Cornell University Library

BV741.W72 B6 1848
Bloudy tenent of persecution for cause o

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original of



is in

Cornell University Library.

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the United States on the use of the



















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G. F.





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Bev. G. H.

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J. P.


F. A.
T. S.


D.D. D.D., LL.D.



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J. J. T.








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B. P.









It has been a matter of regret with many, that the writings of the early members ministers of the Baptist churches of this country should be comparatively so The present appears to be a favourable time to reprint such of them little known. historical or theological as may be deemed worthy of perpetuation, from their



. /. i. v These writings are confined to no peculianty of sentunent, but embrace every topic of divine truth, which the word of God presents for the salvation of the believer, as well as for the regulation of the church of Christ. , , To the Baptists, belongs the honour of first assertmg in this land, and of establishthe right of every ing on the immutable basis of just argument and scripture rule, man to worship God as conscience dictates, in submission only to divine command.










Unnllpsi S>otitt^,







It was on the 1st day of December, in the year 1630, that Mr. Roger Williams, with his wife, embarked at Bristol for America, in the ship Lyon, Captain WiUiam Pierce. Two years and a half before, a number of eminent and enthusiastic men had gone forth, animated by religious principles and purposes, to seek a home and a refuge from persecution on the wild and imtenanted shores of Massachusetts Bay. Charles I. had announced his design of ruling the English people by arbitrary power, only a few days before
a patent for the


of Massachusetts
in this


passed the



was made

exercise of religious liberty.

document for the The emigrants were puritans,

and although they had suffered long for conscience' sake, on this subject their views were as contracted as those of their brethren who in Elizabeth's reign sought the overthrow
of England's hierarchy.*

The patent secured

to them,


ever, to a great extent, a legislative independence of the

mother country; but they soon employed that power to
persecute differing consciences.

The emigrants landed
> "



at the end of June, 1629.

Bancroft's Hist, of U. S.



Knowle?' Life of R, Williams, p. 31.

See Broadmead Records, Introd. p.

a 3




their passage they arranged the order of their government, and bound themselves by solemn covenant to each other and the Lord. As religion was the cause of their


mud On

hovels alone

marked the place of

their future

was its establishment few of the settlers at Plymouth, where in 1620 a colony had been established by the members of Mr. John Eobinson's church, came over to assist and advise on the arrangement of their church polity. After several conferences, the order determined on was the congregational, ahd measures were immediately taken for the choice of elders and deacons. day of fasting and
abandonment of
their first care. their native land, so


their request a


prayer was appointed, and thirty persons covenanted together
to walk in the

ways of God. Mr. Skelton was chosen pastor, Mr. Higginson teacher, both puritan clergymen of celebrity, and Mr. Houghton ruling elder. They agreed with the church at Plymouth, " That the children of the faithfiil are church members with their parents, and that their baptism is
a seal of their being so."

The church was thus



owned no


giance to bishop, priest, or king.

^the King of saints: but one rule the word of The new system did not, however, meet with the approbation of all this little company. Some still fondly

It recognized but one



clung to the episcopacy of their native land, and to the more rites of their mother church. The main body of
the emigrants did not altogether refuse to have communion with the church which had so unnaturally driven them away; but, as they said, they separated from her corruptions,

and rejected the human inventions in worship which they
discovered in her fold.
desired indeed, but not a

Not so all. new form

Liberty of worship they
of polity.



John and Samuel Browne, the one a lawyer, the other a merchant, were the leaders of this little band. They wished
the continuance of the


Prayer, of the ceremonies

Neal's Hist, of N. England,

141, 144. Baillie's Dissuasive, p. 66.



4S. but it is of Oxford. sent him to the University AH this may or may not be true." ^ Tradition tells us. . to escape the bigotry and persecuting spirit of Laud. and the seat of the colonial government was fixed at Boston. Knowles. * Neal. who. No such had dawned upon them. as the friendly interpo- hand of God. The arrival of the Lyon was welcomed with gratitude. order of up a separate assembly. having precious gifts. a large addition was made to the pUgrim band. 37.* Roger Williams was at this time little more than thirty years of age " a young minister. Vll usually observed in the administration of baptism and the Lord's Supper. Not less than 1500 persons accompanied him. England. p. Several new settlements were formed. Bancroft. and a wider door for the entrance of members into a church state. its and desirous of practising idea tise duties unmolested by episcopal tyranny. godly and zealous. 144. 367. they set Dissatisfied with the new . The infant colony had suffered very much during the winter from the severity of the weather.A BIOGRAPHICAL INTRODUCTION. Though sincere in their attachment to true religion. the brothers and proving were sent home in "the Lyon's Whelp. i. and ascertaining the accuracy of the notes he took of the sermon. book i. ' i. Cotton Mather's Magnalia. i. and the scarcity of provisions. as well as against the church incorrigible."* In the year 1630. fled. that he was bom in Wales that he was in some way related to Cromwell that his parents were in humble life and that he owed his educar sition of the — : : : tion to Sir Edward Coke. accidentally observing his attention at public worship. 3S0. Williams disembark which they had With at Boston. things. This was a mutiny against the state. They were prepared to prac- over other consciences the like tyranny to that from nobler views than these did Mr. i. Backus' Hist. 19. of Baptists in New * Bancroft. after a very tempestuous voyage. they thought not of toleration for others. on the 5th of February in the year 1631. p. on the arrival of Governor Winthrop.

^ It is probable that it was upon the subject of the grievances they endured. with himself and one other of precious memory." "Master Cotton may caU to mind p. to his holy scrip- At this time he must have been about twelve years were directed to the law." and to those rights of liberty which found so able a defender in the aged Coke. » Dissuasive. Lord Jesus. in which Williams sought a refuge for conscience amid the wUds of America. p. p. 23. riding present volume. principles from the pulpits of the court clergy and the utterance of the most arbitrary was encouraged. It was during this period that he became acquainted with the leading emigrants to America. probably at He became early attached to those democratic principles which are so ably stated in the "Bloudy Tenent. imbued with " From my childhood. he turned his attention to theology. and the sermons containing them published at the king's Knowles. the charge of a parish. whom I have why he durst not join spoke with. 31. Autocratic rule was decided upon by the infatua. the true tures. 43 and 374 of the Baillie's that the discusser [Williams]. ' Backus. 391. that in his early years his heart was spiritual life. with them in their use of Common ^08. Subsequently. both in Old and in New England. my soul with a love to himself. Bloody Tenent more Bloody. and he appears to have been the most decided amongst them in their opposition to the liturgy. he « King James. and assumed His first studies the suggestion of his patron. however. presented his arguments from scripture. See also pp. . he had the interview with King James of which he speaks in a letter written late in life. to and from Sempringham.9 It was a notable year. evident that his education was liberal. i. » Prayer. Master Hooker. and that he had a good acquaintance with the guages of the scriptures." Knowles.ted Charles. 12. the Father of lights and mercies touched to his only begotten. classics and the original lan- He himself informs us. refers to In his letter to Major Mason. ceremonies. 55." ' old. Doctrines subversive of popular rights were taught.Vm A BIOGRAPHICAL INTRODUCTION. p. and hierarchy of the English church.

Welde's Answer W. his ears cut ofiF. the Laudean party were Arminians. Leighton. when in England. the emigrants clave to it with a fond pertinacity. to com- Such Knowles. The puritans were to a man Calvinists. than we find him declaring his opinion." was this year committed to prison for life. that he hesitated to hold communion with any church that continued in any manner favourable to it. ecclesiastical affairs. as No it was a breach of the first table. pilloried. 4to. to commune with it. his nose slit. however. Calvinistic interpretation of the articles was condemned.^ Thus while separating from its corruptions. . He refused to join the congregation sinful p. that "the magistrate might not punish a breach of the sabbath. fined £10. and to shut them up either to silence or to voluntary banishment. From fled. the case with the church at Boston. This was displeasing to the free soul of Williams. for his " Plea against Prelacy." * Moreover. 46. It refused to regard the hierarchy and parishional assemblies of the English church as portions of the abominations of anti-christ. 10. And as if to give the ] former practical proof of the lengths to which Laud was prepared to go. he sought to Laud assumed a similar authority in With unscrupulous zeal and severity The extirpate puritanism from the church. sooner had Mr. and Bishop Davenant was rebuked for a sermon which he preached upon the 17th. in hearing the word and in the private administration of the sacraments. so impure did he deem the communion of the church of England. and his face branded with a hot iron. R. at Boston. It permitted its members. p. 1644. whipped. special IX command.000. This was. this tyranny over thought and conscience Wil- liams only to bear his testimony against similar outrages upon conscience and human rights in the New World to find the same principles in active operation among the very men who like him had suffered.A BIOGRAPHICAL INTRODUCTION. Williams landed at Boston. and who like him sought relief — on that distant shore. nor any other offence. 1 " It is would have been a weak and Governor Winthrop's testimony. degraded from his ministry.

X A BIOGRAPHICAL INTKt5i>W3riON. WiUiams for its pastor. and a few weeks after his arrival he left Boston to enter upon the pastorate there. to be exercised only in subordination to the laws and to the will of its great Head. Yery soon after his arrival." Thus a theocracy was established. i. That could not pliance with evil. The government belonged to the saints. The choice of its ministry is one of the church's most sacred privileges. Williams. Yet as if to bring into conflict at the earliest moment. They alone could rule in the commonwealth. and on the ] 2th of May took the customary oaths. 54. and thus laid the foundation for that course of resistance which eventually led to the banishment of Mr. no man shall be admitted to the freedom of this body politic. that for the time to come.. it had a perfect right to select Mr. and oppression. with any feelings but those of indignation. * To the civil government of the colony Mr. He be the true church of Christ on whose skirts was found He therefore sprinkled the blood of saints and martyrs. the General Court of the Colony expressed its disapprobation of the step. and to excite the expression of those generous sentiments on religious and civil liberty which animated the soul of Mr. he entered his name upon the list of those who desired io be made freemen. As a congregational and independent community. or be capable of the exercise of " Backus. This was an arbitrary and unjust interference with the rights of the Salem church. exercised by the church of England. This right the General Court most flagrantly violated. . but such as -are members of some of the churches within the limits of the same. on that very day the court "ordered and agreed. gladly accepted the invitation of the church at Salem. WiUiams was prepared to give all due submission. But on the very same day on which he commenced his ministry at Salem (April 12). "Williams. 51. could not regard the cruelties and severities. and required the church to forbear any further proceeding..

had done. we find the elder. 287. " publicly and earnestly per- See pp. Knowles. ' pp." "to pluck up the roots and foimdations of all common society in the world. 4S. his teaching weU approved. ° ' iii. 49. not to receive subjects of our Lord Jesus Christ. p." Bloody sonally confederated in our churches. See pp. 21. and exercised his gifts among us '' some time was admitted a member of the church. * it. were deprived i. b. lest he should " run the same course of rigid separation and anabaptistry which Mr." this volume. S4. For on requesting his dismissal thence to Salem. i. 353. John Smith. constituted without the sanction of the magistrates: Knowles. in the autumn of 163^. but also against the best and ablest servants of God. Cotton. i. 283. at Amsterdam. 247. per- such English into the town. and to reduce the world first to the chaos or confusion. though excellently fitted for civil offices. according to Williams' idea." says Governor Bradford. against this perilous course. Backus. except such as were visible members: yea. Mr. Streets. 3S3.* Our readers will find his reasons at large. to turn the garden and paradise of the church and saints into the field of the civil state of the world. the minister. before the end of the summer Mr. the se-baptist.'' Tenent more Bloody. 50. persuading the church at Plymouth to relinquish communion with him.A BIOGRAPHICAL INTRODUCTION. church formed without of the franchise." ^ Two yeai's he laboured in the ministry of the word among the pilgrim fathers but it would seem not without proclaiming those principles of freedom which had already made him an object of jealousy. 247. Bancroft. 77."^ It was during his residence at Plyand and after . accord- ing to our poor ability. Knowles. "where. S3. Cotton effectually recommended. subsequent law no church could Backus." ^ This was to foUow. 287. Williams withdrew to Plymouth. 49. civil rights. At Taunton. except they be entered into church estate. Mr. "Mr. p. p. By a be Mather's Magnalia. that suaded his church members to give land to none but such as might be fit for church none should be elected nor electors therein. "Moses' church constitution. SfiO. tells in bis and the members of aay Answer Roger Williams. us that . p. to Mr. Backus. in the subse- quent pages of As peace could not be enjoyed at Salem. Brewster. i. &c. " he was freely entertained. XX " Not only was the door of caUing to magistracy shut against natural and unregenerate men.

pp.of his removal from them into descendant Cotton Mather. when. his destined antagonist in the strife on liberty of conscience. of the Indian language. and assisted each other. he had acquired a large amount of learning and by his study of the schoolmen sharpened the natural acuteness and subtilty of his mind. On his New England. whole ' Knowles. Cotton. that knowledge mouth that he acquired ragausetts. Educated at Cambridge. Cotton's governed his ancient people. Hooker and Mr. Churches. and adopted in all their extent the Stone . made the poor people in the wilderness to say. Two or three weeks only could have passed after his return. landed at Boston. By in a regular his personal influence the churches were settled and permanent form. which " glorious triumvirate coming together. and not a few left Plymouth to place themselves under his spiritual care. iii. which he performed as . That the God of heaven had supplied them with what would in some sort answer their three great necessities Cotton for their clothing. p. 4. pp. Mr. and Stone for their building.XU A BIOGRAPHICAL INTRODUCTION. ' Mather's Magnalia. 43. 30. on the 3rd of September. in company with Mr. he was immediately called upon to advise and arrange the civil and ecclesiastical affairs of the colony. great pleasure to the church at Salem. form an abstract of such as were of a moral and lasting equity. "that he would &om the laws wherewith God Cotton's Answer. Cotton. and their laws of discipline determined by the platform adopted at CamThe civil laws were adjusted to the polity of the church. : '' theocratic principles of the great arrival in Genevan reformer. Way of Cong." John Cotton was the son of a puritan lawyer. 42. Hooker for their fishing. "It was says his churchof the danger of his which requested of Mr." moved the be the Bay. 20. His acceptance of their invitation afforded sincere and His former ministry amongst them had resulted in a warm attachment. In theology he was a thorough Calvinist." better part of the church to glad.^ Brewster "elder warned the spirit. they supported were finally bridge in 1648. IB. and that acquaintance with the chiefs of the Nar- which became so serviceable to him in his banish- ment. and while nominally distinct.

he was summoned to appear before the Court. His principles were obnoxious to them. Knowles. 79. 4.. and our great sin in claiming right thereby. 1634. for again teaching publicly "against the king's patent. ^ its Occasion was soon found to punish the church and fractory minister. treatise in this volume. already urged objections the royal patent. to this country : and for terming the churches of England He Williams. i. ' i. be seen. Williams was "convented" before the Court. But in the exercise of their undoubted right the church persisted. Williams was regularly Inductedto the office of teacher. during the sickness of Mr. p. p. 61. . Subsequently.'* Magnalia. . relative to for complaint was soon discovered against Mr. p. Backus. Cotton's Answer to Boger p. an endeavour after a theocracy. re- On November the 17th. In this work. and Mr. a separate piece.9 For a few months. XUl Matter Williams. 57. and separately paged^ the peculiar people. that they would not ordain him. To this the magistrates and ministers objected." and the matter was passed It will revived. and with great acceptance. however. 61. 20.A BIOGRAPHICAL INTRODUCTION. by. Mr. as near as might be to that which was the glory of Israel. but to the natives who hunted over them. and the Salem church shortly thereafter chose him to be their settled teacher. and • is Cotton's Answer to the second Backus. Skelton. Skelton died. propounded unto them. Equity required that they should be fairly purchased of the Indian possessors. iii. Williams continued his ministry without interruption. A manuscript treatise concerning it now became the subject of consideration by the General Court. 4. that this accusation was and declared to be one of the causes of his banish- ment. 7.." acceptably as judiciously. Master John Master Cotton's Answer. vii. Mather. he gave satisfaction to his judges of his " intentions and loyalty. Mr.. Mr. On the 2nd of August. Williams appears to have questioned the King's right to grant the possession of lands which did not belong to him. Mr. Knowles. however. under which the colonists held At Plymouth he had their lands. : it is. and cited as part II.. 67. They sent a request to the church. This is usually bound up with the" BloudyTenent Washed.

p. . Cotton's Answer. Williams and his church which these magistrates were members. and cause him name of God in vain. and to which they had a just claim. Backus. p. and by travels night and " ' Knowles. it being a justice."^ In the month of July he was again summoned to Boston. requesting them to admonish the magistrates of the criminality of their conduct. the possession of a piece of land which they had applied. preaching thrice a week. three days after.were charged upon him. Mr. and the only parties interested in the civil to write admonitory letters to the churches of "breach of the rule of government of the colony. for that we thereby have communion with the following April. 68—70. ministers. and the exhortations of the pastors. See also p. 68. : otherwise than in such cases as did disturb the civil peace with the —That a man ought not to pray unregenerate. 66. To mark for their sense of this recusancy. in spite of the magisterial admonitions. and some other dangerous He was accused of opinions were now laid to his charge. But the aggravation of his offences was that. They were without effect. it was He said. nor after meat. on the 30th of had taught puhlicly. 1635. volume. by labours night and day in the field ." The letters were thus addressed because the members of the churches were the only freemen. 67. Knowles.' This flagrant wrong induced Mr. had called him to the office of teacher. " that a magistrate ought not to tender an oath to an unregenerate man. Williams's health too gave way. maintaining : — That the magistrate ought not to punish the breach of the first table. A new accusation was made a wicked the man in the worship of God.XIV antichristian. this i. " by his excessive labours. though wife or —That a man child ought not to give thanks after the sacrament. 422 of So Winthrop. His own people began to waver under the pressure of ministerial power and influence. pp. the Salem people were refused. He was heard before to take all the and very clearly confuted." A BIOGRAPHICAL INTRODUCTION. notwithstanding these crimes. the church at Salem. 4.

" till at length he drew her to partaie with him in the error of his way. The causes of his banishment are given by Mr. and Mr. as also writ letters of defamation. Williams in p. tence was as follows : any retractation it is therefore ordered that the said Mr. 388. 71. and from Salem also might not intermeddle even and heresy. fi6. with wluch agrees Governor Winthrop's testimony cited above. 72. His friend Endicot was imprisoned for justifying the letter of admonition. After a disputation with Mr. in six weeks. 387. who could not " reduce him from any of his errors. p. pp. now next ensuing. 9. Mr. — out of this jurisdiction within six weeks.6 all the ministers. it will topics of accusation be necessary to make a few remarks on the brought against Mr. See p. which. . against the authority of magistrates. save one." Even his wife added to his affliction by her reproaches. deed."* He now communion from all the if they would not separate with him. Bancroft. Cotton's Answer. 373. not to return withoutlicencefromtbeCourt. WiJliams shall depart . The sen" Whereas Mr. All the ministers were present. 70. pp. for the governor trates to shall be lawful the church of Salem. approving of the Before proceeding to detail the subsequent events of his history."* His letters were read. Cotton treats his sickness as a. any conviction. In October he was called before the Court for the last time." Backus. and two of the magissend him to some place out of any more this jurisdiction. one of the elders ot neglect to perform. Cotton. XV day to go and come from the Court.A BIOGRAPHICAL INTRODUCTION. i. They had already decided "that any one was worthy of banishment who should obstinately declared his intention to withdraw churches in the Bay. 375 of this volume. ' Knowles. i. Hooker. hath broached and divulged divers new and dangerous opinions. does not concur in this statement * : the two last causes he 5. and that before " check from the hand of God. however. Sharpe was summoned to appear to answer for the same." he was sentenced to banishment assert. Williams. both of the magistrates and churches 69. if he it Roger Williams. and especially since they are often referred to in the pages of the works now in the reader's hands. that the civil magistrate to stop a church from apostacy . which he justified he maintained aU his opinions." ' See pp. 372. and yet maintaineth the same without here.

Christ's prerogative the : — : . and dissuaded sundry from it. ." 2. as he said. and remembrance. were held by some. refused to resort to public worship. And when for this the Court refused Salem the parcel of land.'' What then were the grounds of this harsh proceeding according to Mr. and are yet tolerated not only to live in commonwealth. they made an order of Court to take trial of the fidelity of the people. "Williams stirred up the church to unite with him in letters of admonition to the churches "whereof those magistrates were members. caused the sentence of his banishment and two other fell in." The other two points." on the Lord's day.* ' Cotton's Answer. » Cotton's Answer. That notwithstanding his "heady and turbulent spirit. 1. and " sundry who began to resort to his family. The magistrates. by oath partly because an oath was a part of God's worship. This oath when it came abroad. p. 26. Cotton ? They were as follows " Two things there were. . he vehemently withstood it. as he conceived many of the people to be. an oath of fidelity." which to have his office established : : — induced the magistrates to advise the church at Salem not to call him to the office of teacher. which to my best observation. to admonish them of their open transgression of the rule of justice. Mr. yet the major part of the church made choice of him. 27—30. 2. and other members of the general Court upon intelligence of some episcopal and malignant practices against the country.XVI A BIOGRAPHICAL INTRODUCTION. pp. Mr. that hastened it. and God's worship was not to be put upon carnal persons." The two concurring causes were 1. That when by letters from the ministers the Salem church was inclined to abandon their teacher. he likewise asserts. giving as his reason. His violent and tumultuous carriage against the patent. both those opinions. Williams renounced communion with Salem and all the preaxjhed to churches in the Bay. not by imposing upon them. but also in the fellowship of the churches. " that many are known to hold denies. partly because it was. who yet were permitted to enjoy both civil and church liberties. but by offering to them.

it is clear. and control the acts of the Before it patents. so with right by virtue of their Christianity. Cotton's view. who so nobly the lands and countries of other men. and which he succeeded in impressing on the minds of the magistrates. Already we have seen that church members alone could be freemen. ' Bancroft. governmental power may have had some influence in proIsland. of framing an ecclesiastical polity : and it exercised it. He held that the sovereignty lay in the hands of th^people. must sink away. That must make rulers. are invested " wherein Christian kings. evinces the equity. ducing his opposition. The colony claimed under it the right of erecting a church. i. uprightness. ' XVU not On examination. b . Every adult person was compelled to be present at public congregational worship. confirm the laws. that this question of the patent involved that of religious liberty. Mr. privileges. His own practice. Ecclethe canons siastical laws were made every whit as stringent as of the establishment of the mother country.' There can be no question that Williams was substantially right. Williams held the patents to be called." Such was Mr. executive.A BIOGRAPHICAL INTRODUCTION. Moreover. it is evident that the two statements do differ. to take and give away It were easy to England as overthrowing the foundation on which colonial laws were framed. Williams may perhaps have acqxiired somewhat of his jealousy concerning these patents from the instructions of Sir Edward Coke. "9 represent opposition to the patent of New withstood the indiscriminate granting of monopolies in the parliament of his native land. from Cotton's own statement. materially sinful Mr. 327. and as a denial of the power claimed by the ministers and the General Court "to erect such a government of the church as is most agreeable to the word. and monopolies. 276. and to support both ministry and church with pay» Bloody Tenent more Bloody. No patent or royal rights could therefore be alleged as against the popular will. p. the exclusive rights of a few. when subsequently laying the basis for the state of Hhode and generosity of his Perhaps too his views upon the origin of all motives.

by the church at Salem. as also of persecuting and hunting any for any matter merely spiritual and religious. Backus. Williams afterwards wrote his " Bloudy Tenent . p. Bloody Tenent p. this course that minent. but for iin»!»p against conscience. or leave the congregation during the administration of the rite. 186. i. fined. imprisoned. 122. a wise and 225. 349. exposed the culprit to expatriation. the time was ex- had been compelled for their opinions. either openly any person or persons. Mr. within this jurisdiction. 45. See pp.^ The question of the patent could not therefore be discussed in the General Court without involving a discussion upon religious liberty. was he banished. and whipped.^ months was. 249. the time of patience to the excom:" municate. a law was promulgated is ordered and agreed. Backus.XVUl A BIOGRAPHICAL INTRODUCTION- " Three ment of dues enforced by magisterial power. shall condemn or oppose the baptizing of infants. the question of the ' See pp. by the law. proved of this. 245. visiting Tenent Washed. they 1638. Clarke and Mr. ' a sick baptist brother in Massachusetts. 207. of Rhode Island. being taken with the error of denying baptism to nfants. Several persons were banished for noncompliance with the state that if religion. they " shall be sentenced to banish- ment.Bancroft. At an earlier period. i. O. Williams'sLettertoEndicot." The same year we accordingly find that a poor man was tied up and whipped for refusing to have his chUd sprinkled." or seduce others. 146. was dealt withal by many of . to leave tended to six months. "The Lady Moody. Cotton has chosen to make most pro- crimes.* Heresy. Plymouth Mr." which he opposed. Bloody Tenent more Bloody. she went amongst the Dutch." To avoid more trouble. 257. 98. for In 1651. nor were they punished for conscience' sake." and through the " sad evil " " of the civil magistrates dealing in matters of conscience and religion. by which "it In 1644. 331. and some other the like It was against Mr. before the secular power was to deal with him then the obstinate person might be fined. more Bloody. Cot- the elders and others. Holmes. Backus. By the law of were arrested. pp. * i. ' amiable religious woman. 305. 165. and admonished ton pleads that anabaptists and others were not compelled against conscience. 98. Cotton api. in his articles of accusation.189. September 6. but was excommunicated. 262. blasphemy. J. Mr. the Rev. or banished. imprisoned.' against the baptists. See p.

loved mental patronage. of these is treated of at length in the second piece of this Mr. its ministry forsaken. iniquity of both. it was parties that oath-taking was a religious act." See p. these two subjects were allied. its rites to be avoided. from : . much as in hearing the word amongst Cotton's Answer. no more than independency could be suffered to exist under the domination of the English hierarchy. Williams were representatives of the two great bodies of dissentients from the law. Williams appears to have objected to it was allowed by all the oath chiefly on other grounds If so. could an unregenerate man take part in what was thought to be an act of religious worship. anti-christian church. concluded by Mr. and its parishional " Whilat he lived at Salem. nor permitted any church them. Cotton's statement. whose statement is adduced by Mr. It ought not to be forced on any. Williams. its communion abjured: these were the Separatists. so far as it was religious nor. But Mr. XIX origin of the patent the magistrate. Cotton. p. . to whom Mr. Williams was decided On the subject of the denial of the oath of fidelity. Williams's argument seems to us irrefragable. it The first will be unnecessary to make extended comment. 64. Williams belonged. evident. But Mr. we shall not discuss but on the admitted principles of the parties engaged in this strife. 1. 397 of members but such as rejected all communion with the parish assemblies. this ther admitted. Episcopacy should have no place imder congregational rule.A BIOGRAPHICAL INTRODUCTION. . or true Nonconformists. in entire consistency with his other views. Williams. that. that the oath owed its origin to intolerance. On the concurring causes referred to by Mr. volume. As the matter stood. its corruptions of the church. Mr. Whether an oath be a religious act. To doubt the one was to as to the doubt the other. places in the forefront that of the mj^strate's power over conscience. • its common he nei- prayer.^ govern- The other party.estabOne party deemed it to be an lished church of England. so b 2 volume. it is Mr. Cotton and Mr. 2. although declaiming against the supposed its stately service.

Cotton refers here to the par- we tol- members to hear the ish congregations. 21. to this controversy that we are indebted "The substance of the true estate of churches abideth in their congregational assemblies. the Anglican church too largely exhibited those principles which were subversive of man's inalienable rights. Cotton belonged. or Congregationalists^ in Old England. as was those tion with the oppressor of the Lord's people. and drove from her fold. MagnaHa. in the parishes of England. p. Mather's Washed. 243. many of her best and holiest children. became Independents. "that that church estate. nation. that church is not in the nature of the particular churches of Christ. 392. This did Mr. 246." word Tenent See pp. ." said Williams. i. assemblies :^ these were the puritans who. Cotton and his brethren." 1 It ' is. 230. or permitted to be but one in a country. Mr." Let us not deem him too rigid in these principles of separation." tempting to draw away the Salem church from holding communion with aU the churches of the Bay. during the Commonwealth. ^ p. in New England. There can be no fellowship between Christ and Belial. Williams. or province. 166. The Congregationalists introduced her spirit and practice into the legislation of the New World. 109. exercised a tyrannous and intolerable sway over the bodies and consciences of the people.XX A BIOGRAPHICAL INTRODUCTION. " because erated our . "I affirm. chiefly Presbyterians. See Bloody Tenent more Cotton charges Williams with at- Bloody. that religion and worship which is com- manded. but in the nature of a national or state church. Cotton's Answer. p. 244. her ecclesiastical frame as the work of anti-christ. although that relation was denied to be explicitly national by Mr. Williams thought it his duty to renounce all connec- — : and also with still held communion with her. who indeed the case. p. it is no wonder that they should in return regard her touch as polluting. and some Independents to these Mr. and it behoved every lover of true liberty to stand aloof and separate from the evil. — the relation of the Congregational polity to the civil state in New England as implicitly a national church state. however. And if. He was right in regarding as outcasts.

should be His This reached the ears of his adversaries. 13.^ It seems to have been a part of a somewhat extended correspondence between them. Williams's senis November 3. justice of the sentence when it was his settlement at Providence. By some means. as his old friend. how- to say that I did not consent to the ever. 377.' fold desire to correct the aberrations." and while in England. contemplated the formation of a settlement where liberty. for some time." which would give the went to the place appointed by himself beforehand. says he wrote it about "half a * Cotton says.* It would seem that he had. and betrays. to date of 1637. p. but without his knowledge. adding thereto his remarks and reasonings. Cotton's letter came into Mr. It will be seen that Mr. Mr. and preparations were made for departure. Williams has given the whole of it : and with scrupulous fidelity. Mr. Cotton's letter got into print. Mr. for the second of the pieces reprinted in this volume. Cotton's Answer. in 1647. tence A ' It must have reached Williams o/iejCotton. This. and to have originated in Mr. 36 — 39. the date of Mr. enjoyed. 8. to him most "unwelcome. (1635). a mind ill at ease and painfully conscious that he had dealt both unjustly and unkindly with his former companion in tribulation. ' make provision of hous' See p.A BIOGRAPHICAL INTRODUCTION. 9. few attached friends assembled around him. both civil and religious. . by its subtle distinctions and passionate language. In the Colonial Records. He immediately withdrew from aU church communion with the authors of his sufferings. Cotton's twohe deemed them. of and to shield himself from the charge of being not only an accessory. " Some of his friends score years ago. is very doubtful. in 1644. Cotton." Answer p. " I did never intend coming. Mr. XXl While wandering among the uncivilized tribes of Indians. by his cruel insinuations and ready seizure of the most trifling inaccuracies. Williams's hands. however. His defence of himself is unworthy of his candour. Williams printed his reply. ing and other necessaries against his 8. but to some degree the instigator of the sentence of banishment decreed against him. did not hesitate to aver the righteousness of the persecution and banishment which WiUiams endured.

being " denied common air to breathe in.. Answer. p. S7." p. Lord's day addresses were attractive to many. Provoked at " the increase of concourse of people to him on the Lord's days in private. his The friendship of this eminent man ' Now called Rehoboth. yea. ' These ravens have fed me. the youngest less than three months old. they resolved on Mr.'^ on the east bank of Pawtucket river. of the additional time granted for his departure. Two or three months had to elapse." &c. sickness upon him. were left behind. BaclcGovernor Winthrop had prii. then plunged into the untrodden wilds . house. See p. In the following expressive lines he seems to refer to the kind support afforded him by the Indians : " God's providence is rich to Let none distrustful be. they found he had been gone three days before but whither they could not learn." ° lis. returned answer that his life was in him to Boston. distress. "no sign of ." and fearing the further extension of principles so subversive of their staterchurch proceedings. and withdrew them from the congregations of the dominant sect. and resolved that he should immediately be shipped for England. He A hazard . before their sentence could take effect. 1636. By a mortgage on his property at Salem he had raised He the money to supply his wants. by Cotton declares that the oiEcer who served the warrant saw Knowles. Delay was dangerous: therefore the Court met at Boston on the 11th of January. p."^ After fourteen weeks' exposure to frost and snow. In wUdemess. This he might not choose to see. ° Quoted from 101. and came not.Xxii A BIOGRAPHICAL INTRODUCTIOK. Here he began to bmld and plant. p. 370. " Key. Knowles.and a civil cohabitation upon common earth. in a vessel then riding warrant was despatched sunmioning at anchor in the bay. exposed to winter miseries in a howling the same wUdemess. and also without mercy and human compassion. See Knowles. 338.. 70." he arrived at See-» konk. 73. 395. ' vately advised him to leave the colony. Williams's immediate deportation. was of frequent service to our exile."* His wife and two children. A pinnace was sent to fetch him " but when they came at his . "not knowing what bread or bed did mean. in great his.

"With five companions he embarked in his till arriving at a little cove on they were hailed by the Indians with the canoe. Before his crops were ripe for harvest. Some doubts have however. by Mr. where they landed. It was." and as they were loath to offend the people of the Bay. and descending the stream. descending the river. There Roger Williams founded the town of Providence. and by unceasing efforts to benefit and befriend them. It can scarcely be supposed that so long a time could have been occupied in the land journey from Salem to Seekonk.^ A BIOGRAPHICAL INTRODUCTION." Persecution has never sullied its annals. that he had " fallen into the edge of their bounds. siderable addition to this. he was requested to remove beyond tribes the their jurisdiction. by land. God was the for himself and and he nobly endured till it was accomplished. — the "refuge of distressed consciences." . the opposite cry of « side. near to a spring remaining to this day as an emblem of those vital blessings which flow to society from true liberty. they went ashore." where sprung up the first civil polity in the world permitting freedom to the human soul in things of God. he received intimation from the governor of Plymouth. and has ever been. The distance is about fifty miles. weeks above which It has been generally held that the fourteen referred to were spent wilderness. Williams the in traversing the forests and in penetrating vast separated Salem from Seekonk of late. they reached a spot at the mouth of the Mohassuck river. and was the of the American pilgrims to convey to these savage message of salvation. first He taught them Christianity . That spot is " holy ground. What cheer ? " 9 Cheered with this friendly salutation Again embarking. occasioned Even if we allow a conby the detour rendered necessary to avoid the settlements on the Bay. the time conbears the designation of " ' The land at this spot still What Cheer. XXUI life by- Their hospitality he requited throughout his long acts of benevolence. been thrown upon this view. desire of its founder — Freedom to worship for all.

hardships of sea in and land. whose language he had previously acquired. we endured.Xxiv A BIOGRAPHICAL INTRODUCTION. exposed to the miseries. and that he possessed a boat of his own soon after his settlement at Providence. and waiving all other thoughts and emotions 1 steered my course from Salem. privately wrote me to steer my I took his prudent motion.time necessarily allotted for repose. "Mr. reach forth a more merciful is cordial to the afflicted. might well tells fill the fourteen weeks he His language supports this view. 449. . or spent in waiting for favourable weather. ^ sumed canndt be accounted it He himself has given us no details of this eventful journey. I presume. course to the Narraganset Bay. entitled " What Cheer ! is Mr.' His route by sea would be not less than 200 miles. Knowles of his journey through this howling p. are constrained to the conclusion that ^ The \ivid and dramatic poem of Judge Durfee. 394. poverties. wants. "I was sorely tossed for one fourteen weeks. "It pleased the Most High to direct this my steps into hayi" which words would seem only applicable to a voyage by water. [Cotton's] been in my soul's case. at that time was chiefly by water. p. a banished condition. for. though in winter snow." us his journey lasted. ^ savage in- founded on the supposed events Letter to Major Mason. together with the interviews he undoubtedly held with the aborigines. Williams journeyed amid its wilderness. occur in his various works. coasting Only passing references to Yet these are of such a kind more probable that his journey was made by from place to place. and the . Winthrop. Benedict. and habitants. he would. necessities." ma^e to the sea as the scene of It is Here distinct reference some of those hardships he moreover known that traveUing. to accomplish which by his own unaided arm. as to render it sea." This language is evidently such as would be most natural in referring to a passage by sea. into these parts. It is found at page 386. Again. he says. holding intercourse with the native tribes.^ But there is one paragraph in the present volume which would seem to decide "Had his soul the question. debts. that Williams was a skilful boatman. In the view of these particulars.

and to hold intercourse final settlement. the Most High and Only Wise hath.' with the natives as to his first object of Mr. aU over this colony. Backus. envy felt towards the new colony. He shortly after recdnveyed In a deed dated 1661. by some other parties. . Letter to Mason. Williams would be to obtain possession of some land. that is. " Here. the says. 398. 94. from whose * Knowles. in his infinite wisdom. i. I then considering the condition of divers of my distressed countrymen. 116. 96. provided this country and this corner as a shelter for the poor and persecuted. often landing to seek for food. driven from Massachusetts by the persecution So great was the hatred or the of the ruling clerical power. » • manuscript some of the above particulars are taken by Benedict. according to the settlement of their several persuasions. XXV by sea. name. Baokus.^ This was a cruel law. p. he these lands to his companions. i. of the Baptists." This worthy conception of his noble mind was realized. Knowles. 449. By a deed dated the 24th March.' The year 1638 witnessed from which the state subsequently took its Rhode Island. my said purchase desired to unto my loving friends [whom he * who then take shelter here with me. at the time of his settlement amongst them. 90. for thus trading » by This view has been ably advocated General Fessenden. certain lands and meadows were made over to him by the Jndian chiefs which he had purchased of them two years before.A BIOGRAPHICAL INTRODUCTION. This he acquired from the Narragansett Indians. a great number of weak and distressed souls. are flying hither from Old and New England. that Massachusetts framed a law prohibiting the inhabitants of Providence from coming within its bounds. 103. U2. 1638. Knowles. V p. I communicated names]. p. On reaching Providence. and he lived to see a settled community formed wherein liberty of conscience was a primary and fundamental law. p. 148. Thirty-five years afterward he could say. the owners of the soil surrounding the bay into which he had steered his course. " I desired it might be for a shelter for persons distressed for conscience. scattered. in the new edition of his Hist.

" by being debarred from baptist.XXVI A BIOGRAPHICAL INTRODUCTION. however. who then baptized Mr. by no means clear that he regarded the latter as wrong. 671. from whence came the chief supplies of foreign goods. without such a commission he had no authority to assume the office of pastor. then under the pastoral care of the Thus was destroyed the last link celebrated Hugh Peters. and ten others. 107.!. Williams. 149. wrote as thick. therefore. he conceived a true ministry must derive its authority from direct apostoHc succession or endowment: that. 165. for we find him in after days desiring to print several discourses which he had delivered amongst the Indians. Holliman was selected Mr. 107. Knowles." " God knows. For.^ He seems rather to have conceived that the church of Christ had so ' ° Knowles. Holliman Thus was founded the first baptist church in America. and crowded as close as possible. embrace together.'' losses I have sustained.p." says Williams. p.iu. a Mr. p. with eight others. 395. p. 108. or proclaim to the as in other churches. Benedict. which bound these exiles to the congregational churches of New England. 176. Williams became a with several more of his companions in exHe. Mr. Mr. i. p. was hindered with the English vessels frequenting Boston. in sisterly impenitent the saving mercies of redemption. Backus. or be a teacher in the house of God. 441. Knowles. . together In March 1639. 170. Hanbury. appear on small scraps of paper.^ On the 1st of the following July. while retaining all his original sentiments upon the doctrines of God's word. to baptize As none in the colony had been baptized. Williams appears to have remained pastor of the newly formed church but a few months. that " the first of their writings that are to be found. 105. " that many thousand pounds cannot repay the very temporary Boston. -and the ordinances of the church. ° Backus.9 Mr. i. It is. i Backus. Williams and his wife. were excommunicated by the church at Salem. So great was the scarcity of paper from this cause among the Khode Islanders. Knowles. where infant baptism and persecution abode.

bring in the result of a satisfying discovery. and have been myself many ways engaged. p. p. Various passages in the present volume will be met with which favour this view:* the following is from his " Hireling Ministry :" " In the poor small restored by some span of my life. in country. and churches of Christ out of Cotton's Answer. I desired to have been a diligent and constant observer. Knowles. 101. the ruins of anti-christian apostacy. assembled. that either the begetting ministry of the apostles or messen- gers to the nations. or specially commissioned messenger from above. of which the essential principles were The power was Invested in the freemen. in imiversities. or the feeding and nourishing ministry of pastors and teachers. up himself. in city. in the holy pre- sence of God." The constantly increasing ntunber of settlers in the civil new colony rendered a form of government necessary.A BIOGRAPHICAL INTRODUCTION. to the imperfection of the church in than to the want of a right succession in the ministry. p. These imperfections could be removed by a new apostolic He therefore was opposed to " the office of any ministry. in schools. to recover and restore all or- Dr. pensed in any church way. by apostles. None were to be ac' As "from p. orderly democratic. * dinances. in churches' in Old and New England. 4. or a major part of them. R. 2. 379. all Cotton says. fallen into apostacy. but such as the Lord Jesus appointeth. it are yet restored and extant. Cotton we have the true expression of Mr. in court." Perhaps in the following assertion of Mr. or some new Callander's Historical Discourse. he of Christ till fell Cotton's Answer. in this passage ' is The insinuation ordinances dis- both unjust and untrue. ministry alone. p. and yet cannot. A model was drawn up."' From passage would seem that his objections its were rather owing revived condition. Williams's views. which could only be new apostolic. shall stir God Pp. according to the first institution of the this Lord Jesus. the due administration of the ordinances. as to XXVU form and have lost both its right. that there can be no recovery out of that apostacy shall send forth till Christ * new apostles to plant churches anew. 40. Elton. 172. 9. He conceived " that the apostacy of anti-christ hath so far corrupted all.'' .

