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"Life Style" of Chinatowners in San Francisco and Oakland Author(s): Mary L.

New and Peter Kong-ming New Source: The Midwest Sociologist, Vol. 18, No. 2 (Spring, 1956), pp. 29-33 Published by: Blackwell Publishing on behalf of the Midwest Sociological Society Stable URL: http://www.jstor.org/stable/25514951 Accessed: 11/05/2010 02:11
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MIDWEST SOCIOLOGIST 29 ANALYSIS OF RELIGIOUS CHAPTERS IN SOCIOLOGY TEXTBOOKS*

1 *
?

? 1
* a 3

XXX Sect and Denomination Analysis XXXX Science Vs. Religion X XXX and Social Action Religion Routine XXXXXXXX Functions XXX of Membership Class Analysis Secularization XX XX X X Primitive X Origins X of Philosophical X Discussion X Basis of Religious Belief and Capitalism X Religion Church and State Relationship X

X XX

* Chart is based on content on religion of chapters in the following books: Suth study erland & Woodward, J. B. Lippincott, 1952 ; Green, Mc Introductory Sociology, Sociology, Graw 1952 ; Cuber, 1951 ; Ogburn & Nimkoff, So Hill, Sociology, Appleton Century Crofts, 1950 ; Bogardus, 1954 ; Martindale & Mona Houghton Miflin, ciology, Sociology, MacMillan, 1954 ; Bossiard, to Sociology, Introduction Sociology, chesl, Harpers, Lunden, Ballard, Foster, 1952 ; Lundberg, 19'54. Stackpole, Schrag, Larsen, Sociology, Harpers,

"Life Style" of Chinatowners and Oakland* by


Mary University Peter Community Kansas ten the years past During some been of drastic changes in California, in an resulting approximately According migration *A 1955. to four recent million studies,1 most other there

in San Francisco

L. New of Michigan and

New Kong-ming Inc. Studies, Missouri City, have of the A consequence of such heavy migration

population increase residents. of

in and

out

of

the

state might

be

the

increase might
paper read

be
at

attributed
from the Midwest

to the

im

of population

states.

style"2 of an in California,
Society Meeting1,

in the social structure of the changes communities. One would also expect some concomitant in the "life changes

important minority group the Chinese. During this


Des Moines, Iowa, April 23,

Sociological

1Conrad "Recent in the United Trends Taeuber, Population a paper sis on the Pacific Coast read at the American States," ment of Science annual December meeting, Berkeley, California, Trends "Recent in Urbanization with on the Special Emphasis per read at the same meeting.

States with Special Empha Association for the Advance T. Martin, 29, 1954 ;Walter a pa Pacific Coast Region,"

30

MARY

L. NEW explaining
may to occur be

and. PETER some


to any specific, present wish below. to

KONG-MING the
the

NEW which
or

of rapid increase of population period in California, the state 1940-1950, when


population Chinese the per cent, some increased population the state. How per forty-seven of resi Chinese the ever, proportion in San dents to Francisco-Oakland all fifty-one also in cent rose

of

changes

sub-cultural

more the

groups, ethnic minor writers "disprove"

ities. In

paper, "prove" Rather,

the or

are

not
do

going
not

to be overly

statistical; may be
wish

they in
to

Chinese
change

in
much

the United
(twenty-seven

States

did
per

not
cent

any of the hypotheses


troduced

which

they

in 1940 as against in thirty per cent 1950). Of all the Chinese living in Cal
seven ifornia, area in Bay Nevertheless, per 1950 recent cent than more in the lived a decade before.3 the observations toy

out that recent articles point Chinese have usually neglected


styles of more the in e.g., reasons the In of the American-Chinese "problem specific specific

on the the life

writers
Chinatowners4 area land immune "have The present have current gone

on

the
in to

patterns
the San suggest the them.

of
that changes

living

of

assimilation, of

problem an understanding

in favor areas."10 Even areas approach, of life

Francisco-Oak are they which

styles would
Chinese. undertaking

shed
"anti-melting

light on

some of
feelings on China

the
of

seem to

pot" research

of any on around of

any

purpose some been

is to paper, then, of these which observations some into formulated broadly this

lies in town, the initial difficulty lack of census data on the Chinese,
census reported ments where Chinese. tracts tracts. by about the In have

the by

workable suggest
ers along sociation,

hypotheses
census tracts lines: socialization.

