire)
220 B.C.E
Mauryan Empire
Sātavāhanas started out as feudatories to the Mauryan dynasty, but declared independence
with its decline. They had to compete with the Sungas and then the Kanvas of Magadha to
establish their rule. Known for their patronage of Buddhism.
221 B.C.E
Chinese Qin Dynasty
207 B.C.E
Zhou Dynasty Han Dynasty
The first imperial dynasty of China. The strength of the Qin state was greatly increased by the
legalist reforms of Shang Yang in the 4th century BCE, during the Warring States Period.
Ying Zheng unified China through Qin's Wars of Unification.
218 B.C.E
400 C.E.
Roman Republic Western Roman Empire
Under the Republic, Hispania was divided into two provinces: Hispania Citerior and Hispania
Ulterior. During the Principate, Hispania Ulterior was divided into two new provinces,
Baetica and Lusitania; Hispania Citerior was renamed Tarraconensis.
207 B.C.E
Chinese Han Dynasty
220 C.E.
Qin Dynasty The Three Kingdoms: Wei, Shu, Wu
The second imperial dynasty of China; Founded by the rebel leader Liu Bang, known
posthumously as Emperor Gaozu of Han. It was briefly interrupted by the Xin Dynasty (9–23
C.E.) of the former regent Wang Mang. Considered a golden age in Chinese history.
189 B.C.E
Artaxiad (Ardaxiad) Dynasty
12 C.E.
Orontid Dynasty Arsacid (Arshakuni) Dynasty
Their realm included Greater Armenia, Sophene and intermittently Lesser Armenia and parts
of Mesopotamia. Their main enemies were the Seleucids and the Parthians. During this
period, Armenian culture experienced considerable Hellenistic influence.
185 B.C.E
Shunga Empire
75 B.C.E
Maurya Empire Kanva Dynasty
Established by Pusyamitra Sunga, after the fall of the Maurya Empire, about 50 years after
Ashoka's death. Its capital was Pataliputra. There were ten Sunga rulers. The empire is noted
for its numerous wars with both foreign and indigenous powers.
168 B.C.E
Nabataean Kingdom 'Malkûtâ Nabatu'
106 C.E.
Petra, Jordan
Nabataean origins go back to a time when they were nomadic pastoralists in the Negev and
the Sinai Peninsula around the 4th century B.C.E.. Under the reign of Aretas III (87-62
B.C.E.) the kingdom seems to have reached its territorial zenith.
Saturday, August 2, 2014 Page 16 of 41
110 B.C.E
Himyarite Kingdom; Homerite Kingdom
520 C.E.
Aksumite Empire
Conquered neighbouring Saba (Sheba) in.25 BCE, Qataban in 200 CE, & Hadramaut 300 CE.
Its political fortunes relative to Saba changed frequently until it finally conquered the Sabaean
Kingdom around 280 CE. Yūsuf Dhū Nuwas; 525 CE.
37 B.C.E
Herodian Dynasty
92 C.E.
Antipas, an Edomite, was appointed governor of Edom. His son Antipater, founder of the
Herodian Dynasty, was the chief adviser of Hyrcanus II & managed to establish a good
relationship with the Romans. *Herod the Great; Herod Antipas
30 B.C.E
Provincia Ægyptus; Roman Province of Egypt
641 C.E.
Egypt; Israel
Ptolemaic Kingdom Rashidun Caliphate
Established after Octavian (the future emperor Augustus) defeated his rival Mark Antony,
deposed his lover Queen Cleopatra VII and annexed the Ptolemaic kingdom of Egypt to the
Roman Empire. A major producer of grain for the empire.
27 B.C.E
Roman Empire; Senatus PopulusQue Romanus (S.P.Q.R.)
1453 C.E.
Roman Republic Vatican Rule
476/1453. The Western Roman Empire collapsed in 476 as Romulus Augustus was forced to
abdicate to the Germanic warlord Odoacer. The Eastern Roman or Byzantine Empire ended in
1453 with the death of Constantine XI and the capture of Constantinople.
5 B.C.E
2012 C.E.
Abrahamic Religion
Judaism Catholicism
'Christian Faith'
30 C.E.
Kushan Empire
375 C.E.
Maurya Empire Gupta Empire
Originally formed in the early 1st century under Kujula Kadphises in the territories of ancient
Bactria in what is now northern Afghanistan, Pakistan, & southern Tajikistan & Uzbekistan.
The Kushan were a branch of the Yuezhi confederation.
43 C.E.
Roman Britain
410 C.E.
'Britannia', eventually comprised all of the island of Great Britain S. of the fluid frontier with
Caledonia (Scotland). Roman invaders introduced new developments in agriculture,
urbanisation, industry & architecture. *Hadrian's Wall & the Antonine Wall.
54 C.E.
Arsacid (Arshakuni) Dynasty
428 C.E.
Artaxiad or 'Ardaxiad' Dynasty
Formerly a branch of the Iranian Parthian Arsacids, they became a distinctly Armenian
dynasty. Arsacid Kings reigned intermittently throughout the chaotic years following the fall
of the Artaxiad Dynasty until 62 CE, with Tiridates I of Armenia.
Saturday, August 2, 2014 Page 17 of 41
100 C.E.
Kingdom of Aksum 'Aksumite Empire'; Abyssinia
940 C.E.
Dʿmt Zagwe Dynasty; Makuria; Alodia
Aksumite rulers facilitated trade by minting their own currency, the state established its
hegemony over the declining Kingdom of Kush and regularly entered the politics of the
kingdoms on the Arabian peninsula. Converted to Christianity under Ezana.
220 C.E.
Chinese Three Kingdoms
280 C.E.
Han Dynasty Jin Dynasty
The Three Kingdoms: (Cao) Wei, Shu (Han), (Eastern) Wu. In a strict academic sense it refers
to the period between the foundation of the state of Wei in 220 and the conquest of the state
Wu by the Jin Dynasty in 280. *Yellow Turban Rebellion in 184
224 C.E.
Sassanid Empire
651 C.E.
Iran "Persia"
Parthian (Arsacid) Empire Safavid, Afsharid, Zand, Qajar, & Pahlavi Dynasties
Known to its inhabitants as Ērānshahr and Ērān in Middle Persian and resulting in the New
Persian terms Iranshahr & Iran, was the last pre-Islamic Persian Empire, ruled by the Sasanian
Dynasty. Founded by Ardashir I, after the fall of the Arsacid Empire.
260 C.E.
Breakaway Gallic Empire 'Imperium Galliarum'
274 C.E.
Roman Empire Roman Empire
A breakaway realm that existed from 260 to 274. It originated during the Roman Empire's
Crisis of the Third Century. It was founded by Postumus in 260 in the wake of barbarian
invasions and instability in Rome. *Germania, Gaul, Britannia, and Hispania.
266 C.E.
Chinese Jin Dynasty
420 C.E.
The Three Kingdoms: Wei, Shu, Wu Southern & Northern
Western Jin was founded by Sima Yan, with its capital at Luoyang, while Eastern Jin was
begun by Sima Rui, with its capital at Jiankang. The Sima clan was initially subordinate to the
Wei dynasty. Sima Rui founded the Eastern Jin at Jiankang in 317.
285 C.E.
Western Roman Empire
476 C.E.
Roman Empire
The western half of the Roman Empire after its division by Diocletian in 285. The Western
Roman Empire officially ended with the abdication of Romulus Augustulus on 9.4.476, and
unofficially with the death of Julius Nepos in 480.
320 C.E.
Gupta Empire
600 C.E.
Kanva Dynasty; Kushan Empire White Huns, Rashtrakutas; Gurjara-Pratihara; Pala Dynasty
Founded by Maharaja Sri-Gupta, the dynasty was the model of a classical civilization. Called
the Golden Age of India, the peace & prosperity enabled the pursuit of scientific and artistic
endeavors. The earliest available Indian epics come from this time.
370 C.E.
Hunnic Empire
469 C.E.
Hungary - Germany, Balkans, Ukra
Kingdom of the Gepids
A group of nomadic tribes from Central Asia with mixed origin, i.e. Iranian, Turkic, Slavic,
etc. Brothers Bleda & Attila ruled in a dual kingship. In 445, Bleda died, leaving Attila the
sole ruler. In 453, Attila died of a nosebleed on his wedding night.
Saturday, August 2, 2014 Page 18 of 41
380 C.E.
2012 C.E.
Abrahamic Religion
Judaism, Christianity
'Catholic Faith'
380 C.E.
Vatican Rule
2012 C.E.
Rome, Italy; The Vatican
Roman Republic Catholic Faith
2.27.380: Emperor Theodosius declared Catholic Christianity the state religion of Rome.
2.11.1929: Stato della Città del Vaticano (Vatican City-State) The Holy See acts and speaks
for the whole Catholic Church. A sovereign entity, headed by the Pope.
395 C.E.
Byzantine Empire
1453 C.E.
Ancient Roman State
'Eastern Roman Empire' Centred on the capital of Constantinople. Known simply as the
"Roman Empire" or Romania (Ῥωμανία) to its inhabitants and neighbours, it was the direct
continuation of the Ancient Roman State and maintained Roman state traditions.