WUliams's meeting as often as requisite. be perpetuated. 95. counted delinquents for doctrine. were of the highest value and of the most important kind. led the sons of liberty. 3. if pos- sible. of one Joshua Backus i. 147. Baokus. By an ordinance dated Nov.i. and there. In the month of June 1643. and to ship from the more New York convenient port of Boston. who was deprived for a time of . the General Court laid claim to juris- young and rapidly increasing settlements of This. " to this great principle receives illustration in the case a curious Backus i. 380.^ At involved in the horrors of the time of his arrival in England. and preventing by his influence the attacks of the native tribes upon their settlements. Not satisfied many more from diction over the their borders by their oppressive measures against conscience. freed from the intrusive interference of the Massachusetts Bay. the country was civil war. Islanders his franchise for refusing to his iirife 169. concurring with other causes. Bancroft. p. although his services in allaying Indian ferocity. Mr. in not permitting The attachment Ehode her to go to Mr. the affairs of the colonies were intrusted to a. liberty of conscience.XXVIU A BIOGRAPHICAL INTRODUCTION. Sir Henry = Knowles. and its annals have remained to this day unsullied blot of persecution. Aided by the influence of his friend. Williams to take passage to England. p. Williams set sail from for England. "that that law concerning liberty of conscience in point of doctrine. i." And a few months later this was further confirmed by a special act." Thus liberty of conscience was the basis of the legislation of the colony of Khode Island. Verin. and giving them independent authority. 112. obtain a charter defining their rights. of the CaUender. board of commissioners. "provided it be not directly repugnant to the government or laws established. the inhabitants of Rhode Island and Providence to request Mr. 181. of which Lord Warwick was the head. 1643.^ by the But many were the examples of an with having driven Williams and opposite course occurring in the neighbouring colony of Boston. for he was not permitted to enter the territories of Massachusetts.

and these are the penalties for the transgression thereof. Williams. which. a government held by the free and all. Hoger Williams was chosen assistant. returned to New England. and in subsequent Thus under the auspices of this nobleyears governor. " that the form of govern- ment established in Providence Plantations is is democeati- CAL. what is herein forbidden. Knowles. giving to the " Providence Plantations in the Narragansett Bay. . 148. We here trace no fiirther the history of Eoger Williams in relation to the state of To the period at which ' which he was the honoured founder. dated March 14. Backus. man was sown the germ of modern democratic instiininded tutions. and to comIt was mence the structure of their civil government. we have arrived. Williams quickly obtained the charter he sought. foe evee and evee. than thus. from several noblemen and members of parliament. 17 th." ^ Mr. every one in the his name of God. 1644. Mr. voluntary consent of inhabitants. in the summer of the same year. all men may walk as their consciences persuade them. " Elton. 198. their story is indisKnowles. The first elections under this charter were held at Portsmouth in May 1641. are ratified and And otherwise established throughout the whole colony. when the General Assembly then constituted. emboldened to tread this forbidden ground by a commendatory letter to the Governor and Assistants of the Bay. combining therewith the yet more precious seed of religious liberty.^ With this charter Mr. p. and landed at Boston." or the greater part of the free The conclusion of this : Island is in these memorable words all Magna Charta of Rhode " These are the laws that concern men. p. proceeded to frame a code of laws. p. in notes to Callender." full power to rule themselves. by any form of government they preferred. And let the saints of the Most High WAXK in this colony WITHOUT MOLESTATION.A BIOGRAPHICAL INTRODUCTION. 230. by common consent. XXIX Vane. IN THE NAME OF Jehovah theie God. i. Sept. declared in the act then passed. that to say. 208.

It a well arranged. he transcribed and kept together the papers. although the author himself could who not correct. and returned them to his friend in the same way. Ms principles. by Mr. argument against persecution. Williams. entitled " An Humble Supplication to the King's Majesty. See Tracts on Liberty of Conscience. and recognizing the truth and power of those principles which throw around the name of Rogek Williams a halo of imperishable glory and renown. civil and religious. gave rise to the work of Mr. by a friend in London." 9 treatise was taken those arguments against which being replied to by Mr. Cotton tells us that this excerpt was this From persecution. He wrote his thoughts in milk on the paper thus provided. " In such paper. and concise conscience. nor view what himself had written. imbued with solubly allied together. Williams. as it was presented. but the way of reading it by fire being known to this friend received the papers. Posterity witness to the result. 214 —225. wiU be found a piece. reprinted in the following pages. He had recourse to sheets of paper sent." is This was a baptist production. and to some other very interesting circumstances. WilKams informs us that this treatise was by a prisoner in Newgate for conscience' sake. owes its origin to the events we have detailed. So was his confinement that paper. against the "royal law of the love of the » See p." Mr. The work of this eminent man. The great communities of the Old "World are daily approximating to that example. Williams. and that * Mr. pp. and ink were denied him. 1620. 36. Others. written with milk. Cotton. as stoppers to the bottle containing his written rigid daily allowance of milk. pens. could — exist in harmony with is dutiful obedience to rightful laws. . henceforth took part in working out the great and then unsolved problem how liberty. clear.XXX A BIOGRAPHICAL INTRODUCTION. In the first volume of the publications of the Hanserd Knollys Society.^ sent to him about the year 1635. and for liberty of Mr. nothing will appear . and which he has so significantly called "The Bloudy Tenent of Persecution Discussed.

The prisoner's arguments against persecution were presented to Mr. "WiUiams already printed. 1. you have. in saying that he wrote it it . therefore. Bloody Tenent Washed. and and plainly handled by Mr. Cotton by Mr. Hall. By way of answer to some arguments to the contrary sent unto him. Williams with a " double false- hood :" First. Cotton "Bloudy Tenent. 189. cavils of turbulent spirits. Cotton's by the is said Mr." a quarto pamphlet of fourteen pages. is edition known matters of religion ought to be permitted. Cotton on this subject. of the date 1646. London. ministers ^ who did write it sent to Salem. given of the affair by Mr. No such letter or intercourse. . It Printed for Thomas Banks.* This " blustermani- * Bloudy Tenent Washed. truly stated. 4. and without his knowledge. published with his reply. adding thereto a refutation. Cotton's letter is found a reference to late of Salem.^ At the time when Mr. Cotton wrote the letter to Mr. Williams " did keep communion with all his brethren. Cotsecond. XXXI it. Cotton's principles. to whom also Mr. The authorship Williams. He charges IMr. and soon after the arrival of Mr. he tells us. WiUiams. Cotton's answer was addressed. however."* A contradictory and more particular account is. and in what cases it to us of the prisoner's arguments with ought not. wherein See p.A BIOGRAPHICAL INTRODUCTION. and held loving acquaintance with myself. The only reply. pp. Cotton in New At "a England." * ' John Cotton of Boston in New England. sent the papers to Mr. 1646. in distinctly Matters of Religion. the close of Mr. ISO. 290. who." It must therefore have been written some time before the banishment of Mr. and agrees withWilliam8'scopyofitinthe«Bloudy Tenent. clearly fested wherein liberty of conscience in pp. Mr. his discussion of felt at liberty to publish Mr. with the following title: " The Controversie concerning Liberty of Conscience Mr. treatise sent to some of the brethren who doubted as you do. against all 192. Hall. a congregational minister at Eoxbury." the examination of which forms the second part of the attributed to Mr. and signed John Cotton. gospel."* by Mr. passed between him and Mr. Williams. that the ton denies. Cotton. p." This treatise is the " Model of Church and Civil Power. HaU not being satisfied. conceiving that being printed they were no longer private papers. he tells us that Mr. Bloody Tenent yet more Bloody. of it is This Mr.

wherein the elders of every church were entreated to " consult and advise of one uniform order of discipline in the churches and to consider how far the magistrates are bound to interpose for the preservation of that uniformity and peace of the churches. 222. promoted satisfactory information — . pp. 66. and without the name either of the author or ' Bloody Tenent more Bloody. that hearing of it he wrote to " his worthy friend Mr. He refers to the closing paragraph of Cotton's own letter. Eichard Mather." The real author of it was probably Mr. "Williams but in none of them were developed to the same extent. 291. charge" Mr. 128." ^ Or perhaps it may preferably be regarded as the result of an act passed by the General Court in the year 1634. 22.XXXU ing A BIOGRAPHICAL INTRODUCTION. Williams so ably. of whom we are told that " when the platform of Church Discipline was agreed in the year 1647. Backus. for the sight of accordingly sent it it. Mr. Other treatises were published to defend New England practices against the observations of friends in Old England. that the principles of this document pervade all the subsequent legislation of the colony. and many of its conclusions were embodied in the ecclesiastical and civil laws. ' " Mather's Magnalia. Wilhams did well in selecting these two pieces for discussion. v."^ Certain it is. . knowledge it was reported." Moreover. so patiently. and so thoroughly confronts and confutes in the following of it. Williams repudiates. Mr. according to this hint of Cotton's. . elder of the church at Salem. They broadly state those views which are antagonist to intellectual and religious freedom. which are occasionally referred to by Mr." He then adds. . iii. and avers. Mr. Sharp. that persecuting spirit and theocratic legislation which Mr. The " Bloudy Tenent " was published in England in the year 1644. who to him. " to my Mr. . i. Cotton approved and directed others to repair to it for :^ it was therefore unworthy of him to pass so "deep censures for none or innocent mistakes. that from the ministers of the churches such a model composed by them was sent to Salem. Mather's model was that out of which it was chiefly taken. it.

which no other for herein it was state and kingdom had or ought to have : This state (the church) being spiritual admits of none but Him."" James In 1643 another " Liberty of Conscience and truth. "that when these discussions were prepared for public in London. kingdom. 38. Lawgiver. and the mutinies of the poor for firing. Previous to the Bloudy Tenent. 1845. com- mandments. and Childishness of andPersecution. XXXlii It was written while he was occupied in obtaining the charter for Rhode Island. Some of these have been reprinted. In many parts it bears evident tokens of haste. one as it was a civil state and commonwealth and as one of the results of infant baptism. and frequent images of great beauty adorn his page. Although not the first in England among the baptist advocates for the great principle of liberty of conscience. 1614— 1661. for the supply of the poor of the city with wood. during the stop of coal from Newservice of the parliament castle. and in relation thereto had worship. 12. ." The author « ' most able piece appeared. that collaterally .* and we have already seen how one of them gave rise to the present work of Williams. several pieces had been published. of great interest and value. the discussion acutely managed. In 1642 we find a baptist asserting "hence also have been brought the power of the civil magisbeing willingly ignorant that the trate into the church state and church of the Jews is to be considered in a twofold respect. and government. his time was eaten up in attendance upon the and city. Knollys Society. R. 27. Hanserd c By A. Roger Williams holds a preeminent place. in respect whereof it was common to other civil states and kingdoms in the world . publisher. the other as it was the church of God. ." 9 Neverthe- less. a kingly office. their spiritual Head.A BIOGRAPHICAL INTRODUCTION. p. and occasional obscurities show that he bad found no time to amend his work. altogether typical iv. 1642. . Indeed he teUs us. his style is generally animated. expresses his opinion that the dis' Bloody Tenent more Bloody. p. entitled. London. Tracts on Liberty of ConBcience The Second Part of the Vanity Infants' Baptism. or the sole means to obtain peace .

* Liberty of Conscience in London. entitled "Queries of Highest Consideration proposed to Mr. and his deep interest in whatever concerned the well-being of his fellow countrymen. 1644. Unbinding the Conscience.^ To this we •' are inclined to attach some confidence. Richardson. pp. This piece likewise asserts the rights of conscience with great clearness and power. For he not only published his "Key into the Language of America. and for what M. they even proceeded so far as to burn it. 4to. p. p.^ and by his powerful writings did much to disseminate right views on this great subject." composed while on his voyage to this country. Williams. p. in whichthe "Bloudy Tenant" was pub- there issued from the press "The Compassionate Samaritan. imprudence of fighting against God. 1644. The activity of Mr. 270. John Goodwin also came forth to aid them. with a Plea for a Church &c. The publication of the "Bloudy Tenent" was most offensive to the various parties into which the ruling powers The presbyterians exclaimed of the State were divided. or. " Ocoiiaxta. Orme's Life of Owen. and the two treatises reprinted in this volume . they were the only known adrocates for perfect liberty . Also in London. as thereby we may ' account for the extreme rarity of the book. Cotton's Way. against it as fuU of heresy and blasphemy. but in this year Mr. and different opinions of their brethren. and pouring oil into the wounds which have been made upon the separation. 13. S. Until now the baptists stood alone in this conflict. to In A. are still more illustrated by the publications which he put forth while in England. p. ' 2." 110. S. If we may believe Mr." The same year lished." Tracts on Lib. of Conscience. but also an anonymous piece. tractions and troubles of the nation were owing in great measure to the general obstinacy and averseness of most men of all ranks and qualities to tolerate and bear with tender consciences. &c. 1644."* containing clear and accurate observations on the respective provinces of civil and ecclesiastical authority.XXXIV A BIOGRAPHICAL INTRODUCTION. the grand Answer. 4to. .. Thomas Goodwin 'T—presented to the High Court of Parliament. 4to. 100.

Divinity. Gammell ed. have seen in this country. that lately began to flow in upon dissenting consciences. 195 and 144. 1645. Williams's Answer By John Cotton. London. They were willing to grant liberty only to those sound in fundamentals views of their — ^the brother Congregationalists of America. Batchelor in the Church of Christ at Boston in In 1647. and Teacher of New England. Introd. The existing copies of the work do not quite agree. 403. 110. and to the peace and quietness of the Independents. While they are page for page and line for line the same. published in the same year. ' As compared with Williams's work it displays These differences are stated by Mr.^ various examples are given of the character of this reply. p. ioiA of which have the table "Cotton's Reply. a Eeply to Mr. in his Life of Williams. There is also a slight difference in the type and orthography of the title page. and made white in the bloud of the discussed and discharged of blood-guiltinesse Lambe : being to Whereunto is added Mr. that it operated most beneficially on the public mind." and Answer.^ Baillie informs us that Williams's work did not meet with Its toleration the approbation of the English Independents."^ In the year 1647. He entitled his work. Williams. by just Defence. are those in The two parts of this work are "Cotton's the Bodleian Library. "The Bloudy Tenent washed. to exist in the two copies he has seen in Ainerica. p. and of the tortuous constructions adopted to escape the home thrusts of Mr." c 2 . as Museum. ' BaUlie's Dissuasive. is XXXV in feet a second edition.A BIOGRAPHICAL INTRODUCTION. ii. Williams. was too unlimited identical for their taste. 38. Cotton attempted a reply to Mr. Epist. " These images and clouts it hath pleased God to make use of to stop no small leaks of persecution. the notes of the present volume.^ Yet we are informed in a subsequent work by Mr. The only copies we Bloody Tenent more Bloody. of errata. &c. Mr." 4to. and to Master Cotton's own. they differ in the fact of a table of errata being found ia some. Banbury's Memorials. pp. Cotton's Letter. Williams. which -they have so long and so wonderfully enjoyed. 127. ' ' iii. which errata are corrected in others. 215. and the British quoted in the notes to this volume.

XXXVl A BIOGRAPHICAL INTRODUCTION. Khode-Island. Two copies are in . It is is made by the kind permission of the The is a volume of two hundred and forty-seven pages. This reprint is from the latter. Cotton's perversions. The proof sheets have been compared with the very fine copy in the British Museum. Cotton's endevour By E. great unfairness. own words. which he did not deserve. It is characterized" by the kindest tone. It is A rejoinder appeared in the year entitled "The Bloody Tenent yet more Bloody by Mr. Williams's Reply of stiU greater rarity. Neiomarhet House. Esq. and mistakes. Two are in this country . of to only altered. to wash it white in the blood of the Lambe. &c. U. by my kind friend George Offor. original table of Contents is given with the pagination Mr. London. Three of these are in America two in University. E. Esq. Providence. one in the British Museum. From the latter the present reprint Librarian. it is now the editor's great pleasure and satisis faction to place in the hands of the subscribers of great But six copies are at present known to exist of the . and a most lamentable want of Christian temper and Williams's spirit — ^It is " wormwood and gall. and one in the Bodleian Library. 1652. Cotton's Letter. in small quarto." to use Mr. and one ia the possession of the family of the late Moses Brown. and one in the original editions. and a considerate treatment of Mr. Three are in this country one in the library of the present American Consul. Museum. the Library of Brown Bodleian Library. the most affectionate spirit. 1652. Mr. and one in the library of Harvard College. pp." 4to. It is proposed to reprint this volume as necessary to the completeness of the present. 373. 1848. . errors. America one in Yale CoUege which is much mutilated. The work rarity. Colonel Aspinall. Williams. of Providence in New-England. B. August 9th. one in the British which is also somewhat mutUated..

. JOHN OOTTON'S ANSWER 10 THE AFORESAID ARGUUEMS .10 . 39 The six fundamentals of the Christian religion The coming out of Babel not local. [STLLABrS OF THE WORK 1 ADDRESS TO PARLIAMENT ADDRESS TO EVERY OOUSTEOUS READER SCRIPTURES AND REASONS AGAINST PEESECVIION MS. 3 7 ... . 19] A REPLY TO THE AFORESAID ANSWER OF MR. PAOlti. their rare and seldom meeting M 33 . . 43 43 44 pleased sometimes to convey good unto his people beyOnd a promise . COTTON. .. Persecntors seldom plead Christ but Moses for their author Strife.. the nature of a true 40 40 41 Common God is prayer written against by the New English ministers God's people have worshipped God with false worships . but mystical The great ignorance of God's people concerning church . .A TABLE OF THE PRINCIPAL CONTENTS OF THE BOOK. nor constrained 38 . < . chaste soul in God's worship compared to a chaste Wife 38 39 God's people have erred from the very fundamentals of visible worship . Truth and Peace. Four sorts of spiritual foundations in the New Testament . Two great complaints of Peace . Christian 34 34 35 and unchristian cry in the writing of the A threefold doleful A A The wonderful providence of God against persecution definition arguments 36 37 of persecution discussed Conscience will not be restrained to another &om its own worship.. .

. 94 96 100 . title ^ Civil magistrates never invested by Christ Jesus with the power and of defenders of the faith 92 God's people [Israel] ever earnest with God for An. &c.. . ... and lettmg of them Satan's subtlety about the opening of scripture . typing out spiritual killing in the gospel . . 62 S3 S3 65 58 59 • What is meant by the killing^ in heretic.. >( The word Corporal heretic generally mistaken the law... as also 78 between the wheat and the all others and 78 . and peace breakers. and why ? . .. 75 76 77 God's kingdom on earth the difference tares church tares...79 81 .. . A The difference between the church in all places X The church and civil state confusedly made all one The most peaceable accused for peace breaking is . arm of flesh . discussed 85 86 88 . .. or soul-killing. Pjeaching for conversion is properly out of the church tares proved properly to signify anti-christians visible ... A notable speech of cutor King James to a great nonconformist turned perse4S 46 A ^ Civil peace discussed difference between spiritual The and civil state 46 48 Six cases wherein God's people have been usually accounted arrogant. towards others in their blindness. infecting. 82 85 A twofold state of Christianity : persecuted under the Koman emperors..66 67 68 A large examination alone of what meant by the tares. < A civil magistracy from the beginning of the world . X The tares are to be tolerated the longest of all smners . Tit.. PAOB. wherein it is. The danger of infection by permitting of the tares. 62 64 The carriage of a soul sensible of mercy. . and apostated under the Roman popes Three particulars contained in that prohibition ql Christ Jesus concerning the tares.. masters.. v. assoiled The civil magistrate not so particularly spoken to in the New Testament as fathers..XXXVIU TABLE OF CONTENTS. xiii Accompanying with idolaters.. Let them alone. &c and the world.. Matt. 1 Cor. but most unjustly The true causes of breach and disturbance of civil peace A preposterous way of suppressing errors Persecutors must needs oppress both erroneous and true consciences All persecutors of Christ profess not to persecilte him >< . 93 The dreadful punishment of the blind Pharisees in four respects The pomt of seducing. iii. . 65 . between these . and the only expounder 69 74 Two sorts of hypocrites The Lord Jesus the of them The The great teacher by parables. examined Strange confusions in pimishments ...

. 10 Mic. and not to destroy them for conscience' sake 103 The fire from heaven... iv. both irom Moses and Christ in Israel. 13. . ii. discussed . . 138 138 1 Usury in the lawfully permitted 39 Seducing teachers. . . The Christian world hath swallowed up Christianity 145 149 Christ Jesus the deepest politician that ever was. .109 civil magistrate . . Turkish.143 . 14. 2 Tim. Isa.152 1S3 Polygamy. . . discussed 115 Unmerciful and bloody doctrine 116 117 . 9.. 26.. ii. Acts xi. and yet to practise the headship Titus i. Matt. A difference of the true and false Christ and Christians .. evil.. concerning Christ's visible kingdom. Rev.. lies XXxix PAGE. . . Jewish. concerning civil rulers' power in spiritual causes. 20. either pagans. vi. examined . discussed spiritual wolves. 105 A civil sword in religion makes a nation of hypocrites. examined . xiii. 18. sayings against persecution Forcing of conscience a soul-rape Persecution for conscience hath been the lancet which hath nations. 4. Rev. blood the . yet toleration of anti-christians commands he a . 42 Toleration of Jezebel and Balaam..128 128 And Four cleared sorts is by five arguments of swords What to be understood by be always evil.152152 let . . 10. 107 . . 109 1 Antoninus Pius's famous act concerning religion 4.TABLE OF CONTENTS. The blood of souls. . . or anti-christian. X. xiii. 110 Acts XX. The nature of Isa. The Civil spiritual weapons. All spiritual whores are bloody . yet be obedient subjects to the civil may 141 1 laws Scandalous livers against the civil state ii.. 4 it . 131 133 136 Though evil yet the permission of sometimes be good Two The sorts of commands. xix. . the suppressing of It is in vain to decline the .. discussed in spiritual causes .119 121 Rom. permission of divor civil state . of Poland. . . or the many wives of the fathers . 104 The original of the Christian name. 151 . Acts xx. Rom. .112 114 name of the head of the church. 2 Cor. 3. the worship of unbelieving and natural persons . : upon such as profess the ministry the blood of bodies only upon the state 100 101 Usurpers and true heirs of Christ Jesus The bound to preserve the bodies of their subjects. 29.. The princes of the world seldom take part with Christ Jesus ISO 151 Buchanan's item to King James King James's sayings against persecution King Stephen's. . largely ex- amined Paul's appeal to Caesar. . may . examined . weapons most improper spiritual artillery. 26. 118 The Eph. applied . 17. x. xiii.

.. The The Indians of New England permitted in their worshipping of devils 165 In two cases a false religion will not hurt . . . (as a further confirmation of the bloody doctrine of persecution for cause of conscience) examined and answered Christ's 189 all power in the church confest to be above magistrates in spiritual things 190 .. 163 Constraint upon conscience in Old and New England . Hearing of the word in a church estate a part of God's worship Papists' plea for toleration of conscience 173 173 174 . . and with what weapons . PAGE. . .. . . to the ministers . 1 75 Superstition and persecution have had many votes and suffrages from 176 . composed by Cotton and the ministers of Mr.. . 167 absolute sufficiency of the sword of the Spirit . . . nature of excommunication opinion of ancient writers examined concerning the doctrine of persecution .xl TABLE OF CONTENTS- David advancing of God's worship against order the name and crown of The language of persecutors Christ's liUes .. 153 154 Constantiue and the good emperors. . • . 160 160 161 The The The Christian church doth not persecute...168 169 169 A national church not instituted Man by Christ hath no power to make laws to bind conscience . . but is persecuted . . . . purge out the bitter humour of persecution . 159 .. . . .. smd sent to Salem... . New England. 158 159 . . . God's own people Soul-kiUing discussed Phineas's act discussed Elijah's slaughters \ 176 179 180 civil examined magistrate's Dangerous consequences flowing from the spiritual cases power in The world turned upside down The wonderful answer of the ministers of New England of Old . notwithstanding the the world permitted Queen Elizabeth and King James.164 . Cotton to have almost fired the world in civil combustions The wars between the papists and the protestants The wars and success of the Waldensians against three popes God's people victorious overcomers.... 183 184 184 Lamentable differences even amongst them that fear God 185 186 The doctrine of persecution ever drives the most godly out of the world A MODEL OF CHURCH AND CIVIL POWER. . . than the hloody Neros did 1^^ weeds in 1S6 may flourish in the church. their persecuting for cause of religion examined 1^7 confessed Queen Elizabeth by Mr. confessed to have done more hurt to Christ. Protestant partiality in the cause of persecution Pills to . .

xlix. 23. appoint and raise up any civil government to take care of his 206 206 Nineveh. Christ's ordinances put upon a whole city or nation may civilize them. . Moab. commanding the subject's . not inconsistent. . . Artaxerxes his decree examined The sum of the examples of the gentile king's decrees confeeming God's worship in scripture . Cotton and the New English give the power of Christ into the hands of the conunonweal 211 214 217 Laws concerning religion. 1 Tim. . before repentance &st wrought . the church. worship The true custodes utritisque tabulce. .. as the kings of Judah were Masters of families not charged under the gospel to force sciences of their families to worship . Philistia. of two sorts . 217 222 soul in worship Persons may with less sin be forced to marry whom they cannot love...217 . when they have enjoyed least quietness . Mr. lamentably wrested xli . with the worship of God. 210 . 207 207 all the con- God's people have then shined brightest in godliness. and keepers of the ordinances and worship of Jesus Christ The kmgs of Egypt.. but not christianize. Assyria. few men. ' . that the magistrate cannot have power over the church in spiritual or church causes The true way of the God of peace. spiritual . 208 204 Lord Jeaus. The very Indians abhor to disturb any conscience at worship Canons and constitutions pretended civil. Mr. ' PAGE. Cotton and the New English hath neither minister's confesaon. that the magistrate The civil nor spiritual power in soul matters . (by Mr. Few Civil magistrates. As than to worship where they cannot believe the cause. A demonstrative illustration.TABLE OF CONTENTS. and honesty 201 proved not to signify in that place the righteousness of the second The forcing of men to God's worship. and the church. 190 192 193 194 The commonweal. made the judges on the bench. civil peace.. Cotton's grounds) in one and the same cause.. . and the moralize. and civil commonweal. so the weapons of the beast and the lamb are infinitely different 223 226 227 230^ . . spiritually good yet divers sorts of com- mendable goodness beside spiritual power originally and fundamentally in the people. but indeed ecclesiastical A threefold guilt lying upon civil powers. in differences between the church and the magistrate The terms table godliness and honesty explained. were not charged . though independent the one on the other . in the institution of the Christian church. and delinquents at magistrates the bar 196 197 198 ii.. 1.. the greatest breach of The Roman Csesars of Christ's time described It pleased not the to . Isa.

properly converting.. The maintenance of the ministry.Xlii TABLE OF CONTENTS. . .. feeding or pastoral . but from false worships also 254 254 . xiv. nor maintain .. xxviii. doth not forbid to permit leaven in the world The wall (Cant. Psalm ci. religion viii. professors to hear only its own • priests or • ministers . the civil xvii. church to hear the word. • Jonah Eglon his preaching to the Ninevites discussed Hearing of the word discussed his rising up to Ehud's message.) discussed its Every commands . Spiritual prisons consciences not so easily healed and cured as men imagine Persecutors dispute with heretics. .. 241 No difference of lands and countries. vi. as a tyrannical cat with the poor Some . cuts off the hopes of the Jews partaking in his blood direful effects of fighting for conscience is 232 233 234 237 Error confident as well as truth. . >• roaring lion with an innocent . Gal. The The doctrine of putting to death blasphemers of Christ. forcing them to be of no religion days . examined . 257 257 Christ Jesus never appointed a maintenance of the ministry from im- penitent and unbelieving They that compel men to hear.. discussed : 248 248 248 248 249 249 to ... Secondly. Luke '. PAOE. 255 256 a figure of Christ Jesus in his church. as his paw .. . .258 come in. . 239 Persecutors endure not the name of persecutors . . apostolical. compel them also to pay for their hear- ing and conversion Compel them to . . mouse lamb in • and with a true witness.. examined .. 2 Chron. than to receive the sacraments 250 253 No precedent in the word. The New English separate in smce Christ Jesus his coming . • • . examined it Natural men can neither truly worship. to 258 259 261 The national church of the Jews might well be forced a settled main- tenance: but not so the Christian church The maintenance which Christ hath appointed his The universities of Europe causes of universal schools are honourable for tongues ministry in the church sins 262 263 and plagues: yet and arts . .. .. 6. of any people converting and baptizing themselves True conversion to visible Christianity is not only from sins against the second table.. . America. can no more lawfully compel the consciences of men . 244 246 246 Christ Jesus forbidding his followers to permit leaven in the church. A twofold ministry of Christ first. and yet not all their to religion (as they say). .-i. The commission. not of . Matt. 239 . concerning cutting off the wicked. but not in Europe .. magistrate in the state . 9. 242 . . discussed The civil magistrate not betrusted with that commission Jehoshaphat. The New English The civil state forcing people to church. t .

The precedent of the kings of Israel and Judah largely examined The Persian kings' example make strongly against the doctrine of cution 1. might well renew that national covenant and ceremonial worship.. viz. . 292 293 293 The liberties of Christ's churches in the choice of her officers b . Five demonstrative arguments proving the unsoundness of the maxim. 265 266 266 267 271 . . covenant by revelations. A sacrilegious prostitution of the name Christian David immediately inspired by God in Solomon's deposing Abiathar. . . the particular forms from the people confirmed in a national . . 273 all difference of the people of Israel other peoples. . Amsworth excellent in the tongues. .. or head of the church . upon the . but not so any other land Kings and nations often plant and often pluck up . 300 The pope pretendeth Three great factions to the ministerial power of . . The true church is xlili PAOB. . 297 '. . religions A national church ever subject to turn and return A woman.297 297 The papists nearer to the truth. The churches of the separation ought in humanity and subjects' liberty not to be oppressed. Jehoshaphat's fast examined 294 should not wrong God will not wrong Csesar. yet .TABLE OF CONTENTS. and common prayer. point challengeth the monarchical also in 300 300 England. signs. yet no university man King Henry the Eighth set down in the pope's chair in England . . which other nations cannot do . but at least permitted 302 . The difference of the kings and governors of Israel from all kings and governors of the world. 1 Kings his ordering of church affairs ii. striving for the arm of flesh . 26. 280 280 283 his God's only church. and 295 296 miracles. 264 . Apocrypha. Christ's school.. discussed . . 291 . A civil influence dangerous to the saints' liberties . . 27.. concerning the governor of the church. and Cssar The famous acts of Josiah examined Israel God . Fapissa. . . in four particulars 284 286 290 . . and believers his scholars . than most protestants The ^ kingly power of the Lord Jesus troubles all the kings and rulers of the world A twofold exaltation of Christ A monarchical and ministerial power of Christ Three great competitors for the ministerial 298 298 300 . homilies. power of Christ Christ. the church and commonweal are like Hippocrates' twins . . . . Mr. . perse- 272 The The difference of the land of Canaan from from all lands and countries in seven [eight] particulars 2. . precious to our forefathers Reformation proved fallible . Wonderful turnings of religion in England in twelve years revolution The pope not unlike to recover hia monarchy over Europe before downfall Israel. 294 295 29S Magistracy in general from God. in seven particulars 278 .

him . Temporal prosperity most proper to the national of the Jew 308 308 The excommunication in Israel The corporal stoning in the law. 322 330 331 331 331 persons . PAGE. . of what his 832 . The difference of Israel's statutes and laws from particulars 5. Isa. • . . typed out spiritual stoning in the gospel 308 The wars of Israel typical and unparalleled. but at the pleasure of the world The true antitype of the kings of Israel and Judah 4.. who assumed a power in spiritual things ... .312 . . cry out of persecution when 316 own are forced Constantine and others wanted not so much affection. . . as information of judgment Civil authority giving Christ's truth 317 and lending their horns to bishops. Christ. . Pious magistrates' and ministers' consciences are persuaded for that. 313 314 316 316 Great imfaithfulness in magistrates [ministers] to cast the burden of judging and establishing Christianity upon the Thousands of lawful civil magistrates.. 318 319 319 320 321 . yet moat true consequences from the the antitype of the kings of Israel and If no religion but what the Judah commonweal approve. Nero and the persecuting emperors not so injurious to Christianity as Constantino and others. which other as pious magistrates' and ministers' consciences condemn 321 An apt similitude discussed concerning the civil magistrate . it . . . . . . but by the spiritual wars of spiritual Israel 309 of the Jews The famous tjrpical captivity 311 311 Their wonderful victories The mystical army of white troopers Whether the civil state of Israel was . The civil magistrate owes two things to false worshippers The rise of high commissions . are apt to disrobe . commonweal who never hear of Jesus Christ . all others in all others magistrates being 30S no 305 306 three 306 The difference of Israel's punishments and rewards from state 308 . precedential . . xlix The civil magistrate owes three things to the true church of Christ .. .xliv TABLE OF CONTENTS.. dangerous to 317 to the The power of Christ Jesus compared in scripture parable horn of the rhinoceros spiritual incom- - ^ The nursing fathers and mothers. . then no God. . nor civil dotli want 304 of Christianity diminish it Most strange. A grievous charge against the Christian church and the king of A strange law in New England formerly against excommunicate A dangerous doctrine against all civil magistrates . They who their force the conscience of others. Seven reaeona proving that the kings of Israel and Judah can have no other but a spiritual antitype Christianity adds not to the nature of a civil 303 commonweal. . . Original sin charged to hurt the civil state I They who give the magistrate is more than his due.

. . that persons.. COTTON'S To LETTER EXAMINED AND ANSWERED. in a particular church estate. xviii. 36 discussed Rev. . The excellency of Christianity in all callings A The magistrate like a pilot in the ship of the commonweal ... Acts XT. Conclusion 363 [MR. . Cotton ignorant of the cause of WiUiams's sufferings . whether only church members. must be discovered 371 .. . Williams's banishment Persecutors do no good to men's souls 377 Mr.. and bondage unto all . viz. .337 339 . &c. distinct from that Matt. 26 discussed Spiritual offences only liable to spiritual censure Mr.. xi. better . 372 376 Grounds of Mr. .. xlv PAGE. 379 382 383 . Matt.. If Jesus Christ bring more light he must be persecuted Public sins.. .. the caiise of public calamities. 20. Unto 9.. 336 336 power of the magistrate . Barrowe's profession concerning Queen Elizabeth .. Church administrations firstly charged upon the ministers thereof Queen Elizabeth's bishops truer to their principles than many of a spirit and profession Mr. 345 345 346 whom now belongs the care of all the churches.TABLE OF CONTENTS. 16 discussed . X The terms heathen and Christian magistrates The unjust and partial liberty to some consciences. derivatives from the fountains or bodies of people believing magistrate no more a magistrate than an unbelieving 341 341 341 . civil The inventions of spiritual men swerving from the true essentials of and commonweals godly the A X K great question. and qualified for affairs of state 355 357 359 361 The Ninevites' fast examined Luke xxii. T' xvii. A marvellous challenge of A more power under the Christian.. 364 355 < Few Christians wise and noble. commonly misapplied The promise of xxviii Christ's presence. . not proper to pastors and teachers. 347 349 350 350 353 is.. Cotton's proof from Prov.. Matt. A sb^ge The double picture great privileges of the true church of Christ similitudes illustrating the true < Two -N .. the Impartial Reader . 1 ' The commission. least of all to the civil magistrate .. be only eligible into magistracy 353 divided in thirty parts. . 342 343 others 344 xxviii. twenty-five never heard of The world being Christ Lawful civil states where churches of Christ are not .. than under the heathen magistrate >^ •< CivU magistrates. 367 .

PAGE. Cotton extenuates national churches Mr.. Ainsworth's poverty Four sorts of backsliders from separation Mr. peace and magistracy blessed ordinances of civil state distinct Ci\il God . unjust oppression wheresoever . Mr. out against due 423 424 424 426 God's controversy for persecution The puritans and separatists compared . and yet holds fellowship with The Jewish national church not to be separated from . Cotton against a national church.. Cotton confessing the true and institutions false constitution of the 401 Difference between God's institutions to the Jews and anti-christian • 403 406 Coming forth of Babel not local fathers idols The polygamy of the 410 Every true church separate from The substance of true repentance in all God's children The first Christians the best pattern for Christians now . 384 The mercies of a The state from those of a spiritual state 385 3^'' Affliction for Christ sweet of godly persons in gross sins 393 ^^^ God's mystical Israel must come forth of Babel before they build the temple ... . .. 411 412 413 415 417 ... Mr." .. . Cotton guilty of cruelty in persecuting. . Robinson's Liberty of Hearing Preachers and pastors far different 428 429 430 432 433 436 436 438] The fellowship of the word taught in a church estate False callings or commissions for the ministry The Nonconformists' grounds Persecution is enforce separation in Mr... Cotton's practice of separation New England .... .. . . it . Canne's Answer to Mr... . yet severity in the church 420 cries . Mr. Mr. . New England refuses church fellowship with godly ministers of Old England Christ considered personally and in his people 396 398 church . ......xlvi TABLE OF CONTENTS..