on

the

basis
and

of
to

reports,5 work,

are these data Usually, races" "other and state any Chinese must spe preclude

additional
four and

studies

of Chinatown
as play, determ The

cific knowledge in

with

regard

to the areas
residents three to are census ninety

inant
these

of
four

life styles
areas

of Chinatowners
of assim

predominant San Francisco over eighty-five

ilation and/or Method.?So areas in cial cerned, Shevky have suggested

is the degree acculturation.6 as far studying the Bay and various region Bell7 and methods

eight

per

cent

Chinese

residents:
Chinese 24, with the Chinese

A-13,
con ap in be a

so the is con Tryon8 of deal

and A-14, centrate proximately

in Oakland, A-15; 23 in tracts and of one-fourth

Oakland
of

living

in tract 24. Any mention


large areas. henceforth, extent, to will these

ing with

them. They

attempt

to view

the

areas of these statistical through changes census tracts data methods, utilizing by a number are into which incorporated of realm of the indices.9 It is not within of each the values to discuss this paper

to limited, forementioned

Chinatowners, a

to point but merely of these methods in out that these may not be adequate

Chinatowners most small and occupation a to be there appears businesses, family of Chinese seek number who growing of these return education. Most to nigher some but to work, who have Chinatown Work.?Although are in some service

David Ries from a recent paper term "life style" by Prof. is adopted aThe unpublished in Slan residents of life" of the Chinese to denote "a way in this paperi man. It is used Chinatowns. Francisco-Oakland 3United of the United Census Sixteenth States, of the Census, Bureau (Washing States "Characteristics by Non White Population," Office, 1940), Printing ton, D. C.: Government of the United Census Seventeenth of the Census, States, (Wiash States Bureau 85 ; United p. P-E 38, p. 68. Office, Printing 1950), ington, D. C.: Government 4 '^Chinatowners" of in Chinatowns residents "Chinese to denote be used henceforth will San Francisco-Oakland." 8The writers the pre constitute Chinatowners the area? where with are well acquainted in San Francdsvo of the Census Bureau are tabulated races" which "other dominant by U.S. Oakland. e This in the United of Chinatowns "The Decline is suggested States," Lee, by Rose Hum 54 (March, of Sociology, 422-433. Journal 1949), American 7Eshref Stanford Area Social University and Wendell Analysis, (Stanford: Bell, Shevky 195-5). Prieiss, 8Robert a paper As read at the American of the Bay Region," "Social Areas C. Tryon, December annual of Science Berkeley, California, for the Advancement meeting, sociation 1954. 29, 9 and social three indices: urbanization, Tryon have segregationi; and Bell rank, Shevky socio-economic and three: independence. also has life, assimilation, family 10One exception 58 (July, of Sociologry, Journal American "The Sojourner," is Paul Siu, 34-44. 1952),

MIDWEST
gone out into of

SOCIOLOGIST
the professions Even

31 Chinatown.
Chinatowners ever, Warner results or

area.11 the the ex-Chinatowners of the immediate case of those the

have moved some of though out have moved as in Chinatown area, in professional

There

is

little

doubt

that

how themselves; stratify the of any along study Centers orientation of type

engaged

would the
a tween

ibehighly misleading.
is based "X." This on

Stratification

of them still establish activities, most their place of work in Chinatown and
have those means might tion ings. Chinatowners have who of be after In upward a certain they their for utilized social their clients. college as there frustra surround most For

in Chinatown income and

and occupation unknown factor is

highly
the

complex
actor and

interrelations

(be

mobility, amount of college

Chinatowners. ing a certain maintain

the latter be alter, A Chinatowner must amount of equilib

leave academic

pursuits,

are set likely their levels of aspiration than what much could be gain higher
ed grees good in the are deal market the there rise seems broader society There obtained. of "economic is rather once the is probably frustration" limited. professional peo an in peo profes applied des de a in

rium in his associations: if he has both and Chinese American friends, it would be preferable for him to spend more or at least accept time with Chinese
the ship. time values placed If a Chinatowner with Americans on relation in-group should spend more and to dis attempt

that
labor With ple, tense

the opportunity
of more

for Chinese

in the

sociate
towners, no matter

himself
he will what

completely
not his have

from China
much status, or in

occupation

rivalry and those ple sions. A derogatory to the latter,

to be between who went "young

come
tern for serving

developing the business into the term is often professionals,"

might
of ego status, more

be.

The

relationship

pat

and in ego's others, quest is a highly one de complex intensive study. and Socialization.?

Play,

Association,

ignating
they're

"that
too good

snooty
for

bunch
us."

who
(Part of

think
this

Not
leisure

much
time

has

been

reported
of

on

the

activities

Chinatowners.

ill-feeling
fact that have

could
the

be

attributed

to

the

who professionals, prob could afford ably higher incomes, to move into better residential areas and limit their association with Chinatown ers to the clients. On the part of the bus iness in the neces people community, of continuous close contact with sity Chinatowners in and hence trade, of the area, may order reluctance give to enhance to move a to rise their Out good

the younger Although same the pursue ably as most Americans,

tion still stick fairly ditional Chinese past


Since the median ers is approximately

generation prob of recreation type the older genera

closely to the tra time of mall Jong.