400 C.E.
Kingdom of Strathclyde
1100 C.E.
Southern Scotland & Nothern Engl
Originally Brythonic Ystrad Clud, was one of the early medieval kingdoms of the celtic
people called the Britons in the Hen Ogledd, the Brythonic-speaking parts of what is now
southern Scotland and northern England. Developed during the Post-Roman period.
420 C.E.
Chinese Southern & Northern
589 C.E.
Jin Dynasty Sui Dynasty
Though an age of civil war and political chaos, it was also a time of flourishing arts and
culture, advancement in technology, and the spreading of Mahayana Buddhism and Daoism.
There were notable technological advances during this period.
428 C.E.
Byzantine Armenia
717 C.E.
Armenian Empire Emirate of Armenia
The Byzantine and Sassanid Empires divided Armenia in 387 and in 428. Western Armenia
fell under Byzantine rule, and Eastern Armenia fell under Sassanid control. Armenians had no
representation in the Ecumenical Council of Chalcedon in 451.
428 C.E.
Persian Armenia 'Persarmenia'
646 C.E.
Armenian Empire Emirate of Armenia
Corresponds to the Persian territory in which Armenians have lived until the Arab conquest of
Persia. In the Behistun inscriptions, written in three different cuneiform script languages: Old
Persian, Elamite, and Babylonian the name Armenia is first used.
481 C.E.
Merovingian Empre
751 C.E.
A Salian Frankish dynasty that came to rule the Franks in a region largely corresponding to
ancient Gaul from the middle of the 5th century. The Merovingian rule was ended March 752
when Pope Zachary formally deposed Childeric III.
Saturday, August 2, 2014 Page 19 of 41
500 C.E.
Tiwanaku-Huari Empire 'Wari Empire'
1100 C.E.
Huari Culture; Tiwanaku Culture Kingdom of Cuzco; Chimor
A political formation that emerged around AD 600 in the central highlands of Peru and lasted
for about 500 years, to 1100 C.E.. It operated about the same time as the Tiwanaku culture
and at one time was thought to have been derived from it.
550 C.E.
1066 C.E.
Germanic Tribes
Angles; Saxons; Jutes
Germanic tribes who invaded and settled the south and east of Britain. Angles, who may have
come from Angeln. Saxons, from Lower Saxony. Jutes, possibly from the Jutland peninsula.
Old English, was derived from Ingvaeonic West Germanic dialects.
589 C.E.
Chinese Sui Dynasty
618 C.E.
Southern & Northern Tang Dynasty
A powerful, but short-lived Imperial Chinese dynasty. Founded by Emperor Wen of Sui, the
Sui Dynasty capital was at Chang'an (being renamed as Daxing). Saw the reunification of
Southern and Northern China and the construction of the Grand Canal.
610 C.E.
2012 C.E.
Abrahamic Religion
'Islamic Faith'
618 C.E.
Chinese Tang Dynasty
907 C.E.
Sui Dynasty Five Dynasties & Ten Kingdoms
Founded by the Li (李) family. Capital at Chang'an (present-day Xi'an), the most populous
city at the time in the world, is generally regarded as a high point in Chinese civilization. Two
of China's most famous poets, Li Bai & Du Fu, lived during this age.
618 C.E.
Tibetan Empire
841 C.E.
The power that became the Tibetan state originated at the castle named Taktsé in the Chingba
district of Chonggyä. Namri Songtsen was the leader of a clan which one by one prevailed
over all his neighboring clans. *608-609 Embessies to Chinese Sui Dynasty
632 C.E.
1924 C.E.
Rashidun Caliphate Khilafat Movement; Ahmadiyya Caliphate
The term caliphate, "dominion of a caliph ('successor')", refers to the first system of
government established in Islam and represented the political unity of the Muslim Ummah
(community). *Constitution of Medina **Sunni & Shai Islam
632 C.E.
Rashidun Caliphate 'Patriarchal Caliphate'
661 C.E.
Saudi Arabia
Medina; Sassanid Empire Umayyad Caliphate
Comprising the first four caliphs in Islam's history, was founded after Muhammad's death in
632, Year 10 A.H.. Abu Bakr thus became the first Khalifa Rasul Allah (Successor of the
Messenger of God), and embarked on campaigns to propagate Islam.
Saturday, August 2, 2014 Page 20 of 41
637 C.E.
Emirate of Armenia
884 C.E.
Byzantine Armenia; Persian Armenia Kaysites; Kingdom of Armenia (Middle Ages)
Refers to an aristocratic regime in early medieval Armenia that flourished in the period of
interregnum between the seventh and ninth centuries, following the Marzpanate Period when
the leading political authority was exercised by a succession of princes.
653 C.E.
Kingdom of Northumbria
954 C.E.
Bernicia; Deira Kingdom of Jorvik, Kingdom of England, Kingdom of Scotlan
A mediæval kingdom of the Angles, in what is now Northern England and South-East
Scotland, becoming subsequently an earldom in a united Anglo-Saxon kingdom of England.
formed by Æthelfrith in central Great Britain in Anglo-Saxon times.
697 C.E.
Most Serene Republic of Venice
1797 C.E.
Cisalpine Republic; Venetian Province
Originated as a collection of lagoon communities banded together for mutual defence from the
Lombards, Huns and other invading peoples as the power of the Western Roman Empire
dwindled in northern Italy.
749 C.E.
Heian Period of Japan
1185 C.E.
Nara Period Kamakura Period & Kenmu Restoration
Considered a high point in Japanese culture that later generations have always admired. The
period is also noted for the rise of the samurai class, which would eventually take power and
start the feudal period of Japan. *Emperor Kammu **Fujiwara Nobility
751 C.E.
Carolingian Empire
987 C.E.
France; Germany
Seen as the founders of France & Germany, & its beginning date is based on the crowning of
Charlemagne, or Charles the Great, & ends with the death of Charles the Fat. Carolingian
dynasty was a Frankish noble family from Arnulfing & Pippinid Clans.
787 C.E.
Viking Age
1266 C.E.
Iceland, North America, Newfoun
Scandinavian (Norse) Vikings
787 Isle of Portland raid. The end of the Viking age proper in Scotland is generally considered
to be in 1266. In 1263, King Haakon IV of Norway, in retaliation for a Scots expedition to
Skye, arrived on the west coast with a fleet from Norway and Orkney.
800 C.E.
2012 C.E.
Arkhangelsk Oblast, Russia
64°32′N 40°32′E. Known to the Vikings as Bjarmaland. Ohthere from Hålogaland told from
his travels circa 800 of an area by a river and the White Sea with many buildings. According
to Snorri Sturluson there was a Viking raid on this area in 1027.
802 C.E.
Khmer Empire
1431 C.E.
Southeast Asia
Chenla Lovek
Its greatest legacy is Angkor, the site of the capital city during the empire's zenith. Much of
what is known of the ancient Khmers comes from the many stone murals and also first hand
accounts from Zhou Daguan. Jayavarman II — the founder of Angkor.
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804 C.E.
Duchy of Saxony
1296 C.E.
Area of the Saxons in the late Early
Old Saxony Saxe-Wittenberg; Saxe-Lauenburg
Originally was the settlement area of the Saxons in the late Early Middle Ages, when they
were subdued by Charlemagne during the Saxon Wars from 772 and incorporated into the
Carolingian Empire (Francia). *Res gestae saxonicae; Widukind of Corvey
833 C.E.
Great Moravia
902 C.E.
Central Europe *Mojmír I
Czechs & Slovaks
A Slavic state that existed in Central Europe and lasted for nearly seventy years whose
creators were the ancestors of the Czechs and Slovaks. It was a vassal state of the Germanic
Frankish kingdom and paid an annual tribute to it. 623-658; Samo's Realm
833 C.E.
Kingdom of Bohemia
1918 C.E.
Republic of Czechoslovakia
In the late 2nd century BC, many of the Boii tribe, after defeat at Roman hands, fled north
across the Alps from northern Italy into an area called Boihaemum by the Romans, which
included the southern part of present-day Bohemia. *Přemyslid Dynasty
842 C.E.
House of Rurik 'Rurikids'
1598 C.E.
Tsardom of Russia
Founded by the Varangian prince Rurik, who established himself in Novgorod. The ruling
dynasty of Kievan Rus', the successor principalities of Galicia-Volhynia, the Grand Duchy of
Moscow, and the founders of the Tsardom of Russia.
843 C.E.
Kingdom of Scotland; Rìoghachd na h-Alba (Gaelic); Kinrick o' Scotland (Scots)
1707 C.E.
Pictland; Dál Riata; Kingdom of Strathclyde; Northumbria Kingdom of Great Britain
Occupied the northern third of the island of Great Britain & shared a land border to the south
with the Kingdom of England. In 1603, James VI of Scotland became King of England,
joining Scotland with England in a personal union. *King Cináed I of Scotland
872 C.E.
Kingdom of Norway
2012 C.E.
872: Unification. 5.17.1814: Constitution. 6.7.1905: Dissolution of Union with Sweden.
5.7.1945: Restoration from German Occupation. Harald Fairhair (Hårfagre) unified the
Viking seafarers into one after the Battle of Hafrsfjord in Stavanger in 872 C.E..