THE BLOVDY TENENT of Persecution. . present to the Court of Parliament. PEACE. their Discourse) these. High (as the result of tender AflFection. (amongst other Passages) of highest consideration. mnnnttumm London Printed in the Year 1644. Conscience. in A Conference hetweene TRVTH In all and Who. for caufe of difcuffed.


in their respective constitutions and administrations. are proved essentially civil. New English churches. Satisfactory answers are given to scriptures and objections produced by Mr. Fifthly. or Christian. Calvin. with their officers of justice. Secondly. state and worship. govern- ors. is not required nor accepted by Jesus Christ the Prince of Peace. Thirdly. or defenders of the spiritual. Fourthly. for their respective consciences. B . Mr. Beza. That the blood of so many hundred thousand spilt souls of protestants and papists. is The doctrine of persecution all for cause of proved guUty of the blood of the souls crying for vengeance under the altar. and others tending to prove the doctrine of persecu- tion for cause of conscience. Cotton.First. in the wars of present and former ages. and the ministers of the former and later. and therefore not judges. Pregnant scriptures and arguments are throughout the work proposed against the doctrine of persecution for cause of conscience. All civil states. conscience.

we must necessarily disclaim our desires and hopes of the Jews' conversion to Christ. sooner or later. a permission of the most Paganish. Ninthly. in peace and war. ravishing of conscience. Tenthly. being taken. denies the principles of Christianity and civility. the conquer: to wit. true civility and Christianity may both flourish in a state or kingdom. come in the flesh. Turkish. according to the wisdom of the from all sorts. God requireth not an uniformity of religion civil state. An enforced uniformity of religion throughout a nation or civil state. either of Jew or Gentile. since the coming of his Son the Lord Jesus. and no pattern nor precedent for any kingdom or Eighthly. The state of the land of Israel. and of the hypocrisy and destruction of millions of souls. It is the will and command of God that. or anti-christian consciences and worships be granted to all men in all nations and countries: and they are only to be fought against with that sword whicb is only. according to God.Sixthly. Seventhly. Twelfthly. to civil state in the world to follow. . persecution of Christ Jesus in his servants. In holding an enforced uniformity of religion in a civil state. in soul matters. and that Jesus Christ is Eleventhly. proved figurative and ceremonial. the kings is and people thereof. the greatest occasion of civil war. procure a firm and lasting peace for uniformity of civil obedience . only can. confounds the civil and religious. able to Spirit. Jewish. Lastly. notwithstanding the permission of divers and contrary consciences. The permission of other consciences and worships than a state professeth. be enacted and enforced in any is which en- forced uniformity. the sword of God's word of God. good assurance civil state.

to the saving of your own souls in the lamentable is shipwreck of mankind. your Honours shall see the controversy is discussed with men as able as most. beyond what First. Two things your honours here may please to view. concerns your duties as magistrates towards others. When the prophets in scripture have given their coats of arms and escutcheons to great men. Cotton. is extant. that. of others. yet. Although in respect of myself it be impar cmgressus. Many fathers' excellent discourses have been presented to your hands and yours. in the power of that God who is Maximus in Minimis. Next Right honoueable and renowned Patriots. your Honours know the Babylonian monarch hath the lion. and the New English ministers. in former and present parliaI shall be humbly bold to say. your task as Christians to save the souls.TO THE EIGHT HONOURABLE HOUSES OF THE HIGH COURT OF PARLIAMENT. in what ments. the Persian B 2 . in this controversy of persecution for cause of conscience. of this controversy formed and pitched in true Secondly. eminent for ability and piety — Mr. a more necessary and seasonable debate was never yet presented. The whole body battalia. but as magistrates the bodies and goods.

though reprieved.the bear. soul yoke. have not pierced the heavens. soul oppressions. it hath pleased the Most High God to set a guard. which yet who knows how far they will and when they wiU out Your Honours have broke the jaws of the oppressor. murdering. &c. of the former three. it Yet let not be grievous to your Honours' thoughts to ponder little. a why all the prayers. This glass presents your Honours with arguments from religion. are of a crimson and deepest dye. liberties.r parhaments changed these yokes It according to their consciences. but of mighty city. iv. and the I fear that we are not pardoned. ravishing. the people's and your own. and the . Oh! there may be a lengthening of London's tranquillity. by \_shewing] mercy poor Dan. justice. plundering. Their oppressing. reason. but the souls of men. Dan. and as [is] : your task for that is so I your resolution—not to change but to turn the wheel. now your Honour's turn hope [is] at hehn. not only the bodies. in the vindicating your civil laws. I believe. are of a spiritual AU is forme. For which act.. &c. and fastings. plunderings. your sitting. mercy. which another parliament. have yokes yet lying upon English necks. courage. not only of trained angels. spread. the Roman a compound vii. in this nation. and taken the prey out of his teeth. the Grecian the leopard. Your Honours tave been famous to the end of the world for your unparalleled wisdom. popish or protestant. to the of the parliament's safety. and tears. and I believe the chief of England's vials of sins —unstopping the England's present sorrows. most strange and dreadful. ravishings. 17. and quenched these flames. are large explaining commentaries of such similitudes. [27. to secure men.] Eight Honourable. Job xxix. experience : aU proving that the greatest and foul nature.

let to the it not be imputed as a crime for any suppliant if. but to ease the subjects and yourselves from a yoke (as was once spoke in a case not you nor yoiir fathers were ever able to bear. men's consciences ought in no sort to be violated. millions ravished. a later times. together with they and you must two worlds of men. that according to the verity of holy scripture.. [10]) which neither &c. by the acts cerning souls not yet repealed — and statutes con- of bodies impoverished. whether openly or by secret means. Acts xv.] .. may turn again . God of heaven for you. the humble sense of what their souls believe. slaughtered on heaps for religious controversies. appear at the : great bar.' It cannot be denied to be a pious and prudential act for your Honours. according to your conscience. and the souls of others. unlike. they pour forth. &c. p. call for the advice of faithful counsellors in the high debates con- Yet. these three requests at the throne of grace ^ [See Tracts on Liberty of Conscience and Persecution." &c. or constrained. in the wars of present and former ages. whose seats you fill. their tongues. wherein The famous saying of a sundry opinions have been hatched about the subject of '^'« "?« »' man may clearly discern with his eye. amongst others. " Notwithstanding the success of religion. urged. thousands op- pressed.. &c. the issue hath been pernicious. imprisoned.very next. and mouldering their brains. for their souls' belief: yea. and as it were touch vnth his finger. 1846. have attempted any thing by And whensoever men this violent course. to ashes in the pit of rottenness shortly. . 217. Hanserd Knollys Society. to cerning your own. and the cause of great and wonderful innovations in the principallest and mightiest kingdoms and countries. Most noble senators your fathers. It shall then be no grief of heart that you have now attended to the cries of souls. are mouldered.

nor those excellent and worthy persons whose advice you seek. should Antinomians. are guided therein by some private interests of [That] whatever their own. rem sua in- De Unitate Ecolesiae. yet thus he confesseth). it may never be told at Rome nor Oxford. Secondly. That the present and future generations of the sons of men may never have cause to say that such a parliament.^ ' Essay of Religion. and invisible God. debates. though of the yet saith the highest concernment under the sun. yet. rejecting or neglecting the tions of any. for their conscience. should model the worship of the after living.] . Europe and the world. putare. Fami- &(i.That neither your Honours. Independents. Buadent. sub illo dogmate. And learned Sir Francis Bacon^ (however otherwise persuaded. iisque [Eos qui vim inferri ' It is rarely seen that ever persons were persecuted." Thirdly. that the parliar if ment of England hath committed a greater rape than they had forced or ravished the bodies of aU the women the world. as England never enjoyed the like. conacientias premi. so famous throughout at last turn papists. limit the Holy First.. " Such as hold pressure of conscience. eternal. but by such persecution they were confirmed and hardened in their conscience. Socinians. cupiditates suas subtexere. with which sometimes Christ Jesus opens the eyes of them that are born blind. the bias of any earthly interest. Presbyterians. in And all that England'^ parliament. illamque teresse. consciences by civil force by confirming and violence to all these sorts of their consciences. prelatists. way of worshipping in. lists. conclusions. humble and faithful sugges- though as base as spittle and clay. God from your own consciences are persuaded to walk any bloody act of violence to the consciences of others. One of Israel to their apprehensions.

. Two of aU mountains of crying guilt that lie heavy upon the backs men name the name of Christ. by major vote attain the sword of what weapons doth Christ Jesus authorize them in his cause? to fight with Do not all men hate the persecutor. I judge it not unfit to give alarm to myself.? or false. While I plead the cause of truth and innocency against the bloody doctrine of persecution for cause of conscience. in the eyes of Jews. Whether thou talents^ if two thou huntest any for cause of conscience. and the question were proposed. and most unchristian conversations.TO EVERY COURTEOUS READER. complain of cruelty. what religion would they approve of — ^the papists. &c. prelatists. First. and to [all] men. were present here at London. Inde- pendents. if Jesus Christ. Of mine. Of mine ? if But put sorts should the second question: one of the several steely. and every conscience. superstitions. who so abhorred that practice ? If Paxil. true tyranny. to prepare to be persecuted or hunted standest charged with ten or but for cause of conscience. would each say. Turks. The blasphemies of their idolatrous inventions. &c. and Pagans. canst thou say thou foUowest the Lamb of how God. Presbyterians. .

He that believeth shall not be damned^ Mark xvi. and am6ngst many the great contentions amongst the very best of pro- testants. I hope we shall agree in these particulars.Secondly. animam meam. I say not amongst the wolves and lions. Who so can now but expect that after so many scores of years preaching and professing of more truth. v. 16. Six years preaching of so much truth of Christ as that time afforded in K. till that this discourse against the doctrine of persecution for cause of conscience should pass ciirrent. Yet. Mary's bloody persecutions. Edward's days. and inhuman oppresveil of the and destructions under the mask or name of Christ. However the proud (upon the advantage of a higher earth or ground) overlook the poor. &c. ministration. although to smite at sleeping on the bed either of the pleasures or profits of sin. shall blasphemers and seducers escape unpunished? Yet there is a sorer punishment in the gospel for despising of Christ than Moses. the consuming fire. now fires kindling ? I confess I have little hopes. First. heretics. to end these present slaughters of the holy witnesses ! in a greater slaughter Rev. sions The bloody. but even amongst the sheep of Christ themselves. a fiery furnace should be heat. . liberavi not hid within my breast my soul's belief. Sec. even when the despiser of Moses was put to death without mercy. and cry out schismatics. 28. Whatever worship. and who sees not those flames are over. Oh how I likely is the jealous Jehovah. ministry. Secondly. Heb. irreligious. X. 29. thinkest thou thy conscience bound him that dares to civil waken thee ? Yet in the midst of all these and spiritual wars. I have And. kindles the flames of Q.

ministries. Be ye not of men.]. vii. are practised: without faith and trbe persuasion that they are the true institutions of God. from the love of the Son of God. the fleabitings of the present dear. 1 [23]. Fourthly. that I might bear witness the truth. no. faith Without search and 1 no man attains this all things. least the bitter sweetening of a little vanishing pleasure: —For a puff of credit and reputation from the changeable breath of uncertain sons of men for a : for the broken bags of riches on eagles' wiags : dream of these— any or all of these. this who : is the this way and end was the truth. [21. 1 Thes. they are ever in sin. not let go for &c. though our of all for own most little precious . and the simplest shoTild man or woman to search the scriptures. [21]. we must fast. trial Thirdly. v. as if they lived in Spain or Rome hold iii. which on our death-bed vanish Oh! how and leave tormenting stings behind them. if yet against their souls persuasion from the scripture. Having all tried. Thes. sinful worships. Having bought truth it we must not sell it cheap. not for the saving of souls. 37 For I born. is it from the love of truth. they be forced. to believe as the church believes. v.the best and purest. yet in divine and spiritual things the poorest peasant disdain the the servants service of the highest prince* Cor. not the least grain of for the whole world. &cj And howmust civil things we may be servants unto men. . from the love of much better the Father of lights from whence it comes. itself without the sight of a bible. and for to end came I into the world. to say John xviii. Try In vain have English parliaments permitted English bibles in the poorest English houses. we must afflictions. Eev. and right persuasion. as he. upon the loss of a crown. [11] .

: Whether persecution for cause of conscience be not against the doctrine of Jesus Christ. AGAINST PERSECUTION IN CAUSE OF CONSCIENCE. pp. and are offended with for teaching true religion) should be let alone." it is humbly desired to be instructed in this point. which some understand are those that walk in the truth. 1. the these. Because Christ commandeth. 54. 2. &c. 38. OOTTON.hat the tares and wheat. 55. led on in false religion. 214 — 224. The scriptures and reasons ure 1.* King of kings. Matt. The same commandeth.] . xiii. WRITTEN LONG SINCE BY A WITNESS OF JESUS CHRIST. and those that walk in lies. referring their punishment unto their falling into the ditch. BY A FRIEND. 3. him xv. Again. viz. and not plucked up until the harvest. which is the end of the world.SCEIPTUEES AND EEASONS. CLOSE PRISONER IN NEWaATE. WHO THUS WROTE : " In the multitude of counsellours there therefore is safety . Luke ix. 14. that they that are blind (as some interpret. AND SENT SOME WHILE SINCE TO MR. he reproved his disciples * [See Tracts on Liberty of Conscience. Matt. should be let alone in the world. 30.

xi. 3. they that are now blasphemers and persecutors. teacheth. proving if at any time will give them repentance. who now are who are now tares. that they God ac- may knowledge the truth. 4 . and come to amendment out of that snare of the 5. 9. the same he taught and his disciples after him. the holy prophets foretold. may blind. may hereafter see. They shall break their swords into mattocks. instructing them with meekness that are contrary minded. iv. But he chargeth far should be so their from persecuting those that would not be of religion. because they hereafter become wheat. as Paul was. Paid. in these words " Yis know not of what Spirit ye are . And when he came. 44 when they were cursed. According to these blessed commandments. they . for practised. v. them. may in time become faithful as And the reason seems to be. may hereafter receive him. may hereafter come to repentance. Isa. that his disciples 2 Cor. Matt. Then shall none hurt nor destroy in all the mountain of my holiness. suffering the evil men." 4. the So did weapons of his warfare are net carnal (saith the apostle). straitly. that when the law of Moses concerniag worship should cease. that when they were persecuted they pray. should should bless. and &c. they . the apostle of our Lord. devil. And Isa. 2 Tim. as before. their spears into scythes. the Son of man is not come to destroy metis lives. 4. Mic. &c. they that are now in the devil's snare. but to save .11 who would have had fire come down from heaven and devour those Samaritans who would not receive Him. but must he men. they that now resist him. 4. &c. ii. X. 24j that the servant of the gentle toward all Lord must not strive. ii. and Christ's kingdom be established. in adverseness to the truth.

vi. this persecution for cause of conscience is against the profession and practice of famous princes. AH II. l^Cor. his church by violence and bloodshed. as the Corinthians once hereafter become true worshippers Pet. and after in 1603. the archpriest. p. xx. as the saints sometimes were. xx. 60. 10. and obtain mercy. nor under 1 ii. speaking of Blackwell. as till Some come not those that the eleventh hoUr. saith. thus " I gave good proof that I Intended no persecution against them for conscience' cause. they that are were. may become the people of God." And in his highness' exposition on Kev." And in his highness' Apology. speaking of such papists that took the oath. that God never loves to plant. 4. for cause of conscience.his " It was never my intention to lay any thing to the said archpriest's charge. Matt. the the faithful are them that are sought: . which promises are in Because all humility referred to your godly wise consideration. " It is a sure rule in divinity. as I have never done to any.12 he. thus and the besieging of the beloved city. which for conscience' cause they are bound to perform. for they come to seek faithful. declareth unto us a certain note of a false church to be persecution.. 9." And. his " Sixthly. printed 1588. the compassing of the majesty writeth saints. hereafter they. now may idolaters. then should they never come. 1609. they that are now no people of God. but only desired to be secured for civil obedience. because they come not at the first. 6 : if come not tiU the last hour should be destroyed. in his majesty's speech in parliament. as they . mercy. He saith. First. you may please to consider the speech of Eang James. but be prevented. majesty p.

and other places. a commander of bodies. have attempted any thing by this violent course. . that men's consciences ought in no sort to be urged." Thirdly.13 the wicked are the besiegers. whether openly or by secret means. or constrained. any person whosoever for matter of religion that profess themselves to no. . where is persecution for cause of conscience. or molest. we are firmly resolved not to . the faithful are the besieged. it is not practised amongst the heathen. not of consciences . the king of Bohemia hath thus written : "And. Icing of Poland : "T am a king of men. them in the exercise of their so they live conformable to the laws of the states. principallest and the cause of great and wonderful innovations in the and mightiest kingdoms and countries of all Christendom. the saying of Stephen. the success of the. or suffer to be persecuted or molested. not of souls. and others. that according to the verity of holy scriptures. Persian. And for the practice of this. Nay." And this further. that acknowledge not the true God." &c. as the Turk.later times. the issue hath been pernicious. his majesty saith : " So that once more we that from do profess. as appeareth by France. and a heretofore told and maintained maxim by the ancient doctors of and whensoever men the church violated. notwithstanding. neither to trouble or disturb religion. Poland. wherein sundry opinions have been hatched about the subject of religion. may make one clearly discern with his eye." Secondly. and (as it were) to touch with his finger. before time forward God and the whole world. persecute. except in England and where popery reigns? and there neither in all places. not they be of the Romish church.

to sigh at the foolish opinion of this in that think by human aid to help God. Reaa. Thirdly. yea. and give the same countenance. city. alas! human help must assist and protect the faith. And la- mentable it is to see the great folly of these times. and \?^orld. and converted the heathen from their idolatry to God? When they were in prisons. and lay in chains. To and by vain and worldly honours do men seek to defend the church of Christ. because persecution for cause of conscience is condemned by ancient and papists themselves. as if he by his power were unable to perform it. what help used the apostles in the publishing of the gospel? With the aid of what power did they preach Christ. But now." The same. graces. doth now terrify others by imprisonment. Vespasian? their The apostles wrought with their hands for own maintenance. did they praise and give thanks to God for any dignities. against the Arians " The church now. and favours received from the court ? Or do you think that Paul went about with regal man- dates. from town to preach Christ." TertuU. later writers. I ask of you bishops. the more they were forbidden. but is persecuted. to gather and establish the church of Christ? Sought he protection from Nero. which formerly by enduring misery and imprisonment. when as the true church cannot but be hated of the same. ad Scapulam: "It agreeth both with human . saith thus : " The Christian church doth not persecute. and with worldly men pomp and power to undertake to defend the Christian church. was known to. be a true church. yea. the more they taught and preached Christ. and the Hilary against Auxentius. and boasteth that she is highly esteemed of the world . to travelling by land and water.14 3. or kingly authority. banishment. and misery.

iii. civil magistrate. he saith upon catholic church Luke xxii. " It not the true not compelled and constrained by laws and statutes. for willingly. God wiU not suffer any man Wherefore. and believe what he will religion . all let us strike through with the arrows of the Spirit ciples of misled heretics. for another man's neither beseemeth and belief neither hurteth nor profiteth any one it any religion to compel another to be of their religion. that is." Brentius upon 1 Cor. sons and dis- with testimonies of holy is scriptures. whereby to bind their consciences. "Heresy must off be cut with the sword of the Spirit. must those that come.15 reason. freely. and not by constraint : forasmuch as the offerings were required of those that freely and with good will offered. and natural equity." Again." &c. is which is defended by the secular arm or human power. body or goods. in his book of the laws of the civil "The magistrate's government extend no further than over the external : for over the soul to rale. and to that which is. with a or give laws to Christians. 4. " In the building of the temple there was no sound of iron heard. only he himself wiU rule there. rejady desire and cheerful mind." Luther. The slaughter of heretics by the word of God. in Jeremiam. but the false and feigned church. upon 1 Kings vi. which . saith: run unto Christ. lib. " No man hath power to make and uncompelled. Therefore. and not from the contrary. that every man worship God uncompelled." Jerome in Proem. whosoever doth imdertake to give laws unto the souls and consciences of men. to signify that Christ wUl have in his church a free and a willing people. which willingly and freely should be embraced. he usurpeth that government himself which appertaineth unto God.

post. 'Behold. the papists. You. there- fore herein I it. spoil. show thereby that they are not Christian preachers. shall . look you to : your civil or worldly government. For if that any should usurp authority where you cannot bear you have to command. Epiphan. 17. : Aind upon Psalm " For the true church of Christ knoweth not bracJiium seculare. yet he saith it denies the power thereof. the means which Almighty God appointed his officers to use in the conversion of kingdoms.'' Dom. imprison. in Postil. 1. he saith: "If the civil magis- command me to believe thus and thus. you up you . but worldly beadles. in a wicked book of thus: theirs. He doth not say. ver. X. nations. the inventors of persecution. use. he saith: . "Let not Christians be commanded. set forth in King James's reign. he is no Christian : whereof they that do compel those that are not willing. 16. ing. into councils. whom I send. and devour those unto whom they were sent. and and people." Again. upon trate shall 1 Pet. how do you think that God should suffer you to thrust him from his seat. which the bishops now-a-days chiefly Again. iii. and to seat yourself therein ?" Lastly. but exhorted for he that willingly will not do that whereunto he is friendly exhorted. may not hear you. " Moreover. he saith will deliver : Tltey to whom I send you. your power extends not so far as to command any thing in God's kingdom . to kiU. I send you as wolves among sheep. Matt. charity: sayBehold. was humility. He did not say.16 although it carries the name of a church. or sir.' " Again. patience. I send you as sheep in the midst of wolves. I should answer him after this manner Lord." xvii. and in their synagogues they to will scourge and to presidents and ' kings shall you be led for my sake.

Peace be unto this house. gion. yet xiii. John x. where Israel was under the Exod. xxxi. saying.' saith. The good pastor not but to giveth his kill. 7. Gen. 13. 'The thief giveth his life his sheep. 23. ought to convertj unto ' and put them in and lead them to Pre- and tribunal and make their religion felony and treason. Isaac also dwelt in the same land. the people. 24. shall He doth not say. and the good pastor cometh not but to and destroy. Abraham abode among : the Canaanites a long time. And God and first. xxxvi. aU which time they differed in religion from those States. "Again he salute it. saith. his uncle Jacob lived twenty years in one house with Laban.17 deliver councils. C . yet differed in religion. as or will be manifest in such men's lives conversations. xxvi. and for steal. xii. 32: When ye enter' into an house. our adversaries themselves speak for us. He doth not say. 'You send pursuivants to ransack or spoil the house. and king Abimelech gave him leave to abide in his land. Come to the time of Christ. the thief comcth steal. Gen. Gen. and 2 Chron. seats. whom you prisons. TO ANSWER SOME MAIN OBJECTIONS. ver. yet contrary in reli- contrary to them in religion. Again he sojourned in Gerar. and xvi. and afterwards seventy years in infamous The people Babylon. Gen. that it is no prejudice to the commonwealth if liberty of conscience were suffered to such as do fear is indeed. sidents. life his sheep. xx. kill.' So that we holding our peace. or rather for the truth.' "Again he for destroy. of Israel were about 430 years in that land of Egypt. 21.

common which religion of All which differed is like from the common religion of the worshipped. 20. Scribes lived divers sects of religions. And when the enemies of the truth raised up any tumults. and his apostles. 35. state. and xix. giving unto was And left for their religion and consciences towards God he them to themselves. 14. the worship of Diana. Christ. Theudasans and Samaritans. Acts xviii. Acts xix. beside the the Jews. being nothing hurtful unto Caesar that which the his. Sadducees and Libertines. . as He- and Pharisees.18 Romans. which almost the whole world then All these lived under the government of Csesar. the wisdom of the magistrate most wisely ap- peased them. where rodians. commonwealth. as having no dominion over their souls and consciences.

. I conceive you mean. In like sort. if corrupt. some concern the what God we worship. TO THE AFOREBAIP ARGUMENTS AGAINST PERSECUTION FOR CAUBE OF CONSCIENCE. in points of practice. either for professing some point of doctrine which you believe in conscience to be the truth. IN NEW BNOLANO. by persecution for cause of conscience. as. withcannot be saved . or for practising some work which in conscience you beKeve to be a religious duty. c 2 . weightier duties of the law. wherein men may in judgment without prejudice of salvation on either part. OP BOSTON. out right belief whereof a man others are differ circumstantial. or less principal. if it and with what kind of worship right. fellowship with him is lost. Now in points of doctrine some are fundamental. whether persecution be not against the doctrine of Jesus Christ. in points of doctrine and worship either they are held forth in a less principal. as. JOHN COTTON. meek and peaceable way. PROPEB6BDLV MAINTATNTNO PERSECUTION FOR CAUSE OF CONSCIENCE. fellowship whether such be with God is held . Again. The question which you put for cause of conscience is. the King of kings ? Now.THE ANSWER OF MR.

persecute any. And is then. but against his conscience. but tolerated. or for erroneous and blind conscience. as the apostle saith. but for sinning against his 3. till after admonition once or twice iii. iii. (even in fundamental and weighty points) it is not lawful to . In things of lesser doctrine or worship. though with zeal and constancy. and be therefore punished. Thirdly. for an erroneous and blind conscience. that is. So that if such a man. it either for conscience rightly informed. Acts Secondly. after such admonition. 1- . itself) to the disturbance Finally. shall stiU persist in the error of his way. 11. First. till God 17. as : tendeth and r^acheth (even of of civil peace. and so the apostle directeth. being condemned of himself. Tit. ver. he is not persecuted for cause of conscience. that in fundamental and principal points of doctrine or worship. These things premised. it not out of conscience. pleased to manifest his truth to him. Phil. whether points of man hold them forth in a spirit of Christian meekness and love. that he cannot but be convinced in conscience of the dangerous error of his way after once or twice admonition. himself is for in persecuting ix. such. of his own conscience. may be Eom. Christ persecuted in them. let me add this one distinction more is : when we are persecuted for conscience' sake. own conscience. he is not to be persecuted. the word of God in such things is so clear. 10. sinneth. if a moment. it is not lawful to persecute any for conscience' sake rightly informed.20 though the things be erroneous or unlawful or they are held forth with such arrogance and impetuousness. xiv. 4. if any one and persist. wisely and is faithfully dispensed. and giveth the reason. I would lay down mine answer to the question in certain conclusions. He subverted.

any error or false spirit. Answ.21 But If a man hold forth. 1. xv. yet do not you fear their nor be . over whom they had no power. Christ commandeth fall his dis- ciples to let the blind alone tiU they into the ditch till therefore he would have their punishment deferred their final destruction. or profess. alone. Now Your ture. and so the persons in rooted out but good will be men may be taken with whom they grow cannot be rooted up with them. way. but yet such as come very near the truth (as tares do to the wheat). Answ. first head of objections is taken from the scrip- Object. Object. concerning the Pharisees. Matt. In Matt. he may justly be punished according to the quality and measure of the disturbance caused by him. Tares are not briars and thorns. like unto the godly. 2. but are not wheat . that good them . He there speaketh not to public ofiScers. to 4. saying of mine. Because Christ commandeth to to let alone the tares xiii. or regarding the offence which they took at the wholesome doctrine of the gospel. let us consider of your reasons or objections to the contrary. but indeed carnal. And in such a case Christ caUeth for toleration. Though they be offended at this feai'. not for penal prosecution. grow together unto the harvest. or partly such corrupt doctrines or practices as are indeed unsound. with a boisterous and arrogant ance of ciTil the disturb- peace. and so near. 38. whether in church or common-weal. according to the third conclusion. and wheat 30. As who should say. but partly hypocrites. is spoken And the command he giveth to let them in regard of troubling themselves. as the tares are like to wheat. but to his private disciples. 14.

x. And the 4.. or if they had. not against conscience. Object. as an evangelist. yet did hitherto sin of ignorance. when they become scandalous offenders either in life or doctrine. 5. and xi. who foretold that carnal the gospel. fire such as the Samaritans were. From ii. as either had not yet entered into church-fellowship. by and brimstone . but either with without. seek to convert : or at best with some Jews or true. with all such contrary-minded men. when they are persecuted themselves they . or private conference. but out of their. 55. The weapons of our warfare are not carnal. And Paul teacheth Timothy. 4. spirit And it is it became not the of the gospel to convert aliens to the faith of Christ. Object. 4. to In Luke ix. but to be gentle towards all men. which they take at my doctrine. yet were not convinced of the error of their way. Isa. as the Samaritans were. not out of sound judgment. 54. Both these are gospel. iv. not with obstinate offenders in the church that sin against conscience. suffering evil patiently.22 troubled at their offence. 3. who. and Christians in Crete. Answ. 3. 9 . But this maketh nothing to the cause in hand. who refused to receive Him. 4.blindness. But neither of both these texts do hinder the ministers of the gospel to proceed in a church-way against chixrch- members. chargeth them. much less do they speak at all to civil magistrates. not to strive. nor to deal harshly in public ministry. Christ reproveth his diswho would have had fire come down from heaven consume the Samaritans. ciples. And Christ is so far from persecuting those that would not be of his religion. the prediction of the prophets. men many unconverted was to Grentiles in whom Titus. weapons should cease in the days of Mio. the church. though carnal. that he apostle professeth. 2 Cor. Object. directions to ministers of the how to deal.

. as though they be yet are ready to take vengeance of X. Secondly. not cruel oppressors. 6 . yea.23 should pray. Again. And when Paul justice to saith. to Christ the censure of the church against scandalous offenders. Those predictions in the prophets do only show. but to private Christians to suffer persecution patiently. but by the power of his word and the Spirit. xiii. nor malignant opposers. which no man doubteth of. TTie weapons of our warfare are not carnal but spiritual. Rom. which hath reference. &c. with what kind of weapons he will subdue the nations to the obedience of the faith of the gospel. but that hindereth not but . amongst other ordinances. and when they are cursed they should bless. 2 Cor. a sinful oppression of men. But [they] do not forbid them to drive ravenous wolves from the sheepfold._ it far is true Christ would have his disciples to be is from persecuting. and to pray for their persecutors. 2. Those predictions of the prophets show what meek and peaceable temper will be of all the true converts to Christianity. The reason whereof seemeth to be. to suffer notorious sinners. all disobedience. nor biters of one another. for that for righteousness' sake . but only to church officers. ciples may become true dis- and converts. and weapons of war. whether in church or them and persecute them.. not lions or leopards. not by fire and sword. acknowledgeth to be such. he giveth not therein a commonlife weal. Answ. rule to public officers. And yet the weapons of such officers he spiritual. he denieth not civil weapons of the civil magistrate. i- first. away with a blessing . that they who are now persecutors and wicked persons. either in to pass or doctrine. When that curse commandeth his disciples to bless them 3. and to restrain them from devouring the sheep of Christ.

we acknowledge is be punished for hath been said. is we willingly acknowledge that none all. not a rule of conscience. Furthermore. acknowledge. . may briefly be returned. what princes profess or practise. but for sinning against his conscience. Your second head fession of reasons is taken from the pro- and practice of famous princes. Stea treble answer phen of Poland. none is to be till con- strained to believe or profess the true religion he be convinced in judgment of the truth of strained he it . to tolerate notorious evil doers. Christ had Pergamos for tolerating them that held the doctrine of Balaam. whether seducing something or scandalous livers. X. which cannot justly be tolerated in point of true Christianity. 20. and against the church of Thyatira for tolerating Jezebel to teach and against the angel of the church of seduce. but yet re- may [be] from blaspheming the truth. 6 Rom. yet we thereof. 4. xiii. his conscience. Again. and errors. Rev. to be persecuted at no more than they may be oppressed that none to as for righteousness' sake. science. is from seducing any unto pernicious 2 We answer. though misinformed. ii. evil it may not do evil that good may come would be teachers. 14. Though it be true . Whereunto First. They many times tolerate that in point of state policy. king of Bohemia. king James. unless his error be fundamental. or seditiously and turbulently promoted. that it and that after due conviction of is his con- may we appear he not punished for his conscience. that wicked persons trvie disciples now may by Ajid the grace of God become and converts.24 that he would have them execute upon all disobedience the judgment and vengeance required in the wordj 2 Cor.

them his to punish . though he was slow in proceeding against papists. when the offenders are either too many. Tom. by ting all weeds to grow. Ed. one of your own witnesses. was designed to inspire his subjects legite quam contra vos jusserit. 1552. Hunc" 19.] . Hist. S. tiims contra 156. justissimas sicut vos. at the request of the General Council of Nice. We answer further. Constantino the Great.20. as Augustine reporteth. prior [Tunc Constanpartem Donati tulerunt. 1. edit. Queen Elizabeth. Gratian. that for those three princes named by you. we can name you more and greater who have not tolerated heretics and schismatics. ejus talia prsecepenint.25 Again. Eceles. Liv.. ii. 317. well known what laws she made and executed against papists. who tolerated religion. banished Arius. Yea. or too mighty for tolerated 3. sed pro catholica veritate passiones gloriosissimas per- In Epist. filii you imitati Sozom.] " p. with some of his fellows. Venetiis. notwithstanding their pretence of conscience. Eccles. 8vo. Aug. chap. and arrogating the crown of martyrdom to their sufferings." Gratianus et Theodosius tiani —Veri Chriserrore poenas non pro heretico Gibbon. Decline and Fall. Inde with the hatred which he had conceived against the enemies of Christ. Quibus 23. 166. [Fleury. and Donati permisit the angry. and king James. " The impious Arius was ba- succedens -Julianus deserto Christi et inimicMis. fol. as * you say. princes many times tolerate oiFenders out of very necessity.. Hist. that he might. t.. xi. choke the also the practice vitals of Christianity which was and sin of Valens the Arian. in which respect David Joab and murders : but against his will. lib. as famous for her government as any it is of the former. supplicantiBus vestris nished into one of tlie remote provinces Roga- of Illyricum. Ojjera. for conscience' sake. The emperor had now tiano et Pontio libertatem perditioni partis sit imbibed the spirit of controversy.* The same Constantine made a Donatists. sarcastic style of his edicts Jovianus —Deinde — Huic succes- Valentinianus.. yet severissimam legem. severe law against the And the like proceedings against them were used by Valentinian.s Only Julian the Apostate granted liberty tolera- to heretics as well as to pagans. and Theodosius.

this hindereth not Nevertheless. speaketh to the purpose in the place alleged by you. even who have condemned persecution You begin with Hilary. But that to excommunicate an heretic. later writers. His intent is only to restrain Scapula.26 are not ignorant how sharply and severely he punished those whom the malignant world calleth Puritans. is. damnable person. and they ought to be severely punished. blaspheme the true God. or not to believe at Which we acknowledge. if they seduce idolatry. yea. but is true. less do they de- from the truth to damnable heresy or Your next same writer. but if they or any others shotdd his true religion. for conscience' sake. whereof hath true also what he saith. Nevertheless. men of more conscience and better faith than he tolerated. and will accordingly permit the Indians to continue in their unbelief. but a culpable and for conscience. I come now to your third and last argument. they are not to be compelled by the sword. for the Christian church doth not persecute. whose testimony we might it is admit without any prejudice to the truth . the Roman governor of Africa. and no serve. It did. but to permit them either to believe willingly. it is not to punish an innocent. but if pagans cannot be won by the word. is but for perit sisting in error against light of conscience. taken from the judgment of ancient and of papists themselves. propagate [the] Christian religion by the sword. not to compel any to any religion. to their gods : for not offering sacrifice and for that end fetcheth an argument from the law of natural equity. it not therefore be lawful . which is Tertullian. from the persecution of Christians. that neither the apostles nor may we. is not to persecute. all. and that not been convinced. persecuted.

1609. will be the as appeareth ii. ' [Igitur et scintilla statim ut ap- pecora ardeat. for we grant what he saith. totum orbem ejus flamma ed animal a caulis ovium repellendum. or by such as have given their names ruin and desolation of the church. that heresy must be cut off with the sword of the Spirit. ing. to Christ. be set on the spark. be soured with the leaven. et scabiosum pressa est. crosseth not the truth. putrescat. extinguenda est. cause. Brentius. or the When Tertullian saith. body. " a spark."' \. comimpatur." must be understood of : vate worship. et fermen- Arius in Alexandria una sed quia non statim op- turn a massse vicinia se movendum. Hierom.upon that of the apostle. mass of dough." is saith he. But if but that being so cut down. . " therefore. be putrified with the rotten flesh. and rehglon professed in private otherwise a false religion professed by the members of a church. Parisiis. as soon as appeareth. intereant. perish by the scabbed beast. "Another man's it religion neither pri- hurteth nor profiteth any. ofi^ and the leaven to be removed from the rotten pieces of flesh are to be cut and a scabbed with beast is to be driven from the sheepfold. or idols. to be extinguished. S. in his heresy to the the heretic others. Hieronymi Opera. scintilla fuit. whom you next quote. this hindereth not. by the threats of Christ to the churches of Asia. paruerit. that man hath But this no power to make laws to bind conscience. iii. devils. 927. still persist seduction of he may be by cut off by the civil sword to prevent the perdition of others. Rev. et Tom. corpus. appeareth little And that to be Hierom's mean- his note . p. populata est. secandse putridae cames. speaketh not to your We willingly grant him and you. Your next author.27 openly to tolerate the worship of seduction of any from the truth. and flock. A leaven leaveneth the whole it lump . ] ne tota domus. rest of the dough. massa. lest the whole fire house. nor advantageth your cause .

well known Augustine retracted this opinion of yours. that the government of the magistrate extendeth no further than over the bodies and goods of their subjects. whereby compelled. trary: as both their writings testified to the world these many To It is shut up this argument from testimony of writers. his - Retractations. we weigh it not.28 hindereth not. when they sit at stern. which in his younger times he had held. that the church of Christ doth not use the arm of secular power to compel men to to the faith or pro- fession of the truth. chap. not But this hindereth not that Christians sinning against light of faith and conscience. as knowing whatsoever. and themselves arc body they . for this is to be done by spiritual weapons. may justly be censured by the church with excommunication. they were justly punished. as appeareth in the second book of Epistles. and in his in his first And book against Parmewere in saith nianus. and also. the laws of God observed which do bind conscience. " They murder." afflicted in " souls. he showeth. The like answer may be returned to Luther. not over their souls they . chap. but that men may see. whom civil you next allege. that if the Donatists punished with death. they judge and practise quite conand judicial proceedings have years. but in after riper age reversed and refuted. And : upon John. his eleventh Tractate he. Christians are be >fexhorted. 1. First. 48. Secondly.they speak for toleration of religion come to where themselves are under hatches. and therefore may not undertake to give laws to the souls and consciences of men. in case by the civil sword they shall corrupt others to the perdition of their souls. 5. As for the testimony of the popish book. 50.

who procured death of Michael Servetus for pertinacity in heresy. et ad cavendum * [Fidelia expoaitio errorum Mich. fit placere ullius seculari potestatis im- Macarius reus. who had put some before him. "^ Optatus. p. torn. 48. De Haereticis Morte PlectenAretius that heretics are to be punished with death. (diximus) torn. Theol. 10. titulos est contra partem Donati. Contra Epist. tom.RetractJi. 369.] simo dei presidentis. Joann. and defended his fact by a book written of that argument. who beareth not the sword than that they should be suffered to draw into their error. ignem aetemum nentis judicio flagellis talibus admomerito ? Serveti et brevis eorundem patiuntur. in Evang. i. vindicavit Phinees.] ' vii. et vobia fecit. vel Quod (et) vere qua nondum exeis in dili- S.] i. tom. For he is is the minister many others of God for the wrath to every Calvin's evil doer. p. heretics to death . Parmen. quorum vindicavit Helias. rislia. ix. . Phineas. iii.* Beza dis. 85'. 50. in his third book." judgment well known. Tract et ordine potestatum Calvini Tract. 45. derant. jure gladii coercendos esse hsereticoa.29 put men to everlasting death. provocantibvis mihi non placebat. eifect in Epist. in vain. 4. and yet they complain when themselves are put to suffer temporal death. libro In Vindicavit Macarius. suum gentiadisciplinse. qui occisi Si nihil offen- quorum primo dixi non mihi esse dicuntur.9 justifieth Macarius. torn. Parisiis. 1582. p. To the same ii. 75. 1597. Pa- 1679. et ubi docetur. pertua eram. errorem multos trajicere permittantm'. vel quantum centur. petu schiamaticoB ad communionem violenter arctari. in his sixty-sixth Sermon in Cantica:' "Out of doubt. quam est. fol. cum ex p. that he had done no more herein than what Moses. 686.] ' xi. edit. edit. Theol. [Vindicavit Moyses." saith he. vindex in Opera. criminum. in eo quod solus nobis nescientibus. fol. 35.Opera. fol.] quantum mali eorum ' [Meliua proculdubio gladio coer- auderet impunitas. and Elias had done Bernard.^ [Sunt ' duo libri mei. refutatio. "it is better that they should be restrained by the sword of him. 1836. non isti juste patiuntur. Optati Opera. illius videlicet qui non in sine melius mutandis conferre posset causa gladium portat.tom. [Beza Tract. edit. also wrote a book. Quid enim altis- Dei enim minister ille iram ei qui male agit.

because you may find that done to your hand. after once or twice admonition. or turbulent schism. Hist. Thus much I thought needful ing the grounds of your error. whether an heretic. either in the church without excommunication. fbr avoid- I forbear adding reasons to justify the truth. as you call them. to be spoken. who doubted as you do.30 likewise took the like course about the death of^Valen- tinus Gentilis. in a history written of that argument. say you. as knowing they will not persist in heresy. lead you by a Spirit of truth into through Jesus Christ. liberty of conscience is to be granted to men that fear God indeed. when they are convinced in conscience of the sinfulness thereof. 1. It is. and that one ob- jecteth nothing against what we fear liold.567. Gentilis. and justified the magistrate's proceeding against him. Val. and so after conviction. no prejudice io the commonwealth. or any other scandalous and heinous offender. if liberty of conscience were suifered to such as God indeed. or in the com- monwealth without such punishment as may preserve others from dangerous and damnable infection. The Lord Jesus all truth.] .* Finally. whifch you prove by the examples of the patriarchs and others. may be tolerated. which yet are but one. " [Aretius. But the question is. But we readily grant you. Geneva. in a treatise sent to some of the brethren late of Salem. you come to answer some main objections.

the founda' ' •I S™"' ""^i Peace rarely me^r'*"'" world have long been out of course : the gates of earth and heU have conspired together to intercept our joyftil meeting and our holy kisses. what darkness. PEACE. cities. Dear Truth. In I. towns. Peace. 4. God in judgment taken thee from the earth? Rev. With what a wearied. to find out precious Truth Truth. How hath this present evil world are we two met? banished me from all the coasts and quarters of it ? And how hath the righteous vi. COTTON. where Truth is the earth but a dungeon of not ? . BETWEEN TRUTH AND CHAP. kingdoms. what dark comer of the world. Peace. blessed' Truth. Truth. The like inquiries in my flights and travels have tired I made for Peace. wing have I flown over nations. sweet Peace. and still am is told she hath left the earth. and fled to heaven. It tions of the is lamentably true.A REPLY AFORESAID ANSWER OF IN A CONFERENCE MR.

Pour out thy sorrows. and here begin to wipe tears from mine eyes. Well spake that famous Elizabeth to her famous attorney. thy nature.J Peace. begin. thou knowest we are both pursued and laid [in wait] sighs. then both thou and I must hope.] They shall melt away. Most precious Truth. Where can into thine. I know thy birth. Sir Edward Coke. Zach.] Dear Truth. fall. Oh ! where the promise of the God of heaven. 14. kisses then shall Till have their endless date of pure and sweetest joys. and the hearts of viii. [10. wherein dwells righteousness. earth. "Mr. [26. wandering spirits.ev. B. and the eyes of my dearest children ? Truth. both thine and mine. 2 Pet. and the Most High iii. go on as thou hast begun. these heavens and earth are growing old. thy They that know thee will prize thee far above lives. Sweet daughter of the God of peace. vent thy complaints. THE BLOUDY TENENT And what is the Peace thereof but a fleeting dreanij thine ape and counterfeit ? is Peace. delight. for." themselves and . that Righteousness and Peace shall kiss each other ? Truth. xx.] new Our wait. How joyful am I to improve these precious miuutes to revive our hearts. Mine heart whose is full of mine eyes with tears. whose lies monstrous and furies shall with himself be cast into the lake of fire. I better vent my oppressedfor these bosom than faithful lips may few hours revive my drooping. sweet Peace. Peace. and sell themselves to buy thee. Patience. Psal. all that love the truth and peace. and and bear the fury of the dragon's wrath. the second death. and be burnt up with all the works that are therein . Attorney.32 Truth. and stiU plead. and shall be changed like a garment. cii. but pro Domina Veritafe. not pro Domina Regina. Eternal Creator shall gloriously create new heavens and [13. [19.