$1,500 of Chinatown below that of

income

the city

(in 1950),13 it may

be hypothe

deal

of

this hostility.

As

would

be

ex

are there few professionals in the pected, as area Chinatown the with compared of professionals number in the Bay reg four as against cent eleven ion, per per cent whereas "service" dominate people the in China occupational hierarchy town more than areas, per thirty-six as cent twelve cent for the per against city.i2 When fessionals" one speaks versus of the the "young pro "young business"

that Chinese in many engage a means as of supplementing gambling their low The present wages. dispro number of males to females portionate a half and to one in most (two areas)14 also result in a high rate of pros many titution. The association

sized

ers is almost wholly that of the in-group rather than mixed (Chinese vs. Chinese)
of interaction type as far So icans). Chinese probably ferent where places vs. Amer (Chinese sooial conditions go, have access to dif the are not negroes

pattern

of

Chinatown

allowed. to in

the first thing which comes conflict, mind is the matter of stratification

Yet,
the as

the ghetto-style
in-group one source

of

accentuates serves uage

living

feelings. Lang of "voluntary

11 Beulah "The Occupational Ong Kwoh, Status of the American-born Chinese Male Col American Journal of Sociology, lege Graduates," 1947. 53:192-201, November, 12 United States Bureau of the Census, Seventeenth Census of the United States, (Wash ington, D. C.: Government Office, Printing 1950), P-D 49, p. 68. 13 United States Bureau of the Census, Seventeenth Census of the United States, (Wash P-D ington, D. C.: Government Printing Office, 1950), 49, p. 68. p. 25. "Ibid.,

32
Sai-yup, segregation." is spoken tonese, Those Chinese who be this dialect may a

MARY

L. NEW
be reared.

and PETER
This may

KONG-MING
be due to the

NEW
fact

of Can form Chinatowners. converse in not an "out considered by do

to the that the Chinese who< migrated to have their children U.S. did not wish of and sentiments lose the traditions
culture. This Chinese may rationalization the to strengthen also on serve the

sider." Even
are schools remain inant attending

though
American

school them
in

age
schools,

children
most them view

parents

still

send

to the Chinese

part of the oldsters


day return to to China.15 a large Thus,

that they would


extent, social

some

afterwards "Chinese." group a as

If a means

to have order one wishes to

the adoption Chinatowners

of the tend

tongue
to

of the dom
assimilation,

customs

with

regard
same

to rites
marriage, patterns reason

de

passage?birth,
death?follow of

to discourage

this.

engagement, much the in China. this: most one from

on a primary group level concepts of the dominant distorted. The high value
group association, a that as was constant as serves ly, Chinatowners Americans with

result of constant As Chinatowners tionship, to associate opportunity

rela in-group little have very with Americans

and thus their group is often on in placed


noted previous reminder to

association excessive The desirable. is not

as ceremony account for One may of the Chinatowners migrated area The in 'South China. pop and and ulation is rural homogeneous, on many to carry still tend the migrants of the rural customs. rurality Possibly or otherwise, plus voluntary segregation, a tra for of account may stronghold

ditional
minority

values.
groups

Although
in America or do the by

for

the
there

other
was to

reinforcement
dances, chamber may meetings, Chinatowners by out moving

of these
of represent are

feelings

via

local

more
persed, towners

commerce one way

discouraged even area the though to remove them wish secretly they may area. This frustration the from selves area may the to leave able of not being the source of toward the be hostility The professionals "young professionals." re to maintain who do not wish in-group of

of types where from

opportunity
by marriage

and desire the United

to be dis China

migration

other parts
seem

of

States,
reverse.

to

also the dilem may experience lationship clients their to seek ma forced of being have to main and thus in Chinatown them with some of relationship sort tain The relations for purposes. good public in the serv those and merchants smaller not exhibit any may occupations ice symptoms jealous there but may fessionals, the professionals between of friction as more the of business people from colleges. group graduate solid The relationship in-group of "traditional" types ably means as was in China. done of children, toward the young be a good pro deal and latter

and Conclusions.?Research Summary in socio the Chinese group minority far been literature has thus stress logical various areas."16 "problem ing specific re not much there has been However, on the life search of China done style areas four in the of towners. Research on work, may and socialization association, are not Chinatowners why broader into the American integrated there is a large number Where 'Society. success in an area, of Chinese residing play, explain into one the wishes larger to society as live is a

ful integration difficult unless

member

of the outcast

in a tightly

knit

prob rearing So long

Even group atmosphere. though primary now certain there in that is evidence are from dividuals themselves removing who the Chinatowners,17 those continue

as the population had to live in the "ghetto" there will not be a much of Chinatown, other forms of to observe opportunity
Before the Sino child processes. rearing a number of Chi War, quite Japanese to were back to China nese sent youths

to reside will jn Chinatown develop to be of wishing ambivalent feelings accepted by the dominant group, yet not
able being of breaking to seek the Those "correct" who do away.18 method so are

usually
ted for

ridiculed
us."