874 C.E.
Přemyslid Dynasty "Přemyslids"
1306 C.E.
Czech, Hungary, Poland
A Czech royal dynasty which reigned in Bohemia and Moravia, and partly also in Hungary,
Silesia, Austria and Poland. The first historical Přemyslid was Duke Bořivoj I. The royal line
ended in 1306, with the death of King Wenceslaus III.
885 C.E.
Bagratid Kingdom of Armenia
1045 C.E.
Emirate of Armenia Armenian Kingdom of Cilicia; Zakarid Armenia
An independent state established by Ashot I Bagratuni in 885 following nearly two centuries
of foreign domination of Greater Armenia under Arab Umayyad and Abbasid rule. Under the
reign of Ashot III, Ani became the kingdom's capital.
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888 C.E.
Kingdom of Italy 'Regnum Italiae'
961 C.E.
Kingdom of the Lombards Holy Roman Empire
A political entity that came up under control of Carolingian dynasty of Francia first, after the
defeat of the Lombards in 774 C.E.. It was finally incorporated as a part of the Holy Roman
Empire in 961 C.E.. Conquered by the Franks under Charlemagne.
900 C.E.
Kingdom of Alba
1286 C.E.
Scottish Wars of Independence
Pertains to the Kingdom of Scotland between the deaths of Donald II (Domnall mac
Causantin) in 900, and of Alexander III in 1286 which then led indirectly to the Scottish Wars
of Independence. Differs markedly from the period of the Stuarts.
900 C.E.
Kingdom of Chimor
1470 C.E.
Tiwanaku-Huari Empire 'Wari Empire' Inca Empire
The political grouping of the Chimú culture that ruled the northern coast of Peru, beginning
around 850 CE and ending around 1470 CE. The greatest surviving ruin of this civilization is
the city of Chan Chan. Grew out of the remnants of the Moche culture.
900 C.E.
Kipchak–Cuman Confederation; 'Desht-i Qipchaq'
1220 C.E.
Kimek Khanate; Khazar Empire Mongol Empire
A Turkic tribal confederation. Originating in the Kimek Khanate, they conquered large parts
of the Eurasian steppe during the Turkic expansion together with the Cumans, and were in
turn conquered by the Mongol invasions. *Tatar Crimean Khanate
907 C.E.
Chinese Five Dynasties & Ten Kingdoms
979 C.E.
Tang Dynasty Song Dynasty
During this period, 5 dynasties quickly succeeded one another in the north, and more than 12
independent states were established, mainly in the south. This era also led to the founding of
the Liao Dynasty. 'Jiedushi'; Regional military governors in China.
907 C.E.
Liao Dynasty; Khitan Empire
1125 C.E.
Manchuria, Mongolia, China Prope
Khitan People; Uyghur Empire Jin Dynasty; Kara-Khitan Khanate; Khamag Mongol
Founded by the Yelü clan of the Khitan people in the same year as Tang Dynasty collapsed
(907), even though its first ruler, Yelü Abaoji (Yaruud Ambagai Khan), did not declare an era
name until 916. Destroyed by the Jurchen of the Jin Dynasty.
910 C.E.
Kingdom of León
1230 C.E.
Kingdom of Astrurias Crown of Castile
An independent kingdom situated in the northwest region of the Iberian Peninsula. It was
founded when the Christian princes of Asturias along the northern coast of the peninsula
shifted their capital from Oviedo to the city of León.
927 C.E.
Kingdom of England
1707 C.E.
United Kingdoms of Great Britain &Northern Scotland
Originated in the kingdoms of the ancestral English, the Anglo-Saxons, which were carved
out of the former Roman province of Britannia. 7.12.927: King Athelsta unified the
Heptarchy: East Anglia, Mercia, Northumbria, Kent, Essex, Sussex and Wessex.
Saturday, August 2, 2014 Page 23 of 41
960 C.E.
Chinese Song Dynasty
1279 C.E.
Five Dynasties & Ten Kingdoms Yuan Dynasty
The first government in world history to issue banknotes or paper money, & the first Chinese
government to establish a permanent standing navy. This dynasty also saw the first known use
of gunpowder, & the first discernment of true north using a compass.
962 C.E.
Holy Roman Empire; Imperium Romanum Sacrum; Heiliges Römisches Reich; Sacro Romano Impero
1806 C.E.
Central Europe
Middle Francia; East Francia
It was ruled by the Holy Roman Emperor. Otto I was crowned King of Germany in 962, but he
is nevertheless considered by some to have been the first Holy Roman Emperor in retrospect,
although the Roman imperial title was first restored to Charlemagne.
973 C.E.
Zirid Dynasty
1152 C.E.
Fatimid Caliphate Hammadid Dynasty; Almohad Dynasty
A Sanhadja Berber dynasty, originating in modern Algeria, initially on behalf of the Fatimids,
for about two centuries, until weakened by the Banu Hilal and finally destroyed by the
Almohads. Their capital was Kairouan. Hammadids were an offshoot.
1035 C.E.
Kingdom of Aragon
1715 C.E.
Kingdom of Navarre Crown of Aragon
A medieval and early modern kingdom in the Iberian Peninsula. Should not be confused with
the larger Crown of Aragon, of which the Kingdom of Aragon became a member along with
other territories such as the Kingdom of Valencia or the County of Provence.
1040 C.E.
Almoravid Dynasty
1147 C.E.
Africa, Southern Spain
Caliphate of Cordoba; Zirid Dynasty Almohad Dynasty
A Berber dynasty of Morocco, who formed an empire in the 11th-century that stretched over
the western Maghreb and Al-Andalus. Their capital was Marrakesh, a city which they founded
in 1062 CE.. Originated amongst the Lamtuna and the Gudala.
1070 C.E.
Order of Saint James of Altopascio; Knights of the Tau; Hospitallers of Saint James
1672 C.E.
Tuscany, Italy
Order of Saint Stephen; Order of Saint Lazarus
A military order, perhaps the earliest Christian institution to combine the protection and
assistance of pilgrims, the staffing of hospitals, and a military wing. Founded by Matilda of
Canossa between 1070-80 at Altopascio. * 1.18.1459: Execrabilis
1085 C.E.
County Palatine of the Rhine
1803 C.E.
A historical territory of the Holy R
Grand Duchy of Baden; Kingdom of Bavaria
Its rulers served as prince-electors of the Holy Roman Empire from "time immemorial", were
noted as such in a papal letter of 1261, and were confirmed as electors by the Golden Bull of
1356. Count Palatine of the Rhine was Conrad of Hohenstaufen.
1098 C.E.
Military and Hospitaller Order of Saint Lazarus of Jerusalem
2012 C.E.
Knights Hospitaller
One of the most ancient of the European orders of chivalry. It was originally established to
treat the virulent disease of leprosy, its knights originally being lepers themselves. One of the
less-known and less-documented orders.
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1098 C.E.
Order of Cistercians; O.Cist. "Bernardines"; "White Monks"
2012 C.E.
Rule of Saint Benedict
A Catholic religious order of enclosed monks and nuns. A Benedictine abbot, Robert of
Molesme, left his monastery in Burgundy with around twenty supporters, who felt that the
Cluniac communities had abandoned St Benedict's Rule.
1099 C.E.
Knights Hospitaller; Order of Hospitallers; Hospitallers
2012 C.E.
Amalfitan hospital, Muristan distri
Gerard Thom Military & Hospitaller Order of St. Lazarus of Jerusalem
A group of men attached to a hospital in Jerusalem that was founded by Blessed Gerard
around 1023 which evolved into a military/hospitaller order. The Order was weakened by
Napoleon's capture of Malta in 1798 & became dispersed throughout Europe.
1099 C.E.
Latin Kingdom of Jerusalem; Regnum Hierosolimitanum; Βασίλειον τῶν Ἱεροσολύμων; םילשורי תכלממ
1291 C.E.
Fatimid Caliphate Ayyubid Dynasty; Mamluk Sultanate (Cairo)
A Catholic kingdom established in the Levant after the First Crusade. The first kingdom
lasted from 1099-1187, when it was almost entirely overrun by Saladin. The kingdom was re-
established in Acre in 1192, sometimes called the Kingdom of Acre.
1099 C.E.
Sovereign Military Hospitaller Order of Saint John of Jerusalem of Rhodes and of Malta (SMOM)
2012 C.E.
Jerusalem, Malta, Italy
Knights Hospitaller
A Roman Catholic lay religious order, traditionally of military, chivalrous, noble nature. It is
the world's oldest surviving order of chivalry. Headquartered in Rome, Italy, and is widely
considered a sovereign subject of international law.
1113 C.E.
Equestrian Order of the Holy Sepulchre of Jerusalem (OESSH)
2012 C.E.
Jerusalem, Italy
A Roman Catholic order of knighthood under the protection of the pope. It traces its roots to
Duke Godfrey of Bouillon, principal leader of the First Crusade. In 1496, Pope Alexander VI
created the office of Grand Master of the Order.
1118 C.E.
Poor Fellow-Soldiers of Christ and of the Temple of Solomon; Knights Templar; Templars
1314 C.E.
Hugues de Payens approached King Baldwin II of Jerusalem with the proposal of creating a
monastic order for the protection of these pilgrims. About nine knights including Godfrey de
Saint-Omer and André de Montbard, were among its founders.