Thy lips drop as the honey-comb. throw down ( highest crowns of against me. yet how ! is all vermiif lioned over for justice against the heretics Yea. and blow the flames of devouring wars. Kev. though but in thought. revive me with thy words. Peace. root. Secondly. Dear Truth. according as thou promisedst. in listening to the precious oracles of thy mouth All the words of thy mouth are truth. First. how are they charged to be mine enemies seditious rail —contentious. imprison. and.OF PERSECUTION DISCUSs'd. II. The most sober of thv witnesses. but oh! how few cause. I have two sad complaints. kill thy faithful witnesses. plead thy cause. though they speak and against thee. turbulent. while men's I tongues are bent like bows to shoot out lying words against I spend eternal days and endless dates at thy holy feet. that leave neither spiritual nor civil state. that dare ' Two crsat to ^rapiaints ofPeace. yet how do aU pretend an bum up branch holy war He that ! and he that is killed. which are sweeter than the honey and the honey-comb. me Oh how could and there is no iniquity in them. improve our minutes. and for their conscience. my to sceptre is / strong to break down all strongest holds. but and kills. that plead. It is 33 true. [3] . " It is for God." D . CHAP. Thiae enemies. xi. though they outrageously pursue. as all are • valiant for the truth. as thou saidst. let us. Truth. they both cry out. and dare to plead my my / witnesses in sackcloth. \ Some few there are. ! ! Peace. they kindle coals. my crown is high. banish. But oh! since we must part anon.

ungodly.] Godly Again. who all. Psal. [Prov. or unnecessary. to fight the fight of faith. against if 8. if be possible. he bring any Jude 4. nor One nor other seldom dare to plead the mighty Prince Christ Jesus for their author. civil it is necessary. to ease thy first complaint. have borne and must bear the blurs of troublers of of the world upside down. 9. . and turners And it is true again. Christian or unchristian. godly. and. i. Israel. yet both ° ' Moses. unchristian. once delivered to the saints. Rom.34 Persecutors Christ. like a breach of waters. and to contend earnestly Jesus. godly. more honourable. yea. therefore.. command of God that Peace be kept. and to rescue the oppressed from the violent paws and jaws of oppressing. &c. for their author. Truth. most like their mother. Dear Peace. peace-making sons of God. break not in upon the sons of men. saith he. Ixxiii. but THE BLOUDY TENENT It IS true. and and for the faith of Christian. leave off contention be meddled with. and the gates of earth and other faith or doctrine. 1. say they. men or devils. Gal. it is thy dearest sons. &c. that strife. strife dis- Yet It is strife must be distinguished : it is necessary. true. allowed such holy persecutions [and] holy wars against the enemies of holy church. with and earthly weapons to defend the innocent. sluices before This caveat should keep the banks and firm and strong. Mmrods. godly or ungodly. Ungodly unueccssary. dishonourable. (feoth protestant and papist) pretend they have spoke with Moses and the prophets. with religious spiritual artillery. [18. xvii. yea. strife is what Solomon once spake one letteth it : The beginning of as when out water. unlawful. before Christ came. peacestill keeping. 2. or an angel from heaven. in possibility of it most cases in the world: for there is a keeping sweets Peace in most cases. honourable. Job xxix. against aU opposers. hell. persecuting It is as necessary. Paul himself. it is the express xii.

*' ravished by emperors. and spilling of the blood of the innocent? Humanity stirs up and prompts the for a virgin's chas- sons of tity men to draw material swords and life. Mine ears have long been filled with a threefold '^ djief"' "ly. thousands. "Til forty-four thousand virgins. Speak once again. [9. These cries of murdered virgins._ a . xiv. in their several states *- and countries. lorced J^Jp ^. dear Truth. for religion.OF PERSECUTION DISCUSs'd. therefore. kings.rtTT and Secondly. Christ 8 wor- doleM outcry— First. set up. Eev. Of one hundred XIV. Truth. Ab"^^ cry of on high. and devouring wars. men. within these What hundred fearful cries. and piety to preserve and Christianity must needs awaken the sons of God to draw the spiritual sword. Peace. &c.] the souls of such as have been per- souls un""=*""'• secuted and slain for the testimony and witness of Jesus. Jhe *^"^ The cry "^ of those precious souls under the altar. compeUiag to an uniformity of state religion. against the Lutherans. who can hear? sit still and Who can but run. whose blood hath been spilt like' water upon the earth and that because they have held fast the truth and witness of Jesus. The cry of the whole its earth. with zeal iuflamed. against the worship of the states and times. Rev. &c. Eev. the life word of God. against the catholics.^ the blood of inhabitants slaughtering each other in their blinded zeal for conscience. made drunk with ^^°^Y//^^'j. is to their beds of worship and religion. 2 D . of children. Msowor1" ship. like salom's. Thirdly. fathers. twenty years. 35 With a clashing of such arms am I never wakened. women.. vi. marching under the colours of upright justice and holy zeal. against a ravishing murderer. the chastity and of spiritual virgins. to prevent the deflowering of chaste souls. to my second complaint of bloody persecution. who abhor the spiritual defilements of false worship. governors.

nothing will appear but the way of reading friend it by fire being known to this who received the papers. being committed by some then in argumeats against persecution in some pen and ink. from godly intentions. high and low. famished! And hence these cries. It was in mUk. These arguments against such persecution. although the author himself could not correct. science. even for : babes and sucklings in Christ It was in milk. vellously different hearts. that men fling away the spiritual sword and spiritual artillery. and rather trust. conscience. contrarUy main- taining such persecution for cause of conscience. murdered. . brethren. slaughtered. tending to soul nourishment. wives. in spiritual and religious causes. wrote these arguments in milk. nor view what himself had written. what hast thou there Peace. and young. .36 THE BLOUDY TENENT sisters. for the witness of as the stopples of his milk bottle. as Love hopes. Li such paper. ravished. and religion. Sweet Peace. he transcribed and kept together the papers. plundered. the answer for say. spiritually white. Truth. and hands. old mothers. may T^® author of powcr these arguments against persecution. pure and innocent. as 1 havc bccn informed. his keeper. ? Truth. for the suppressing of each other's gods. And what there ? An answer to such arguments. to an arm of flesh and sword of steel. as they suppose. yet in a mar- style and manner — the arguments as I against persecution in milk. Arguments against persecution for cause of con- Truth. written with milk. husbands. in blood. in sheets of paper brought to him by the woman. and the answer pleading for it. M^Tovi^"" inThe'writ- it. and having not the use of in closc prisoner to Newgate. from a friend in London truths of Jesus. [are] written. Peace.

or for practising some work which you believe in conscience to be a religious duty. of the nations and peoples slaughtering each other for their several respective religions and consciences. fessing some point of doctrine which you beheve in cout 1 science to be the truth. Peace. tending both to the peace of souls. III. peaceable. in the army of Jesus. Answers to the scriptures and arguments foriiho first dis' proposed against persecution. Jew . Secondly. In the answer. Cotton first lays down several distinctions and conclusions of his own. ° ^ . forced to the or and worship which every civil state common- weal agrees on. and xix. : and the white linen or armour of righteousness. Peace. and compels uniformity subjects to. first of the holy witnesses of Christ Jesus. for either professing doctrine.Passed. The first distinction is this: by persecution Uinction dis- cause of conscience. who testify against such invented wy ships: Secondly. Truth. in a dissembled Bloody to the bodies. " I conceive you mean either for pro. It was in milk. and kingdoms. Mr. Rev. vi. soft. CHAP. Definition of persecution or Gentile. meek. tending to prove persecution. or practising*'""*"^- ." Truth. and the peace of states The answer. though I hope out intentions. is returned in blood —^bloody and slaughterous all of mUky pure The mswer ^'^'"'^ conclusions religion —bloody to the souls of all : men. I acknowledge that to molest any person. and gentle. like those white horses of the 37 word of truth and meekness.OF PERSECUTION DISOUSS'd.

^ So thousands of and of late in those bloody Marian days.] . and such a person. who could not find her soul's beloved in the ways of his worship and ministry. whatever desire his doctrine or practice be. more loathsome is much whoredom and defilemeut. besides this. what they believed was by God Acts iv. For beside this. but also not much more) to be constrained to the bed of a stranger.. before the golden image. Dan. 16. But withal I a it may be well observed.trines an^ worships by men invented and appointed. The spouse of Christ Jesus. yea. restrained from compelled and urged them. chaste soul in God's A chastc wifc will abhor (if achStewif ^ ^^^ husband's bed as adulterous and polluted. the whole conforming world. have rather chosen to yield their bodies to all sorts of torments. because they durst not cease to preach and practise commanded." Reply of Cotton in The Bloudy Tenant Wash'd and were disposed might find fault vnih the comforts of made White Lambe.38 THE BLOUDY TENENT spiritual. and many thousands of Christians. in spiritual ' [" Thus a man may find a knot that in a bulrush. for which he was cast into the lions' den. and v. it is to persecute worship merely religious or him . suiFereth persecution for conscience. 21. edit. a Conscience will not be restrained man may as are be persecuted because he idares not be constrained to yield obedience to such doc- from «° wi . crastramed So the three famous Jews. iii. that this distinction is not full and complete. than to subscribe to doctrines. who were furnace for refusing to fall cast into the fiery down. or practise worships. vi. I also say. that man may be persecuted because he holdeth or practiseth what he believes in conscience to be a truth. 4. unto which the states and times A (as Nebuchadnezzar to his golden image) have not only abhor to be. is And what abominable in corporal. in a nonconformity to Christ's witnesses. 1647. true or false. in the Bloud of the God for not being full p. I as the apostles answered. thus a man and complete. Dan. as Daniel did.

j all depend — persons. and ten thousands. CHAP.. the whole generation of the righteous. who since the falling away from the •^ first primitive Chris- ood-s people the very fnn- tian state or worship. and to embrace the bosom of a false Christ. is this : The second distinction iho Becond discussed. practices. others are circumstantial differ in and less principal. iii. Cant. 39 and v. 20. the itself. on whom [11. constitution. upon the foundation of the apostles and prophets.® We read of four sorts of spiritual. gathering. worships. far be it from any pious breast to imagine that they are not saved. Cotton's Reply. doc. for then I should everlastingly condemn thousands.fouSiono. abhorred to turn aside to other flocks.. To this distinction I dare not subscribe. Peace. trines. yea. and that bound up in the bundle of eternal life. i.. without right belief whereof a man cannot be saved. 1 Cor. chapters. tions in the or Christian. Ephes. p. The church is huilt -ii. * two sorts ["Fundamental doctrines are of some hold forth the founda: I speak of the former sort of these only —the other sort I look at as less tion of Christian religion — others con- principal. iii. &c. 2. and damentalsof ™ibie wor- goveming of the church. 8. their souls are not And yet. 6. the foundation of all foundations." cem the foundation of the church. First. have and do err fundamentally '^' concerning the true matter. Ministerial foundations. wherein a man mayeither judgment without prejudice of salvation on part. comer-stone pom- soi-ts the Lord Jesus. IV. Cant.] . " In points of doctrine some are fundamental. in comparison of these. i." Truth. founda- New Testament.OF PERSECUTION DISCUSs'd.

for matter and form. in practice. the resurrection. as they call them. will yet be found fast asleep in respect of public Christian worship.] obedience. and diocesan churches ? yea. and that also neither national. of future rejoicing in the fruits of [19. belonged to a material and local Babel (and Babel and Jerusalem have now no spiritually difference. those concerning baptisms and laying on of hands. captivated in such national. heart-waking (Cant. ^S'Vho tims^ot"fh^ ^' '^^^ foundation of doctrines. John 21). of repentance from dead works. how . vi. and eternal judgment. provincial. 1 Tim. yea or knowing of any such churches. accord- ligton'or"' ing to the tion. faith towards God. but sins and mystically to come out from her and abominations.] —the or principles. the doctrine of baptisms. God's people will be found to be ignorant for many hundred years . for that literal iv. THE BLOUDY TENENT The foundation vi. not locally. both in former and later times. clergy and laity. Coming out mysticar' God's people.40 3. as some have said. laying on of hands. If Mr. provincial. and I yet cannot see is risen. : diocesan churches are of Christ's institution how many thousands of God's people of aU sorts. first institution. Cotton maintain the true church of Christ to consist of the true matter of holy persons called out from nor the world (and the true form of union in a church govern- ment). Heb. God's people in their persons. as they conceive now only to be true. to wit. 2. 2). that until of late years. will they find. [1. in the life v. from whence they are called to come out. In some of these. and so far from living in. without the knowledge founda- of which there can be no true profession of Christ. in their persons. are His. of personal grace. most dear and precious : yet in respect of the Christian worship they are mingled amongst the Babylonians. it proved that light I mean the light of the first institution.

prayer. "some third distinction. how can their be clear in this foundation of the true Christian matter. precious to national. and the souls of many •' others. but they must needs confess.'il trae''and*™ false es. of*^°jJ»'^»^ company or church of *""''' Mr. concern the weightier duties of the law. and with what kind of worship. as what God we point? But I shall worship. whether such. but what are made up of the parish ' ^ O bounds within such and such a compass of houses. contribution. ii. whose matter must not only be living stones. &c. cotton and all the J^^'f^jl^p^^jj^ 9. provincial. j' "1 1 1 1 particular churches. God. . souls V. and to assemble mto . yet. With lamentation. church- and con- ehurches in England. presenting light unto them about this now present you with Mr. and subordination to the national church: how of can the New English particular churches join with the old English parish churches in so many ordinances word. revealed by Christ Jesus. who persecute and oppress their own acknow- ledged brethren. and ' ^ -"^ not yet dear in the fun- damentai matter of a that such churches have been and are in constant de-^^^^™ pendence on. singing. I may add.. but also separated from the confusions and desolations. that his people are a living stones. Peace. since there are no parish j. 41 few of God's people knew any other church than the parish church of dead stones Or timber? * •11 inii •! TiIt being *-* The great ignoranoe of God's people concerning a late 1 marvellous light. are persuaded to separate from and diocesan churches. 1 Pet. Cotton's "In points of practice. that as yet their souls are far from the knowledge of the foundation of a true Christian church. however ' his own soul.. the Sun righteousness." saith he. rubbish of anti-christian CHAP.OF PERSECUTION DISCUSs'd. And.

'^ First. English ministers. 8. false. intentions. which some have maintained true. fellowship with God is held. by God's some gracious. or religion. whether received from the bishops. the ministry of the ' The New and or- elected dained nainisters in New England." Cotton's Reply. 1. not according to this distinction follow. And becauBC Heb. The true midamentai. p. when they were newword. God. seals. what kind of worship worship is he intendeth: of various signification. It is worth the inquiry. was always accounted perpetual and ordination be true. fellowship with God was lost ? ' [" It is not truly said. notwithstanding abilities. Acts vi. will it and extraordinary blessing. that at that time they were no ministers. that the religion. Mr.. will it not foUow. that was false ? of it. that according to visible rule. or the ministrations of the word. Cotton and others better and and which ministry indelible. that if their new and ministry and if false. 2. or from the people. Ti.. for it is Spirit of God maketh the ministry only a foundation of church order. labours. notwithstanding their profession of standing so long in a true ministry in old England. prayer. &c. 1 say. conceming . the former in the exercise I apply.42 as if it THE BLOUDY TENENT be right. the ministry of the church.. must undeniably grant.] one of the foundations of Christian . it pleaseth the Spirit of God to make the ministry one of the foundations of the Christian religion. success. unpromised. even of the apostles themselves. graces. and. which liked. if. ask." Truth. and also to make the ministry of the word and prayer in the church to be two special works. fellowship with God for is lost. Whether in general acceptation he mean the rightness or or corruptness of the church. I shall desire it may be well considered in the fear of TheNewEnglish ministers exam-. not of faith. 2.

which yet eI^-^"'^ themselves practised in England. I ask whether or no fellowship with ? God in such prayers was lost Truth. hath been lost. when some of them were faithfdUy admonished for using of the Common Prayer. and such a ministry of prayer. by such a kind of worship as wherein fellowship with * God is lost [In his Reply. in their sleepy ignorance. as the author of the Council of Trent reminds him that once. prayers in his use of that book. in great sufferings. they satisfied their hearts with the practice of the author of the Council of Trent. notwithstanding they knew that many servants of God.andwritX ± o D ^n against of God by the common or set forms of prayer. Hooker to and from Sempringham. Williams. Mr. " that he selected the good and best and arguments. according distinction. and the arguments presented to them. to read only some of the choicest selected prayers in the mass-book. but Mr. to to wit. used to do. at that time. according to be of the weightier points of the law : this distinction. Williams' Bloudy Tenent made yet more Bloudy. which cannot be denied. p. Peace.gp^^ipjg shall observe: first.common nave disclauned and written against that worshippine\off." Cotton's Reply.^ But now.OF PERSECUTION DISCUSS'd. 8. concerning prayer. who used yet. ters \ 43 The New English m&ig. and with what kind of worship? wherein fellowship with God. that God's people. 12. Mr. witnessed against such a ministry of the word. then seeming weak. Secondly. and place. I could name the persons. time. dccording to this distinction. whose reply was to the effect. which I confess was of the also their own practice in their using to this Common Prayer. what God we worship. in his rejoinder. I could particularize other exercises of worship. in many of our unclean and abominable worships. Cotton affects to have forgotten these admonitions Cotton.] . but now acknowledged sound. even the standard- bearers and leaders of them. sMpprd God wor8hips° have worshipped God. when riding together in company with Mr. p. Williams did thus address Mr. Only upon these premises I e^^.

sufficient light shining about him. Thirdly.m conscience. therefore that such a person not being convinced. in false worships." Fourthly. Secondly. which himself when he lived in such practices would not have had measured to himself. . I observe. there may be inward and secret fellowship with God in false ministries of to the eternal praise word and prayer. sometimes. publicly and privately. in such worship. I acknowledge^) when yet. beyond a word or promise of God. as an heretic. beyond his promise. and such a service or ministration must be lamented and forsaken. Fnndamentals of Chris- and forsaking of such ways. having As first. that it might have been affirmed of him. and in particular. and clear. after 3red.^also. yet. Mr. fellowship with God is lost. i tian worship not so easy man cannot but be convmced . hath been presented to them. (for that of infinite mercy. and may be persecuted for sinning against his conscience. able to convince.. that he should or might lawfully have been cut off" by death or banishment. that it is possible for much light r is risen against such worship. as the distinc- tion saith. and is . not reaching to their conviction. brought to the eyes of such holy and worthy persons..t. that in such a maintaining a clearness of fundamentals or weightier points. contrary to a conclusion Ward cxprcssed J to wit. he condemned of himself. and upon that sin against ground a persecuting of men because they their consciences. to convey blessings and It pleaseth comfort to His. notwithstanding that light from God. not being right. Secondly.44 ' THE BLOUDY TENENT them to do. I observe that God's people may live and die in such kinds of worship. sinning against his ' own God conscience. Cotton measures that to others. " that fundamentals are so that a afterclear. that in such practices he did sin against his conscience.

"hold them forth in a meek and way some with such arrogance and impetuous- ness." peaceable saith he. Peace. as is said. Turkish city. and would neither be constrained to the worship . not only the weightier duties of the law. ' ° ' by king James to conformity. In the examination of this distinction discuss. what it is to hold forth a doctrine. we shall First. whether an English city. the Jews. it Thus xxix. what but pax civitatis.. where hadst thou been ?" CHAP. Irish city. &c. notable to a great nonconformitant. it. speech of ^'^s Jamo» to a great afterward to persecute the nonconformists even unto Pjt^f'J^e™" ^™^^™*°''" death : " Thou beast.d dealt so with thee in thy nonconformity. or further abroad. what is civil peace (wherein we shall vindicate thy name the better). Jer. were there in bondage. 7. ." quoth the king. or citizens. Pray for which peace of the city." Truth. " if I ha. the ^aceSs^" peace of the city. in this impetuousness or arrogancy. or is it First. Scotch. pleased the Father of lights to define the peace of the city . Spanish. The next distinction concerneth the manner of u^^u^^^g. Secondly. notwithstanding so of God's people. safe. many thousands unbroken. but points of doctrine and worship less principal : "Some." "^"^^ persons holding forth the aforesaid practices. or practice. may be entire. for civU peace.OF PERSECUTION DISCUSs'd. 45 And in this respect the speech of king James was a notoMo . and counselling the king 1 • . converted. French. &c. VI. as of itself tendeth to the disturbance of civil peace. so compacted in a civil way of union.

false. God's people were and ought to from the Peace. or company of East India or Turkey merchants. or spiritual worship. break into schisms and factions. vi. hold disputations. as plain in the practice of the three worthies. nor restrained from so much of the worship of the true is God as they then could practice. — also of Daniel. the very Americans and wildest pagans keep the peace of The differ- their towns or •/ cities. and so the well being and . whether true or false./ Truth. being merely and essentially civil The 6QC6 differ"bs^ and human. is like ^like unto a body or college of physicians in a city unto a corporation. and in divide. matters concerning their societjr may dissent. hold their courts. keep their records. not daring either to be restrained ^ true. without breach of the properly so called. maintained and professed of the citizens.46 THE BLOUDY TENENT of the city Babel. or constrained to false worship. though neither in one nor the other ence be- tween spiritual and civil peace. Hence it is that so many glorious and flourishing civil of the world maintain their peace. cities bc nonconformitants. can any man prove a true church of -r spiritual God in those places. ' r ^nd Consequently no and heavenly peace. Meshach. Oh how ! : lost are the sons of men tween the spiritualand ciTii state. and ^the peace of the city or kingdom being a far different peace from the peace of the religion. in this point! . whether true or being of a higher and far different nature from the peace of the place or people. The peace spiritual. as Dan. wholly break up and dissolve into pieces and nothing. yea. society. and yet civil or city peace. and yet the peace of the city not be in the least measure impaired or disturbed. To illustratc this —the — church. This peace of their (worship which worship also in some God's people conform!tantstoevil. iii. yea. or ^ ^ company of worshipa ± pers. sue and implead each other at the law. Dan. Shadrach. or any other society or company in London which companies may . and Abednego. because the essence or being of the city. cities being various) being a false peace.

societies.OF PERSECUTION DISCUSs'd. 11- Again. combinations. or oi the whole city. the the spiritual or religious state of Smyrna distinct another: church in Smyrna from them both. was dis- from both. and corporation or oi^u stands absolute and entire society is when such a taken down. yet if hear we not the least noise civility. and to persecute God's people there for religion. all this yet. [was] distinct from all these. Thus estate in the city of Smyrna was of Christ the city itself or civil one thing. though the whole worship of the city of Ephesus should be principles. city punishments theirs. men keep but the bond of of any civil breach. which were God's people. false ii. if men be true and impeach- honestly ingenuous to city covenants. city laws. as others. that only was a breach of civility itself. peace thereof. And the synagogue of the Jews.' or worship of tinct God in Christ. n T-v instance further. And notwithstanding these spiritual oppositions in point of worship and religion. Rev. or mystically Christians. and might be without the least ment or infringement of the peace of the city of Ephesus.^^ n 1 civil state . is essentially distinct 47 from those particular the city courts. ^"J'JJJ^ converted and called out from the worship of that city unto Christianity. andthe church of Cnristi uis~ the church of Christ in Ephesus. as some think. of Ephesus was essentially distinct from the worship 01 Diana in the •!• city. or breach of civil peace amongst them . the candlestick from Ephesus. . whether literally Jews.. the city or . *• IpMtuai^eatate. called the synagogue of Satan. suppose that Now God remove altered. — nor need we. distinct from The For city was before them. yea.

city. both in the synagogues as appears xvli. God's servants have been zealous for their ous android Lord and Master. and yet the q. To wipe from the Six cases wherein God's people have been }'jjj^™*2^='. Acts xviii. pertinacity. impetuousness. it is NoAV to the second query.q^ gf heaven. 2. Cotton to what arrogant or impetuous holding forth of doctrine or practice tending to disturbance of civil peace.48 THE BLOUDY TENENT CHAP. teach publicly a cipies for divcrs mouths together. lu all ages and generations oi men. and Judge of all ^ ^ arrogant. to the very faces of the highest. together with that of obstinacy. or where they have travelled. therefore. a new religion and worship.. oW. or .. lived. Which meek- IflT^^ charge. and market-places. Acts tere^fr^' st^te professeT"" where they have as did the apostles after Him in all places. how it pleaseth God to leave him as to take up the common reproachful accusation of the accuser of God's children: God's meekuse *° wit. what to hold forth doctrine or practice in an arrogant or impetuous The answersovire in ge- way ? Truth. 4. hath graciously discharged them from such crimes. Secondly. declare Although is this it hath not pleased Mr. and the tri^ *tod contrary to the worship projected in the town.. &c. First. even . Lord Jesus himself over all Galilee. men. Satan est of the saints commonly loads the and witnesses of Jesus with. disputed. that they are arrogant and impetuous. God's ser- 17 . I « and propose five or six cases. &c. God's people have proclaimed. taught. 8. I cannot but express my sad and sorrowful observation. pride. these foul blurs and aspersions fair and beautiful face of the spouse of Jesus.. for which God's n i n i i witnesscs. ro^t and troublcrs of the city. Yet this is no arrogance nor impetuousness. have been ° ° shall selcct . Peace. charged with arrogance. and maintained and avowed them Christ Jesus for his faithful and peaceable servants. VII.

for this was another King. one Jesus. and yet not arrogant. Acts iv.OF PERSECUTION DISCUSs'd. 49 faces '"^''' and concerning the persons of the highest. Hence was the charge but true in against the apostles (false in civil. contrary to the express command of public authority. life not re- garding sweet nor bitter death. Rev.. King of the Jews. John xix. so far as they to tha have opposed the truth of God: so Elijah to the face of "st. xii. chadnezzar. <Jods people constantly tS'deatIf'''' all this •/ Thirdly. and tion written over his Jesiis which he suffered death. kings and Ceesars. that [i Kings troublest Israel. 1 p ^1 over the souls or consciences or their civil ii • • have any power subjects. nor Caesar. tell that the mouth of yet in So the Lord Jesus concerning Herod. and [Aotsxxiii. no arrogance. nor impetuousness. lion. And. which the Jews laid against him. the three famous worthies against the command So the So of Nebunations apostles. in refusing to submit to false worships. King "to'^tSe conscience. King f°^^"^l°l]^ Lord Jesus. Fourthly. Dan. ''™" "'^ So Paul.""' Ahab. God's people. nor impetuous. since the coming of the of Israel. that ." Go. the King of kings. 7 r c 3 and resolved to the death. but thou. spirituals) that they affirmed that there '. as appears by the accusahead upon the gallows. who loved not their lives to the death. constant. and so the witnesses of Jesus in all ages. was the great charge against the /iord Jesus himself. indeed. have openly and constantly J^^/fhe''' no magistrate. and thy father's house. 19. Thou whited wall. of Nazareth. iii. yea. in the matters of God and own the crown of Jesus but the are civil magistrates themselves. no king. . the professed. God's people have been immoveable. souls to the ministry bound to subject their and church. God delivered me from the ^^^ =='" fox. and in preaching and professing the true worship. and v. and the uniform conformity of all agreeing upon a false worship. Acts xvii. the power and government of this Lord Jesua. and to Ananias. " It is not I..

&c. in towns and lived and cities where they have come .. Yet this kingly power of His. God in 9 . and this charge in the eye of reason. THE BLOUDY TENENT This was and is the sum of all true preaching of the gospel. and two against and three. God's word Q. if faith. by their preaching. and to such as believed that word they preached. disputing. and yet in Jeremiah no arrogance. that he discouraged the army from fighting against the Babylonians. he resolved not to manage in His own person. seemed not to be unreasonable. and yet neither selves arrogant nor impetuous. and weakened the land from its own defence .- for from henceforth shall there be five in one house divided. though not the cause. tumults and uproars. xxxvii. nor impetuousness. Acts ii. or unrighteous. yet accidentally occasion of the great contentions and divisions. Or glad ncws. Suppose ye that I am come t^ give peace on the earth? I tell you. Grod's pcoplc. VIZ. his princes and people.. Jer. ii. have seemed in all show of common sense and civil state. Luke xii. nor impetuousness. God's people. . and xxxviii. 51. that ^ o J^ ' o God all anointed Jesus to be the Israel of t™™ °' ^^^ ®°^® gpjritual King and Governor of and soul causes. ^°*' of tuSts™ ^^^® been. yea. as rational policy. themhowever so charged: for their doctrine nor thus the Lord Jesus discovereth men's false and secure/ suppositions. in delivering the mind and will of Ss of° drti Grod concerning the kingdoms and civil states where they have lived. but ministerially in the hands of such messen- gers which he sent forth to preach and baptize. Lastly. Ps. insomuch that the charge of the princes against Jeremiah was. but rather division\. nay . to men look not higher with the eye of endanger and overthrow the very all appeareth by Jeremiah's preaching and counsel to king Zedekiah. And haTO^emid ^" yet here no arrogance. John xvii. the father shall be divided against the son the son against the father. 36.50 That Christ alone over conscience is aif preaching. three against two.

]) both matter and manner pure. Peace. I answer. what the Lord Jesus . that it may not only tend to break. Acts xix. yet of^JJ/p'^^^p. [i obj. I acknowledge that such may be the way and manner of holding forth. guns. or peace of the city. CHAP. at Jerusalem. either with railing or reviling. dear Truth. or with force of arms. ' ' i. but the manner of holding forth or divulging. 29. 51 And thus upon the occasion of the apostles' preaching the kingdom and worship of God in Christ.j was truth but the question is about Truth. these instances propounded are cases of great oppo- and spiritual hostility. holy. I answer. swords. daring or challenging speeches. So that the answerer this than the Lord Jesus or his servants did or do hold forth the true and everlasting gospel. Moreover. That it is possible and common for persons of soft and gentle nature and falsehood with spirits. Yet sition . or manner. were were of<>f™pe'uousness. prisons.. 40 Acts xxi. or matter. For instance. Acts xiv. 30. It will be said. but may lie mcairy" actually break the civil peace. (Cantic. &c. and intiffensive. 4 . so the specks. would be requested to explain what he means by E 2 . his messengers taught error. at Ephesus. peaceable. were most commonly uproars and tumults wherever they came. ' L and yet as J Ill the and occasions of breach of posed a great show borders. and VIII. civil peace.')''^ *'''°" gold. to hold out more seeming meekness and peaceableness. silver : [11. This distinction now in discussion concerns not truth or error. those strange and monstrous uproars at Iconium.OF PERSECUTION DISCUSS'd. 31.

Hence all Wherer and good eyes are not so troubled at light . and comes under the cognizance and correction of the civil magistrate. false worship. physic — ^if persons sleepy and shrill. and they and wounded. It will here be said.] if the husband- — men were beat. I auswcr : family. 38. are not so troubled at the true. though alarums. [41. CHAP. bloody Marian days. Ij we had Roman emperor's days. nor at a false religion of Jew or Gentile. 49. the prophets. unto which they had no right. No at wonder if a body full of corrupt humours be troubled strong. though wholesome. vigilant watchful persons. king Solomon. dissensions ariseth civil and uproars about matters of religion ? The true cause of tumuitB at the the -word. no wonder he at the appearance of the light. be- cause they meant themselves to seize upon the inheritance. xxi. No wonder if Adonijah and all his company be amazed and troubled at the sound of the right heir. which very manner of holding forth tends to break civil peace. those tumults about the apostles in the Acts. we would not have been partakers vnth them in the blood of the prophets. lest he build the sepulchre of the heen in the Pharisee^ days. objo Peace. [2 IX. whence then . false eyes be troubled Christ. town or and lives in the guilt of a false god. . 1 Kings i. loyal and faithful. Matt. as. no. 30. Truth. who were charged with arrogance and impetuousness. or the Matt.52 THE BLOUDY TENENT arrogant and impetuous holding forth of any doctrine. xxiii. &c. and say. and kiUed even the son himself. lies When a kingdom if sore it or state. never so sweet. loving to sleep be troubled at the noise of silver. and at last his only son. troubled when the Lord of the vineyard sent servant after servant.

as is supposed. by which men commonly do. and the country takes the mighty power of the Spirit in the word.] disquiet themselves in vain. X. CHAP. Indeed. preventing. as.awlnMs phemy.OF PERSECUTION DISCUSs'd. Ps. which out of zeal for God. heresy. and extinguishing such doctrines or practices by weapons of wrath and blood." Truth. as is trae^and"^- pre» sSm™"" tended. 53 ' Secondly. even light from the bright shining Sun is of Eighteousness. and yet no breach of S-s'"""* civil peace from the doctrine or practice. [6. &c. Breach of civil peace may arise when false ^„J*^°'''oJ and idolatrous practices are held forth. that is. xxxix. as David speaks in another case. whips. pe^j'^^^t^g but lamentably blind and erroneous will those consciences shortly appear to be. with swords and guns. able. by the help of the Lord. Peace. and. Whereas it is light alone. which only the finger of God can an uproar. and unmercifully disquiet others. bias. have persecuted either. but from that wrong and preposterous way of suppressing. which sciences of men. are persuaded to convert heretics.. whose right eye . death. stocks. or the manner of holding forth. in the souls and con- and scatter such fogs and dark- Hence the sons of men. in the sequel of this discourse shall more appear. And heavy is the doom of those blind guides and idol shepherds. to cast out unclean spirits. Now the last distinction is this: "Persecution for conscience is either for a rightly informed consciencCi or a blind and erroneous conscience. to dispel ness. both these consciences are persecuted . banishment. is Hence the town in '''s'"* ""^y the alarum to expel that fog or mist of error. imprisonment.

2 Sam. the whom it pleased God to permit to live as and yet that hostility and cruelty used against them. CHAP. XL Peace. the repeated judgment year after year upon the whole land after told them. in his truth. either hanging up a rightly informed conscience. be admired by sober Yet. or poor Gibeonites.54 THE BLOUDY TENENT God's finger of jealousy hath put out. beam of Truth. "Christ himself is persecuted. else killing the erroneous and the blind. like Saul. xxi. shaU as soon find darkness in the bright beams of the sun. Saul [and] his sons. for will men. who flattering the ten horns. could not be pardoned until the death of the persecutor. why persecufest Truth. in perse- cuting both these consciences ." For which reason. between two malefactors. he quotes. out of zeal to the Israel of God. for in persecuting such. what should be the cause or inducement to the answerer's mind to lay down such a position or thesis as this is. persuade them what excellent and faithful service they perform to God. all that Christ Jesus. that he holds it " not lawful to persecute any for conscience' sake rightly informed. Acts ix.. Saul. thou me ? He that shall read this conclusion over a thou- sand times. and therein the Lord Jesus himself. this I must ask. had appeased the Lord's displeasure. or worldly powers. It is not lawful to persecute the Lord Jesus ? . as in this so clear and shining a viz. it must not be persecuted. 4. Saul. After explication in these distinctions. it pleaseth the answerer to give his resolution to the question in four particulars." saith he. truly rendered. First.

a secret whispering from heaven to him.OF PERSECUTION DISCUSs'd. pope. we would never have consented to such persecution. wherein he hath been a guide and by misinterpreting and far. the Israelites are idle. his own . that although his soul aim at Christ. a blasphemer against traitor God. Peace. Ahab. Christians are schismatical. profess to persecute the Jesus. the Jews. Search all 55 scriptures. &c. I say. for : Christ's sake for we hold it not lawful to persecute Jesus Christ. monuments. crown him with a paper of and burn him. and hath wrought much sincere intentions. or devil himself. And yet they say. a seducer of the people. . And therefore. Gardiners. applying the writings of truth. Herod. Jesus mask or covering ? is as No. and therefore speak they of spiracy against David risen up in a con- Saul. therefore Hang him. devils. heretical. without a Son of God. also add a second: So far as he hath been a by preaching for persecution. therefore stone him. factious. saith Pharaoh. therefore persecute them. so I say. ^"aP/cMst fo^persocuta consult with all experiences did ever Pharaoh. for Christ in many and God's merciful and patient accept- ance. "Do not say you are persecuted for the word. they say. &c. ruling the pen of this worthy answerer. Naboth hath blasphemed Christ is God and against the king. when they persecute Christ Jesus in his truths or servants. leader. the bloody Neros.. yet he hath never left the tents of such who think in his they do God good service in killing the If Lord Jesus servants. One thing I see apparently in the Lord's overviz. of our fathers. therefore The devil hath deluded John Huss. therefore persecute him. Saul. Scribes and Pharisees." Let me guide. Jezebel. ™' Bonners. Christ as Christ. histories. and Csesar. records. sacrificing. in we had been in the days queen Mary's days..

which his servants witnessing his truth do suffer for his sake. he is not persecuted for cause of conscience.56 THE BLOUDY TENENT shall mouth and hands his actions.'" Truth. hut for sinning against his seducement of others to pernicious ways. shall still persist in the error of his way. I answer. it is observable that Satan takes the weapons of scripture. XIL Peace. of Titus. . as Solomon speaks of the birds of heaven. and be therefore punished. and such scripture which in show and colour was excellent for his purpose . that it is not conscience. that such a person cannot but sin against himself. Prov. that is. and then such consciences may be persecuted . either into blasphemy. or idolatry. after once or twice admonition. till after admo- 11. and for the do not therefore say. nition once or twice.] his heretical Cotton's R«ply. And if Lord Jesus hath suffered by him. the Lord Jesus himself were present. or nition. . ' [" Though I say. 27. 5. judge (I hope not his person. that fundamental and weighty points. his conscience. because the word of God is so clear in fundamental and weighty points. CHAP.." p. Tit. though erring in till my words or meaning. then such consciences same excommunicated. after such But admo- magistrate . but in this third i. but) for the Acts ix. by the unless it shall civil forthwith be punished may be man. Himself should suffer that in his own person. that after once or twice admonition. It was no part of lawful to persecute any. do afterwards that if such a appear that he break forth further. iii. persecuted. though erring in some fundaniental and weighty points. I every heretic. even in fundamental and weighty points.. and so being condemned of of his conscience. Their second conclusion is this: "It is not lawful to persecute an erroneous and blind conscience. In that great battle between the Lord up Jesus and the devil. he may be persecuted for sinning against his own conscience. to say.

What this rejecting of Him. may easily discern into concerning the visible what a wonderful deep sleep God's people are fallen kingdom of Christ. and by whom it is it is supposed to be given.OF PERSECUTION DISCUSS'd. and second admonition. So palpably gross and thick see is the mist and fog which Satan hath raised about this scripture. Thirdly. in and practising so unlike to them- Lord Jesus. to the little ones of Jesus : yet. hunting and devouring the witnesses of Jesus. How What this heretic Is is this first condemned of himself. . so preaching selves. [17. I beseech you by the bright beams of the Sun of Kighteousness. scatter these mists. What this man is that is an heretic. and under that pretence of persecuting all thy followers. is Fourthly. Secondly. insomuch that this third of Titus. is Peace. and by whom supposed this rejection was to be made. Bright Truth. that he that can but men as trees in matters of God's worship. should now be the refuge and defence of (as I hope) the lambs and this point. XIII. and mountains of leopards.] a 57 man may evidently see the snare it shall : and 1 know the time is coming wherein be said. since this place of Titus such a pretended bulwark for persecuting of heretics. Surely in vain the net is laid in the sight o/'the saints (heavenly birds). which through fearful profanations hath so many hundred all years been the pretended bulwark and defence of the bloody wolves. and lamentably too like to His and their persecutors* CHAP. and unfold these particulars out of the text : First. dens of lions.

what to be done to such contentious. a person that submits not to them con- demned of himself. any more than in lesser points. but what if once and twice admonition unprofitable? — apostle seems plainly to answer. that the apostle renders this reason why after once and twice admonition he ought to be per- secuted. gene- and unprofitable questions about the law. that the heretic cannot but be convinced in his own conscience. and the man that is wilfully obstinate after such once and twice admonition. fundamentals. 4. eleventh verse hath reference to the former verses. saying. For although he saith such an one is conthat demned of himself. With who this scripture agrees that of 1 is Tim. that after first and second is admonition.are so clear. 1 4. vi. the word of God is so clear. not . is THE BLOUDY TENENT Truth. This Titus. what is this heretic? I find him com- SrSc il monlv defined to be such an one as is obstinate in fundamentals. is should be objected. disputes. First.58 What Titus. Obj. i. 5. yet he saith not. because in fundamental and principal points of doctrine and worship. Let prevail not? The that is. and to teach the church to reject. abiding here with the church of Christ at Crete. alogies. vain strivers about genealogies and questions The him be once and twice admonished. where Timothy commanded to withdraw himself from such dote about questions and strifes of words. is required by Paul to avoid. he gave to Timothy. a preacher of glad news. to reject. Yea. But of this reason. and so also I conceive the answerer seems to resent him. All which are points of a lower and inferior nature. apostle seems to answer. nor wiU it follow. algiriKov avOpiowov. I find not one tittle mentioned in this scripture. Such a If it like charge it is as at left also an evangelist Ephesus. an evangelist. reject him. Tim.

and of laying on of hands. circumstantial nature. and therefore this heretic.. or of any of these. and sins of smaller nature. vi. but a little leaven which wiU leaven the whole lump . is Concerning these fundamentals (although nothing little so in the Christian worship. was to be rejected. Why. to wit. &c. may be referred to one of these yet) doth not Paul to Timothy or Titus speak iQ those places by as me alleged. by the context and scope. as most interpreters run upon. 59 properly falling within the terms or notions of those (aroixua) first principles and (^EfisXiovq) foundations of the Christian profession. 2. &c. . obstinate in any filthiness against the purity of the Lord Jesus. than an obstinate and wilful "'s'*"™- person in the church of Crete. Heb. &c. faith towards God. if there were a door or window left open to vain and xmprofitable questions. this or that opinion or practice. and eternal judg- ment. repentance from dead works. the doctrine of baptisms. who hath commanded his people to evidently appear may The beloved spouse of Christ purge out the old leaven. if his as well as obstinacy had been in greater matters. how ing.OP PERSECUTION DISCUSs'd. not oidy greater portions. So the coherence with the former verses. apt are persons to cover [them] with a silken cover- and to say. these are of an inferior. I am no heretic in fundamentals. and in truth. and the scope of the Spirit of God in this and other like scriptures being carefully observed. one obstinate in fundamentals. spare me in this or that little one. and. and [it] is not such a monster intended in this place. to wit. as the answerer makes the apostle to write. striving and contending about those unprofitable questions and genealogies. this Greek word heretic is no more in J^™^^^: '^ true English. Again. or obstinate person in these vain and unprofitable questions. but six. is no receptacle for any filthy person. the resurrection.