as being

"too high

hat

It cannot

be denied

that Chinatowners

15 Siu, op, cit. 18 of Sociology, Journal American 54 on the Chinese Hum "Research Rose Family," Lee, 497-505. (May,17 1949), in the United op. cit. of Chinatowns "The Decline States," Rose Hum Lee, 18Jade and York: Chinese The Fifth Hartper Snow Wong, (New Brothers, Daughter in San raised of an American-Chinese This is an girl, autobiography interesting 1950). was to break able who away. Francisco Chinatown,

MIDWEST SOCIOLOGIST 33
are going transition,
youngsters

through a very rapid stage of of the since many especially


now associate more with A

and tend to identify mericans with dominant group values.


of parent-child sters will parents'

themselves In terms
young their or by from

the relationships, circumvent probably them wishes avoiding by

be upset and quite a bit of conflict will exist between the younger generation and It is during this the older Chinatowners. in as interested period that sociologists similation acculturation and/or patterns of Chinatowners, in the Bay whether
area may or be other able of parts to seek the United States, some answers by

speaking
speaking

English
parents

so that the non-English


are the prevented

viewing
Sociologists on eses

the

"life

style"

of the Chinese.
hypoth not have

who

have

prying
transitional

into

their
stage,

secrets.

During

this
will

Chinatowners

formulated will

value-systems

long

to wait

to verify

their

ideas.

The Urban Sex Ratio


Chester Alexander Westminister College
The siderable which study are of personality to importance taking place increasing cities. attaches con

the changes in population.

One

of
is

the most
in in the the

significant

of

these

States for each census period from 1900 to 1950 inclusive shows that the mean ratio for these cities has been steadily the exception of 1019.1 falling, with
The mean ratios for 100 cities are as

trends of women

proportion

follows:
100.4;

The 1940 United dis States Census closed that the population division by sex was 66,061,592 males and 65,607,683
females, males. to be a of leaving surplus 453,909 this would consider Many people a normal are situation since there

1900^100.7;
1930?96.8;

1910?103.3;
1940?94.3;

1920?

1950?93.7.

The mean for the 100 cities for the six censuses is 98.249, while 38% of them have not had a ratio of 100 during the 20th century. In 1950 only 4 cities held
a sex ratio and at over the 90,3

105 boys
immigration than women later, were males more ing

born

per

100 girls,

and

that

however,

for the

more men to bring tended into the A decade country. scene the had changed,

6 more cities will 1960. If that trend

100,2 while rate present

13 are of

under

decrease

fall below 90 before continues by the time

1950 Census

reported

that

there

males and fe 74,833,239 75,864,122 in America, meant which 1,030,833 a historic finales than males, turn in the population. point to the 1940 Census, again to the population of American note that were there 36,363,706 and female 38,059,996 urbanites,

the next census is taken, 19% of the larg est American cities will have 10% more women than men, and by the year 2000 this have will increased to 42%. figure What will the social be? consequences These dents effects family of are of interest to stu changes social because of the psychology on personality, have the they will and vocations. noted the Having

Referring this time we cities, male

the
Then, an the

latter
in

leading
1950, there of of for

by
were

1,696,290 persons.
46,891,782 a gain sex ratio of for males 987, the

and 49,575,904
advantage imbalance

females,
2,684,122, the urban

the latter having

drift over the past fifty years one would like to ask how they will affect social life in the cities. Indeed, this question might as well ask about the psychological
on effects the urban the areas whole have

832 in 10 years, total


means

or 98,783 per year. While is new, cities it


areas.

population
recent

is by
A

no

study

setting patterns the people of as those well

since population been increasingly of social behavior for the as and farms villages in the cities.

of 100 of the largest

in the United

Several

suggestions

appear
102.0. Little

but

the

1 areas are not included in these calculations. Metropolitan 2Norfolk San Diego South Bend 124.60, 1*03.70, San Francisco 101.1, ^Albany, Atlanta, Birmingham, Charlotte, Chaittanooga, Jacksonville, Savannah and Washington D.C. phis, Nashville, Richmond, Pasadena,

Rock,

Mem