1120 C.E.
Khamag Mongol
1206 C.E.
Khitan Empire Mongol Empire
Khamag Mongol consisted of the four core tribes Khiyad, Taichuud, Jalayir and Jirukhen. The
first Khan of Khamag Mongol recorded in history is Khabul Khan from Borjigin clan.
Temujin (Genghis Khan) united all tribes on the Mongolian plateau in 1206.
1121 C.E.
Almohad Empire; Almohad Caliphate
1269 C.E.
North Africa, Southern Spain
Almoravid Dynasty
The Almohad movement originated with Ibn Tumart, a member of the Masmuda, a Berber
tribal confederation of the Atlas Mountains of southern Morocco. Much of N. Africa was
under the rule of the Almoravids, a Sanhaja Berber dynasty.
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1128 C.E.
Military Order of Aviz; "Friars of Santa Maria of Évora"
2012 C.E.
Aviz Dynasty
Founded in emulation of such military orders as the Knights Templar, which existed in
Portugal as early as 1128, and received a grant from Teresa of León in the year of the Council
of Troyes, which confirmed their early statutes.
1136 C.E.
Novgorod Republic
1478 C.E.
Kievan Rus' Pskov Republic; Grand Duchy of Moscow
A large medieval Russian state which stretched from the Baltic Sea to the Ural Mountains
centred on the city of Novgorod. The Republic prospered as the easternmost port of the
Hanseatic League. Oleg transferred the capital to Kiev in 882.
1137 C.E.
Zagwe Dynasty
1270 C.E.
Lalibela, Ethiopia
Kingdom of Aksum 'Aksumite Empire'; Abyssinia
The name of the dynasty is thought to come from the Ge'ez phrase Ze-Agaw, meaning
"Dynasty of the Agaw" in reference to the Agaw people that constituted its ruling class. Gebre
Mesqel Lalibela, built the rock-hewn churches of Lalibela
1138 C.E.
Hōjō Clan 'Shikken'
1333 C.E.
Family who controlled the hereditary title of shikken (officially just a regent) of the Kamakura
Shogunate. Kamakura was invaded by Nitta Yoshisada and the entire Hōjō clan, almost 900
persons, killed themselves at the family temple of Tōshō-ji.
1147 C.E.
Order of Saint Michael of the Wing
1732 C.E.
Unlike many other Portuguese orders, it has not been nationalized as a decoration of the state
by the post-1910 Portuguese Republic. Founded by King Afonso I of Portugal to honor a
group of knights of the Order of Saint James of the Sword.
1162 C.E.
Order of Aubrac
1789 C.E.
Knights Hospitaller
A hospitaller & military order founded, with its headquarters at Aubrac in the Diocese of
Rodez. Its original purpose was to safeguard the local hospital for pilgrims on the Way of
Saint James to Compostela and on their way to Rome.
1164 C.E.
Order of Calatrava
1838 C.E.
Order of Cistercians (O.C.S.O.), the White Monks
The first military order founded in Castile, but the second to receive papal approval. The papal
bull confirming the Order of Calatrava as a Militia was given by Pope Alexander III on
September 26, 1164. Founded at Calatrava la Vieja in Castile.
1166 C.E.
Order of Alcántara; Knights of St. Julian
2012 C.E.
Order of Calatrava
Originally a military order of León, founded in 1166 & confirmed by Pope Alexander III in
1177. In 1214 Alcántara was first committed to the care of the Castilian Knights of Calatrava.
In 1318, the Grand Master, Ruy Vaz, was besieged by his own Knights.
Saturday, August 2, 2014 Page 26 of 41
1168 C.E.
Bishopric of Würzburg
1803 C.E.
Duchy of Franconia Electorate of Bavaria
A prince-bishopric in the Holy Roman Empire, located in Lower Franconia, around the city of
Würzburg, Germany. The Roman Catholic Diocese of Würzburg was reestablished in 1821
without temporal power. *741; First bishop of Würzburg.
1170 C.E.
(Royal) Military Order of Saint James of the Sword; Order of Santiago
2012 C.E.
Order of Santiago
Founded in the 12th century, & owes its name to the national patron of Galicia & Spain,
Santiago (St. James the Greater), under whose banner the Christians of Galicia & Asturias
began to combat & drive back the Muslims of the Iberian Peninsula.
1171 C.E.
Lordship of Ireland
1541 C.E.
Irish Kingdoms Kingdom of Ireland
The lordship was created as a Papal possession following the Norman invasion of Ireland in
1169–71. As the Lord of Ireland was also King of England, he was represented locally by the
Lord Lieutenant of Ireland.
1178 C.E.
Order of the Holy Ghost
1909 C.E.
A Roman Catholic religious order, founded by Guy de Montpellier in Provence for the care of
the sick by groups of lay people. Officially established by Pope Innocent III in the Santo
Spirito in Sassia in Rome. Responsible for running hospitals.
1180 C.E.
House of Wittelsbach
1918 C.E.
Germany; Denmark; Norway; Swe
Otto I of Wittelsbach, Duke of Bavaria
A European royal family and a German dynasty from Bavaria. The family's head, since 1996,
is Franz, Duke of Bavaria. Members of the family served as Dukes, Electors and Kings of
Bavaria, Counts Palatine of the Rhine, & two Holy Roman Emperors.
1180 C.E.
Order of Mountjoy
1221 C.E.
Iberian Peninsula, i.e. Spain & Port
Order of Calatrava; Order of Monfragüe
Founded by count Rodrigo Álvarez in the Holy Land. Rodrigo was from the order of Santiago,
and had already established the order in Castile and Aragon before establishing it in the
kingdom of Jerusalem in the tower of Ascalon.
1190 C.E.
Order of Brothers of the German House of Saint Mary in Jerusalem; Teutonic Knights
2012 C.E.
Jerusalem, Germany
Knights Hospitaller
A German medieval military order, & in modern times a purely religious Catholic order.
Merchants from Lübeck & Bremen founded a field hospital for the duration of the siege of
Acre in 1190, which became the nucleus of the order. Militarized in 1198.
1191 C.E.
Hospitallers of St Thomas of Canterbury at Acre; Knights of St Thomas
1538 C.E.
Acre, Nicosia, London
A Christian Military order of the Catholic Church. Membership was restricted to Englishmen.
The emblem of the order was a red cross with a white scallop in the centre & the Knights wore
a white habit. *William, Chaplain to the Dean of St. Pauls Cathedral
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1192 C.E.
Japanese 'Shogun'
1867 C.E.
One of the (usually) hereditary military dictators of Japan. The de facto rulers of Japan though
they were nominally appointed by the emperor. The term seii taishōgun means "great general
who subdues barbarians". Minamoto no Yoritomo, the first shogun.
1192 C.E.
Kamakura Shogunate
1333 C.E.
Heian Period Kenmu Restoration
A military dictatorship in Japan headed by the shoguns from 1185. From 1203 onwards, the
family of the first Shogun Yoritomo's wife, the Hōjō clan, effectively had total control over
the nation with the title Shikken (Regent).
1196 C.E.
Order of Monfragüe
1221 C.E.
Order of Mountjoy Order of Calatrava
A Spanish military order founded at the castle of Monfragüe near Plasencia on the Tagus.
Founded by the knights of the Order of Mountjoy who dissented from a merger with the
Knights Templar. By order of Ferdinand III of Castile, order absorbed.
1197 C.E.
Kingdom of Cuzco
1438 C.E.
Wari Empire Inca Empire
The Inca people began as a tribe in the Cuzco area around the 12th century C.E.. Under the
leadership of Manco Cápac, they formed the small city-state of Cusco. Little is known about
The Sapa Inca of the first dynasty of the Kingdom of Cusco; 1,200 C.E..
1198 C.E.
Armenian Kingdom of Cilicia
1375 C.E.
Armenia, Southern Turkey
Byzantine Empire; Kingdom of Armenia (Middle Ages) Mamluk Sultanate (Cairo)
An independent principality formed during the High Middle Ages by Armenian refugees
fleeing the Seljuk invasion of Armenia. Distinct from the Armenian Kingdom of Antiquity;
centered in the Cilicia region northwest of the Gulf of Alexandretta, Turkey.
1201 C.E.
Order of Sant Jordi d'Alfama; Knights of St. George
1394 C.E.
Order of Montesa and St. George of Alfama
Appear at different historical periods and in different countries as mutually independent
bodies having nothing in common but the veneration of Saint George, the patron saint of
knighthood. Received the approbation of the Holy See only in 1363.
1203 C.E.
Japanese 'Shikken'
1333 C.E.
'Regent for the Shogun of Japan'; Hōjō Tokimasa, who was the father-in-law of the first
shogun Minamoto no Yoritomo, became shikken. The shikken was the chief of the
mandokoro at that time. The post was monopolized by the Hōjō clan.
1204 C.E.
Empire of Trebizond
1461 C.E.
Black Sea Coastal Cities
Byzantine Empire under the Angeloi Trebizond Eyalet
One of three Byzantine Greek successor states of the Byzantine Empire. Founded by Alexios
Komnenos, taking advantage of the preoccupation of the central Byzantine government. The
longest surviving of the Byzantine successor states.
Saturday, August 2, 2014 Page 28 of 41
1204 C.E.
Livonian Brothers of the Sword; Christ Knights; Sword Brethren; The Militia of Christ of Livonia
1237 C.E.
Estonia; Latvia
Livonian Order
A military order founded by Bishop Albert of Riga in 1202. Pope Innocent III sanctioned the
establishment in 1204. The membership of the order comprised German "warrior monks".