Which checks of conscience is we find even in God's own of dear people. &c. he is and sinneth. or turned aside. the rejecting of such a person— apostle seemeth to make this a ground of subverted ^because himself. hfxagTava. but for sinning against his conscience. or rightness. what is this self- condemnation ? Truth. he is subverted. self. in those sad. that his is. and Kptroe. the pride of heart. a to straightness. he sinneth. and unkind passages of the spouse. draws a veil over the Byes and heart. First. The in the second place. in men obstinate in the lesser questions. in smiting. &c. or wanders from the path of truth. Peace. which will take God's part against a man's pieoksff conscience. drowsy. so that the soul off or loosed is turned from the checks of truth. avroKara- by the and whisperings of own conscience. that this self-condemning is not here intended to be in heretics (as only. l^lirrpaTrrat. XIV. or heat of wrath. as it is men say) in fundamentals meant here. Now. So that the admonition as I conceive—^upon true and faithful once or twice.60 THE BliOUDY TENENT in such fimdamentals and principal points. is. being condemned of It wiU appear upon due search. in her answer to the knocks and calls of the . but. wherein the word of God is so clear that a man cannot but be conis vinced in conscience. Secondly. he sinneth. CHAP. word opposite scope is. and therefore not persecuted for matter of conscience. as most admirably opened in the fifth Canticles. that being sub- verted. accusing. is condemned by secret checks himself. or turned crooked.

Which —though painted over with the verJew witt consist of out- nulion of mistaken scripture. it by the assistance of the Lord Jesus. and in him to all that succeed him ia the like work of the gospel to the world's end. this place of Titus . to manifest to be the overturning and roots rooting up the very foundations and of all true Christianity. gold. death. for sinning against his con- science. Wbat this admonition is ? Secondly. which God's people. 61 awakerungs. In all their acknowledge how slightly they have listened to the checks This the answerer pleaseth to own consciences. This will appear. for offences against the civil state inflict punishments upon the bodies of men by imprisonments. to be yet come in the CHAP. great anointed. First. who might fines. What is the rejection here intended ? Reject him. and his sword be made of iron or executing judgment in his church and kingdom by corporal punishment —I hope. call sinning against his conscience. was no minister of the civil state. the flesh. and that old dream of and Gentile that the crown of Jesus ward material steel. if we examine the two last queries of to wit. for which he may law- fully be persecuted: to conclusion wit. Lord Jesus of their . or glad tidings. and absolutely denying the Lord Jesus. Titus was a minister of the gospel. Titus. armed with the majesty and terror of a material sword. banishment. then. directions unto whom this epistle and these were written. whippings. armed .OF PERSECUTION DISCUSS'd. XV. First.

or cutting off cation. but the church's against such an heretic by it is the Lord a persecution to be delivered up into excommunication communication just offence. xiii. the putting away of the evil and wicked person from the holy land Titus. 12.. nor the church at Crete. which courts of men may lawfully inflict upon malefactors Therefore. that the same word used by here used by Paul ^oses for putting a malefactor to death. ioti away JHut that evil person. 1 Cor. Psal. 4. 7. 2. to Sure it tended no other persecution. 5. in the last place follows rejection .y^ 1 Kjov.civil first and second admonitions were not pumshments on mens "persons or purses." p. 6 Jesus accounteth his disciples. and persuasions of the word of the eternal God. I in- xxxv. " [« In alleging that place. exhortations. &c. and commonwealth of God's "Where ita^T^tte 'ouI'sp'wtS§ Israel. &c. charged home Lord to the conscience in the Jesus.linthe gospel. ^nd body. v. Cotton's Reply said to persecute the wicked. which is not a cutting off by heading. yea. Christ Jesus and his church that purging out of the old leaven from the lump of the saints . off from that visible head ° jcotingofthe heretic was. neither [of] which (no.]^ it is observable.62 THE BLOUDY TENENT only with the spiritual sword of the word of God. as is is Verily ex- the synagogues.] Luke xxi. is ^J sword. in the midst of the church. with John xvi. name and presence of the Which being despised and not hearkened to. [6. it What the re- But .^ cond admo. stoning. .were the reprehensions. V. by excommunication. hanging. nor any lesser civil punishment) had any power to exercise. 2 Cor.for the Spiritual killing. Deut. . and to be east forth a lawful persecution. 32. burning. eioommmi.. and [with] such spiritual weapons as (yet) through God were mighty to the casting down of strongholds. every high thought of the highest head and heart in the world. or an expelling of the country and coasts. in typical Israel. &c. these or corporal -i i . the first and se. and if the cause be the angel of the Lord out of the synagogues. What is X. a persecution. Id. was that dreadful cuttina. . convictions. 9 but they .

for him to rid and avoid the world of cruel persecution. however wofully perverted Indeed.''|. from their church which can be no other but a casting out. and hidden from the eye of the archer. in the holy awe and fear of God. them by bloody and CHAP. the persons or purses of delincivil state . at last also. Peace. that From whom proceed.*»tXa ""»"'«°"- may be pleased to reveal his truth to him. from the first and second admonition was to casting out them also to proceed. Which though I acknowledge to be : discussed. the minister or angel of the church. is no other than that avoiding which Paul writes of to the church of Christ at Rome. belonged to the governors of Christ's church and kingdom in Eome. and any. to whom Paul writes not this epistle. 17. or excommunicating of him society. magistrate. I desire the answerer. xvi. The third conclusion is-r—in points of lesser J^^^^j'^^'^^ moment there ought to be a toleration. XVI. therefore. yet three things are very observable in the manner of laying it down for Satan useth excellent arrows to bad satan-s pomarks. First. as before. saith he. and not to the Roman emperor. were these first and second admonitions to proceed. . and bound once and twice quents against his who also is not but may speedily punish. this rejecting : And. as he sees cause. EiOm. and sometimes beyond the intent. which avoiding. such a person is to be tolerated till God ^. but from Titus.OF PERSECUTION DISCUSS'd. was the rejecting or But not from the civil to admonish. and from the church with him. to consider. the truth of Grod. this rejecting by some to prove persecution. 63 Now.

"It may be. to the pagans. unless after conviction . bo used ward the op- the Very wcU ground why Is ii. and toward such as oppose themselves. to perse- I exempt anti-christians neither No. and wildest sorts of the sons of men. antilight presented when they oppose the to them. yet less than of anti-christians. nor these sorts. toleration. or Turks. who acknowledge Christ a great pro^ phet. and. and justify their forefathers in murdering of him toward the Turks. such a soul God's elect Jesus. but earnestly and constantly pray for aU sorts of men. THs observed by you '' "^ : for indeed this is the apostle calls for meekness and gentleness toward aU men.64 Patience to to- THE BLOUDY TENENT Trufh. opposition. and I repentance. wLU not only be patient. that eyesalve that anointed one man's eye who was give it blind and opposite. the Son: and to Jews. opposition. pagans. God may give them That God that hath shown mercy to one.notwithstandingtheirfunda^ though they all mental errors. called to the fellowship of Christ its not only pray. 2 Tim. may be lastly. that out of them add. &c. ture. we err in fundamentals. who' yet deny the Lord Jesus to be come. lastly. may to his wife. in the sense of its own former that God peradventure may at last give christians. toward the Jews. of him : Mahomet yea. and in theS°°™ enmity against God. becat^se there is a peradven- may repentance" be. to utmost mercy. or it [25] . Turks. but endeavour. nor would from cute Jews. to all the several sorts who set up many a false Christ instead : and. know no ground they have for cause of religion. Hence the i^eceived soul that is lively and sensible of mercy to itself in former blindness. their participation of the same grace and [" And for the civil state. cannot but be patient and gentle andopposition. who have all not yet heard of the Father. that hath given another as blind and opposite. to another. or other pagans. ^ ' ability. He repentance to the husband. may show mercy may oA^oSrem! 07* toward"' It may be.

or banished. that such persons. to tolerate these cities. in which the churches were. 117 U ' . as being idolatrous worshippers of other gods than the true Christ. to prevent the infecting and seducing of others. Truth.OF PERSECUTION DISCUSS'd. this toleration. state. were bound not and being themselves. in their own but must kill or expel themselves from their own cities. Upon by undeniable consequence. in. and to whom only Paul wrote.. so is her beloved among the sons they souls still continue to seduce simple tious conspiracies against the lives will into their damnable and per6f their and states of such princes as not nicious heresies: as into the worship submit their consciences to the bishop of of false gods. tolerate within the compass of the city. with God's assistance. and jurisdiction. Philippi and Rome. into sedi- . Phil. the apple-tree among J^"°J^ii"* the trees of the forest. JhUippi and Rome. what these churches in amongst themselves. he makes the churches of ^"ththo""'' Christ Philippi and Kome As if all one with the cities {jppfj^^a'" Philippi and Rome. God is in Jesus But as the lUy is amongst the love among the daughters and as •^ *-' thorns.r-i and Eom. Philippi and Rome must and tolerate that the cities Philippi citizens : Rome must tolerate in their tolerate. the cities and citizens of Philippi and civil life . to death in Israel. viz. viz. I'l" at Secondly. in the following discourse pluck off. 33. -r» xiv. As also that fine silken covering of that such persons ought to be put to death. fl >- "r —41. that is.. with God's assistance. I observe from the scriptures he quoteth for . p. must not that ground. remove.] own merits for justification. into confidence Eome. Rome.. that and what these churches must not these cities. how ni®' -' The mswerconfounds thechnrches in Phllippi closely. so many gallant ships mis- carry. false prophets. 65 That great rock upon which were to be put the image. so Christ's Difference between the . &c. yet I hope unadvisedly." Cotton's Reply. I shall. heretics. I shall.

No less then (as David in another case. the church of God. all commanding and pressing the putting forth of the unclean. whenever a toleration of others rebgion and conscience *^ for. mercy. lyhen the christian. a pagan. a Turk. And pleaded this is the . . runs freely. thorns. the cutting off the obstinate. As if because briars. [7. to-day. Thirdly. readily produce plenty of scriptures written to the church. that is Whereas he a briar. ciii. there between the church in a civil state. and leprous. and those of bloody issues twelve years together. be roinded. a Jew. But the deep wounded sinners.] He hurt. a of the Persecutors member of Jesus Christ to-morrow. and but a and means vouchsafed for his is that slightly little cure. . cut out wUd olive and planted into the from ^ PeacB. this toleration of persons but ten the BiessednesB pro""^ holding Icsscr crrors. rejecting of heretics. and thistles may not be in the garden of the church. for they shall obtain. [7. the world. and yet are and must be permitted in although they [i.] have no right to enter into the gates of Jerusalem. therefore they must aU be plucked up out of the wilderness. more p carefully to t . such as are (I hope in truth) zealous for God. both before and since Christ's coming. or civil state. Blessed are the merciful.66 THE BLOUDY TENENT is SO great a difference city or country. shall be suffered. I observe the unmercifulness of ®^^°^ doctrines mSij Matt. Ps.. [11]. and hearts. the purging out the leaven. as if they had forgotten the V. or and the country in which it is. because is . The church and civil state confuBedly made all one. ulcerous. as far as the heavens are from the earth) are they that are truly Christ's (that is. Matt. and those which have been bowed down thirty-eight years of their . may word of the Lord true. that is. city. an antir be. . v.] blessedness. e. the world. &c. anointed truly with the Spirit of Christ) [different] from many thousands who love not the Lord Jesus Christ.

he ought not to be spared. Such persons only break the ' who city's or kingdom's i peace. God may for a But either it is not lawful godly magistrate to rule and govern such a people.OF PERSECUTION DISCUSs'd. he ought to be punished. one conclusion more. yea. it is not made by such doctrines. said. xii. Such persons have need. CHAP. man hold and arrogant to the dis- turbanceof the Truth. &c. 11. as Paul if saith. Peace. to. which forth error with a boisterous that if a spirit. and many more. no breach of civil peace. he ought such cases to refuse to die. in But • the matter be of another nature. a spiritual and what perguuty of breach of 1 1 • divine nature. To this I have spoken confessing that if any man commit aught of.. and yet 1 • 1 "vu peace. life.' _ F 2 . viz. not. to the state religion after the first civil and second admonition. 67 they must not be suffered. &c. 1. I shall now trouble you. And if a breach follow. Tie most o peaceable cry out for prison and swords against such who cross "roiEMiy . be besought. dear Truth. I have written before in might fesseth 1 m • many cases. and therefore justly should not be punished in their goods or persons. that the worship which a state promay be contradicted and preached against. as some have or else if they be under government. and reform not secute. to as Paul to the Komans. civil peace. until peradventure give them repentance. but with is this. of those things which Paul was accused Acts XXV. XVII. the magistrate is bound to per- Truth. chap. but by the boisterous and violent opposers of them. by the mercy of God to put on bowels of mercy toward such as have neither wronged them in body nor goods.

such as did break the . p. Theexami- First. and so the persons in whom they grow cannot be rooted out but good wheat will be rooted out with them. when Joseph was chaste and herself guilty. were none of them city's or king- in religion. but matters of divine and spiritual nature. who are too sharp against corruptions rebels. as the tares are unto the godly. indeed carnal. CHAP. and guilty of breach of civil peace. commonly. In such a dom's peace at case. THE BLOUDY TENENT judgment OT practice in religion. but are not like" to wheat . Unto which he answereth : ^^^ thoms.but wheat.' Cotton's Reply. Matt. the meek and peaceable of the earth are traduced as rebels. ^^^^^ For as Joseph's mistress accused Joseph of uncleanness. first sort The of grounds are from the scriptures. although they deal not with the state or state matters. so. and calls out for civil violence against him..68 psace-breaking. 36." saith he. "Because Christ commandeth what is meant by the -i tares and the UUtll to let alone the tares to grow up together with the wheat.* Peace. seditious persons. and so near. or partly such corrupt doctrines or practices as are indeed unsound. but yet such as come very near the truth (as tares do to the wheat). but they only as murderers. peace-breakers. which as are a particular examination of such grounds brought against such persecution. We are is now come to the second part of the answer. traitors.. 38. but partly hypocrites. 30. xiii. XVIII. command them of Jesu^°to let alone. that good men may be taken with them. * ["This if is too vast an hyperbole: all. when their traducers are the only unpeaceable. i i . factious. " That tares are not briars like the harVCSt.

69 " Christ calleth for peaceable toleration. The substance negative. . like the godly. A threefold cord. or practices." . another religion and worship. ^ tares are not is. persons. or practices. Beza. For answer hereunto. trinca. as hypocrites. this is. affirmative. brought to prove such an interpretation. first. or doctrines and practices. and by tongue and pen would deceive the souls of others by such a method of dividing the word of truth. &c. when in such a^™™*^!^^^ weighty and mighty point as that in matters of uon?"'°" conscience concemeth the spilling of the blood of thousands.. that by of this answer I conceive to be. yet dare I confidently avouch. according to the third conclusion. by tares are meant either persons or doctrines.out ^persons. or demonstration of the Spirit. and not for penal The anawcrer'fl falla- prosecution. is strong . 1^11 Satan's snbtIetyab. that the old serpent hath deceived his precious soul. yet like the truth. to satisfy themselves and others with such an interpretation. is I say. no evidence. and so a threefold snare. Secondly. I will not imagine any deceitful purpose in the an- swerer s thoughts m the proposal of these three — . meant persons of "It^^'fifj"' " they are either'per-'* . or practices. that not briars and thorns. I confess that not only those worthy witnesses. tj« opening doctrines. Calvin. and too like it is . doctrines or practices corrupt. alas ! how dark is the soul left that desires to walk ih* answer- er barely af- with God in holy fear and trembling. 7 . but a bare affirmation that these tares must signify persons. But. nor arguments from the place itself or the scriptures of truth to confirm it . and the civil peace of the world in the taking up false arms to suppress all religions! —when." Truth. whose memories are sweet with aU that fear God. saith he. but of later times many conjoin with this worthy answerer.

and yet no carnal force. or sound truths. [4. iv. Acts xx. by the Lord's by these tares in holy assistance. either persons. but as bad as those greedy wolves [29]. [^Truth. who with perverse and evil doctrines labour spirituflock.j That the Lord Jesus intendeth not tices. they are But I acknowledge that by tares meant such kind of evil persons Cotton's — — be found like unto good Christians. The place then being of such importance as concerning the truth of God. not only suspected foxes. may catch some feet. what hurt do they catch as are like unto the good.70 THE BLOUDY TENENT that one of the three. whose mouths must be stopped. and corif tolerated to the end of the world? being caught rupt doctrines and practices. or prac. Cant. the Lord Jesus expressly interpreteth the good " ["What ? hurt do they get by Hypocrites. XIX. by the tares in this parable. First. the blood of thousands. is clear for. which Paul speaks and of.l I shall this parable are make it evident." Reply. Peace. wherein there hangs a thousand shields. 37. that meant persons in respect of their religion visible professors. search. into this scripture.] when I say such are to be . open and as briars bad and thorns .^ CHAP. doctrines. the blood of saints. as and way of worship. ally to devour the to draw away disciples after them. p. yea. but their mischief to be resisted with those mighty weapons of the holy armoury of the Lord Jesus. and weapon to be used against them . and of the I shall request your more diligent Lord Jesus in them. or practices. doctrines.

" Cot- things that offend. For can we think. weak in the faith. ver. °J™ J' j^'""^ °""°" Easter.] that do iniquity. npon T n 1 superstitious forbearmg and forbidding of flesh in some ^ o ^ . stick '[" If the Discusser had cast his upon that at all. only to be persons. whether hypocrites. Let the tares like eye a little lower. and superstitious Fridays. as the Jews. and those the children of the kingdom and the tares also to signify men. but all of scandalous and corrupt doctrines iravTa ri (ricavSaKa. and practices ton's like unto sound. Nor so long as till the angels. &c. that because the tender consciences of the Jews were to be tendered in therefore persons their differences of meats. But I shall not . Rom. as well as those Reply. for time. were for a while to be permitted. found that Christ unto true Christians. /» • ** grounds m popish Lents. . anS'-^hris- worlds end. 38. the reapers. 71 seed to be persons.. that therefore until the _ harvest. and those the children of the wicked one. that (for I speak not of the civil state). he might have interpreteth the be persons. come to reap the harvest in the end of the world. such corrupt doctrines or practices are not to be tolerated now. p. ordinances. persons must now be tolerated (1 mean in ' ^ the tlan ceremo"iee in tie Christian church) in the observation of popish Christmas. "Whitsuntide. that if the members of a church of Christ shall upon some delusion of Satan kneel at the Lord's supper. in the liberties of Christ. great tenderness ought to be used in winning his soul from the error of his way fit . keep Christmas. Rom. 1. as those Jewish observations. the Lord's Toleration considered!' own xiv. or any other popish observation.or PERSECUTION discuss'd. '^ or . * end. that is. 38. and yet I see not that persons so practising were to be received into the churches of Christ now. and other superstitious popish festi- vals? I willingly acknowledge. were to be received.^ Secondly. or holders forth ' tares not things. and that *°^^J™'^'' because they were to be tendered in their observation of tStion'of Jewish holidays. in must now be tolerated in the church Toleration of and that to the world's monies. xiv.

XX. in Henry dominantur avense. weeds known accounted them well enough. time that they were good wheat . but that as soon as ever the tares appeared. tares. TarespToved hypocritea. that the likeness of the tares should deceive the servants to cause them to suppose for a.. that tares signify hypocrites.^ and contrary. it.72 THE BLOUDY TENENT least of all (as before) that the toleration or permis- And sion of such ought to continue tiU doomsday. but Others conceive the Fourth's reign. &c. &c. First. &c. and opposite known to be manifestly different to. made the ground of must needs this interpretation. hypocrites were not intended by the Lord Jesus in this famous parable. cockle. to differ from the wheat. first. ver. or the end of the world. seems to imply such a kind of people as comare monly and generally from. Wickliff and others. here called the children of the kingdom : as these weeds.. are commonly and presently known and to be by every husbandman opposite. Again. viz. CHAP. the true worshippers of God.. the parable holds forth no such thing. as they were so called from one Lollard. darnel. and so like that this consimilitude. all papists some say. called Lollards.. from Lolia. . I answer. : who are like God's children. tares. truth. signifying all those ^ecds which Spring up with the corn. darnel. &c. or likeness. or doctrines. or practices. as cockle. as this- parable urgeth the toleration : Let them alone until the harvest. hence taken for sign of as tares because of their profession. and hurtful unto it is Now whereas pleaded that these tares are like ths is wheat. ' Hence were the witnesses of barrenness: Infelix lolium et steriles Christ. the Original word Zitavia.

that when men still are discovered and ^ to be hypocrites. yet. I answer. Peace. when was that the householder gave charge them alone. 73 came to the householder about them. that the servants first complained of the tares to the or householder. ver« Tl^e scripture holds forth no such time wherein they doubted or suspected what they were. 26. tares being notoriously So that these known to be different from the . and were known known to be tares which should imply by this interpreHypocritical j tation of the answerer. Peace. in the church of the Lord Jesus. . there is also. or end of the world . &c. which wheat. and which are tares and cockle. ' that seed of both having been sown. as the it answerer implies. Tie false and counter'?" ''^':'^"„ tians appear until the corn was in the blade. the hypocrite &c. the one appeared as soon as the other. ^^ for SO the word it. I answer: search into the parable. ?he?™e^and and put forth themselves. and safety. as doubtless the answerer will grant. but doubted whether they were wheat or Secondly. which is contrary to all order. the tares also were as early. It may be said they did not appear to be tares its fruit. every husband- man can teU. is all may know but before hypocrites be manifested by fruits they are unknown. when the wheat appeared and put forth its blade and fruit. or unlikeness. such a generation ofChriBtians. It manifested. wherein the servants could not tell what to make of them. piety. but after that they appeared. and ask it when was in sight. may be then said. to let tares. or appeared Secondly. . the servants 27.OF PERSECUTION DISCUSs'd. I say such a dissimilitude. and put forth clearly carries •/ Truth. such a dissimilitude. True : so when him. that as soon as the tares. and wheat are sprung up to blade is and fruit. but when they appeared came there being no interim. hypocrites in the church must be let alone and tolerated until the harvest.

in the world. the Hypocrites in the world. which are anti-christians. false Lord Jesus had sown the good enemy. must they not and no longer. Yea. and these must be tolerated until discovered. ignorance. and brought enough. &c. as soon seed. Si- sea of wild beasts innumerable. else it. These strange professors of the name of Jesus the ministers and prophets of God beholding. the in the night of slept. in which both wheat and tares are sown. or a In the charch. lies in Two The world wickedness. It is like up with the com. true Christianity. more like to . saith he... 1. that that was between them whilst they are commonly and generally were both in the blade. Neither is it true. which. I conclude that they cannot here be intended by the Lord Jesus to signify secret hypocrites. children of the kingdom. For they be a special weed. fornicators.74 THE BLOUDY TENENT com. . but go out of as In which world. unto harvest. they are ready to ruh to heaven to fetch fiery judgments from thence to consume ' ["It is not true that Zitavia did not discern the tares from the signifieth all those weeds that grow wheat.^ CHAP. which are false Christians. 40. out of which God chooseth and sorts of hypocrites. 2. they did not suspect them at all by reason of the great likeness barley.] Cotton's known as soon as they appear." Reply. calleth his church. covetous. or the true church. but more open and apparent sinners. and error. security.. till the blade was sprung up. or false Christians. I take interpretation of the field. Satan. The tares XXL from the Lord Jesus's own cannot signify hypocrites. p. forth fruit. churches and these the Lord Jesus will have let alone.. as Judas. presently. with whom cities. is like a wilderness. whilst men sowed also these tares. the servants of the husbandman .. . &c. is the world. idol- mon Magus aters. The second reason why these tares cannot signify hypo- crites in the church. tares . growing up chiefly amongst the wheat. God's people may lawfully converse live and cohabit in ever the towns.

than to and anti-christian- speak of Christ as dying for the world.^ would so open Truth. It is true. until the end of the world. by a greater and harder. the light and love that is in when he would purposely teach and instruct his scholars. when he p. that anti-christ anti-christians. but. the Lord Jesus Christ. Rev. &c. It is them them and ity. Christ will it eth the field to be the world. and that one difficulty or lock should be opened -. ? Contrary also to the way Jesus. ^ expound™ of should be closer shut up. should be tolerated in the world. by the name of the world. but he princes. to call not the will of Christ. 16. 17. xvii.OF PERSECUTION DISCUSs'd. by an 2. as he professedly doth. until the time of the end of the world. shall be eternally separated each from other. 43. 41. whore. You know some ." throughout the world If ' ton's Reply. to hate the meant not the wide world. expoundput into the hearts of faithful [" I . and ° lastly. Satan sowed but he sowed 3. the meek Lamb a God for Jew and — the elect's sake which must be gathered out Gentile. contrary to the nature of parables and similitudes. the tares and wheat. For God . Peace. usual trope. in God's in the church wisdom of Christ to call his elect churches and saints throughout the world.] * the field should be the world. to the nature of the church or garden of Christ. when the goats and sheep. the church the world. and to pluck 75 roots them by the out of the world. . nil-m callmg the world the church of.9 But who can imagine that the wisdom of Father. dead and ' this field of the ^''°. field.42. living. in fulness of time. them. and the tares anti-christians it is [" It is no impeachment to the and false Christians: true. excellent worthies.^^'*''y most. . anti-christian —commands permission of them in the world.] <^ed for his church. It is no more an improper speech. gene- have laboured to turn world into wsewnterSuroh. pp." lb. to leave her desolate and Cot- fee church scattered naked. . parable. as that it the this JeBu^ti* hj\a."'^ the garden of the church. of of But the Son of man. pagan.^\eV. these strange Chiistians.

like the stony. or church. well as the honest and good ground and I suppose will not now be said by the answerer. are all those sorts of ground ers. and being forced. unless they be forced by the civil sword. to wit. the honest and good ground. the who cast the seed of KersoT the world.°irpr"o- never come near the church. in the sorts of bad grounds were hypocrites. but to church members. XXII. Four messengers of Christ are the sowers. and but one word of the kingdom upon four sorts of ground.sorts of hearers ? growing up to years become some of And yet he them like the highway side. or seed. the Lord Jesus compared the We. — ^if not so.76 THE BLOUDY TENENT CHAP. i i i Aud the propcr work of the church concerns the flourish/» ought to be HijtSQ Tor XI16 ing and prosperity of this sort of ground. as I prove afterward. and preached seldom to any. till they For is it not the proper work of the church. and of the church. The scope of the para- In the former parable.^ • ["1. then they sow the seed of the word fom. others 3. It is was the minister of the circumcision. that those three tares. Did not Christ preach and to all those give occasion of rejection. and not the Other unconvei'ted three sorts . kingdom of heaven sorts of to the sowmg . field of In the : the world. they are put into a way of religion by such a course religion shall . . it may be. they are forced to live without a : for one of the two must necessarily 'follow. members of the church of Israel children of church 2. cannot be -n supposed to bp of the church. nor will it ever be proved • i t^^* t^c church cousistcth of any more sorts or natures of auy°tjfh"ai the church. i . stony and thorny ground hear. Tvhich word grouud properly but one. seldom or ^rewMiig sion. as it highway hearers. theSihdom come'" "Which four sorts of ground. then. which the pattern or first sower never used the church. to brmg on the children to become the sincere people ground. &c the work of tiie church to seek the changing of the bad into the good If the in the members be church. or hearts of men. n the'^church who. rm ine true . ^ -.

pp. ne tares pSiy to^'s^g- nor corrupt practices. in the true church. I third place. or approved or countenanced. he propound this parable of the tares. ver. neither being erroneous doctrines. anti-christians. evidently and in particular [and] pro- prove that these tares can be no other sort of sinners but false worshippers. of God ? . to wit. they must be (not let alone. the angels. intended by the Lord Jesus in this parable. therefore. in the ciiristians. perly. that unto the end of the world. resemblance between highway-side is whether they should pluck up weeds out of the highway-side. with glad and honest hearts. then. who. but) the world. as tween tares and wheat.OF PERSECUTION DISCUSs'd. they shall bind gives direo- them into bundles. then at that time. Then. There is not such tlie servants ever ask the question. having received the word of the kingdom. with admirable co- herence and sweet consolation to the honest and good ground. These tares. gives direction concerning these tares. 77 that great '^^^^l^^if °f"'°**'^pleased to Now after the Lord Jesus had propounded is leading parable of the sower and the seed. shall. he gives to his own good seed this consolation ^^ ^^^^^ : that those heavenly reapers. . 4. by the help of the same Lord Jesus. will take an order and course with them. and cast them consolation to his ser- into the everlasting burnings. may yet seem to be discouraged and troubled with so false professors of the many anti-christians and name of Christ. and to their consolation make the cup of™'''^- run over. idolaters. shall the righteous shine forth as the sun in the kingdom of their Father. successively in the sorts and generations of them. he adds." ton's ground and good ground. &c. or parabie°of''' end of the world. 44. permitted in Secondly. in the harvest. The Lord all Jesus. 43. 45. . be- Cot- Nor would Reply.] . nor hypocrites.

and given to a nation that will bring forth the fruits thereof. ver. are the good seed. according 12. The children of the kingdom. . the children of the wicked one.78 THE BLOUDY TENENT CHAP. then. and therefore. good wheat. the enemy that soweth them The ' original here tov Trovnpov. 38. agrees with that. as also jects of the Lord Jesus Christ. fomoniarth church! ° viii. visibly so appearing. 43. when worships. saith he. is the : for the He that soios the good is Son of man. Jesus seems to make them distinct seed. or wickedness is the devil. will-w-orshippers. First. all visible church in covenant with the other nations followed other gods and plain is And more that fearful threatening. then. these tares are such sinners as are opposite and contrary to the children of the kingdom. which were then the only Lord. which are threatened to be cast out. p. visibly so Now the kingdom of declared and manifest. idolaters. Matt. members. Which Lord wicked one I take not to be the devil. and subties. his church and kingdom: these tares and all other. the world. is the visible church of Christ Jesus. seein to be the Jews.] should be opposite to them but they. not truly but falsely submitting to Jesus : and in especial. tares. the field . . as are the disciples. These tares are not such 2. Thedistine- Such. the good seed are the children the children of the kingdom but the tares are . xxi. The tares were not discerned at sinners as are contrary to the chil- first till the blade was sprang up. for then none brouglit forth fruit. as are opposite to these. children thTwhS™ of *^® kingdom. 45. Luke [" 1. such are the . and dren of the kingdom . consequentlv." Cotton's Reply. of the wicked.' Matt xxi 43' ^°^ below to Matt. The kingdom of God shall be taken from you. XXIII.

are opposite to God's children. Answ. such an opposition as properly fights against the religious state. unclean persons. kingdoms — their states. such. but seasonably to be suppressed. civil First. towns. neither aught of that kind ought to be let alone. magistrates. lot to be perpetually tolerated. opposite to the children of the kingdom and the righteous- ness thereof. governors. Rom. magistrates are to judge. whom he he Let them alone. kingdoms. pimishments. Civil maglB' God hath armed evil doers. families. nor nor lasclvlousness. and weapons being all of a civil nature . in civil state. 4j 79 or wickedness Deliver ys airo tov TrQvripov. towns. xili.from evil. Secondly. masters. It is true. to punish tracy from the begin- ning of the worid. It is manifest that the Lord Jesus in this parable intends no other sort of sinners: unto saith. both In Christian and state. CHAP. and accordingly to punish such sinners as transgress against the good and peace of their civil state. nor quarrelling. murder. Peace. that fathers. and therefore neither disDifenders igainst the Jivil obedience to parents or magistrates. laws. stealing nor laws extortion. uncleanness. cities. y^ . thieves. XXIV. that all drunkards. as may best conduce to the public safety. In church or state. either In lesser or greater families. &c. of whose actions fathers. cities. of the Lord Jesus Christ. xi. Their opposition here against the chilis dren of the kingdom. or worship.. Is.OF PERSECUTION DISCUSs'd. From the beginning of the world. governments. for then should contradict other holy and blessed ordinances for the punishment of offenders. Truth. masters. .

. the church of Jesus Christ. Thirdly. are spirit- ual and of a soul nature. Christ. the heavenly reapers at the Neither is true that anti-chris- * [" it anti-christian persons.80 Srinlhe*' THE BLOUDY TENENT Again. nor the spiritual estate. are the angels. Rev. what if any . I conclude that these are false of another nature — idolaters. whose officers. ferei " punishments. should such an apostate to anti-christian superstition one by any ordinance of Christ be alone in the civil let and idolatry. after the image of him that hath sown them. &c. to be let alone . p. nance of world.] them alone ? Besides. laws. XXV. cSjIsus kingdom. unto whom these tares referred. and permitted in the world to grow and fill up the measure of their sins. worshippers. ought to bear with evil. until the great harvest shall tians make the difference. in the kingdom of Christ Jesus.* CHAP. and out of conscience to the periors. and peace ought to be let alone . the obstinate in sin spiritually stoned to death.g officers. The great reapers are tne angels. the old leaven purged out. the end of the the command of their su- For what a Christian members of church shall some of them if should seek to destroy the king and parliament. covetous. who without discouragement to true Chris- must be let alone. he will not have anti-christian idolaters. 47. extortioners. secondly. them that are sinners anti-christians. doth the ordinance of state?" Cotton's Christ bind the hands of the church to let Reply. but the unclean and lepers to be thrust forth. this and put away from Israel. state. 2. if neither offenders against the civil laws. ii. weapons. in that the j^j. out of real to tians are to be let alone till by the ordi- the catholic cause. and gentle by many degrees of admonition in private and public. as the case requires. Therefore.

but purged out by the governors of the church. it is clear as 81 the light that. yet are lawful governors and rulers in civU things. cannot signify hypocrites in the church who. Accordingly. as these tares must. they could not signify hypocrites in the church.* Again.OF PERSECUTION DISCUSs'd. are not to be let alone to the angels at harvest. in that the plucking up of these tares out of this field must be it let is alone unto the very harvest or end of the world. is murder. adultery. 49. mutiny. as before." hypocrites. when they first are discovered to be tares. but only may soon root out. for ever to be connived at. and Abiram. whose dealing with is not suspended unto the coming of the angels. Joab. when they are discovered and seen to be tares. who. some- such. that to garden. who either walk inordinately time or other. but [permitted] unto men. who. and every brother that walketh disorderly to be withdrawn or separated from. although they know not the Lord Jesus Christ. by robbery. David for a season ^J^^J™^. p. Otherwise they [" Not every hypocrite. as these tares were discovered to be not to be suffered. they cannot be offenders against the civil state and common welfare. Dathan. p. these tares . are so. and the whole church of Christ. Adonijah. apparent from thence. last day. but to be rejected." lb. in the fourth and last place. the best wheat in God's field. Moses for a while held his peace against the sedition Jho twea CO to be tolerated of Korah. 48. without a calling. ness who sometimes lose their fat- hypocrites.® So likewise no offender against the civil state. that. sedition. But till the harvest. opposite to the good fruit of the good seed. after the and second admonition. °°"' ' [" Let it be again denied. or idly and negligently iu his calling. and to enjoy a perpetual toleration unto the world's end.] and the sweetest flowers in the . when they appear be and sweetness for a season. oppression. or end of the world. as before.] ' the government of the church."' tolerated Shimei. are to be purged out by Cotton's Reply.

the Lord himself knows who his elect are his.] . itself against and so to defend hell. XXVI.and ^^^ guard. able to 4. Now .'' the very gates of earth or Thirdly. able to content and satisfy our hearts to bear " [" But what if their worship and to civil ofcivil civil leaven the whole is lump ? How then consciences incite them safe the safety of the church guarded?" fences ? state How shall then the with a lb. as tares opposite to Christ's king- some hundred thouEnliBh^**"' dom. break down the strongest holds. let their worship and consciences be tolerated. that in the mean season they may do a world of mischief before the world's end. that as the civil state keeps itse¥ with ^ civil offences Strurof ^ Enro'pe. lonff.] ^ keep itself ["The elect of God shall be sword ' V Cotton's Reply. weapons and ammux.^ ^ Secondly. SO. or chosen cannot perish nor be finally deceived. in this parable. lays down two reasons. or king- dom. whereon hang a thousand nition. there bucklers. city. and corruption of the people of God. 4. &c. if any imagine that the time or date is b7 these tares aasoiled. in case these tares shall attempt aught it let again st the peace and welfare of such trueTn the be puuishcd . the Lord Jesus here. and armories. the Lord never intended that any but these spiritual and mystical tares should be so permitted.^ Lastly. Lamentable experience First. hath laws. p. I auswer. and his foundation remaineth sure. and yet. p. p. SO. 2 Cor.] if their saved: but yet if idolaters and se- [" But members be lea- ducers be tolerated— the church will stand guilty before tion vened with anti-christian idolatry and God of the seduc- superstition." lb. as by infection. CHAP. iv. the church. or spiritual state.82 THE BLOUDY TENENT or end of the world. and orders. so tolerated. SO. and yet must be tolerated — will not a little leaven. Cant. The danger of infection Truth.

out of this world by such bloody storms and tempests. and specially [for] kings and governors. then those holy . Firstj lest the good wheat be plucked up and rooted up If such combustions all also out of this field of the world. that in the peace peace : of the civil state they may have so. wherein they were captivated. and 1 Tim. are generally plucked up and persecuted. 1. to pray for aU men. woijld be blessed of God to their recovery and healing. yea. drunk with the cup of the whore's fornication. only means to preserve their obedience to this and that without it command of Christ. therefore. God.11 G 1-1 and mighty sins of the Amorites.S3 patiently this their contradiction and anti-christianity. to pray for the peace of material Babel. fastf asleep in anti-christian Delilah's lap. and to permit or let them alone. SI.^ And.2. Lord spake of the Gen. in the sins of anti- christianism (as the . the good wheat. " ["There is no fear of plucking up the wheat. God's people. and fightings were of the little as to pluck up the false professors name of Christ. this : when is ripe in sin." Cotton's Reply. which at the patience of may is any man from wondering the world . XV. the good wheat also would enjoy peace. is impossible (without great transgression against the Lord in carnal policy. as well as the vilest idolaters.] 2 . oincers ef The and gi-eat dreadftil and harvest. by rooting out idolaters and seducers— the censures inflicted (upon God's people). whether Jews or anti-christians seems in this parable to foretel. : which the Lord Jesus The second satisfy reason noted in the parable. 7. which will not long hold out) to preserve the civil peace. obedience to the command of Christ to let the tares alone will prove the civil peace. as God's people are commanded. Beside. ii. xxix. but be in danger to be plucked up and torn Jer. 16). contrary to the opinion and practice of most. and of God's own people. p.

. 2 Thess. not the magistrates of the ci^ state. and and ever. the THE BLOUDY TENENT angels. ii. which is poured out without mixture into the cup of his indignation. p. and his all that worship the beast and his picture.] &c. extortioners. . Truth. XXVII. I shaU be briefer in the scriptures following. and therefore this charge of the ' toleration [« It would as well plead for the of murderers. the smoke of their torment shall ascend up for ever Eev. [8]. as I said as also. it is of such great consequence many excellent hands have not rightly divided to the great misguiding of many precious feet. and bundle them up for the everlasting burnings. and he shall be tormented with fire and brimstone of the in the presence of the holy angels. Peace.. robbers. which otherwise might have been turned into the paths of more peaceableness in themselves and towards others.' Then shall that man of sin. before. and in the presence Lamb. shall drink of mark the wine of tlie wrath of God. SI. because so it. and that is These the householder answereth. shaU down with them. be consumed by the breath of the mouth of the Lord Jesus. xiv. with their sharp and cutting sickles of eternal vengeance. ture from the violence offered unto because. You have been larger in vindicating this scripit. I must crave : <S« (7m not spoken your patience to Servants to whom one objection. for all these will the mighty angels gather into bundles. CHAP. 10. and receive into their forehead or their hands. 11. adulterers. rf''Sh'y P^'^'^^' Yet before you depart from satisfy this.» Cotton's Reply.84 executioners. seem to bp nfters'f" thecM ^^^ i^nisters or messengers of the gospel. &c.

or S'^ Testament. in their persons holy and precious. Spirit in the apostles aSd the"' - how few magistrates. v. magistrates m the _ _ apostate first persecuted jBvcr since. to let alone false Jjjif^tere o? worshippers and idolaters. and therefore not to the ' governor. first. professing the name of churches and Christians in the field of the world. and iv. In the state apostate. S^Jpei™"^ followers of his to hold the place of civil magistracy. but SeKomaf Holy . **" ^"'^"^ Again. . I conceive not the reason of this to be. iii. children. secondly. I answer. yea. &c. Colos. as they have done expressly concerning the duty of fathers. . to self or civil magistrate. by him- io. ?^?jat^'™' was expressly spoken to the messengers or ministers oi^^^^l^ the gospel. and of subjects towards magistrates. yet as concerning their places. either state. Ephes. masters. as they have professed to have . I believe I have sufficiently and abundantly proved. hand.85 Lord Jesus is not given to magistrates. servants. or commonwealth. hypocrites in the church. being spoken by the Lord Jesus to his messengers. or world. Let them ahne. and not false worshippers in the state. 1 or apostated state of Christianity. who have no civU power or authority in their and masters. Nor. and vi. and why. mothers. to give particular rules or directions civil concerning their behaviour and carriage in magistracy. Truth. because the Lord Jesus would not have any rather that he foresaw. would embrace his yoke. or Christianity. In the persecuted hated the very name of Christ. and the foresaw. ' & kmg. as some weakly a twofold state of •^ have done. that these tares are not offenders in the civil state. cSi''iiI'4 whom it pleased not the Lord Jesus. Secondly. . it seems to concern hypocrites in the church. some few magistrates. when once discovered so to be and that therefore the Lord Jesus intends a grosser kind of hypocrites. by his apostles. as before was spoken. I acknowledge this command.

86 THE BLOODY TENENT been governors or heads of the church. and in them all that succeed them. Luke ix. ^ 1 1. of what sort or religions soever. the and servants." n ^ ' Jeremy had a commission to * plant and build. to pluck '^ ^P ^^^ destroy kingdoms. prayer to God's people not to praj '" "^ God r^ -t for their present temporal destruction. 2 Tim. ii. a present destruction or extir* L" Certain it is from the word of princes must perform God. . 63. Christ. . but let them alone. &c. being Commanded not to pluck up the tares..received from the Lord Jesus a threefold charge. 2 Kings And the apostles desired also so to practise against the Samaritans. threefold that prohibi. I conceive this charge of the Lord Jesus to his messengers. God's messengers are herein commanded not to prophecy. that the anti christian kingdom without prayer. and churches of Christ. whole natiou bv prayer. Jer. 7. make question what were his duty concerning spiritual things. Lament. contrarily. or denounce. xiv. the preachers and proclaimers of his mind. 66. fire from heaven to consume the captains and the i. p. i brought fifties. i. Secondly. but for their peace and salvation. J S^ J ^ ^ . and he plucks up the . are to pray for all men. Jer. have been so many false heads. is a sufficient declaration of the if any civil magistrate should mind of the Lord Jesus. Thirdly. or this great it work truth. to let them alone.t. And either such Cotton's Reply.J . whatever city it be. For. 10.." the world. Jer. because in the peace of the place God's people have peace also. and not to pluck them up by them alone. they must pray for their desolation before they inflict it. The apostles. therefore he is comsent ram God had a tkin ofidS-" manded not to pray for that people whom though their persecutors. and have constituted so many false visible Christs. in. purposc to pluck up. and then sanctified to sanctified to were not shall be destroyed and rooted up by end of Christian princes and states long before the great harvest of the if it be a sacrifice God. but were saints. 54. xxix. and to seek the peace of the city. . reproved by the Lord Jesus. Ihus Lilian J t-. especially for all magistrates.. Let First.

both in against blas- phemers. The denounce present or speedy destruction to external equity of that judicial law of any murderers. xxiv. 16. It is the many Roman sore and fearful plagues are poured forth upon emperors and Roman popes in the Revelation. and apostate idolaters se- phemy such as fall under their . 64. .] " eth all princes to express that zeal t" It is and indignation. true. of the name of which are whole towns. as I have already and shall further manifest.* ' [« It might as truly be said the ducing others to idolatry. to punish and persecute all such persons out of their dominions and territories as worship not the true God. according to the revealed will of thus stirred up God Ahab in Christ Jesus. governors. xxiv. . It is true. Elijah to kill all the priests and prophets of Baal . stirring up emperors. but that was in that figurative state of the land of Canaan. Thirdly. kings. are • not the messengers of the Lord Jesus to pour forth. . pation of all false professors cities. throughout his chaps. that bias- Moses was of moral force. 87 ChriBt. Such denunciations of present temporal judgments.^' p™°it°"Sp* '""«''''"" Jeremy did thus pluck up kingdoms.OF PERSECUTION DISCUSs'd. v. two-edged sword and power of the Lord Jesus. prophecies he poured forth against all the nations of the world. &c.^ in those fearful ^5^°^^. as did also the other prophets in a measure." Cotton's moral equity. or general courts. . should be ministers of Christ ^are forbidden to put to death. though none comparably to Jeremy and Ezekiel. or assemblies. as that church of Israel did corporally. xxv. &c. p. xxvi. and bind- Reply. antiSs-" parliaments. Levit.... and not pluck them up. I conceive God's messengers are charged to let f^^'f *'„"jj them alone. and kingdoms fuU. not to J)e matched or paralleled spiritual state or by any other all state. by exciting and^P^™'[|j civil magistrates. putting p^^ u g the false prophets and idolaters spiritually to death by the i cor. but the j church of Christ in the world. yet not to their utter extirpation or plucking up until the harvest.

rallers. but expressly shows the difference between the church and the world. hot of permission of either. speaks * Lawful cottverse with idolaters in . 55. in case 1 Cor. or Cotton's Reply. It we may not company in converse with idolaters. we aters. notwithstanding. v. with whom it is not lawful to have converse in spirituals: secretly withal foretelling. who are to be punished by the civil —why not idolaters also? for although the subject sell. the good wheat.] else Elijah. 1 Cor. and too. should be idolatrous and antichristian. I answer. the saints and churches of God might lawfully cohabit. just power. as have conceived themselves the true messengers of the Lord Jesus. in this scripture. yet the civil magistrates nevertheless be justly blamed in suffering of them. Truth. and hold civil converse and conversation. whom they have judged tares. idolatry.butnbi in spirituB L things. the apostle. &c. Peace. hath also been plucked up. may be said. and the lawfulness of conversation with such persons in civil things. must go out of the world. whole states and kingdoms. buy and shall and live with such. as drunkards. p. some sword sorts of sinners are there mentioned. Oh how I contrary unto this command of the Lord Jesus have such. by his consent. I Dangerom and ungrounded have and shall speak at large. but have provoked kings and kingdoms (and some out of good intentions and zeal to God) to prosecute and persecute such even unto death! as all ages laid Amongst whom world God's people.diBcueBed. too oft the upon bloody heaps Ahab to in civil or and intestine desolations some others. which neglected." and against seduction which Ahab executed.. 10. in all ages. v. may lawfully converse. not let such professors and prophets alone. that magistrates and people. . yet with whom. and histories testify. extortioners.j eiTil. Concerning their permission of what they judge idolatrous.88 Companyiug with idol- THE BLOUDY TENENT And theMore civil Balth Paul expressly. Peace.

agaitist the civil state. Thirdly. The field is properly the world. The field in which these tares are sown. but for common good. and by prayer. affirmatively: First. parable Spirit to the conscience. l^Trutk. but persons. This permission or suffering of them in the field of the world. in this brief been said. were this command of the Lord Jesus obeyed. Thirdly. All which would be prevented. or prophecy. in life and convernot sation. opposite to the good seed of the kingdom. XXVIII. scandalous offenders. Again. are anti-christian idolaters. or commonwealth. the civil state. sum and recapitulation of what hath by the evident demonstration of God's have proved. Fifthly. dnd the greatest breaches made up in the peace of our own or other countries. . Fourthly. to wit. The Nor tares here cannot signify scandalous offenders in the church. as was affirmed. The tares cannot signify hypocrites in the church.89 on this occasion. is not for hurt. I First. The tares here intended by the Lord Jesus. negatively. I hope. to let them alone until the harvest. to pluck them up before the harvest. is the church. CHAP. The ministers or messengers of the Lord Jesus ought to neither seek let them alone to live in the world.'] I shall conclude this controversy about thia parable. That the tares in this cannot signify doctrines or practices. true Christians. either undiscovered or discovered. FoTirthly. Secondly. Secondly.

" That it makes nothing was spoken to his private disciples. 14. the civil i. and yet notwitheven gather- standing. that the patience of man ought to be exercised toward them. The patience of God is. that is. 14 . magistrate to his duty : which if it had been an ordinance of God and Christ. or the . Unto which. and both should into the ditch.i." it and not to public officers in Truth. XXIX. either for the vindicating of Christ's •j_ai»i doctrine. the let Lord Jesus comfall — them. and relating how they were offended manded his disciples to reason at him. and gives this ^that the blind lead the blind. ^"* °°* *^ meddle with them—it appears it was no ordi- pfefto^thf Sale forieip in his cause. and have complained to. of the apostles. not only not to be offended themselves. : because church or state and also. in by his assertion of the privacy that the Lord Jesus commanding to let to pass — them nevertoecT- alone. or regarding the offence which the Pharisees took. by the mighty in the end of the world. and excited.90 THE BLOUDY TENENT of even for the good of the good wheat./. or the recovering of the Pharisees. because it is made. answer to the cause. tne second controyerted Peace. doom is fearful at the harvest. The second scripture brought against such jr per^ o o is secution for cause of conscicncB. nance of God. Matt. XT. bundling. nor Christ. and everlasting burnings. I answer. alone. hand of the angels CHAP. where cause? the disciples being troubled at the Pharisees' carriage toward the Lord Jesus and his doctrines. was spoken in regard of troubling themselves. Matt. their ing. Lastly. xv. the people God. for the disciples to have gone further.

" p. _ first. Truth. but ignorant and opposite judges. Paul. . _ that pmi's appealing to '''*^"' stumbHng-block which many =" _ fall at. that was merely in respect of his civil wrongs.. p. or offences of death. he could not in common sense do unto Csesar as a competent ju%e in such cases. which Paul For neither was the doctrine fundamental offence against a denied. in matters of Christ. Besides. itself but church offences. . Paul's appeals ' '^^ ing to Caesar . 91 preserving of others from infection. And therefore. sees. nor Herod. own apostleship or in which regard. 57. or any such like that nature. that neither the Roman Cfflsar.OF PERSECUTION DISCUSs'd. to them were not only against Christ's wholesome doctrine. it nor was their error. as well as in against Csesar.. if he should comlb.^ ' ["It was no just cause for the ' ["Paul's appeal to Cassar. to wit. XXX. for that they took unjust oifence The wrongs civil. this removes. to wit. a fundamental against the law of God. or of Christ. and wherein he should have also denied his office. . they servant of Christ. .. and false accusations of sedition^ &c. he would not refuse 59. an offender matters of religion.] Cotton's Reply. against the though the civil it was dangerous. he was higher than Caesar himself his appeal — ^it must needs follow." about the same. which since.* CHAP. and to it had been in vain to have made complaint them who were not fit and competent. knew aught of the true Grod. the Lord Jesus would never have commanded them to omit that which should have tended to these holy ends. It may be said. nor Pilate. as to civil matters be worthy of blished about doctrines. A man may in be such truth. •' by the way. magistrates had no law esta- church. I answer. . Peace. could take no judicial cognizance of mit any such offence.] any complaint presented to them judgment unto death. was civil magistrate to punish the Phari- about the wrongs done unto the Jews.

power the preventing and the redressing of evil \ I ' and where stops in any. and the clearing of themselves. as to suppress heresies. by the sufferings of . complaining unto the magistrate against such every person is evils. like filth or mud. had it been the holy purpose of God to have established the doctrine and kingdom of his Son this way.] the same . could as easily still have been. if he so pleased. and be furnished with legions of good and gracious magis- trates to this [" end and purpose. and runs not lie.^ It is ' We do not say. Foi" for it bound to go as far as lies in his . there the guilt. defend the faith of one is hound Jesus. himseitto jiguorant. . and by the bloody swordg will dnd purpose of God to establish of persecuting magistrates: it is the doctrine and kingdom of his Son the duty of magistrates to . &c. had been bound have performed the jduty of faithful subjects. listrat'eB! if kingdoms.92 Stes^OTer b?^God'de' THE BLOUDY TENENT Secondly. For it is his will also and submit to it. the holy his^saints. will Thirdly. cities... and the JLord to and iT'i 111-1 God'^bSsiwhlre"t'' gldit Christ himself. yet i Herod. powcrs and magistrates as should have been excellently fit and competent for he that could have had 'legions of : angels. to wit. . to put forth .. with such temporal Ee had 80 appointed. Pilate were wicked. their thrones and crowns to magnify his power in establishing &c.. that all ^i'"! magistrates were bound to judge in causes spiritual twluh of or Christian. by evil." Cotton's Reply. opposite.. but know only this way. acknowledge his kingdom. 61. for the preventing of further wm He. the Son. the disciples. easily haTe" nished"with ^^^ce his coming he would have furnished commonweals. clear. and so to have left the matter upon the magistrates' care and conscience. although that Caesar. by the help of civil authority. p. then and since. if it had been an ordinance of God.

as ^^ God's Israel still have ever been restless ^ivis in la with God for an arm of flesh. that is. and doth stillj and will hereafter stir up kings and queens.OF PERSECUTION DISCUSs'd. xlix. appear to be I answer. may in not punish. that place of far Isa. and protectors of it. that Jesus the antitype. it was in one respect that the it - said. God gave them Saul in his in his wrath: and God hath anger. a king. takes 'away in his wrath anger. are subject civil the church and censures of superior. &c. for and outward I add. God will take away such : on whom is. God's Israel of old were earnest with God for fa°*'|J™ti o7flMh. that God hath in former times. Let them alone . people visible power only. for an arm of other nations had : flesh. for a king to protect them. 61. because to was no ordi- [" We do not allege that place in be providers for the chui-ch's well- Isaiah. to prove kings and queens to being. to In spiritual things. stays. XXXI." Thirdly. but Reply. It is generally said.] be judges of ecclesiastical causes. to be of Saul's spirit. saints. in his own spiritual power for hands of the advanced. 23. in his wrath that king David. although respects How shall those kings and queens be supreme governors of the church. and took him away given many a Saul in his an arm of flesh in the way of his providence all though I judge not ' persons whom Saul in his calling I speak of a state typed out." Cotton's p. God's Christ in the rest. they themselves it. and yet lick the dust of the church's feet ? as it is there expressed. 93 CHAP. . may spiritually and ever be And therefore Lord Jesus • I conclude. will from proving such kings and queens judges of eccle: siastical causes and if not judges.

and that in so many fearful the blindness of the soul and of the body were a little compared together —whether we look at that want whether we look at the in the of guidance. by just judgment from God. and misery of the and soul blindness souls incurable. in spiritual- to all eternity. So spake the Lord . which the light of the eye affordeth. and desperately obstinate.iB First. in four re- for the present their punishment deferred. shame. command both respects if the right and left eye of their bodies to be ° bored or plucked out . gaith the Lord. and that in these four respects CHAP. which blindness brings to the outward man : and much more true want of the former. or damage. yet the epects. though they break not civil peace. false teachers are •' worse tiiaa right°andiett bodjr°to God's sword hath struck out the right eye gtark blind. or the want of joy and pleasure. ten thousand timcs a greater punishment than if •' be the magistrate should tenthonsand times. light Let them ahne. fcarful is that Some Sccoudly. The pnnish- ment ^^^d la of Besidc. as conceiving that such sinners. Theoyeof Btruckout. let it be considered. should not ••IT. latter.94 . XXXIl. poiTpM-"' escape tn. how wound is that no balm in whom not only cor- Qilead can cure ! How dreadful that blindness which ! BpiritM"' for ever to all eye-salve is incurable For after if persons be shining nothing^" wilfully forth. ^ of their mind and spiritual understanding. deformity. THE BLOUDY TENENT nance for any disciple of Jesus to prosecute the Pharisees at Csesar's bar. let ' foj. and danger. punishment a higher on them will be found to amount to pitch than any corporal punishment in the : world beside.3 unpunished—I inflicted say. though is world. it be seriously considered by such as plead ' Phari- 'iX^" present corporal punishments.

bound to punish. incurable. of those that into this dreadful ditch. for neither can corporal or spiritual balm or physic ever heal or cure them. iv. and eternity of torments. the civil magistrate beareth not the sword in vain. is and of many whom yet the state itself. Some will say. that all is are thus Incura- ble. affliction. both leader and followers. not only of his own soul. once of Ephraim : 95 him alone. extremity. yet that sometimes that spoken by Christ Jesus to his servants to be patient. and sometimes by death Truth. by the spiritual word of God. being horrible. goodness. I say. I answer. their end is the ditch. should strike a holy fear and trembling into all that see the pit whither these blind Pharisees are tumbling. but also the ruin of the followers' souls eternally galling and tormenting. 17. that bottomless pit of f^^'^lf'™- everlasting separation from the holy and sweet presence wwch the of the Father of lights. Peace. to permit his servants to pass from and let and tolerate. which most direful and lamentable downfall. than when the Lord hath given a poor sinner over as a hopeless patient. in — end- bUnd aii. when word it is in their power corporally to molest them. upon whose neck the followers tumble — the ruin. the state of all sinners. fall to heal and cure them of this their soul-<destroying blindness. yet such malefactors. JSpkraim is joined to idols. And this I speak. universality. let Hos.OF PERSECUTION DISCUSS'd. &c. What more lamentable condition. and the . and cause us to strive. cial how deplorable in more espe- manner is the leader's case. easeless. but to cut off civil offenceSj yea. which we are wont to account a sorer than if a man were torn and racked. not that I conceive that all whom the Lord Jesus commands alone. and mercy itself less. Fourthly. Thirdly. these things are indeed is fuU of horror . so far as hope eye-salve of the may be.

and cut the throats of kings or emperors. tooth for tooth." Bloudy Teneut yet more Bloudy. he Yengeance of a dreadful judgment. Mr. in labour- ing to procure their everlasting welfare soni-kiiiing the chiefest ? Truth. : the mischief of a blind i • murder. But what is this to a blind Pharir see. or pagan. Cotton believes " it this is Reply.^ CHAP. is greater than if he acted loss of p i j and the one soul by his seduction. Peace. On or doctrine. resisting the doctrine of Christ. is a truth . &c. Pharisec's blind guidance treasons. . much meet for a private no compulsion to make laws with do we think it Christian to provoke either Jewish or pagan magistrates to compel Phari- come to church and to public worship. murders. .. of the Lord Jesus. less to profess the religion." sword Jew. and not of souls. Yea: but it is said that the blind Pharisees. Williams observes. calling for eye for life. 87. greatly sin against and therefore justly suffer civil punishments for shall the civil magistrate take care of outsides only. who haply may be as good a subject. I auswcr. suffereth the in denying him to be the true Christ. so precious is that invaluable jewel of a soul all above all the present lives and bodies of the men~ in the world And therefore I affirm. ' [" We do not hold it lawful for a sees to religion submit to the doctrine or Cotton's Christian civil magistiate to compel either Pharisee. that Mr. or by any of Christ Jesus. is a greater mischief than if he blew up parlia- ments. It . 64. and as peaceable and profitable to the civil state as any : and for his spiritual offence against the Lord Jesus. of the bodies of men. both present and eternal. p. civil state. XXXIII. calls eye. that justice.J penalties for all to . to wit.96 THE BLOUDY TENENT offendersVtoo in case. life for also soul for soul. misguiding the subjects of a a civil state. p. as before.

" H . Such a sentence no civil •' civil judge_ can pass. Yet [" When the corruption. and not one '«»* in sin. it is impossible it should be infected. 22. yet the names are taken. ditch. as the names are common plague or infection ah natural men being r. which the Lord Jesus speaks But this sentence against him. talionis calleth for.] 'ito solitary tabernacles. but the common duty of the maand to of lives. ii. andforSbut executes this sentence in part at present. or deis * [" it is struction of souls. not only every man's Eom. that 1™^- and that only is capable of infection . not one elect or chosen of shall perish. God God's sheep are safe in his eternal hand and his material. 1 Pet. Indeed the be infected living. 65. but life for life. for whose help we shall presently see what preservatives and remedies the see in a Loird Jesus hath appointed. pay in that dreadful of. tin ChristJeauB. 97 shall truly ^°t^*fjf" which the blind-guiding. ' split. Jude 4. misThe a great moat take in the world. The v^sels of wrath shall break and the praise of God's eternal justice. liberties. and calls knows also his them every one by name. seducing Phaxisee.' the%'^'ei° I answer. taken how many are to die. his spiritual judicature. ^ yet none die j^ ^'"^f g„"^" we more names shall be struck than the destroying angel hath the so of:' here. {^^""dead™ whatever be the state-religion unto which persons are^u^'deaV' forced. their numbers. to ix. and he that knows mystical stars. dead in sin. not only soul for preserve the place. death in aU eternity. ' civil state. both guide and followers. whatever be the soul-infection lips of as are there- unto ordained. lex duty. secondly. being in a natiu:al state. p. common health of the soul. breathed out from the lying a plague-sick Pharisee.OF PERSECUTION DISCUSs'X).} ply p. and hereaiter to who by typical I . . Moreover. estates gistrates to prevent mfe'otion. counsel. 8. 64. the Lord Jesus only lusoce ta™° prondunceth in his church. None fall into the ditch on the blind Pharisee's back but such as were ordained to that condemnation. a destruction also of men. the believing. '''^'J^^t such a death no sword can inflict. I Dead men cannot he infected. and only they." Cotton's Re- by removing infectious pereona lb. the church and spiritual state.

to execute Deut. seducing or evident that the civil sword was this case. . and God knows who are his.' is Hence how great ' the bondage. .98 THE BLOUDY TENENT CHAP. Let the tt-. and King of the church. as are subject to church censure. and therefore the angel is blamed seduce 10. scripture. ' that • of Titus. dangers. For he (the angel of vengeance on such an evil doer. the captivity of God's [" That hindereth not the lawful ever abrogate it in the New. It is . . 66. and of like nature. ~ sores.... Eom. yet it is not only every man's duty. and it will appear that the great and good Phy- sician. I answer. . weaknesses. Bev.. elect likewise.'' God's presence) did expressly appoint it Cotton's Reply. &c. xiii. But it is said.] in the Old Testament: nor did he . of universal and perpetual equity any apostate heretic to put to death idolater. let them. Christ Jesus. ' " and Rom. . 17. 17. 20]. civil But he never appointed the sword for either antidote or remedy. and from infection. reason is of moral. xvi. The Lord Jesus hath not left hia church withantidotes"*' diel . 67. to Christ Jesus' servants. the Head of the body. and [14. Tit. as an addition to those spirituals which he hath left with his wife. Truth. and to preserve the common health of the place. The and necessary use of a civil sword for the punishment of some such oifenees. be it granted that in a common plague or infection none are smitten and die but such as are appointed. e. . . be ex- igSnst amined. iii. his church or people. XXXIV. but the common duty of the magistrate to prevent infection. . all Avoid them that are j i i ^<^^^^^ous. of his church and people. hath not been unfaithful in providing spiritual antidotes and preservatives against the spiritual sickness. the magistrate beareth appointed for a remedy in not the sword in vain. Jezebel. ii. Reiect an heretic. >^ xvi. though the number of the be sure. Peace. yet hath he appointed means for their pre- servation from perdition. i. for suffering Balaam's doctrine. pp.

CHAP." their souls They may and H 2 . But officers. are bound to prevent soul-infection: but what hinders the magistrate should not be charged also with this duty Truth. a spiritual means for the healing of a soul that hath sinned. 99 J^i^^jf^^^ uye i^"^'" own ship. he both a temporal and spiritual ought to procure their souls. and for the preventing of the infecting of others. and that ? so the officers of the church of Christ. the charge of and soul-safety. and overseers of Christ's city or kingtheir souls. as that the prosperity of the bodies and goods of the subject. 1 Tim. 20. and : more shall. that others is. Hence Them that This may learn to foar. many things I have answered. v. in the church of Christ. &c. or taken infection. XXXV. sin rebuke before all.] state. then * ["It is a carnal and worldly. 68. religion amongst them might advance civil and to exclude them from the care of the prosperity of the Cotton's Bfiply.* that charge of Paul to Timothy. that Titus and Timothy. Peace. p. It is said true. that others may learn to fear. and indeed an ungodly imagination. people to Babylonish or confused mixtures in wor- and unto worldly and earthly : policies to uphold state- religions or worships since that which is written to the angel and church at Pergamos shall be interpreted as sent to the governor and city of Pergamos. help to and to prevent such spi- te confine the magistrates' charge to ritual evils. and that which is sent to Titus and the church of Christ at Crete to the civil officers must be delivered and city thereof. as the civil magistrate hath his charge of the bodies and goods of the subject: so have the spiritual governors.OF PERSECUTION DISCUSS'd. at present I shall only say this is If it be the magistrate's duty or office. I answer. dom.

Christ Jesus. the peace and safety of the bodies and goods of the subjects) town. — ^if together with the common charge of the commonwealth. . . unless he could say with Paul. whose right it is. in his saints. the Lord Jesus. And yet we know. statc. Adonijah. the blood of every soul J . clear from the blood of all men. who offer civil violence and injury unto them. i_ for i what i ments. chS. Abimelech. Sthe'^'V tilte Tf°^6 ^^^^^J' "^^^ were it with the civil magistrate — and most care and ^ lintolerable burdens do they lay upon their backs that souis(be8ide care°of the"^ teach this doctrine . to cleave unto them himself. citv. to break the teeth of the lions. t?a?e?to-'" I acknowledge he ought to cherish. [26. yea. the of Christ. to keep such church or Christians in the purity of worship. according to the true &^7^ pattern. and [to] such spiritual officers as he hath to this purpose deputed. Or kingdom. if this be not.100 THE BLOUDY TENENT [the] contrary to which ecclesiastical officer: Theking3 of England most men will affirm. were but^ . confusedly to punish corporal or civil civillyj will' not n n here avail • . as a foster-father. that a magistrate may is • fusion in Babel.] (in spiritual regards). proper delinquents against the temporal or civil state. also. and see them do their duty. Athalia. so far as his preaching civil went. to see aU his subjects Christians. in his truth. Acts xx. But. That doctrine and punish a heretic strange con-i j distinction. I'l iiit/» ''7^ / am !''ainBt'wm *^** perishcth should cry against him. that is. Saul. which was I his charge to look after. not the blood of bodies which belongeth to the Unagistrate. offences with corporal or temporal weapons. and to countenance them even to the death. the policy of our o own t land and country hath established to the kings and queens thereof the supreme heads or governors oi the church of t i governors of the church. the blood of souls. this belongs to the head of the body. n England. offenccs with spiritual or church censures (the offender not or to punish soul or spiritual to being a member of it).

yet were not convinced •' of the error of their way. but either with without. 24. Cotton is joins the fourth. Lnka m*. ix. : or at best with some Jews or Gentiles who. XXXVI. though carnal. The Lord must not strive. his will.. who would have had fire come down from heaven. proving if God peradventure will give them repentance that they may acknowledge the truth. scripture With this Mr. CHAP. suffering the evil men. as an evangelist. Joash. may recover themselves captive who are taken by him at Unto both gospel these scriptures it pleased him thus to answer: "Both these are directions to ministers of the church how who to deal.saying of the spirit of the gospel to convert aliens to the such ^^eS™ . s4. and devour those Samaritans that Peace. and Christians in Crete. instructing them with meek- ness that are contrary-minded and oppose themselves. seek to convert in the church. in power and J'^Jl authority in his kingdom. 55 where the Lord Jesus reproved his disciples. 55» diBcus- secution is : would not receive him. And it is . The next scripture brought against such perLuke ix. ii.OF PERSECUTION DISCUSs'd. true. they were the true his true J^'jft""''' "' and types of Christ Jesus. as the Samaritans were. usurpers heirs : 101 David. it became not faith. men many unconverted was to whom Titus. -An excellent . and answers both in one. which servant of the all this. Solomon. not with obstinate offenders in the sin against conscience. what men's spirit lives. and that they out of the snare of the devil. 54. &c. the Son of man not come to destroy but to save them. but must be gentle toward men. 2 Tim. in these words is : You know not of you are.

I shall take in pieces. if no civil offence against the civil state be committed."^ CHAP. ° is [« The matter of this answer. and a sufficient censure and punishment. it 38. or private conference. which is not here questioned. not against conscience. as either had not yet entered into church fellowship. did hitherto sin of ignorance. . when he-. become scandalous either in life or much less do they speak at to the civil magistrate. 114. p.^p . both then and now. some haste. nor can I any copy that under might self. nor to deal harshly in public ministry. p. 74.. it was given by me. sleepy likely enough. that Mn den™° hindcreth not the ministers of the gospel to proceed in a church way against scandalous offenders. with all such several nainded men. But neither of both these texts do hinder the minister of the gospel to proceed in a church way against church members." Cotton's Reply. should speak ^. disciplcs lor their rash and ignorant bloody zeal (Luke - First. all when they doctrine. See ante. offenders. for suiteth with my sion.] wherein the discusser observeth. wherein so many The answerer things and so doubtful are wrapt up and entangled his together." Bloody Tenent yet more Bloody. This perplexed and ravelled answer. I did express my- some places with his own hand. it own apprehenBut some down. Williams "It is at hand for Master Cotton or any to see that cor- expressions in laying copy which he gave forth and rected in not own. and every word verbatim here published. p. . or if they had. replies. my testify own how handwriting. XXXVII. I do find Mr. especially in a word or two. Concerning that of the Lord Jesus rebuking ix..102 as the THE BLOUDY TENENT Samaritans were. &c.. by fire and brimstone. in cap. Truth. but maintained to be the holy will of the Lord. 22. ™ns''to^pnn- <i6siring corporal destruction upon the Samaritans for tfe^tareh!" refusing the Lord Jesus. the answerer affirmeth. and light.). attention.

the civil magistrate also to inflict corporal punishment upon the contrary- minded:*' whereas. corporal punishments upon such as P. seeing the whole argument No nor fill such thought arose in fell my heart. standing surprise as to the Mr. " Much less doth this speak at the civil magistrate. : for otherwise he should not destroying men's ''°'*'''- not know. inflict from a my pen—that it is lawmagistrate to book is to show that heretics may be • for civil lawfully punished by the civil magis trate. First. Btripes. but to save both bodies and magistrate being a 1 Secondly. from heaven. Lastly. 55. Cor. puts upon the words con^rory-mmifed. this also concerns the conscience of the civil magistrate. Cotton of his the same state the Samaritans did. that to procure or mnict any »ny other corporal judgment. 56. he is disciple. a of God. in the hands of his spiritual governors. and to be ignorant of the sweet end of the coming of the Son of man. or hold forth. if the civil magistrate be a Christian. saith he. other to Tn/ lence. Secondly. As he from civil is bound to preserve the civil peace ' it ["It 18 far me to say. shall be refused call for fire — yet they are here forbidden to is. which was not to destroy the bodies of souls. vers. upon such offenders. Lord any spiritual evil in life or doctrine. xiv. 1—although l-Xtnt'" own . inflict punishments upon in To this men contrary-minded." Reply. what spirit yea. the Lord Jesus whom they in their persons -. that are contrary-minded Cotton's in matters of b lawful for corporal magistrates to religion. if the gifted. 76.] . that he implies that beside the censure Jesus. civil Christian. Williams expresses his meaning Mr. remembering the foVi^r™'" end of the Lord Jesus' coming [was] not to destroy ^"t' men's lives. "^jtraTo uan. Christ. hel' or follower of the far meek Lamb bound to be from destroying the bodies of men for refusing to uke chnst in saving. 115. receive the Lord Jesus Christ he was of. but to save them.OF PERSECUTION DISCUSs'd. according to this speech of the Lord Jesus. p." 103 all to Where of the for is I observe. men. ^Ijtistrlte prophesy in the church.

saith he. unconverted Christians in Crete. the false prophet. an evangelist. /. 25. speak to the second place ii. xilL 13. 13. heaveHs ^® bring fiery judgments upon men in a judicial way. banishment. Yet divers arguments from hence will truly and civil fairly be collected. I acknowledge this instruction. * So dealt divers bishops in Trance. for not receiving of the Lord Jesus Christ. It is indeed the ignorance and blind zeal of the second of violence KeT. amines. XXXVIII. were God'a jwst judgments from heaven upon these heretics.. Truth. Qut of Tlmothy. which compareth with the Samaritans. 2 Epist. i to persuade the saints. though as vile as the Samaritans. is properly meek and an instruction to the ministers of the gospel. 26. what were these the answerer Titus. Rev. ii. to be patient. as the Lord Jesus Tim. I pray. are not of God. and Mseprophetto down!"' pronounce that such judgments of imprisonment.104 THE BLOUDY TENENT is bound by laying hands and quiet of the place and people under him. upon any. Peace. Doubtless such fiery 2 spirits. that l • Fire from heaven. civil powers of the earth to persecute the i is.xiii. and proclaiming that these persecutions. proceed from God's righteous venge- ance upon such heretics. as whom . with the God at their putting to death. even unto death. and England too in saints of Queen Mary's days. was to seek to convert and whether the .. by the way I desire to ask. said. death. he to suffer no man to break the civil peace.. to manifest and evince how far the civil magistrate ought to be from dealing with the spiritual cases. beast. 25. sword in And first. &c. declaiming against them in their sermons to the pe6ple. CHAP.

Kev. to seek fellowship ' ["Let tell it not seem strange There in is to * ["I have not yet learned that hear of unconverted Christians or the children of believing parents in the church. What is an unconverted Christian. nor stumble at the phrase of unconverted Christians. was she not then And if they be not let an unconverted convert? converted in always truly converted. p. are all of bom unconverted converts. but of his worship). whom the Spirit ^ The original ofChris- God gives that name. or anointed by Christ.ea/rt. that is. that they are all of them truly converted. then him show and profession. verted in heart and truth !" Cotton's Reply. one unturned '°™6rer ^ D meane by verted™" crete!'*° . from that unconverted.] . such thev were not unto ' ii. Belial. Acts [26. the words. to that fear before him. not anointed with the Spirit of Jesus ChristJ Certain of it is. so their proper anti-christ. the Lord saith. who ? yet are visibly in an unconverted state Oh ! that it may please the Father of mercies. 2. contradiction at all no them pagans. anti-christian Christian world.OF PERSECUTION DISCUSS'd. hath never yet heard the call swp™' of the Lord Jesus to come out from those unconverted churches. is anti-christians. that Christians. but from the beast and his picture. 105 Lord Jesus have any such disciples and followers." 78. p. but uncon- not wonder. ii. 78. But as they are not Christians Christ. indeed. that Jutdah turned unto Mm. disciples. and so from anti-christ. and so holy. the Father of lights. or followers of Jesus.* '' name from How sad yet and how true an evidence is this. not in a word. When h. Christians. awaken and open the eyes of aU that they may see whether this be the language of Canaan. but in truth an a quaerB what the is unconverted convert? that turned . "™but are from whither can this tend but to uphold the blasphemy of so many not ? as say they are Jews. anti-christians. unholy holy following of him : in English. or the language of Ashdod. is.] And.] lb. but feignedly. not with all her and no members of the church: or that bemg members of the church. that the The an worer yet in the soul of the answerer (I speak not of his outward soul and "J"™^™''"' person..

but they were such opposites as Timothy. . Truth. as the answerer speaks. . be Christians. Peace.106 THE BLOUDY TENENT ." within. XXXIX. to whom Paul writes this letter at Ephesus. fire and brimstone. that they are bound with patience and meekness to wait. CHAP. If the civil magistrates of. I argue from this place of Timothy thus pftieiife"' : First. with Christ Jesus and his converted Christians.ho matters of cSifT2. Be they oppositions members. as he speaks. -. unconverted Christians in Crete. should not meet withal. of . if God peradventure will please to grant repentance unto their opposites. . whom Titus as an evangelist was to convert. as commonly the spirits ot God's children in matters of Christ's kingdom are very _ • -i. or members Mss™*' tharopen Christ's mysteries. and the unconand church in verted Christians in Crete) with Secondly. sleepy : for these persons here spoken of were not. then. So words also it pleaseth the : answerer to acknowledge in these "It becomes not the spirit of the gospel to convert aliens to the faith (such as the Samaritans. with meekness 1 and gentleness. disciples after the first pattern. Again. the church. I Say as before. and to be so far from striving to subdue their opposites with the civil sword. able to prophesy in the church of Christ.i n 1 answerer to these scriptures. they are . But what is there in this scripture of Timothy! ? alleged concerning the civil magistracy t in particular. this command . bound by . I observc the haste and light attention of the & . Christ to suffer oppositiou to their doctrine. become scandalous . God'a people BlecpyinJ.

and to bring but to recover a "^„^. * The civii sword may Isa. forth Henry the Eighth casts it into a mould Edward the Sixth brings an edition all protestant. and shall proceed to seek magistrate to seek to subdue and all the seduction of others. half protestant. soul from Satan by repentance.^' What a most woeful proof hereof have the nations of wonderful all . how many wonderful changes in religion hath the whole kingdom made.. it is the is Lord only. . than our native soil. (I speak not of scandals against the civil state. And to seek no further religion in England. To which end also.OF PERSECUTION DISCUSS'd. Queen Mary within few England's point of religion. I do believe the magistrate is convert them to be of his mind by not to tolerate such the civil sword. I do not believe it by heresy of doctrine or idolatry in to be lawful for the worship. in his church or as once the True it the sword may make.] truth. and fundamentals of religion. ° after her grandfather Henry life the Seventh's pattern. ' Mary's short rise and religion end together and [" If opposition from irithin." Cotton's Reply. . years defaceth Edward's work. that only works the all-powerful God. within a few scores of years. worship. as this scripture to Timothy implies. who able to Satan's them repentance. •' Lord complained. all popish. but rather to use opposition against the truth in church spiritual means for their conviction members. by the sword of his Spirit in the hand of his spiritual officers. p. according to the change of the governors thereof. he hath appointed those holy kingdom. and dreadful censures is. them from Sltf-chrisnot one anti-christian doctrine or worship to the doctrine or wor- ship Christian in the least true internal or external submission. tion still But if the opposi- truth after due conviction from the continue in doctrine and word of 81.h^. X. a whole nation of hypocrites . the earth given in . or in any professors of the and conversion. whether from the members of the church. and renders the kingdom. and recover them out of snare. in the several religions which they themselves embraced Henry the Seventh finds and leaves the kingdom abso- lutely popish. 107 doctrine. half popish. ages ? . and that against the vitals . which the give civil magistrate ought to punish).

or said. pro- And some eminent witnesses of God's truth against anti-christ have inclined to believe. a stronger sword hath prevailed. It hath been England's sinful shame. have cause to lament and bewail that wherein such are entan- gled: to wit. Peace.] Cotton's Reply. to fashion and change their garments and religions with wondrous ease and lightness.' uniformity of worship to Ms golden image. with which they are so invincibly caught and held. /can release and quit them. as of Ahaz and Hezekiah. yet the prophets never up- the cause of p.108 THE BLOUDY TENENT all Elizabeth reviveth her brother Edward's model. the magiso tratcs. after the ancient pattern of Nebuchadnezzar's bowing the whole world in one most solemn iii. and aU men that by the mercy of God to themselves fearful condition discern the misery of such opposites. of whom the Lord Jesus civil [" Yet it is not more than befell braided trate's them with the it. England must once again bow down her fair neck to his proud usurping yoke and foot. Dan. The misery of opposites gBainst the in casc there be no civil offence committed. as before. concerning the blind guides. Shall oppositions against the truth escape unpunished ? wUl they not prove mischievous? &c. I answer. But it hath been thought. meek and gentle dispensing of the word of truth. that no power in the in heaven or earth but the right hand of the Lord. (~^Truth. CHAP. in the snares and chains of Satan. XL. that before the downfall of that beast." magis- the church of Judah. testant. ~Those many ' false Christs. . 82. Manasseh and Josiah. in the days power in causes of religion. as a higher power.