Merged into the Teutonic Order as an autonomous branch.
1206 C.E.
Mongol Empire
1368 C.E.
Khamag Mongol Yuan Dynasty
The Mongol Empire emerged from the unification of Mongol and Turkic tribes in the region
of modern-day Mongolia under the leadership of Genghis Khan, who was proclaimed ruler of
all Mongols in 1206. Dessolved under Hongwu Emperor of the Han/Ming Dynasty.
1214 C.E.
Dominican Order; Order of Preachers; Friars Preachers
2012 C.E.
A Catholic religious order founded by Saint Dominic and approved by Pope Honorius III on
12.22.1216. Founded to preach the Gospel and to combat heresy, the order is famed for its
intellectual tradition, producing many leading theologians & philosophers.
1216 C.E.
Order of Dobrzyń; Order of Dobrin; Brothers of Dobrzyń; Fratres Milites Christi
1240 C.E.
Teutonic Order
A military order created in the borderland of Masovia & Prussia (Dobrzyń Land, Poland)
during the 13th century Prussian Crusade to 'defend against Baltic Prussian raids'. Created by
Christian of Oliva, the first Bishop of Prussia. *Golden Bull of Rieti
1218 C.E.
Royal, Celestial and Military Order of Our Lady of Mercy and the Redemption of the Captives
2012 C.E.
A Roman Catholic religious order established by St. Peter Nolasco in the city of Barcelona, at
that time in the Kingdom of Aragon, for the redemption of Christian captives. Members are
required to take a Fourth Vow to die for another.
1219 C.E.
Knights of the Cross with the Red Star; Military Order of the Crusaders of the Red Star
2012 C.E.
A religious order originating from Bohemia, devoted mainly to offering medical care. The
congregation has been recognized as a military order by Popes Clement X and Innocent XII,
as well as by several Holy Roman Emperors.
1221 C.E.
Militia or Order of the (Holy) Faith of Jesus Christ
1285 C.E.
An ephemeral military order founded in Languedoc. It owed its origins probably to Folquet de
Marselha, the Bishop of Toulouse; Simon IV de Montfort, leader of the Albigensian Crusade;
& possibly to Dominic of Caleruega, founder of the Friars Preachers.
1225 C.E.
Chagatai Khanate
1687 C.E.
Mongol Empire Zunghar Khanate; Khwāja; Timurid Dynasty 'نایرومیت'
A Turko-Mongol khanate that comprised the lands ruled by Chagatai Khan, second son of
Genghis Khan, and his descendents and successors. Initially it was considered a part of the
Mongol Empire, but it later became fully independent.
Saturday, August 2, 2014 Page 29 of 41
1230 C.E.
House of Medic; Famiglia de' Medici
1737 C.E.
Florence and Tuscany, Italy
Averardo de' Medici was the son of Chiarissimo de' Medici & the father of two children:
Giovanni & Francesco. Giovanni di Bicci de' Medici would later become the first historically
relevant member of Medici family of Florence & found the Medici Bank.
1231 C.E.
Order of the Faith and Peace; Order of the Sword
1273 C.E.
First mentioned by Pope Gregory IX in 1231. Its main purpose was not to fight heresies like
Catharism but rather to keep the peace in the Auxitana provincia (province of Auch). Gregory
placed it under a rule adapted from the Order of Santiago.
1233 C.E.
Militia of Jesus Christ
1261 C.E.
Order of the Blessed Virgin Mary
Founded at Parma by Bartholomew, Bishop of Vicenza, a Dominican, in 1233 and approved
by Pope Gregory IX, who gave it a rule in 1234 and placed under the jurisdiction of the
Dominicans. *Combat heresy, like Catharism and Waldensianism
1237 C.E.
Livonian Order; Livonian branch of the Teutonic Order
1561 C.E.
Estonia; Latvia
Livonian Brothers of the Sword
An autonomous Livonian branch of the Teutonic Order & a member of the Livonian
Confederation from 1435–1561. Between 1237-1290, the Livonian Order conquered all of
Courland, Livonia, and Semigallia, but could not conquer the Novgorod Republic.
1240 C.E.
Golden Horde; 'Ulus of Jochi'
1502 C.E.
Mongol Empire; Kipchaks
A Mongol and later Turkicized khanate that was established in the 13th century and formed
the north-western sector of the Mongol Empire. Contemporarily, the khanate was known as
the Kipchak Khanate or as the Ulus of Jochi.
1261 C.E.
Order of the Blessed Virgin Mary; Order of Saint Mary of the Tower; Knights of Saint Mary
1558 C.E.
Militia of Jesus Christ
The order received its rule from Pope Urban IV, who expressly states the purpose of the
organisation & the rights & obligations of its members: [The members of the order] are to be
allowed to bear arms for the defence of the catholic faith…
1270 C.E.
Solomonic Dynasty; 'the Imperial House of Abyssinia'
1974 C.E.
Zagwe Dynasty
The Solomonics continued to rule Ethiopia with few interruptions until 1974, when the last
emperor, Haile Selassie I, was deposed. The royal family is currently non-regnant. Prince Zera
Yacob Amha Selassie is currently the head of the Dynasty.
1271 C.E.
Chinese Yuan Dynasty
1368 C.E.
Song Dynasty; Mongol Empire Ming Dynasty
Founded by the Mongol leader Kublai Khan, who ruled most of present-day China, all of
modern Mongolia and its surrounding areas. Considered both as a division of the Mongol
Empire and as an imperial dynasty of China. Attributed to Genghis Khan (Taizu).
Saturday, August 2, 2014 Page 30 of 41
1283 C.E.
Grand Duchy of Moscow
1547 C.E.
Vladimir-Suzdal; Novgorod Republic Tsardom of Russia
A late medieval Rus' principality centered on Moscow, and the predecessor state of the early
modern Tsardom of Russia. Ivan III, established Muscovy as the successor state of the Roman
Empire, the "Third Rome". *Republic of Tatarstan; Udmurt Republic
1299 C.E.
Ottoman Empire
1923 C.E.
Republic of Turkey
One of the largest and longest lasting empires in history. With the demise of the Seljuk
Sultanate of Rum, Anatolia was divided into a patchwork of independent states, the so-called
Ghazi emirates. One of the Ghazi emirates was led by Osman I (El-Gazi).
1310 C.E.
House of Basarab
House of Dăneşti & Drăculești
A family which had an important role in the establishing of the Principality of Wallachia,
giving the country its first line of Princes, one closely related with the Muşatin rulers of
Moldavia. Named after Basarab I , who gained independence from Hungary.
1317 C.E.
Order of Montesa
1587 C.E.
A Christian military order, territorially limited to the old Kingdom of Aragon. King James II
persuaded Pope John XXII to permit him to regroup the Templar properties in Aragon and
Valencia, charged with the defence of the frontier against the Moors.
1318 C.E.
Military Order of Christ; Royal Order of the Knights of Our Lord Jesus Christ
2012 C.E.
Knights Templar
The heritage of the Knights Templar in Portugal, after the suppression of the Templars in
1312. It was founded in 1319. King Denis of Portugal negotiated with Pope Clement's
successor John XXII for the new order's recognition & right to Templar assets.
1331 C.E.
Kenmu Restoration
1338 C.E.
Kamakura Shogunate Ashikaga Shogunate; Southern Court
The restoration was an effort made by Emperor Go-Daigo to bring the Imperial House and the
nobility it represented back into power, thus restoring a civilian government after almost a
century and a half of military rule. Ashikaga captures Kyoto 2.23.1338.
1335 C.E.
Jalayirid Sultanate 'نایریلج'
1432 C.E.
Iraq; Western Persia
Ilkhanate Black Sheep Turkomen
A Mongol Jalayir dynasty which ruled over Iraq and western Persia after the breakup of the
Mongol Khanate of Persia (or Ilkhanate) in the 1330's. The Jalayirids were finally eliminated
by Kara Koyunlu in 1432. Disrupted by Tamerlane's conquests.
1336 C.E.
Vijayanagara Empire
1646 C.E.
Hoysala Empire; Kakatiya Dynasty; Pandayan Empire
Established by Harihara I and his brother Bukka Raya I of the Yadava lineage. The empire is
named after its capital city of Vijayanagara, whose impressive ruins surround modern Hampi.
A grand specimen of Vijayanagara art is the Vitthala temple.
Saturday, August 2, 2014 Page 31 of 41
1338 C.E.
Ashikaga Shogunate
1573 C.E.
Kenmu Restoration Azuchi-Momoyama Period
Known as the Muromachi Shogunate. Gets its name from Muromachi Street of Kyoto where
the third shogun Ashikaga Yoshimitsu established his residence. Ashikaga Takauji set up his
own bakufu in Kyoto in 1336 after overthrowing the Kamakura bakufu.
1338 C.E.
Japanese Southern Court
1392 C.E.
Kenmu Restoration Ashikaga Shogunate
A set of four emperors whose legitimate claims were usurped during the Nanboku-chō period
spanning from 1336-1392. In spite of the legitimacy of its claims to the throne, it was
permanently replaced by the illegitimate Northern Court on 8.11.1392.