6. and the success.] Preaching . armed Father to exalt the Lord Jesus only with power and means to be sufficient to give repentance to Israel. Isa.] But Father faith is that gift which proceeds alone from the till of lights.^^f^°°' such an unbelieving and unregenerate person acts in worship or [is] religion. through a state or kingdom. xxiv. by such proceedings. &c. sin. correspondent cMet ™' tuma. as odious as the oblation of swine's blood. [23. or helping. though without beads or book. Accordingly.. yea. 29. with more inflamed of lying : secondly. sin. i. tliose evils he who being zeal blind are by . but hath pleased the a Prince. Acts V. issue. I add. that a civil sword. or killing of a man. •^ Peace. baptism. Ixvi. cannot xi. sin. Heb. it is but Kom. [3. a dog's neck.OF PERSECUTION DISCUSs'd. his f™j.this means occasioned confidence so. an uniformity. also are their weapons. And sin. Ephes. and he please to make his sinners. have suitably bodies. o D-' 1 o forward an opposite in religion to repentance. .e true body. spirit. in that a sword of compels them to a worship in hypocrisy spiritual darkness —in the dungeons of and Satan's slavery. sin p'™"™- breaking of bread. whatever TieworsUp J. 31. or Lord's supper. ' jr o is so far from bringing. and anti-christian teachers harden their which . that magistrates sin grievously against the ^"wcT"'"' of souls. as the their 109 false ^^^Jf^^^JJ Lord Jesus hath iv. A carnal weapon or sword of steel may produce outside. faith. faith. an unbelieving soul being dead in although he be changed from one worship to another. Matt. xiv. 5 .. as woeful experience in _ The danger and mischief <•'»«''. a show. sufferings of false followers. or operation of them. praying. God. 5. Phil. 11. forewarns. spirit. consequently. a it a carnal repentance." sword in all ages hath proved. their souls light arise and open the eyes of blind shall lie fast asleep steel — and the faster. like a dead please man shifted into several changes of apparel. and blood dvu^msjgisBecause as commonly the gSity otM . to '^^™- tumble into the ditch of hell after their blind leaders. work of God.

Mr. " That these first. i. any seducers good means he have used aU for their conviction. in the sufferers. Persecutors beget a persuasion of their cruelty in the hearts of the persecuted. their continuance in obstinate rebellion against the light. Colonise. that indeed that reliffion cannot be true which needs such instruments of violence to uphold [a] soft it. Hist. By modem the well writers deemed spurious. en because such dealing must needs be so far it act. pended edit. that rather begat In their minds an opinion of their cruelties. together with Mic. Opera. although walk towards them in soft and gentle and in spirit consonant with commiseration. XLT. that certainly they conclude. NeLib. discussed. They shall beat their swords into ploughshares. 4 3 Peace. the emperor. and [Eusebii Eccles. to write to all the governors of his provinces to forbear to persecute Antoninus Pius's gold- the Christians . Hist. There shall none hurt or destroy in all the mountain of my holiness. 100. but his bowels are miserably 130. . xi. lib." to draw out his civil sword till poor sheep and lambs Cotton's Reply. ii. The rescript is also found apapology of i. and Theol. 3. so that persecutors are far from and gentle commiseration of the blindness of othets. wolves. Cotton's excellent interpretation of those prophecies. Gieseler.* purpose it To this pleased the Father of spirits. Clark's For. Cotton to say. torn. &C. iv. ii. Unto which it pleased Mr. 141. to the second But he if after Justin Martyr. p. predictions do only show. c. 9.110 THE BLOUDY TENENT violence and a sword of steel. iv. from converting the Christians from their way. 9 that of the prophet Isa.] ' xiii. thereby clearly manifested the bowels of tender commiseration and compassion towards them. Isa.3 CHAP. iv. The next scripture against such persecution.] excessive large to foxes p. concerning Christ's 4. i. is Mic. peaceaMe kingdom. Antoninus Pius. shall still 1686. his softness and gentleness is known temper of ander Ch. it is p. 83. to constrain the emperor of Home. Isa. with what kind of weapons straitened ° ["A civil magistrate ought not against and hardened against the of Christ. and their spears into pruning-hoohs. of old. xi. beget such an impression That cannot be a true religion which needs carnal weapons to uphold it. Isa.

the sheep. as also to set forth what are show the heavenly. nor biters one of another : but do not forbid them to drive ravenous wolves from the sheepfold. " no man doubts of. proceeds good and sour. out. he intends not only the resistance and violence which the shepherds of Christ civil resistance ought spiritually to make. he should subdue the nations to the obedience of the of the gospel. guns." Truth. for of the same or like things wowT"""' . for he adds." Truth. And yet out of the same mouth. In these words. that by spiritual weapons Christ Jesus will subdue the nations of the earth to the obedience of the gospel for by driving away these wolves. but by the power of the word and Spirit of God. For uX'**" what can be and angels. and weapons of war. not Ill faith by fire and sword. he fights against the former truth. not be. same power that forceth the evil. and to restrain them from devouring the sheep of Christ. Out of thine own mouth will hear a voice from J™t*°™°? I judge thee. according to the judgment here maintained by him. but the material swords. which should evil. sweet and "But this doth not forbid them to drive ravenous wolves from the sheepfold. those predictions of the prophets show what the meek and peaceable temper converts to Christianity oppi^essors .OF PERSECUTION DISCUSS'd. to wit. which. forceth is the good. staves. of the Whence I argue. will be of all true not lions nor leopards. and to restrain them from devouring the sheep of Christ. for the subduing of the nations of the world unto him ? Peace. that spMto^." " Secondly. saith James. by the tongues of men of God. not cruel nor malignant opposers. in . first excellent and truly Christian an*^ hib doctrine and practice methinks the answerer may heaven. to said more heavenly. &c. or wolves. In this swer." saith he. meek temper of aU the soldiers of the Lamb the spiritual weapons and ammunition of the holy war and battle of the gospel and kingdom of Jesus Christ.

prisons. But for the clearer opening of this mystery. wi'veswere Acts XX. thirdly. by swords. : with a rod and hook brings in the sheep the same dog that assaulteth and teareth the ^ and forceth in the straggling sheep. &c. and leadeth waters. Nor. First. many and especially the anti-christ. 128. To with a staff beat a wolf. Williams replies. Turks. XLII. opened. such as brought in other religions g^jj^ worships. [or] magistrates under him. p. . loving and helpful neighbours. or not be peaceable and quiet subjects. Therefore. fair and just dealers.. drives out the spiritual or mystical same voice hath said. I shall propose these queries. pleased to use this similitude of wolves. calleth the sheep sheepfold. 29. secondly. whips. Answer.] . persecutors of the flock. whether or no such as may hold forth other anti-christians. wolf. Jews. 86. worships or religions. Peace. Wolves literally he wiU not say. ver. that wolf. And may I ask. fright eth CHAP." The Bloody Tenent shall drink of blood. yet will Mr. for they are yet more Bloody. I is pray explicate that scripture where the Spirit of God Acts-xx.112 THE BLOUDY TENENT as the the same or like reason: same arm of flesh that with a staff beats off a wolf." this Cotton's Reply. Acts xx. The same voice from heaven that may also force in. p. " If civil power. from all ' ["Though the same arm may it worthy. that if civil it not with the same staff beat a sheep. true and loyal to the civil government? It is clear they may. such as the Eoman emperors were. 29. 30. out of which. Such as amongst themselves should speak perverse anti-christs did. things. 29. keeping to the allegory. power may force out of the church. the same undeniably must drive anti-christian wolves in the sheep. the by name into the them by still and seducers to wit. as as the Spirit of God opens it. what wolves were these Paul warns of? Truth.

to magistrates / ^"^ ' the civil magistrate . 87. traJe'J'„"g|"^ tit to^hii doubtless they must be able to discern and determine. to the {Ji. reason and experience in 113 many flourishing cities and kingsword."spSLa'i •shepherds or ministers of churches. * [" If those be peaceable and to civil states. given by that one Shepherd. at Ephesus.T6GL6Q tomtions. coun- tenancing the governors of the civil state to meddle with these wolves. but the elders or ministers of the church of Christ. or charge were given to the magis. 88. it may be the will or testament of Christ there be any such word of Christ. by the answerer in this discourse. 2. and so con. that to the tyranny of it religion in piuity. if in civil things peaceable and obedient. to ver. Unto them was this charge of watching given. Peace. charges And. whether in all presence of God.No word of "to & & Christ to the any magistrates in the world. and they from subjection loving and to.] prelate. his mystical flock of sheep. or example. in the fear and holy inquired into. and so ofiend not against the civil state civil and peace. if such be true who bring the wrath of God upon them by their apostasy. as they that bring down blessings from heaven by the profession and practice of the true good service to the civil state. yet I desire. Truly. and kill and destroy the souls of many. a foreign pp. Truth. that to perdition: if they help feir men on be and just dealers. They were not the magistrates of the city of Ephesus. that withdraw subjects the earth shall become the kingdoms of our Lord. whom 31 ? Paul gave this charge to watch against them. promise. nor incur the punishment of the they are ravenous and greedy wolves. and loyal subject it to civil government. notwithstanding that in spiritual and mystical account I query. then will be no advantage . trates at " if this Ephesus.* Peace.OF PERSECUTION DISCUSS'd. that woimd the souls of the best. when the kingdoms of quiet subjects. Christ: if they be may do as helpful neighbours." Cotton's Reply. doms of the world. sequently of driving away these wolves. however that many of these charges and exhorta. by way of command. be commonly attri-feMy?pbuted and directed. Christ Jesus.

l^ainsT what their poison. if this And be not so. keepers. that magistrates it must not be spiritual judges.. their assaults. &Ci: as also wolfish oppressors.. to wit. no more than they do in civil causes. declined the name of head of the church.. as men speak. They must be spiritual causes.^ ° [" Magistrates ought to be so those heresies and blasphemies as do subvert the same.^t iudge yet can they not with good conscience they do the work. Sne'the' nameof head jjj^^g yet practise whom he is bound to punish and suppress. shaU in their consciences agree upon. spiritually: —and this beside the care study of the civil laws. as some decline in the title supreme head and governor. &c. in that he would be no judge or head ? for that is all one in point of government. contrary to the rulers of civil common states. Truth. who often set up that for a religion or worship to God. why is Gallio wont to be exclaimed against for refusing to be a judge in such matters as con- cerned the Jewish worship and religion? How is he censured for a profane person. and if eccle- siastical theheadship or govern- dcclme the name office . So. what their properties. their haunts.114 out of their THE BLOUDY TENENT own official abilities in these spiritual law ritul^powcr questions.i i-. in some places. &c. who are wolves. and not with practice of the governors and other men's eyes. of determining and punishing a merely spiritual wolf. well acquainted with matters of religion. and the of the Such wolfish . who are spiritual sheep. what who'i'tftrao) their properties. &c. the manner and his of taking. which the clergy. and perform the . or churchmen.. who their wolves. principles thereof. sufficiently also able to judge in all and that with their own. obedient feheep. I kuow . as to discern the Their ignorance Amdamental evil thereof before is no discharge of their duty Lord. on the contrary. and the discerning of own proper civil sheep. that civil magistrates. what is their food. &c. without conscience.

CHAP. though may be in them- selves ever obstinate. I say. expel.] I 2 . overcome or subdued. whether the Father J^''au'i"\j '^"°""'- who gave. •' Jeeus his ahep- herds with Lord Jesus.OF PERSECUTION DISCUSs'd. deceivers. nor children. Tit. or overseer. the I out of his hand ? which answers that common objection of j that danger of devouring. Peace. do it of faith: or to tolerate them. tices and pracsin to ["It is no dishonour to Christ. able are God's and provided. uncivil opened! violence of persecutors. 9 — 11." Cotton's Reply. they were. drive away wolves. it that is.] ministers of the gospel in the church state. although there were no other weapons in the world appointed by the Lord Jesus. 89. Fourthly. and the Son all ? who keeps the sheep. that suppress them. True it is. 115 In the third place. must able by sound doctrine both to exhort and to convince the gainsayers: which gainsayers to be by him convinced. be not elect. ver. none are fit who are be not able. I query. greater than Who can pluck these sheep. because they cannot a ca^e civil his ministers of justice state. inhuman and resist. i." lb. oppressois. but to drive away. 91. But. Tit. cannot it discern vdth nor impeachment of the suiBciency of the ordinances in such in the left their own will be their by Christ. Truth. p. they were and doctrines. The bishop. 10 : For so saith Paul. I ask. as any could be at Ephesus. to drive away these mystical and against the spiritual poj^j'^^^j ^^ wolves 9 S wuives. from the f. unruly and vain ' talkers. and kill spiritual and mystical wolves by the word to be Christ's shepherds of the Lord.. should assist his because they are destructive to the souls of the people. as they eyes. as greedy wolves in Crete. XLIII. were not these elders or ministers of chriat the church of Ephesus sufficiently furnished. p. they were not.

was expressly Reply. Rev. Cotton's one with stoning. which is Deut. Ps. the wolves out. 6. as wolves at Ephesus were intended by Paul to be their brains dashed out with stones.. by this unmerciful —and is in the state of the New Testament. these killed. Lamb when have obtained the Ecv. word of God. and yet Titus. their brains knocked poor sheep to be preserved. staves. 91. and that two-edged sword cxlix. by order from the and dashing out of all brains. methinks we may 7.. Job xxvi. ! what streams of the blood of saints have been ^^^ °i^®t ^^ ^^^' "^*il ^^^ yictory. in such a case to the 10. &c. 3 2. But oh Mdwoody' doctnne. I ask.1 . for and killed —the whom a Christ died. guns. . In this respect. had spiritual flock of ability sufficient to defend the flock from civil and mystical wolves. Shuhite. p. who subverted whole houses. therefore. by that fiery. And the witnesses of truth. speak be fire. Lastly. How hast thou thou the helped 7 mm I • that is without power? strength ? How savest arm that hath no dom 5. xiii. but lulling. Doubtless. fitly allude to that excellent answer of Job 7 to Bildad. comparing spiritual things with spiritual. be driven away. 1 Is not this to take Christ Jesus. &c. slain. and every ordinary shepherd of a Christ. 1 How hast thou counselled him that hath no wisHow hast thou plentifully declared the thing as it is ? men deal with wolves. without the help of the magistrate. in the hands of the elders of Ephesus. xvii. and commanded judges. and kill all that hurt them. the church spread aU the world over (heretics) are to — ^most bloody doctrine. the 7 Job XXVi. Peace. halberts. xi." bounds of their people of God..116 THE BLOUDY TENENT whose mouths must be stopped. viz.?^ Truth. make him ' ["Elders must keep within the calling. 14. in their hand. all such mystical wolves must spiritually and mys- tically so 5. &c. whether.

who sweet end of Christ's coming. to set up a and ! temporal Israel.OF PERSECUTION DISCUSS'd. which hath refer- amongst other ordinances. into captivity every thought to the obedience of Christ and having in a readiness to avenge all disobedience. but only to church officers. "When Paul saith. make his kingdom of this world. against the knowledge of God. XLIV." Cotton's Reply. but civil spiritual. Unto which denieth not it is answered. to save men's souls (and to that end not to destroy their bodies) by his own blood? CHAP. but rather a direct it. x. yea. camalfbut mighty through God holds . to bound out new earthly. casting exalteth itself The weapons of our warfare are not \^^^i^' to the pulling down of strongand every high thing that down imaginations. 93. ance on aU disobedience. not this to civil John ti. of millions of souls. advancing of to destroy (if need p. The he weapons of our warfare are not carnal. is. 2 Cor. to the censures of the church against scandalous offenders. as xiii.] . and bringing . weapons of justice officers to the civil magistrate. And yet the weapons of church though they be he acknowledgeth to be such. Rom. to the speedy destruction of thousands. 6 ence. Peace. and the frustrating of the sweet end of the coming of the Lord Jesus. which seek to destroy the souls of those for was to save souls. and to set up a Spanish inquisition in parts of the world. temporal king by force? 117 Is John vi. X.." ' [" Nor is it a frustrating of the be)' the bodies of those wolves. &c. holy lands of all Canaan. to wit. yea. The next is scripture produced against such per- secution 2 Cor. yet are ready to take venge: spiritual. 4. whom Christ died. 15.

. the civil weapons of justice to the civil magistrate in spiritual and religious causes : Lord assist- ing. why he here affirmeth the civil apostle denies not civil weapons of justice to the no question. he intends withal that the apostle denies not the contrary whereunto. vengeance and punishment and a spiritual vengeance Civil wcap-' onamostim- Ktuai" excmpiifle'd^ miiitude. 4. ^^f '— ' the spiritual state and kingdom. 94. The weapons of church though they be all he.] spiritual. then. civil _ _ officers civil and spiritual. I hence observe. The differ. by himself qubted. . yet about matters spiritual. as far differing as spirit .. civil weapons and spiritual weapons. I must ask. to the censures of the church against^ scandalous offenders. and lastly by that thirteenth of the Romans. ready to take vengeance on saith he. that a magistrate should his draw and destroyers of sword. Civil weapons are most improper and unfitting most proper and „ m matters . p. both from this very scripture and his own observation. from this scripture and officers.| enceoftha 1/ s'wtMa estate. - I first observe. First. are such.118 THE BLOUDY TENENT Truth. and punishment: although the Spirit speaks not here * o i i expressly of civil magistrates and their civil weapons. " from flesh. which spiritual. disobedience which hath reference. saith his own observation. unless magistrate ? of which there" is that. though in the suitable. that there being in this scripture held ° f _ forth a twofold state. I acknowledge that herein the Spirit of God denieth not civil weapons of justice to the civil magistrate. I shall evince. are . Rom. amongst other ordinances. which the scripture he quotes.^ civil state 9 [« This is not unfitting nor impro- to protect tliem in peace. thesc states being of different natures and considerations.'"2 Cor. xiii. and to stave off the disturbers per. yet. according to his scope of proving persecution for conscience. abundantly Yet withal. a civil state and a spiritual." Cotton's Reply. testifies. X. though not in matters them. that .

swords. men bring not a and second admoniare after obstinacy. spiritual artillery and weapons are proper.. powder. concerning them that be in the church: nor exhortations to repent and be baptized. those weapons which are used by persecutors. 'which spiritual weapons. hardness. For — to keep to the similitude which the Spirit useth. . pikes. excommunication. not of stocks and whips. &c. XLV. what a weaker puUed down). . false "^ wor- spiritual weapons ship.. .OF PKRSECUTION DISCUSs'd. it is vain. but to take a stronghold.. and. 119 CHAP. and heresy but if men. prisons. schisfti. to believe in the Lord Jesus. and such weapons of righteousness. to batter down idolatry. culverins. fort. out of the soul spirit. men bring cannons. muskets. and unsuitable to bring ^5^"^^ stocks. a stronger up again. gibbets. (where these seem to prevail with some force sets kingdoms. swords.] weapons to batter down idolatry in the souls of Cotton's Reply. &c. which are mighty through God to subdue and bring under the very thought to obedience. for instance — to batter down a stronghold. or castle. stakes.] * [" It is far civil civil but of death and banishment Heretics and idolaters strained may be from the open practice and from me to allow the profession of their wickedness by the magistrate to make use of his sword of justice. which are proper weapons to them that be without. but against these spiritual strongholds in the souls of men.' bullets. first tower. 4)bstinate . &e. cities or whips.. tion. now the magistrate but was applied to a piece of ordnance maketh use." 9S. f^^^^^^ improper. On and the other side.. or ' else to bind fast the soul with ISa/cer is the peregrine hawk. &c. . carrying a ball of five pounds and a half weight. re- of three inches and a half bore. and these to this end are weapons effectual and proportionable. blindness. heresy. the idolater or heretic grow . saker. high wall.. p.

any :| King'Tf '""^^' subject pretending his service bring store of pins. mighty bulwarks. How hast thou helped him that hath no power ? Job xxvi. for if. ^^^ crest of iron. or to kill the soul of whomsoever be the party or parties opposite . yet they are unnecessary. Ps xiy. bulrushes. or did tithe appomt to) jom to his breastplate of ™^*^j'j^j*'"* righteousness. and is rides upon the word of truth and meekness.. Truth. and the answerer grants. and lock up in the prison of unbelief and hardness to ^onsnoT 2- eternity. -jyiio ig and reward be. practisc.' spiritual weapons in the hand of church all officers are able is. straws.' in which respect I may again remember that speech of Job. and ready to take vengeance on disobedience. sticks. Offer this. with his holy withorses. Bpmtua7 '" and never able to Spirit here effect aught in the soul: so although they were proper. beleaguer. the Chief or Prince of the kings of the earth. the white horse.' as M^lachi once spake. the white troopers upon white when to his help and aid per. a helmet together. the breastplate of iron and steel? to the fitly jdneT' helmet of righteousness and salvation in Christ. coming forth of .yi. castles. Lord Jesus (did • He \ • ever in his • own person an\munltion. Eph. ncsses. that able and mighty. to beat and batter down stone his expectation walls.120 THE BLOUDY TENENT it chains of darkness. the kings of the earth. Spiritual men bring and add such unnecessary. beside What shall we then conceive of His displeasure. but at least the censure of a man distract. forts. impro? and weak mimition the WiU . No earthly 2. which vi.business. brass. should wrre'tend "'° ^^^ assault great cities. ^ observe that as civil weapons are improper in this ^eifbutC. either to save the soul. Eev. &c.ev. wood to His shield of faith ? [to] His two-edged sword.'" and B. as the saith. or steel ? a target of . what might himself? &c. sufficient and ready for the Lord's work. teoopere. when th6y besiege.4. xix. Peace. to the gover- govemors nors..

xiu. in that lest his power bequeathed to His ministers and churches. therefore. who. the material sword. Rev. Satan. Ps. Truth. beams of the Sun of righteousness. under pretence of fighting for Christ Jesus. ye kings — ^i^if'^*™ j„l^|!gf especially those ten horns.. in the second place. ture.f^^Jf'jj'''^ Kom. concerning that scrip. : kiss the Son. the 121 mouth of Jesus. is for pains to enlighten and clear this scripture. divine Truth. souls. therefore. Be wise. yet to their other's temporal destruction. iJ}'gpS°. xvii. ? is by civil wars and combustions in the world My humble request. and so many excellent servants of God have msmd. Excellently ii..JJ[f and himself. fit and proper that '° alarm and item. that from the 9th verse of ir^o"Bpicivu afiaiiB. XL VI. to send out the bright to the Father of lights. that is.OF PERSECUTION DISCUSs'd.*'" insisted upon to prove such persecution for conscience : how have both he and they wrested own and this scripture.- CHAP. the work of is smiths and cutlers? or a girdle of shoe-leather to the girdle of truth ? &c. but wrath be then. Now. First. blessed are they that trust in Him. . give their power to the beast against Him —and be warned. xiii. not as Peter writes of the wick€d. ye judges of the earth affection. kindled. yea. which that old serpent. upon the serious examination of this Rom. then. 10. which it pleased the answerer to quote. hath raised about this holy scripture. to their eternal. and my request to you. the 12th chapter to the end of this whole 13th chapter. it will appear. the great your care and and to scatter the mist juggler. whole scripture. with subjection and acknowledge Him only the King and Judge of a little . Peace.

from whence he hath fair occasion to speak largely concerning their subjection to magistrates in the 13th chapter. no. 96.] . in the beginning of the 12th chapter he exhorts the believers to give and dedicate themselves unto the Lord. or body. Paul all exhorts to performance of love to man subjects. concerneth not the whole law in the first table. but one another for he that loveth another hath fulfilled the law. and speaks not at all of any point or matter of the first table concerning the kingdom of the Lord Jesus. Owe nothing to any man.122 THE BLOUDY TENENT the Spirit handles the duties of the saints in the careful observation of the second table in their civil conversation. s . that [at] ver. 7. both in soul and body . Hence Love to it is. not of the weightiest first follow: That. 3 ["This inference will not here violation. that is. If any fuiBiieth the man doubt. of Christ Jesus. as the papists speak. ' 8. and with men. ' tribute to to whom to love tribute is to Render. or walking towards men. p. honour whom : honour. He that loveth perfectly [hath fulfilled the law.°' officers thereof. 7 of this 13th chapter. ^ For. magistrates and the duty of the -whole Becond table. therefore. together with the several Eom! xTii. ' •> men. to all their dues. every man of sound judgment ready to answer him. fear whom fear . having in the whole epistle handled that great point of free justification by the free grace of God in Christ. and unto the 9th verse of the 12th chapter he expressly mentioneth their conversation in the kingdom. J ) due : custom to whom custom ' *^ . -^^^ fro^i tbe 9th verse to the end of the 13th [chapter]. the worship and kingdom of God in Christ. magistrates to duties of the table. he plainly discourseth of their civil conversation and all walking one toward another." Cotton's have nothing do to punish any Reply. vers. that these words. therefore. whether a man may is Mfil the law.

this saying. XLVIL Peace. magistrates and he hath in rightly attained unto what the law aims fulfils and so evangelical obedience and keeps the law. which of love toward love . fore. " So I pray you to set down the words of one or two. — ^viz. out of their own tenents and grants. thou shalt not covet: and if there be any other commandment — to be briefly com- prehended in as thyself. of all or governors. and fellow subjects CHAP. iew pereeoutionfor "onBcience. but excel- . That the apostle speaks not here of perfect observation of the second table. the all law concerning our magistrates conditions.. Although the scripture is suflScient to make the Rom. thou shalt love thy neighbour And verse 10. he makes aU the table. 123 Secondly. . but lays open the sum and substance of is the law. therefore. . thou shalt not bear false witness. thou shalt not commit adultery thou shalt not steal. Love worketh no is ill to his neighbour. all men. that as before. God must be only founded upon the rock . xiii. namely. opinions : yet. man of God perfect. and that he that walks by the rule subjects. thereis. rest of the commandments of the second which concern our walking with man. and the fool wise to salvation. as Paul aUegeth the judgment and sayings of unbelievers for their conviction. at. again in the 9th verse. not unbelievers in their persons. and our faith in Christ. love the fulfilling of the law. without failing in word or act toward men. dis- Hence.OF PERSECUTION DISCU^s'd. having coursed of the fifth command in this point of superiors. Thoii shalt not kill. civil conversation toward men. edeyen^by and not upon the sand of men's iudgments and ^ .

tables. upon this 13th to the Eomans.xiii. wiU fly from the thought of exercising tyranny over conscience. writes. saith he. ' territories. ed. p. that happily they wiU disclaim the dealing of all with men's consciences : yet. whose names are sweet and precious to all that fear Godj —who. Tholuck. their profession — and that out religion nor of zeal according to the pattern of that ceremonial and figurative state of Israel — to suffer no other worship in their * V. stream. ment was let to restrain civil magistrates in matters of religion. contentus sum. ' their judgment ran faith in the common and. [" in Rom. if the acts and statutes which are made by them concerning the worship of God be attended to. "this whole discourse concerneth civil magistrates. First. That magistrates were keepers of the two of defenders the against heretics. p. but one — their profession and [Comment.* est de civilibus prtefecturis Tota autem hasc disputatio itaque frustra inde sacrilegam suam tyrannidem stabilire : moliuntur. I shall * produce that excellent servant of Qq^^ Calvin. go about from this place to establish their sacrilegious tyranny. was put to death for his heresies at : 200. nee mutatum esse ordinem from meddling politicum. yet the light of truth so evidently shined upon their souls in this scripture." ply.' notwithstanding whatever they have written for defence of their judgments."" God's people know how far most men. I consciences. 98. in vain do they who exercise power over Peace. shcep of Jcsus. that they absolutely denied the 13th of the Romans to concern any matter of the Calvin's first table. 6. qui dominatum in conscientias exerceant "But. xiii. therefore. Truth. own who quicquani detractum. iudgment of Eom.124 lent THE BLOUDY TENENT and precious servants and witnesses of God in their times. nee de magistratuum officio him interpret himself in his to. words. and.] Cotton's Re- . tom." saith he. Christi . who. in his answer Servetus.] Geneva by adventu his procurement —Hoc But how far off Calvin's judg- uno. and especially the fCnnd°yet secutors.. although viz.

" place trates And it is manifest. torn. quae nobis erga respicit . be with fear and trembling. proximum demandantur a lege " Paul hath not respect unto the whole law.^' that he repeateth. writes thus on the same place : Sed Paulus in totam legem non loquitur. Calvin. And again. speaking concerning fulfilling of the law by love.] . tantum de officiis : That is. 125 practice to defend their faith from reproach and blasphemy of heretics by civil weapons. pp. paying unto every one their due. Again. if these particulars and others. that in this by our neighbours he means high and and subjects. and how guilty they will appear to be of wresting this scripture before the tribunal of the Most High. Cseterum Paulus hie tantum meminet secundae tabulse. 8." repetit. quod in the first hominum societatem spectat -*- ? Prior enim legis tabula c attingltur: fulfilling quse est de cultu Dei minime hie is —"But ofming God B worI^'"" J^j. totSied'. 201. magis- unto whom we ought to walk by the rule of love. that holy and « [Cemment. in the presence of the Most High. Again. Truth. that he speaks of that part of the law which respects human society for the first table of the law.OF PERSECUTION DISCUSs'd. that love the of the law."^ iii After Calvin. is not in . in vers. because the question was only concerning that. intellige (ut prius) de ea legis parte. quia de ea tantum erat qusestio : —" But Paul here legis cawn con- only mentioneth the second table. the least manner here touched. he speaks only of those duties which the law commands to- wards our neighbours. Quod autem complementum esse dilectionem. examined."' understand as before. which concemeth the worship of God. 10. v. the wonderful deceit of their own hearts shall appear unto them. his successor Geneva. 202. low. and all that from this very 13th of the Romans —I say.

nevertheless.'] civil penalties is a' duty of the . apostolus hoc loco de mutuis hominum seratj legis vocabulum ad secundum tabulam restringendam saith he. upon the any other word avaKe<j>aXmovTai. aliud quam amoremt Dei et proximi praecipet sed tamen officiis dis- cum puto. ' Now true it is. I pray now proceed to the second argument from this scripture. and spiritual worship. in loc.] " [" word nor judgment idolatry. and obedience commanded.126 Bom. since the apostle in this place discourseth of the duties of men to one toward another. or Though table and bias- Beza. and the with first heresy. Peace. I think this term law ought he restrained to the second tahle. of the is this cruel bloody persecutors : name and subjection followers of Jesus and yet unto these. against the use of civil weapons in matters of religions. second table. commandment it is summed up in this. Londini.'"^ CHAP. thus -J if there be thou shalt nihil love thy neighbour as thyself. XL VIII. . that as the [Bezse Nov. . It was neither the of Calvin xiii." "commands nothing else but the love of God. be [sins against : yet to panish these punishing exempt magistrates from power of heresy and idolatrjuj^ Cotton's Reply. and yet the emperors and governors under them were strangers from the yea. edit. as to phemy. THE BLOUDY TENENT xiil! learned Beza. 9S. even to the Roman emperors and all subordinate magistrates. Test. p. Truth. 1S8S. life of God and in Christ. and yet. " The whole law. The Spirit of God here commands subjection and obedience to higher powers. so to interpret Rom. writes —Tota lex . yea. most averse and opposite.

as the Jews would have Pilate condemn the Lord Jesus. discern and judge. especially such aa were ignorant of the Son of God. sword. considering and glorious preferment and privileges by Jesus to Christ.with the majesty of an earthly throne. upon the sentence of others I say. if he have any and upon serious. men. if the apostle should have commanded Paui writes sumection unto the •^ Roman emperors and -* Roman Roman gOTemors to magistrates in spiritual causes. he must. Msten after true religion. wherein . 101. but persecuted and upon trust from others no magistrate. is to take it : whom then also they must condemn them. and commanded the churches of Christ jection in all to have yielded sub- any such matters. Now then I argue. . in the judgment of faith. crown. sceptre. and just scrutiny. were apt be much tempted to despise civil governors. studious of religion. and so prevent the disturbance thereof by the contrary. if Paul should have. civil 127 magistrate is apt not to content himself . and persecuted him in this his servants. .OF PERSECUTION DISCUSS'd. in this Or else to punish heretics. and sense. and their high it may be in Paul's time. hut to seat himself in the throne of David in the church : so God's people. he cannot but judge of Cotton's Reply. spiritual behoved them and that no magistrate. have put out the eye of and reason. The cases of religion. at once. not persuaded in his — ^^«^^J"*JjJ'^«j^ ^^^''' S™'*'' own conscience. 9 [" In giving ' them a power and to inquire we allow civil magistrates to be judges charge to execute vengeance on evil doers. it are so fundamental and palpable. whieh good. . —but. or else — scripture. to hear and try all. discerning. deliberate. to hold fast that is such gross corruptions as are insufferable in religion." p. as to defend the truth which they were no way able to discern. put this work upon these Roman governors.



Paul's appeal to CsssardiBcuB-

Peace, It



by some, why then did Paul J J


^p^g 3^Y_ jj^ appeal to Ca3sar, unless that Caesar, (though
he was not, yet) he ought to have been a
matters ?

judge in such

Paul had appealed to
Cfflsar in

Truth. I answer, if Paul, in this appeal to Caesar, had
referred and submitted simply and properly the cause ot j. •
•' a.
./ .












ministry and







knowing him


an idolatrous

stranger from the true Grod, and a lion-like, bloody perse-

cutor of the

Lord Jesus, the Lamb of God,


say, let


be considered, whether or no he had committed these




against the dimmest light of reason, in ap-

pealing to darkness to judge light, to unrighteousness to

judge righteousness, [to] the spiritually blind to judge and

end the controversy concerning heavenly


Secondly, against the cause of religion, which, if con-

demned by every inferior idolater, must needs be condemned by the Caesars themselves, who. Nebuchadnezzarlike, set up their state images or religions, commanding
the world's uniformity of worship to them.
against the

holy state

and calling of the

Christians themselves, who,


virtue of their subjection

to Christ, even the least of them, are in spiritual things

above the highest potentates or emperors in the world


continue in enmity against, or in an ignorant, natural

without Christ Jesus.

This honour, or high exaltabind, not literally

tion have


his holy ones, to


spiritually, their kings in chains,

and their nobles in links

of iron.

Ps. cxlix.





Fourthly, against his


callibg, apostleship, or office
all j)otentates,

of ministry, unto which Caesar himself and
in spiritual

and soul-matters, ought to have submitted;

and unto which, in controversies of
church of

church ami

Caesar himself ought to have



being built upon the foundation of the

and prophets.







of the



Gm &G 1 VGS

governors, or the emperor himself, had been

humbled and


ians, subject

converted to Christianity by the preaching of Christ, were

*? "'^


not they themselves bound to subject themselves unto the spS^u^ "'''^ power of the Lord Jesus in the hands of the apostles and '
churches, and might not the apostles and churches have

refused to have baptized, or washed
sion of Christ


into the profes-

Jesus, upon the apprehension of their



received into Christian fellowship, were they not

to stand at the bar of the

Lord Jesus

in the church, con?

cerning either their opinions or practices

were they not

be cast out and delivered unto Satan by the power of






once and twice admonition, they

persist obstinately, as faithfully

and impartially

as if they

were the meanest

in the


Yea, although the

apostles, the churches, the elders, or governors thereof,

were poor and mean, despised persons
and were themselves bound

in civil respects,

to" yield all faithful

and loyal

obedience to such emperors and governors in

civil things.


they not,

if Christians,

bound themselves to have

submitted to those spiritual decrees of the apostles and
as well as the

lowest and meanest members of
if so,

Christ ? Acts xvi.



should Paul appeal in

spiritual things to Caesar, or write to the churches of


to submit to them [in] Christian or spiritual matters

Fifthly, if

Paul had appealed

to Caesar in spiritual



he had greatly profaned the holy name of



holy things in so improper and vain a prostitution of
spiritual things to carnal

and natural judgmentsi which
spiritual matters,

are not able to


which are

alone spiritually discerned.
Lawful apthings to





yet Caesar, as a


supreme magistrate, ought and slanderous accusa-

civU magistratea.

to defend

Paul from

civil violence, ^

tions about Sedition, mutiny, civil disobedience, &c.


in that sense,

who doubts but God's



appeal to



an Egyptian Pharaoh, a Philistlan

Abimelech, an Assyrian Nebuchadnezzar, the great
gul, Prester John, the great Turk, or


an Indian Sachem ?'





the third argument against the civil



in spiritual

and soul-matters out of this

xiii. ?

Truth. I dispute from the nature of the magistrates'

weapons, ver.



hath a sword, which he bears not

in vain, delivered to him, as I

acknowledge from God's

appointment in the free consent and choice of the subjects



We must distinguish

of swords.

["Paul did submit to


the things whereof they did accuse

judgment-seat the

of his inno-

him, were offences against the law of
the Jews, and against the temple, as
well as against Csssar.
against the law of

cency, as well in matters of religion

For he pleadeth his innocency, that he was guilty of none of those things whereof they did accuse him, and for trial




the Jews,


against the temple, were matters of

Cotton's Reply, p. 103.]

hereof he appealeth to Csesar.





find four sorts of swords

mentioned in the


fo»'' sorts of

swords men-

First, the


sword of persecution, which Herod stretched
xii. 1, 2.


forth against James, Acts

Secondly, the sword of God's Spirit, expressly said to

be the word of God, Ephes.
edges, carried in the




sword of two


of Christ, E.ev.



of strong and mighty operation, piercing between the

bones and the marrow, between the soul and the




Thirdly, the great sword of

war and

destruction, given


that rides that terrible red horse of war, so that he

takes 3)eace from the earth, and



one another, as


most lamentably true

in the slaughter of so

many hundred

thousand souls within these few years in several parts of

Europe, our own and others.



these three

swords are




Therefore, fourthly, there




sword, called the

The civu

sword of

civil justice,

which being of a material,

nature, for the defence of persons, estates, families, liberties

of a city or civil state, and the suppressing of uncivil or
injurious persons or actions,

by such




cannot, according to


utmost reach and capacity, now
nations are merely

under Christ, when



any such

typical, holy respect

upon them,


was upon

Israel, a national



say, cannot

extend to spiritual

and soul-causes, spiritual and soul-punishment, which belongs to that spiritual sword with two edges, the soulpiercing,





word of




though the sword be of

offenders in bodily life


civil liber-

a material and





but also the offenders against

can reach to punish not only the

spiritual life










Tribute, custorn, (fee,



fourth argument from this scripture, I take

in the sixth verse, from tribute, custom, &c.: '







reward, or recompence, for the magistrates'
as the










but the
not the

wages are merely


tribute, &c.:

contributions of the saints or churches of Christ, proper
to the spiritual and Christian state.


such work only

must the magistrate attend upon, as

properly deserve


wages, reward, or recompence.

Lastly, that the Spirit of

God never

intended to direct,

or warrant, the magistrate to use his power in spiritual
title it

and religious worship, I argue from the term or
pleaseth the

wisdom of God
God^s ministers.

to give such civil

officers, to wit, ver. 6,

The spintual minis*

at the very first blush,

no man denies a double


The onc appointed by x x

Christ Jesus in his church, to >

gather, to govern, receive in, cast out, and order all the

of the church, the house, city, or kingdom of God,






ministry or

Secondly, a civil ministry, or

office, ^

merely human and j
as true

which men agree to
creation, 1 Pet.

constitute, called therefore a





and lawful any part of

in those nations, cities, kingdoms, &c.,

which never heard
as in

of the true God, nor his holy

Son Jesus,

If the swotd of the judge or


king3 of Israel in the Old Testament^

be the sword of the Lord,

the same lieth

now upon


why may

not be drawn forth, as

kings in the


Testament, to protheir churches."

well to defend his subjects in true religion, as in civil









Cotton's Reply, pp. 104, 106.]

holy care of religion lay upon the

the world beside, where the



of Jesus

most taken

Spirit of


which premises,
in this chapter

that the scope of the

the second table
in the

— twelfth: —


to handle the matters of

^having handled the matters of the
since the

magistrates of

whom Paul

wrote, were natural, ungodly, persecuting, and yet lawful
magistrates, and to be obeyed in all lawful civil things
since all magistrates are God's ministers, essentially civil,

bounded to a civil work, with civil weapons, or instrufrom all ments, and paid or rewarded with civil rewards

which, I say, I undeniably collect, that this scripture


generally mistaken, and wrested from the scope of God's

and the nature of the


and cannot truly be


by any

for the

power of the

magistrate to be

exercised in spiritual and soul-matters.

Peace. Against this I

object, out of the ^*^*"«

know many

fourth verse of this chapter, that the magistrate


avenge, or punish,


from whence


gathered that

heresy, false Christs, false churches, false ministries, false



ought to be punished civiUy, &c.


I answer, that the word kokov


opposed to civil goodness, or virtue, in a commonwealth,

and not to

spiritual good, or religion, in the church.