1368 C.E.
Chinese Ming Dynasty
1644 C.E.
Yuan Dynasty Qing Dynasty, Shun Dynasty
The Ming, "one of the greatest eras of orderly government and social stability in human
history", was the last dynasty in China ruled by ethnic Han Chinese. Ming rule saw the
construction of a vast navy and a standing army of one million troops.
1370 C.E.
Timurid Dynasty 'نایرومیت'
1526 C.E.
Iran; Afghanistan; Uzbekistan
Golden Horde; Chagatai Khanate; Black Sheep Turkomans Khanate of Bukhara; Safavid Dynasty; Khanate of Khiva
Founded by the militant conqueror Timur (Tamerlane). Lost control of most of Persia to the
Safavid dynasty in 1501, but members of the dynasty continued to rule parts of Central Asia,
sometimes known as the Timurid Emirates. Hailed from the Barlas tribe.
1371 C.E.
The Royal House of Stuart
1807 C.E.
Scotland; since the 12th Century
Norman England
Founded by Robert II of Scotland. Became extinct with the death of Cardinal Henry Benedict
Stuart, brother of Charles Edward Stuart. Duke Francis of Bavaria is the current senior heir.
Their patrilineal ancestors held the title High Steward of Scotland.
1375 C.E.
Black Sheep Turkomen; Kara Koyunlu; Qara Qoyunlu
1468 C.E.
Armenia, Azerbaijan, Iran, Turkey,
Jalayirids White Sheep Turkomans; Timurid Dynasty
A Shi'ite Oghuz Turkic tribal federation that ruled over the territory comprising the present-
day Armenia(1406), Azerbaijan, north-western Iran, eastern Turkey and Iraq from about 1375
to 1468. Jahān Shāh made peace with the Timurid Shāh Rukh Mirzā.
1378 C.E.
House of Borgia
1645 C.E.
The Borgias emerged from Aragonese Valencia in Spain. Alfons de Borja, later known as
Pope Callixtus III (1378–1458), was born in La Torreta, Canals, which was then situated in
the Kingdom of Valencia. Became prominent during the Renaissance.
1378 C.E.
White Sheep Turkomans; Aq Qoyunlu; Ak Koyunlu
1508 C.E.
Turkey, Iran, Iraq, Armenia, Azerb
Kara Koyunlu Safavid Dynasty
According to chronicles from the Byzantine Empire, the Aq Qoyunlu were present in eastern
Anatolia from at least 1340, and most of their leaders, including the dynasty's founder, Uzun
Hassan, married Byzantine princesses. Cff. Black Sheep Turkomen
Saturday, August 2, 2014 Page 32 of 41
1407 C.E.
2012 C.E.
1407: Semi-mythic Founding by Christian Rosenkreuz. 1614: Fama Fraternitatis Rosae Crucis
in Kassel, Germany. 1615: Confessio Fraternitatis. 1616: Chymical Wedding of Christian
Rosenkreutz in Strasbourg (France).
1408 C.E.
Order of the Dragon; 'Societas Draconistrarum'
1437 C.E. Founded in 1408 by Sigismund, King of Hungary & his queen, Barbara of Celje. Following
Sigismund's death , the Order lost prominence. Members of the order, known as "Draconists".
Similarly, The Order of Calatrava, was founded in 1164.
1428 C.E.
Aztec Triple Alliance
1521 C.E.
Valley of Mexico
Spanish Rule
Began as an alliance of three Nahua city-states or "altepeme": Tenochtitlan, Texcoco, and
Tlacopan. The Triple Alliance was formed from the victorious faction in a war between the
city of Azcapotzalco and its former tributary provinces.
1434 C.E.
Order of Saints Maurice and Lazarus
2012 C.E.
An order of chivalry awarded by the House of Savoy, the heads of which were formerly Kings
of Italy. The order was formed by a union in Italy of the original Order of St Lazarus and the
Order of Saint Maurice in 1572 and has around 2,000 members.
1436 C.E.
House of Drăculești
1600 C.E.
House of Basarab
One of two major rival lines of Wallachian voivodes of the House of Basarab, the other being
the Dăneşti. As the house of Dăneşti, the line of the Drăculeşti began with Vlad II Dracul.
Vlad II Dracul "the Dragon" was in the 'Order of the Dragon' (1408).
1438 C.E.
Incan Empire "Tawantinsuyu"
1533 C.E.
Pre-Columbian America
Kingdom of Cuzco
The largest empire in pre-Columbian America. The Inca referred to their empire as
Tawantinsuyu, "four parts together." Place origin of their people as either: three caves near
Pacariqtambo; Lake Titicaca; or a place known as Tambo. *Machu Picchu; 1400 CE.
1453 C.E.
Order of Our Lady of Bethlehem
1459 C.E.
Founded by Pope Pius II. The order of Our Lady of Bethlehem was suppressed almost as soon
as founded and those orders whose goods the pope had transmitted to it were re-established.
The purpose of these knights was to defend the Island of Lemnos.
1467 C.E.
Sengoku Period of Japan
1573 C.E.
Nanboku-chō Period; Muromachi Period (Ashikaga) Azuchi–Momoyama Period
'Warring States Period'; A time of social upheaval, political intrigue, and nearly constant
military conflict. Would eventually lead to the unification of political power under the
Tokugawa shogunate. Cff. The Ōnin War (1467–1477) *Daimyo Rule
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1475 C.E.
Spanish Empire; "Imperio Español"
1812 C.E.
Kingdom of Spain
It originated during the Age of Exploration & was therefore the one of the first global empires.
At the time of Habsburgs, Spain reached the peak of its world power. In 1492, the Spanish
monarchs completed the Reconquista with the incorporation of Granada
1485 C.E.
House of Tudor
1603 C.E.
House of Lancaster House of Stuart
A European royal house of Welsh origin that ruled the Kingdom of England and its realms,
including the Lordship of Ireland, later the Kingdom of Ireland. rose to power in the wake of
the Wars of the Roses, which left the House of Lancaster, extinct.
1500 C.E.
Khanate of Bukhara
1785 C.E.
Central Asia
Timurid Dynasty 'نایرومیت' Emirate of Bukhara; Khanate of Kokand
Bukhara became the capital of the short-lived Shaybanid empire during the reign of
Ubaydallah Khan (1533–1540). The khanate reached its greatest extent and influence under
its penultimate Shaybanid ruler, Abdullah Khan II (r. 1577–1598).
1501 C.E.
Safavid, Afsharid, Zand, Qajar, & Pahlavi Dynasties
1979 C.E.
Iran "Persia"
Sassanid Empire Islamic Republic of Iran
Safavid; 1501-1736. Afsharid; 1736-1796. Zand; 1750-1794. Qajar; 1785-1925. Pahlavi;
1925-1979. The Pahlavi dynasty was over thrown in 1979 when Reza Shah's son Mohammad
Reza Pahlavi was forced into exile by an Islamic Revolution under Ruhollah Khomeini.
1511 C.E.
Khanate of Khiva
1920 C.E.
Timurid Dynasty 'نایرومیت'; Golden Horde Khorezm People's Soviet Republic
An Uzbek state that existed in the historical region of Khwarezm from 1511-1920, except for
a period of Persian occupation by Nadir Shah between 1740–1746. The patrilineal
descendants of Shayban (Shiban), fifth son of Jochi, grandson of Genghis Khan.
1522 C.E.
Sacred Military Constantinian Order of Saint George
2012 C.E.
Byzantine Empire: Bulgaria, Greec
Fictively established by Constantine the Great, though, in reality, it was founded some time
between 1520 & 1545 by two brothers belonging to the Angeli Comneni family. In 1699,
Francesco Farnese, Duke of Parma was recognised as grand master.
1526 C.E.
Mughal Empire 'لوغم ناهاش'
1764 C.E.
Timurid Dynasty 'نایرومیت' British Rule
Mughal emperors were descendants of the Timurids. The "classic period" of the empire started
in 1556 with the accession of Jalaluddin Mohammad Akbar, better known as Akbar the Great.
The last Emperor, Bahadur Shah II, was imprisoned & exiled to Burma.
1534 C.E.
Society of Jesus; Jesuits
2012 C.E.
The society's founding principles are contained in the document 'Formula of the Institute',
written by Ignatius of Loyola. Ignatius founded the society after being wounded in battle and
experiencing a religious conversion. *the Company of Jesus
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1542 C.E.
Kingdom of Ireland
1800 C.E.
Lordship of Ireland United Kingdom of Great Britain & Ireland
Refers to the country of Ireland in the period between the proclamation of Henry VIII as King
of Ireland by the Crown of Ireland Act 1542 and the Act of Union in 1800. Replaced the
Lordship of Ireland, which had been created in 1171.
1547 C.E.
Tsardom of Russia
1721 C.E.
House of Rurik 'Rurikids'; Grand Duchy of Moscow Russian Empire
The name of the centralized Russian state from Ivan IV's assumption of the title of Tsar in
1547 until Peter the Great's foundation of the Russian Empire in 1721. Ivan IV became Grand
Prince of Moscow in 1533 at the age of three.
1561 C.E.
Sacro Militare Ordine di Santo Stefano Papa e Martire; Order of Saint Stephen
2012 C.E.
Created by Cosimo I de' Medici, first Grand Duke of Tuscany. The last member of the Medici
dynasty to be a leader of the order was Gian Gastone de Medici in 1737. The rule chosen was
that of the Benedictine Order. First grand master was Cosimo himself.
1568 C.E.
Azuchi–Momoyama Period of Japan
1600 C.E.
Ashikaga Shogunate, Oda Clan, Tokugawa Clan Tokugawa Shogunate
This period begins with Nobunaga's entry into Kyoto in 1568, when he led his army to the
imperial capital in order to install Ashikaga Yoshiaki as the 15th, and ultimately final, shogun
of the Ashikaga Shogunate. It ends with the Battle of Sekigahara.
1600 C.E.
Tokugawa Shogunate
1868 C.E.
Azuchi–Momoyama Period; Tokugawa Clan Empire of Japan; Republic of Ezo
A feudal regime of Japan established by Tokugawa Ieyasu and ruled by the shoguns of the
Tokugawa family. Known as the Edo period and gets its name from the capital city, Edo,
which is now called Tokyo. It was abolished during the Meiji Restoration.
1632 C.E.
Electorate of Bavaria
1806 C.E.
Bishopric of Würzburg; Duchy of Bavaria Kingdom of Bavaria
An independent hereditary electorate of the Holy Roman Empire from 1623 to 1806, when it
was succeeded by the Kingdom of Bavaria. A member of the Council of Electors in the
Imperial Diet as well as Archsteward of the Holy Roman Empire.
1644 C.E.
Chinese Qing Dynasty
1912 C.E.
Ming Dynasty, Shun Dynasty Republic of China
Founded by the Jurchen Aisin Gioro clan in contemporary Northeastern China. The Aisin
Gioro leader, Nurhachi, who was originally a vassal of the Ming emperors, began unifying the
Jurchen clans in the late 16th century. *Xuantong Emperor Aisin-Gioro Puyi
1644 C.E.
Shun Dynasty
1644 C.E.
Ming Dynasty Qing Dynasty
An imperial dynasty created in the brief lapse from Ming to Qing rule in China. Founded in
Xi'an by Li Zicheng, the leader of a large peasant rebellion. Li, however, only went by the title
of King(王), not Emperor(皇帝).
Saturday, August 2, 2014 Page 35 of 41
1699 C.E.
Duchy of Saxe-Coburg-Saalfeld
1825 C.E.
Saxe-Gotha; Saxe-Saalfeld Saxe-Coburg and Gotha
One of the Saxon Duchies held by the Ernestine line of the Wettin Dynasty. Lasted until the
reshuffle of Ernestine territories that occurred following the extinction of the Saxe-Gotha line
in 1825, in which the Saxe-Coburg-Saalfeld line received Gotha.
1703 C.E.
Congregation of the Holy Spirit under the protection of the Immaculate Heart of Mary; Holy Ghost Fathers
2012 C.E.
Rome Italy
A Roman Catholic congregation of priests, lay brothers, and since Vatican II, lay associates.
Congregation members are known as Spiritans in Continental Europe, and as the Holy Ghost
Fathers in English-speaking countries. *C.S.Sp. following names
1707 C.E.
United Kingdom of Great Britain
1801 C.E.
England, Scotland
Kingdom of England, Kingdom of Scotland United Kingdom of Great Britain and Ireland
Came into being on May 1, 1707 with the political union of the kingdom of Scotland and the
kingdom of England (which included Wales). A single parliament and government, based at
Westminster, controlled the new kingdom. *Treaty of Union
1721 C.E.
Russian Empire
1917 C.E.
Tsardom of Russia Russian Republic
The successor to the Tsardom of Russia and the predecessor of the short-lived Russian
Republic, which was succeeded by the Soviet Union. officially proclaimed by Tsar Peter I
following the Treaty of Nystad (1721).
1762 C.E.
Kingdom of Kartli-Kakheti
1798 C.E.
Created by the unification of two eastern Georgian kingdoms, which had existed
independently since the disintegration of the united Georgian Kingdom in the 15th century.
Historically, Kartli was the dominant province in Georgia.
1776 C.E.
United States of America
2012 C.E.
North America "The New World"
British Colony
1001: Leif Erikson; Viking Exploration. 1492: European Colonization & Native American
Eradication. 7.4.1776: American Declaration of Independence. 9.17.1787: United States
Constitution. 12.15.1791: Bill of Rights. *1507; Amerigo Vespucci "America"
1801 C.E.
United Kingdom of Great Britain and Ireland
1922 C.E.
England, Scotland, Ireland
United Kingdom of Great Britain, Kingdom of Ireland United Kingdom of Great Britain and Northern Ireland
The United Kingdom of Great Britain and Ireland came into being on January 1, 1801 under
the terms of the Acts of Union 1800, by which the formerly separate kingdoms of Great
Britain and Ireland were united. *Anglo-Irish Treaty; Irish Free State.
1804 C.E.
Austrian Empire
1867 C.E.
Austria-Hungary; Kingdom of Italy
The Austrian Empire was founded by the Habsburg monarch Holy Roman Emperor Francis II
(who became Emperor Francis I of Austria), as a state comprising his personal lands within
and outside of the Holy Roman Empire of the German Nation.
Saturday, August 2, 2014 Page 36 of 41
1804 C.E.
First French Empire
1814 C.E.
Napoleon became Emperor of the French on May 18, 1804 and crowned Emperor on
December 2, 1804, ending the period of the French Consulate. The Treaty of Tilsit in July
1807 ended two years of bloodshed on the European continent.
1806 C.E.
Kingdom of Bavaria "Königreich Bayern"
1918 C.E.
Electorate of Bavaria; Bishopric of Würzburg Bavaria; Bavarian Soviet Republic
The Bavarian Elector Maximilian IV Joseph of the House of Wittelsbach became the first
King of Bavaria in 1806 as Maximilian I Joseph. The monarchy would remain held by the
Wittelsbachs until the kingdom's dissolution in 1918.
1812 C.E.
Kingdom of Spain
2012 C.E.
Spanish Empire; "Imperio Español"
A sovereign state and a member of the European Union located in southwestern Europe on the
Iberian Peninsula. Spain is a democracy organised in the form of a parliamentary government
under a constitutional monarchy.
1826 C.E.
Saxe-Coburg and Gotha
1920 C.E.
Saxe-Coburg-Saalfeld; Saxe-Gotha-Altenburg Bavaria; Thuringia
Served as the collective name of two duchies, Saxe-Coburg and Saxe-Gotha, in Germany.
They were located in what today are the states of Bavaria and Thuringia, respectively, and the
two were in personal union between 1826 and 1918.
1861 C.E.
Kingdom of Italy
1946 C.E.
Italian Republic
A state forged by the unification of Italy under the influence of the Kingdom of Sardinia,
which was its legal predecessor state. It existed until 1946 when the Italians opted for a
republican constitution. "Fascist Italy" lasted from 1922-1943; Mussolini
1868 C.E.
Empire of Japan
1947 C.E.
Tokugawa Shogunate; Meiji Restoration
Name of the state of Japan that existed from the Meiji Restoration on 3 January 1868 to the
enactment of the post-World War II Constitution of Japan on 3 May 1947. The country was
forced open to trade by the Convention of Kanagawa in 1854.
1869 C.E.
Republic of Ezo (蝦夷共和国)
1869 C.E.
Tokugawa Shogunate Hokkaidō
On January 27, 1869, the independent "Republic of Ezo" was proclaimed, with a government
organization based on that of the United States, with Enomoto elected as its first president
(sosai). Frensh & British recognized them but Meiji did not.
1871 C.E.
German Empire; German Realm
1918 C.E.
Weimar Republic
The common name given to the state officially titled the German Realm; refers to Germany
from the unification of Germany and proclamation of Wilhelm I as German Emperor to when
it became a federal republic after defeat in World War I.
Saturday, August 2, 2014 Page 37 of 41
1908 C.E.
Ahmadiyya Caliphate
2012 C.E.
Islam (Unrecognized)
Sokoto Caliphate
Founded in 1889 by Mirza Ghulam Ahmad of Qadian, India, who claimed to be the Promised
Messiah and Mahdi, the one awaited by followers of all major religions. Khalifatul Masih V
Mirza Masroor Ahmad, resides in London, England.
1912 C.E.
Kingdom of Tibet
1959 C.E.
Qing Dynasty Tibet Autonomous Region; Central Tibetan Administration
Markes the span of Tibet's de facto independence, from the fall of the Qing Dynasty until
1950 when Tibet was annexed by the People's Republic of China and become the Tibet
Autonomous Region of China.
1912 C.E.
Republic of China
1949 C.E.
Qing Dynasty People's Republic of China; Republic of China (ROC)
The Republic of China (ROC) is a state in East Asia whose government was located on
mainland China from 1912 to 1949 and since then relocated to Taiwan and its accompanying
islands including the Pescadores. Developed out of the Wuchang Uprising.
1917 C.E.
Russian Soviet Federative Socialist Republic
1991 C.E.
Russian Republic Russia
Commonly referred to as Soviet Russia, Bolshevik Russia, or simply Russia, was the largest,
most populous & economically developed republic in the former Soviet Union. Initially, the
state did not have an official name & wasn't recognized for 5 months.
1919 C.E.
Irish Republic
1922 C.E.
United Kingdom of Great Britain & Ireland Irish Free State; Northern Ireland
A revolutionary state that declared its independence from Great Britain in January 1919.
Established a legislature (Dáil Éireann), a government (Aireacht), a court system and a police
force. Irish volunteers of the Dáil became The Irish Republican Army.
1919 C.E.
'League of Nations' (L.O.N.); Société des Nations (French); Sociedad de Naciones (Spanish)
1946 C.E.
United Nations
Was an intergovernmental organization founded as a result of the Paris Peace Conference that
ended the First World War. It was the first permanent international organization whose
principal mission was to maintain world peace.
1922 C.E.
Arab Republic of Egypt
2011 C.E.
Independence: 2.28.1922; Egyptian Republic: 6.18.1953-2011. Revolution: 1.25.2011. The
Egyptian Movement for Change, popularly known as Kefaya, was launched to oppose the
Mubarak regime and to establish democratic reforms and greater civil liberties.
1922 C.E.
Irish Free State
1937 C.E.
Irish Republic, Southern Ireland Republic of Ireland
Established as a dominion under the Anglo-Irish Treaty, signed by the British government &
Irish representatives exactly twelve months beforehand. Effectively replaced both the self-
proclaimed Irish Republic & the Provisional Government of S. Ireland.
Saturday, August 2, 2014 Page 38 of 41
1922 C.E.
Kingdom of Egypt
1953 C.E.
Egyptian Dynasties Republic of Egypt
The independent Egyptian state established under the Muhammad Ali Dynasty in 1922
following the recognition of Egyptian independence by the United Kingdom. The kingdom's
sovereignty was subject to severe limitations imposed by the British.
1922 C.E.
Union of Soviet Socialist Republics (U.S.S.R.)
1991 C.E.
The Russian Revolution of 1917 caused the downfall of the Russian Empire. Following the
Russian Revolution, there was a struggle for power between the Bolshevik party, led by
Vladimir Lenin, and the anti-communist White movement.
1922 C.E.
United Kingdom of Great Britain and Northern Ireland
1993 C.E.
England, Scotland, North Ireland
United Kingdom of Great Britain and Ireland European Union
The name "United Kingdom of Great Britain and Northern Ireland" was introduced in 1927
by the Royal and Parliamentary Titles Act to reflect the granting of independence to the Irish
Free State in 1922, leaving only Northern Ireland in the UK.
1923 C.E.
Republic of Turkey
2012 C.E.
Ottoman Empire
Under Allied control; A cadre of young military officers, led by Mustafa Kemal Atatürk and
his colleagues, organized a successful resistance to the Allies; in 1923, they would establish
the modern Republic of Turkey with Atatürk as its first president.
1932 C.E.
Kingdom of Iraq
1958 C.E.
British Mandate of Mesopotamia Republic of Iraq
The sovereign state of Iraq during and after the British Mandate of Mesopotamia. The League
of Nations mandate started in 1920. The kingdom began in August 1921 with the coronation
of Faisal bin al-Hussein bin Ali al-Hashemi as King Faisal I.
1933 C.E.
Greater German Realm; Nazi Germany
1945 C.E.
Adolf Hitler's Nazi Germany is best known for its aggressive foreign policy, its launching of
World War II, and the Holocaust which resulted in the death of millions of European Jews and
other minorities deemed a threat to the Aryan race. *The Gestapo
1945 C.E.
'United Nations' (UN); Organisation des Nations unies; Организация Объединённых Наций
2012 C.E.
League of Nations (L.O.N.)
An international organization whose stated aims are facilitating cooperation in international
law, international security, economic development, social progress, human rights, and
achievement of world peace. *Currently 193 member states (2.2012)
1946 C.E.
Syrian Arab Republic
2012 C.E.
Ottoman-Ruled Arab Levant
The modern state encompasses the sites of several ancient kingdoms and empires, including
the Eblan civilization. Established after the First World War as a French mandate. Was the
seat of the Umayyad Caliphate (661–750) during the Islamic Era.
Saturday, August 2, 2014 Page 39 of 41
1947 C.E.
2012 C.E.
Empire of Japan
Since adopting its revised constitution in 1947, Japan has maintained a unitary constitutional
monarchy with an emperor and an elected parliament called the Diet. The Allied occupation
ended with the Treaty of San Francisco in 1952.
1948 C.E.
State of Israel
2012 C.E.
Southern Levant; Canaan; Palistine
Jewish Exile
Following the 1947 United Nations plan to partition Palestine, David Ben-Gurion, the
Executive Head of the World Zionist Organization & president of the Jewish Agency for
Palestine, declared Israel an independent state from the British Mandated Palestine.
1948 C.E.
'World Health Organization'; "W.H.O."
2012 C.E.
Health Organization
Est. 4.7.1948: A specialized agency of the United Nations (U.N.) that is concerned with
international public health. Was an agency of the League of Nations. Headquarterd in Geneva,
Switzerland and is a member of the United Nations Development Group.
1949 C.E.
'North Atlantic Treaty Organization' (N.A.T.O.); Organisation du Traité de l'Atlantique Nord
2012 C.E. An intergovernmental military alliance based on the North Atlantic Treaty; member states
agree to mutual defense in response to an attack by any external party. Includes 28 members
in North America and Europe, most recently Albania & Croatia..
1949 C.E.
People's Republic of China
2012 C.E.
Republic of China
A single-party state governed by the Communist Party of China. It exercises jurisdiction over
22 provinces, five autonomous regions, four directly controlled municipalities, and two mostly
self-governing special administrative regions (SARs).
1949 C.E.
Republic of Ireland
2012 C.E.
Irish Free State
Delcared Independence from the U.K.; 4.24.1916. 1.21.1919: Ratified. 12.6.1922:
Recognized. 12.29.1937: Constitution. 4.18.1949: Left the Commonwealth. While a poor
nation under the U.K., it is now on the the wealthiest nations in the world per GDP.
1953 C.E.
Republic of Egypt
1958 C.E.
Kingdom of Egypt United Arab Republic
In 1953 the monarchy was formally abolished and the county was proclaimed Republic of
Egypt until its merger with Syria in 1958 when it was renamed the United Arab Republic.
Muhammad Naguib was the first recognized president.
1958 C.E.
Republic of Iraq; Qasim Government
1968 C.E.
Arab Federation; Kingdom of Iraq Ba'athist Iraq
Began with the rise and rule of the President Muhammad Najib ar-Ruba'i and Prime Minister
Abd al-Karim Qasim from 1958-1963. The era ended with the ba'athist rise to power in 1968.
The Qasim government held an irredentist claim to Khuzestan & Kuwait.
Saturday, August 2, 2014 Page 40 of 41
1958 C.E.
United Arab Republic
1961 C.E.
Egypt, Syria
Republic of Egypt Arab Republic of Egypt
Often abbreviated as the U.A.R., it was a sovereign union between Egypt and Syria. The
union began in 1958 and existed until 1961, when Syria seceded from the union. Egypt
continued to be known officially as the "United Arab Republic" until 1971.
1958 C.E.
United Arab States
1961 C.E.
Egypt, Syria, North Yemen
The United Arab States (UAS) was a short-lived confederation of the United Arab Republic
(Egypt and Syria) and North Yemen. Neither the union nor the confederation fulfilled their
role as vehicles of pan-Arabism and nationalism.
1968 C.E.
Ba'athist Iraq
2003 C.E.
Qasim Republican Government of Iraq; Republic of Kuwait Coalition Provisional Authority; Kuwait
Covers the period of the Arab Socialist Ba'ath Party's rule. This period began with high
economic growth and soaring prosperity, but ended with a Iraq facing social, political, and
economic stagnation. Led by Ahmed Hassan al-Bakr of the Ba'ath Party.
1979 C.E.
Islamic Republic of Iran
2012 C.E.
Iran "Persia"
Safavid, Afsharid, Zand, Qajar, & Pahlavi Dynasties
The name "Iran" has been in use natively since the Sassanian era & came into use
internationally in 1935, before which the country was known to the Western world as Persia.
Home to one of the world's oldest civilizations, the Elamites. Medes unified Iran.
1991 C.E.
Russian Federation
2012 C.E.
A country in northern Eurasia. A federal semi-presidential republic, comprising 83 federal
subjects. The nation's history began with that of the East Slavs, who emerged as a
recognizable group in Europe between the 3rd and 8th centuries C.E.. *Varangians
1993 C.E.
'European Union'; "E.U."
2012 C.E. 11.1.1993. Traces its origins from the European Coal and Steel Community (ECSC) and the
European Economic Community (EEC), formed by six countries in 1958. The Maastricht
Treaty established the European Union under its current name.
1997 C.E.
'United Nations Development Group' (UNDG)
2012 C.E. A consortium from the result of UN reform, created by the Secretary General of the United
Nations in 1997, to improve the effectiveness of UN development activities at the country
level. It brings together 32 UN agencies and groups, plus five observers.
2005 C.E.
Republic of Iraq
2012 C.E.
Kingdom of Iraq
Two major rivers, the Tigris and Euphrates, run through the center of Iraq, flowing from
northwest to southeast, often referred to as the cradle of civilization and the birthplace of
writing, law and the wheel. The modern borders were set in 1920.
Saturday, August 2, 2014 Page 41 of 41

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