Secondly, I have proved from the scope of the place, that here is not intended evil against the spiritual, or
Christian estate handled in the twelfth chapter, but evil falling against the civil state in this thirteenth, properly

under the cognizance of the


minister of God, the



magistrate, and punisliable
incivility, disorder, or

by that


sword of his as an
civil order, peace,

breach of that



unto which

the inhabitants of a city, town,

or kingdom, oblige themselves.

—^who yet out of thirteenth of Romans maintain to preserve the persecution— grant' that the magistrate

Peace. I have heard, that the elders of the

New England

peace and welfare of the


and therefore that he ought
In par-

not to punish such sins as hurt not his peace.

they say, the magistrate


not punish secret

sins in the soul

nor such sins as are yet handliiag in the

church, in a private
in families



nor such sins which are private


therefore, they say, the magistrate trans-

gresseth to prosecute complaints of children against their
parents, servants against masters^ wives against husbands,

(and yet this proper to the
are between the

civil state). Nor such members and churches themselves.

sins as


they confess, that


the magistrate punish, and

the church punish, there will be a greater rent in their,



thence, sweet Peace,

may we well


First, the magistrate is not to punish all evil, according

to this their confession.


distinction of private

and public

evil will
evil, viz.,

not here
that the

avail; because such as

urge that term



to punish evil, urge

it strictly, eo


because heresy, blasphemy, false church, false ministry,
evil, as

well as disorder in a civU state.



Secondly, I observe,
magistrate that which

how they
i-it children,

take away from the



^strat™* what ia not and

proper to his cognizance, as the


T*j.i? 01





[In "




Model of Church and to the Church at

Williams, in some subsequent chaptera

of this volume.]

Salem," examined at length by Mr.




husbands, &c.

Families as families,

being as stones which make up the



and hS" '°

are properly the object of the magistrates' care, in respect


civil order,

and obedience.*



Peace. I pray now, lastly, proceed to the author's reason^

why Christ's disciples should be
that they ought to bless

so far

from persecuting



that curse them, and pray


that persecute them, because of the freeness of

God's grace, and the deepness of his counsels,^ calling them
that are enemies, persecutors, no people, to become


lambs, the sheep and people of God, according to 1 Pet.

You which were

not a people, are

now a people, &c. ; and

Matt. XX.

some come

at the last hour,


were cut


because they came not sooner, would be pre-

vented, and so should never come.


this reason, the



pleased thus to reply.®

First, in general thereof.

we must

not do evil that good

Toleration ^'""^^

Secondly, in particular, he affirmeth, "that

it is evil

tolerate seditious evil doers, seducing teachers, scandalous


["When we

say, the magistrate


[See before,

p. 11.]

an avenger of


we mean of


[See before, p. 24.]


or kinds of


not every



this point

hath Mr. John

.particular of

each kind.

in thought, or affection, yea, in action

Goodwin excellently of late discoursed, [In " M. S. to A. S., with a Plea for
Libertie of Conscience in

but neither confessed, nor proved
witnesses, the magistrate can-

a Church

by due

Way," &c. Lond.

1C44. 4to. pp.


not punish." Cotton's Eeply, p. 110.]

See Introduction to


livers ;"

for proof of this, lie quotes Christ's reproof to

the angel of the church at Pergamos, for tolerating them
that hold the doctrine of



and against the church

of Thyatira, for tolerating Jezebel to teach and seduce.



14, 20.


I answer,
it is


by assenting
true, like


the general

proposition, that


unto Christ Jesus

himself, a sure foundation, 1 Cor.

Yet what

is it




I hope by God's assistance to make


but hay and stubble, dead and withered, not

suiting that golden foundation, nor pleasing to the Father

of merciesj nor comfortable to the souls of men.


saith he, to tolerate notorious evil


seducing teachers, scandalous

In which speech I observe two
First, that this proposition


too large and general,

because the rule admits of exception, and that according*
to the will of
is ai-

it is






true, that evil cannot alter its nature,

yet psrmiB-


cvil, as



alway darkness, yet,
it is



must be remembered, that

one thing to com-

mand, to conceal,
or dislike of

to counsel, to approve evil,

and another

thing to permit and suffer evil with protestation against

at least without approbation of


Lastly, this sufferance, or permission, of evil,


not for

God's wonderful toleration.


sake, but for the sake of good,

which puts a respect

goodness upon such permission.


it is,

highest good, he endures,
vessels of wrath,


that for God's

own ,. glory's sake, which that permits, or



suffers, the



ix. 22.


therefore, although he

be of pure eyes and can behold no iniquity, yet his pure
eye patiently and quietly beholds and permits


and profanations,


the thefts and rapines, all the

whoredoms and abominations,

the murders and poison-




yet, I say, for his glory's sake,




long permits.

his Son),

for his people's sake (which is the next good, in

he is oftentimes pleased to permit and suffer the wicked to enjoy a longer reprieve. Therefore he gave Paul all the lives that were in the ship. Acts xxvii. 24.
Therefore, he would not so soon have destroyed Sodom,

jbut granted a longer permission,

had there been but ten
v. 1,




Therefore, Jer.

had he

found some to have stood in the gap, he would have
spared others.
space, Rev.

Therefore gave he Jezebel a time, or

Therefore, for his glory's sake, hath he permitted longer

great sinners,
season, as








see in the case of

Ahab, the Ninevites,

and Amorites, &c.

Hence it pleased the Lord, not only to permit the many evils against his own honourable ordinance of marriage in the world, but


pleased, after

a wonderful

manner, to

suffer that sin of


wives in Abraham,

Jacob, David, Solomon, yea, with some expressions which

seem to give approbation,
Peace. It

as 2

xii. 8,

for us, because

may be

said, this is

no pattern



above law, and an absolute sovereign.

Truth. I answer, although

pensing with his law, yet
or utter a falsehood

we find him sometimes diswe never find him deny himself, and therefore when it crosseth not
and an


[" I willingly grant,


may be

may be

tolerated to pre-

lawful for a

magistrate to tolerate

vent other greater evils
ordinary cases


notorious evU doers in



under which


the examples will
. .





which the discusser aUegelh;

The commandment of God


when the weak and








and the


Capitalia Mosis politica sunt aetema."

adherents too great and strong


Cotton's Reply, p. 113.]

in all manner of conversation. to permit like fishes. for a general good.138 THE BLOUDY TENEKT an absolute rule to permit and tolerate — as in the case of all the permission of the souls and consciences of men in the world — I have shown. it will not. that Moses commanded to give a biU of divorcement and to put away. figure of the later. and shall show further. which that people. he gave some not positive good. the two great prophets and messengers from the living God. Peace. I answer. hinder our being holy as he is holy. the one the type or Truth. God i. x. Moses for the hardness of your hearts suffered. the Pharisees urged it. poisons : it pleaseth suffers God men. to devour each other. the world would be a wilderness for zealous execution of and beside we have command justice. impartially. as the wisdom of God foresaw. The permiBBion of divorce in Isiael. murders. TMs was dissensions a permissive command. poisons. adulteries. it doth not. Should men do so. adulteries. It will yet be said.] them of their riches. sends the tyrants of the world to destroy the nations. 8. Jer. it. it may be murders. For whereas. 14. CHAP. and plunder 6. xix. Isa. Hab. [5. both ^^°^ MosBs and from Christ. positive rules. but permissive. LIV. xii. speedily. xix. universal to all Israel. the Lord Jesus expoundeth it. out of the hardness of . was apt. Two sorts of Moses and ^^^^- we find two sorts of commands. for the common So the Lord Jesus expoundeth Matt. Moses gave yet also. in preventing the continual fires of and combustions in families: yea. or permitted. the wicked to flourish^ yea. Matt. both spiritual and civil. 1 . 7.

wisely per- . do. I proceed. and governors of cities. It may be said. in civil combustions. were not to prevent 'the hazard of the whole. usury: for the preventing of a greater evil in the body. I answer. permitted. Adonijah. their heart. I produce not these instances to prove a permission of tares — anti-christians. &c. together with the nocent. in the shedding of much innocent blood. or stop. that civil state even in the permission of notorious evil doers. in like cases. Joab. David permitted Joab.. As for instance. that for a further public good sake.OF PERSECUTION DISCUSs'd. states and Shimei and Adonijah. Truth. as those former instances prove. &c. towns. against the answerer's allegation. of commerce and dealing in the commonwealth. and proves only that a season ought to be attended for their punish- Answ. and do permit civil and suffer what neither David nor any it governors ought to do or have done. ment. 139 were it not for this prevent- ing permission. heretics it which other scriptures abundantly prove. Truth. have And civil and governors. even against the civil state. Peace. but to make clear. &c. were only. Shimei. and. and the hindrance. and notorious the 'public safety. a malefactor. robbing. is not disapproved by its season. in the civil state.. lawfully permit some evil persons and practices. to break out into. reprieved for a time. Hence it was. Hence it is that some generals of armies. murdering. Just like physicians. God himself and the wisest of his servants in CHAP. as stealing. civil J^mmoi"-* d?ii stite. as it were. LV. perishing of the poor.

and may be mercifully prevented.. ox tares. and may be of the for the future. wherein he pleaded rejected. Hence illcB lachrymcB: hence Germany's. Of the goodwbeat. heretics. a specially at such a time. professedly raised and maintained. and now the England's. 1. Lord Jesus commanding the tares to be permitted in the world. otherwise. in lights. and sometimes diseases. Ireland's. &c. when the cure or purging would prove more dangerous to the destruction of the whole. the : which are indeed were to be permitted yea. the many other instances. fessors. as well as the tares. — which ought obedience to ^by command Lord Jesus. weak or crazy body. and for the general good itself. for pro- the maintenance of one true religion pattern of that typical land of Canaan —and — after the to suppress and pluck up these tares of false prophets and false prooyt of the world. though not in the church —I say. anti-christians. that himself as well as Permiasion ^^^® grouud. ought to have been. as fess. to have been. to permit demand of a Samuel was pleased the Father of that people. And therefore. all states of the whole. for a the Same with that of the commou good intheifdd for a two" fold good. wh^'eworid iueiff'* the good wheat should be endangered to be rooted up out ^ °^' *^® ^®^*^ '^^ world also. and Thus. of the whole world. the field which. because. hath been and waste and desolate with the fury and rage of civil war. . especially in the matter of their king. tears and dreadful desolations. for the evil. concerning the per- mission of tares to live in the world.140 THE BLOUDY TENENT mitting noisome humours. to wlt. it God of Israel. for want of this is obedience to that laid command of Christ. is good sake.

the evil that he most improperly and confusedly joins and couples seducing teachers with scandalous livers. &c. you observe in the answerer's position. that Seducing teachers are notorious evil doers ? it Truth. p... LVI. ' Yea. Seducing their state life. US. that if the laws of a civil state be not broken. Truth. And yet. Peace. For who knows not but many . Jewish. ? as also from disobedience to the civil laws of a LTiSent thecivu laws. 141 CHAP. . that it would be evU to tolerate notorious evil doers. I pray descend now to the second evil which viz." Cottim'j the civil laws of a state. may be clear and free from scandalous offences in JJ^'oMst- . work it is an homogeneal (as we speak). excommunicate the and prescribe the civil magia- ser to clear civil state to and free from disobedience to the invasion of foreigners. Peace. But is it not true.OF PERSECUTION DISCUSs'd. as that if they were both of one consideration. to whom they are swora. as and coupling seducing teachers and scandalous to suppress and punish. the answerer himself hath elsewhere granted. but an heterogeneal commixture of joining together of things most different in kinds and natures. in two things. seducing teachers. I shall discover the great evil of this joining livers. seducing teachers.] anti-christ. in case that Reply.. I say. that the world is it is fuU of seducing teachers? and not true.9 Again/ who knows not that a seducing teacher properly ' [" It will be hard for the discusfind anti-christian seducer's shall trate. I answer: far be from me to deny either. is. the peace is not broken. or anti-christian l^^'"' religion. °'" either of the paganish. n'ot one adequate or proper object of the magistrates' care and First. Turkish.

he was numbered with notorious spiritually and nailed to the gallows between two malefactors. they good name in the rest. gainsayers. resisted. the three worthies regarded not the command I the king. . is properly weal. —indeed He was so over the true Jew. a fallacious conjoining and con- founding together persons of several kinds and natures. neglect their i yea. Elijah was a troubler of the state the hand of the people. and so against the chastity. or who are. therefore. goods. whom their accusers have ever so coupled and evil doers I mixed with notorious and scandalous livers. and by such weapons. heaven and earth. work . such scandalous offenders ought not to be tolerated. and disobedients — either within his church or without —to be conlife. or civil state. the world. and slain withal ? Hve?s^*'°'"^ c?ri\"s'ate^^ Whereas. the Jews built the rebellious and bad of city. as the Lord Jesus himself hath appointed. according to the wisdom and prudence of the Secondly. —therefore. scandalous offenders against parents. but suppressed. was a conjuror and a traitor against Caesar in being king of the ' Jews evil the Christian doers. ought to be preserved by civil government or governors. opposites.142 sins against a THE BLOUDY TENENT church or spiritual estate and laws of it. each cruefpro-^ against chi-iBtiana. the Lord Jesus and all his messengers and witnesses. Christ Jesus deceived the people. ought most properly and only to be dealt withal in such a way. Jeremy weakened Moses made the people . or transgression against the civil state and common the worldly state of if men: and. therefore. ^ to'et jus™ differing as much as : spirit and flesh. consequently. Jews and the prophets of God. repelled. against magistrates in the fifth command. from other all so is there a silent and implicit justification of the unrightcous and cruel proceedings of all Gcntiles against himself. vinced. and. as there is said government.

in man. so far as Balaam's or Jezebel's doc- . of the- church in Pergamos. but he produceth scriptures against such toleration. as not to seek out and propose some have some colour for an influence of the in such cases First. ' he saith not that Christ had aught against the his throne. LVII. Christ's charge trate of is not against the civil magis- Pergamos. for tolerating them that held the doctrine of Balaam. : the proof of so weighty an assertion. 14. but against the church at Pergamos. CHAP. iL 14. for tolerating Jezebel to teach and seduce." Rev. Secondly. seditious teachers are esteemed seducing and : and turners down yea. Yea.OF PERSECUTION DISCUSS'd. 20. 143 Hence Paul and of the world upside all true messengers of Jesus Christ. Truth." saith he. science : and for persecuting men for the cause of con" Christ. Thirdly. or ministry. and against the church of Thyatira. to be esteemed a seducing teacher. so far as he hath laboured for many truths of Christ —the answerer himself hath drunk of this cup. " had something against the angel of the church of Pergamos. ii. Peace. and to my knowledge — speak with honourable respect to the answerer. as at least might civil magistrate for loieMtion. jealous may answer. city Pergamos. I tonishment. examined. in which was set up the throne of Christ. where Satan had Kev. but the messenger. with some how it pleased the Father to darken admiration and asof lights and most God and veil the eye of so precious a scriptures. I confess.

as must be granted. all to civil Much do they speak at magistrates. Yet so far as Balaam's teachers. suppress not only such as the but such doctrines also : Roman emperor wanton justly punished Ovid the poet.144 trine THE BLOUDY TENENT maintained a liberty of corporal . if there were no [See before. so far I Thyatira. it concerned the cities of Pergamos and Thyatira. whoever they were. p. viz. lnwlul church-prosecution in case of false teachers. and to ^upprcsB Jczcbel from teaching. queen.. "The all letter the falsehood of it." and in the end of that passage he adds. or Jezebel. that in Cotton's Reply. matter of religion : I seei: to evince 117. which will appear to be the case —I may well and properly answer. If they had power."^ Fifthly. or they had not : cienrfr suppress That they had not cannot be authority is affirmed. brought from prove patience Luke and permission to men " are directions and 2 Tim. and the cities. did seduce the members of the church in Pergamos or say. sufficient power to suppress such persons. leading to and ushering on lasciviousness and uncleanness. xvi. and 1 Cor.. as himself ix. "these to ministers of the '' scriptures. I conclude. those scriptures. 22. for Christ's jezebSsT-'^ false in the hands of his ministers and churches. gospel less christ'8 . answered before ii. had she been * lady. ship. for teaching the art of love." tion in cause of conscience.. wor- Matt. that maintained Balaam's doctrine in the church at Pergamos —although the very magistrates themselves of (if the city of Pergamos Christians) : and to have sup- pressed Jezebel from teaching and seducing in the church. fornication. to angel or officers of those practices. Either these churches and the angels thereof and church"!?' had powcr to suppress these doctrines of Balaam. and xviii. or empress.] . to the worship of the idolaters in Pergamos or Thyatira. then. to opposite. by an instance of denieth the lawfulness of perseeuis." saith he. Fourthly. v.

send for her home into the heavens. 1 Cor. from whence all cut or taken Christ's garden. one with the thorns. 10. all power and authority of magistrates and governors of Pergamos and Thyatira. or out of the mountain all kingdom of the mountain. that is. 45. all one with the several unconverted. 145 more but teaching without hostility. now made one with the civil state. are . that stone cut ii. and wilderness of the world. in civil things. now become J""™'"""'? one flock of Jesus Christ Christ's sheep. is and amongst whom. and to and magistrates. since T^e chnst- and officers thereof. and aU submitting or appealing in to them such cases." divers 118. empire. : the Eoman lilies. for a while here below. wild. unless she will go out of the world. as if it were written to see how. the Christian world (so called) hath swallowed up Christianity state.J - magistrate to the punishment of se- . the daughters. must needs fall. her Lord and husband. Dan. before Christ Jesus. she must necessarily be mingled and^ have converse. : civil and earthly governors of them the Christian church. without hands. and love. The upon which we call in the have been mentioned and apCotton's Reply. plied before. or tame beasts and cattle of the world. Lastly. And if so. out of which the spouse or church of Christ called. and the pastors and the or shepherds of them. v.OF PERSECUTION DISCUSs'd. no further than to other churches scriptures and their officers. as none of Christ's appointment. p. . all may the apostasy of anti-christ. how the church and civil fo^^ga „p the church and the world.^ ' ["I intended to apply the scrip- ducers. of which the officers thereof. or it is saints. From this perverse wresting of what iy writ to the church and the the civil state officers thereof. are such as are directed to civil states tures written to the churches.

no more than they may be to be punished said.] . and from seducing any unto pernicious errors. wherewith Mr. and I believe that. Eang of Bohemia. oppressed for righteousness' sake. 24.146 THE BLOCDY TENENT CHAP. we acknowledge that none for his conscience. and sccoud head of reasons. but yet restrained he may be from blaspheming the truth. obscure and darken their lights I pray you. a'peuk' Cotton in the entrance of this discourse laid down. till judgment of the truth of it." Truth. Cotton hath endeavoured : ^ . by the help of examined scriptures. King J ames. "Again. Christ. Stephen of Poland. none convinced in to be conhe be strained to believe or profess the true religion. that science. from the profession of famous . • Bohemia. as hath been due conviction of unless his error be fundamental. unto whom the answerer returneth a treble answer. Having thus. assistance. proceed to his answer to the iSngjameB. " we wLUingly acknowledge that none is to be persecuted at all." saith he. I have made it evident what weak [See before. science. This first answer consists of a repetition and or conclusions. those The second sons against each peraethe'°?!ifeB-" LVIII. is "Furthermore. brought by the author agaiust persecution. in such replies as I have made unto them. is though misinformed. now. by *^ rnoBs"' ^^ same gracious . or writings of truth.-' " First. or seditiously and turbulently promoted. Peace. through the help of God. p.• ly ttt prmccs agaiust persecution tor conscience. it and that after his con- may appear he is not punished for his con- but for sinning against his conscience. Stephen of Poland. we acknowledge. as enumeration of such grounds Mr. and cleared them from such veils and mists.

when the offenders are either too many or them to punish . Cotton's judgwhat the profession to their feeding and correcting. conscience : unto this. not only to feed. holy word of the Lord. that ^ princes'profession ^ and practice ^^ is ^ no rule of Mr. without any particular two things. Unto those excellent and famous speeches of those princes. " Again. therefore. so may '*«?'''igwith they also observe how the answerer deals with princes. excepting the shall fade. not a rule of conscience. Another while. cotton's unequal . but also to correct. which the author against such persecution pro- and I have cleared. Princes many times too mighty for tolerated tolerate offenders out of very necessity.147 foundations they have in the scriptures of truth. shall stand for ever. conse- quently bound to judge what ing: and. that first. or rows of diamonds. when princes cross ment and practice. as also thatj when such conclusions. They many times tolerate that in point of state-policy. in which respect David Joab and his murders. as all men will subscribe. even when these heavens and earth are burnt. returns all the gates of all the cities and palaces in the world. One while they are the nursing fathers of the church. all is true feeding and correctare men bound to submit Mr. and. as grass and the flower of the grass duces. which cannot justly be tolerated in point of true Christianity. Truth. the answerer. then it matters not L 2 ." CHAP. consequently. Peace^ His second answer is is this : —" What princes profess and practise. ^ First. worthy to be written in golden letters. LIX. but against his will. upon reply.

[" This wUl no ways follow. that by these tenents they ought not to submit to any magistrates in the world in these cases. . LX. To which I * answer. I maintenances. That all other consciences in the world. did ever know ? CHAP. p. and that in a turbulent and fac- less eJI men's consciences in the world tious manner. submit. and church ? First.148 THE BLOUDY TENENT is : or practice of princes practice is for. For in these ases did err fundamentally and obstinately afterjust conviction. Truth. but to magistrates just of their own con- science? and Secondly. he saith. or Reply. we allow magistrates to punish m matters of religion. unto keepers of both tables." Cotton's Christian religion. as unto the antitypes of the kings of Israel nursing fathers and mothers of the and Judah. 120. that princes out of state-policy tolerate what suits not with Christianity. and out of state-necessity tolerate (as David did Joab) against their wills. must be persecuted by such their Is not this to magistrates And and lastly. against the very principles of only. unto selves. except their ?* own. I ask then. nor any of his first messengers. or what magistrates or princes as will them- any so persuaded. to ascend and mount up into their rich and honourable seats and saddles. which neither the mean Lord great and settled Jesus. "Will it not evidently follow. saith he. their profession and no rule to conscience. In the second place. the true patterns. make magistrates but steps stirrups. un- .] mtless they held forth other errors .

or false Christians. the King . who tolerated religion.F''"?' '*™' r J the deepest sity. Peace. . of kings. be found to agree most punctually with the rules of the . I have discoursed of in his command of permitting the tares. best politician that ever the world saw. ™t\e°comtoleration of antl-christ'ans. generally laid is times of state-toleration.. I affirm that the state-policy and state-neces. as in the case of Joab. we can name you more and greater who have not ' [See before. Secondly. and is too duly light. that it is evil was not weighed in the balance of the sanctuary.OF PERSECUTION DISCUSS First. permit the consciences of men. LXI. 26. that there former affirmation. ' That although with him. growing up together with the true wheat. which. in the I confess er''Lknow"" that princes may tolerate that out of state-policy will not stand with Christianity. for the peace of the state and preventing of f^J^i-'g"^ •> rivers of civil blood. 149 first. and was but a farthing candle compared with the ever glorious and Sun of righteousness. to tolerate seducing teachers or scandalous livers). of the saints that field is. in comparison of whom Solomon all him- had but a drop of wisdom compared to Christ's ocean. and for the good and peace who must have a civil being in the world. he tionf a necessity some- must acknowledge with me. will . D. and so his down (viz. true Christians.] . anti-christians. His third answer is this : — " For those three princes named by you. this great politician for the That absolute rule of of the field which is peace the world. and Lord of self lords. which neSuy of in the second. CHAP. p. to be in the of the world. yet.

faith men of more conscience and better tolerated. by tolerating all ianity : weeds to grow. choke the vitals of Christ- which was also the practice and sin of Valens the Arian. Gratian. and in obscure holes and corners. part I Unto this. and their arrogating the crown of martyrdom to their sufferings. Precious pearls and jewels. for conscience' sake.150 THE BLOUDY TENENT tolerated heretics and schismaticSj notwithstanding their pretence of conscience. jbe they never so high. as Augustine reports in Ep. are found in muddy lie shells I and places. princely I and glorious. yet against papists. that he might. as famous for her government as it is most of the former. cap. "Queen Elizabeth. 19. banished Arius. Only Julian the Apostate granted liberty to heretics as well as to pagans. though he was slow in proceeding say. witnessing in profession of practice against perse. Hist. one you own witnesses. and far more precious truth. Ecchs. of your well and executed against papists. and Theodosius." than the papists whom he Truth. and King James. that for mine own would not use an argument from the number of : The princes piinces. The rich mines of I golden truth hid under barren hills. with some of his feUows. cutiou for causc of Conscience for the truth and faith of the Lord Jesus must not be received with respect effaces. as are not ignorant you how sharply and severely he punished those whom the malignant world calls puritans. known what laws she made Yea. " The same Constantine made a severe law against the and the like proceedings against them were Donatists : used by Yalentinian." " Constantino the Great at the request of the general council at Nice. . Bcidom take part with Christ. lib. i. 20. Sozom. 166. I answer First.

] with those princes who have professed ." CHAP. therefore. or gilded rocks. though under a mask or pretence of the that purpose name of the God it of Israel. Secondly.OF PERSECUTION DISCUSS'd. p 123. I acknowledge. and Prince of the princes of the earth. and the witnesses of truth (Eev. tread not in the steps of Herod the fox." greater piety and presence of God Reply. sed ponderanda. he ' passeth by that golden It f^2. the bare examples of kings or princes. Jeroboam. xi. cloth of gold or tissue : and.* f^^^''"''' "^'"^ "'*""'• To James and was a noble speech of Buchanan.-^ ["The answer which I gave to his is and is practised against toleration. argument nmnber of not taken from the like princes. not in sUk or satin. Truth. but from the truly said. Lxn. or Nero the openly or secretly persecuting the name of the Lord . those three princes for their practices for. it is rare to find a king. the King of kings. if the number of princes professing persecution be considered. and who lion. sent : —" Remember my humble him that item to King service to his majesty. tell Buchanan is going to a place where few kings come. giving no solace to such make woful shipwreck on them. Ahab. prince.) are ^e'!'^ clothed in sadscloth. as for like. 151 The most high and glorious God hath chosen the poor p^°°™t"°g of the world. Jesus such were Saul. lying on his death-bed. this who. suffragia non sunt numeCottons randa. In King James's speesh. I observe how inconsiderately hope not willingly urged by — — ^he passeth by the reasons and grounds . or governor like Christ Jesus. they are but as shining sands.

not the speech of the king. and bring him from his grave (which no shall find. maxim churcll God never loves to plant his by olood. of saints and sinners. the principaUest and mightiest kingdoms of Christendom. "that sayings pereecution.^ viz. that true and certain note of a false church.. persecution : " The wicked are besiegers. shall find this to be the lancet that hath pierced the veins of kings and kingdoms. in the speech of the King of Bohemia. " That conscience ought not to be violated or forced :" ! and indeed it is most true. fonSce rape!" j Thirdly. " That persecution * -i . That most lamentably true experience of all i i rm that king observeth.. That king's observation of his I" If the discusser had well ohserved. p.. speech. and filled the streams and rivers with their blood. xx. civil Secondly. " a civil magistrate over the bodies of men.] .1'52 THE BLOODY TJENENT in divinity. which _ ° for cause of kingdoms conscicnce hath ever proved pernicious. which the great Messiah abolished at his coming. ages. for God buried him) in setting up a national state or church. being the causes of all those wonderful innovations of. to wit. Persecution eoiencei the lancet that letteth blood of all the ." Jn King Stephen's. of Poland. women in the world. he would have found. than to force and ravish Secondly. that a soul or spiritual rape is ! more abominable the bodics of i - in God's eye. the Kingste- faithful are besieged. 129. In his observation on Kev." He that reads the records of truth and time with an im- partial eye. mcut : " I am. that foundation in grace and nature." Now man to confound these is Babel. Lastly. or changes in." said Stephen. and Jewish it is to seek for Moses. he passeth by *^® ^^^^ difference between a civil and a spiritual govern- me'ech' plrsecution. viz. obedience may be performed from Thirdly." Cotton's Reply. not a spiritual over their souls. That the papists. He passeth by. in a land of Canaan. it was ' own time. but of the prisoner. to wit.

what in itself is good and o g»<ii7good actors. 2 Sam. Constantine. and all of a bloody nature. amongst the as the Roman were Julian the Apostate. Abraham. Gratian. to act ' ' r righteous. in his zeal would build a house to entertain his God! What more pious? and what more (In show) David . Valentinian. (as well as . whose daughters are like their mother. &c. Donatista. but according to the dictate and persuasion of a resolved soul and conscience. and Valens the Arian where- good emperors.OF iERSECUTION DISCUSs'd. or the constant transgression against w'™ of many the the institution of so holy and so ratified a law of marriage. "That emperors. with thirty thousand of d^ws adIsrael. Jacob. carries up the ark : fj''*"\''^^'jt contrary to the order issue God was pleased to appoint the °°*'° "*" was both God's and David's great offence. : and eminently The godiy evu actors. and this not against the light and checks of con- science (as other sins are wont to be recorded of them). Saul.) lived m &c. that such practices commonly proceed from that great whore the church of Eome. 153 "That persecution for cause of conscience was practised ah spiritual most in England. It godly is no new thing for godly. as I conceive. CHAR Now thirdly. La• Polygamy. out of zeal to God. vancing of David. as most commonly all whores be. they that did not persecute . "° implying. mech. and [with] majestical solemnity. &c. . men to perform ungodly actions nor for ungodly persons. iriinxl'i. David. and such places where popery reigned:" woody. they did persecute the Arians." &c:— Answ. LXIIL In that the answerer observeth. and Theodosius. for wicked ends. vi. Solomon.

constantine and the good name Truth. was but Ahab still.. than the raging fury of the most bloody Neros. p. it the one was was the . Besides the un- Reply. And probable Grod's it is. persecuting some erroneous per- sons. uke spice pounded and beaten iiii Christians were sweet m . Arius. made ton's the world anti-ehristiau. to wit. In the pcrsccutions of the ^„ . though like a jewel fallen into the dirt. was a duty. nctos"&c^ But these good emperors. CHAP. fruit of human frailty. latter.] . that his slaughter of Uriah was not without a good end. Cotton himself hath affirmed Christianity fell it. that [in] asleep in Constantine's bosom.. and found success with God.154 THE BLOUDY TENENT seriously consulted. I have often heard that history reports. &c. — error araoris but was toleration that Cot- the rage of the others was devilish fury. truths of Christ lost in — there was no small number of those times— and maintaining by the for and advancing the professors of some truths their religion " [" Though the unknowing zeal of sinful. lay not in punishing notorious heretical seducers . LXIV. when vii. though his act. though acting his fasting and humiliation. did more hurt to Christ Jesus's crown and kingdom." —amor eiToris. The unknowing *-' zeal of Constantine and other areMnfeadone m'^OTr emperors. yet it knowing zeal of the good ^perors. 132. to prevent the dishonour of name in the discovery of his adultery with Bathsheba. mortars. in itself. Whereas King Ahab.. Peace. and the laps and bosoms of those emperors professing the of Christ. the prophet Nathan is admitted counsellor ? 2 Sam. Yet David was holy and precious to God still. and I have heard that Mr.^ name and crown of the Lordjeaus. and iragraut.

v. but also pluck up thousands of those precious stalks by commotions and combustions about religion.OF PERSECUTION DISCUSS'd. J^'^siiden and the professors of it fell Babel. in- tended and aimed right to exalt Christ to the . by this means Christianity was asleep. 155 —I say. xii. or Christendom. or confusion. and their arrogating the crown of martyrdom to their sufferings. was ushered in. Peace. in their zealous mistakes. as hath been since practised in the great and wonderful changes wrought by such wars in many great and mighty states and kingdoms. far from the purity and this peaceableness of the lamb. as we heard even now in the observation of the King of Bohemia. and xiii. Doubtless those holy men. greater princes than these you mention. they make all the garden of . CHAP. emperors and bishops. to wit. persecute good wheat instead of tares. Cant. until the whole world became Christian. 2. to permit the tares to grow in the field of the world. For thus he writes : "More and saith he. Rev. which he was won* to express in England. "have not notwithstanding their pretence of conscience. material sword eclipsed. Dear Truth." . before you leave this passage con- celling the emperors. and by degrees the gardens of the churches of saints were turned into the wilderness of whole nations. how fully worthy answerer hath learned to speak the roaring language of lion-like persecution. LXV." tolerated heretics and schismatics. I shall desire you to glance your eye on this not unworthy observation. the church and field of the world to be one and might not only sometimes. but not attending command of Christ Jesus. f^l"^^ ^^* Tiioneby** lanism.

xx. The Ianguageofper- It is true also. endure It is not such language.156 Truth. THE BLOUDY TEMENT Thy tender ear and heart. but down-beds of ease. that these terms. viz. notwithstanding that weeds abound in the field of permitted." and seems to consent. that such pretend . this is the common clamour of persecutors against the messengers and witnesses of Jesus in are heretics. schismatics.. that the weeds of false religion tolerated in the world./ conscicnce. you seditious.. in blaming Julian and Valens the Arian. rebellious. Have not all truth's witnesses : heard such reproaches? for You pretend conscience : religion you will say you say you are persecuted you are martyrs ? fall Oh ! it is hard for God's children to to opinion and practice of persecution. and the godly are persecuted and besieged. Yet since. the roses and lilies cf wee'd^"(in flourish. as King James spake in his ^the""*'" mark of a false church on Eev. that thereby they might choke the vitals of Christianity . was not -when Christians lodged in cold prisons. heretics (or wilfully obstinate) and schismatics (or renders) are used in holy writ. I shall spccch. he notes their sinful . all ages. factious. sweet Peace. for tolerating "aU weeds to grow. true. 7 and challenge the crown of martyrdom to o Jhe°4X7s t^eir suffering. have a power cMofs flourish in his church. that soul that can so readily speak Babel's language. Truth. Again. When Christianity began to be choked. to choke and kill true Christianity in the church. in this and other passages foregoing and following on a speech of Jerome. left the gates or suburbs Peace. without the ready learning the language thereof. &c. . the wicked persecute and besiege. hath cause to fear that he hath not yet in point of worship of it. and persecuted others. and * more fully if answer to this *- on Jerome's therein will show that the weeds be kept out of the Btandta the g^^^^^n of the church. the it civil State. end. And doubtless.

conscience misinformed.OF PERSECUTION DISCUSs'd. I answer. though I neither approve Queen Eliza- beth or Bang James in such their persecutions. and magistrates. &c. ' of [" It followeth not. and a reproof to King James for his persecuting the puritans. did well to persecute King James did not ill in beuTa^d"* persecuting according to his. if they be essentially qualified. without such a religious spirit of discerning. must also hokl that civil magistrates are not essentially fitted and qualified for their function and office.. if Truth. I say it again. yet such as hold this tenent of persecuting for conscience. as Paul did ignorantly. in not being according to her conscience. must they not persecute according to their consciences and persuasion? And then doubtless. though he be excellent for civil government. and yet must persecute the the schismatic. must persecute such whom In their conscience they judge worthy to be persecuted. Queen Elizabeth.red'™ grant. may he easily. according to the ^nttonVlf answerer's tenent and conscience.s For Mr." . except they can discern clearly the difference between such as are to be punished and persecuted. Or else. heretic. For Queen and King James do Reply. able rightly to judge who ought to be persecuted. and who all not: or else he must confess that King James. according to conscience rightly informed. Cotton must Mmpa. 157 CHAP.] ill according to Cotton's Elizabeth might do well in persecuting seditious or seducing papists. p. LXVL Peace. and such as are not. He ends this passage with approbation of Queen Elizabeth for persecuting the papists. that either King James was not fit to be a king. had not the essential qualifications of a king. &c. 136. persecute the Son God instead of the son of perdition.

. He says. raised ^ufneltte' nation. . the learned and reverend John Cotton. in defeating the intendments of their enemies. and to see that none of their subjects be persecuted and oppressed for their conscience and worship. yet 'J he confesseth ^ ^^^ the \i "raised of all Christendom in combustion. God. Cotton tells us. it might have been the ruin of " them both. In his open- Peace. and 1586 the . — it ' all states rang of these laws.' that Mr? Cotton that Queen Elizabeth's persecuting the papists world in civil Queen Ehzabeth had almost fired combustions by such her persecuting it : though he bring & & in to another end.000 protestants were in The Pouring out of the Seven or an Exposition of Vials: put to death by him. boasts that 36.. and raised all Christendom. 4to.D. what good to the souls or bodies of their shall princes. lastly. holds forth some Duke D'Alva under persecution. By Jesuits were banished the country. or did these princes bring in persecuting? &c. pp. to to the" queen's law — that as object of to Mr. London. . third vial. In the second place. . LXYII. . Rev. 6. in this [The Third justify The Amen. against both the nations. They acknowledge God's almighty power." Vial. being otherwise subject and peaceable in civil obedience.] . what glory to subjects. and the Amen. CHAP. Mr. &c. xvi. Even so. that had given them power to make that law against them persecution drink —the papists by Queen Elizabeth. both concerning the English nation and the Dutch.158 THE BLOUDY TEN'ENT commandj Therefore. " This phrase. in his discourse upon the the for Be^en^ais. out of the altar. wars 1588 and the Spanish Invasion. 1642." &c. Cotton the work was of the she gave the popish emissaries blood angel says. " that if God had not borne witness to his people and their laws. 7. according to Christ Jesias' magistrates are bound not to persecute. They [the protestants] justly say B." and hc adds. I answer and ask. imitation of that conduct in the Low Countries.

all countries.. God hath borne unto them. and had the »™'eB- assistance and protection of divers great princes against three succeeding popes and their armies . of anti-christ against Christ Jesus for a time appointed. It is most true.OF PERSECUTION DISCUSS'D. Truth. if success . and thirteenth chapters. Success was various between and some Countries. Secondly. I grant. I First. into ^™ Lyons in France and success J Germany. both in peace and war. write of the great success Charles V. Italy. spread over France. those famous witnesses of Jesus -' who rising o from Waldo. That those laws and practices of 159 Queen Eliza. victory and dominion fore. and are no argument of love. is But most memorable Christ.1^^ ™" beth raised those combustions in Christendom. his Revelation. and therewitness be the measure. and success come alike to all. and eleventh. event deny : for. That it was God's gracious work in defeating the in- tendments of their enemies. princes: Philip of Spain and the Low : the French king and his protestant subjects sometimes sometimes winning. German losing. or hatred. ''^''f thousands and ten thousands. eleventh. and twelfth chapters. . but after mutual slaughters and miseries to both sides. I thankfully acknowledge. - These and thenpopish fought many battles with various success. the famous history of the Wal- denses and Albigenses. and John in twelfth. interchangeably. I deny not: that they might likely have cost the ruin of English and ?h?protM* '^^' Dutch. the papists in their wars have ever yet had. making agaSt separation from the pope and church of Rome. But that God bore witness to such persecutions and laws for such persecutions. what Daniel in his eighth. and almost donillJ^u. in the utter extirpation of those famous Waldensian witnesses. the final success of victory fell to the popedom and Eomish church. &c. ^ at (1160). Eventus inceitus.

with what "weapoiia. to excommunicate a heretic. . that it is not to punish an innocent but a culpable and for conscience. to wit. 26. that the Christian church doth not persecute. whose testimony without ian church doth not persecnte prejudice to the truth we may admit for it is true. and Rev. Christian church doth not persecute. twelfth. LXVIII. In this answer there are First. and thus writeth The Christ- — : "You begin with Hilary. &c." but for per- sisting in error against light of conscience. and the not loving of their lives unto the death. p. in the Roman emperors by three their testi- weapons —the blood of the Lamb. in God's cause and worship: and in Eev. in Ephesus to him that overcometh^ . and that not hath been convinced. God's servants overcame the dragon. But is. Lj« am God's weapons. the but is perse- cuted. even of the papists themselves. ll * second and third chapters. two things His confession of the same truth aflSrmed by : Hilarius. damnable person. whereof he Truth. xx. seven times it is recorded To him that overcometh. — in Sardis. descends to the third and last head of arguments produced by the author. in the next place. [See before. Peace. yea. secution for conscience' sake : who have condemned : some of which the answerer pleaseth to answer. per- taken from the judgment of ancient and later writers. The answerer.] . CHAP.# THE BLOUDY TENENT all God's servants are overcomers when they war with OU8 over- cornel's. is not to persecute. The third head of arguments from ancient and later writers.160 God's people victori. but is persecuted. the word of mony. or devil. but is persecuted : suiting with that foregoing obser- vation of King James from Eev.

spiritual nature. If the censure of a sword. xvii. Christ Jesus M . the word upon to that be persecute ? — who questioneth whether — excommunication being of a ^I say. : impossible that he should so answer for The nature °' First.. then those churches cannot be truly Christian. own were Truth..OF PERSECUTION Peace. churches. and a by the most sharp two-edged sword of the in delivering up the person excommunicate to Satan. and had recovered from the drunkenness of the greatjwhore it is who intoxicateth the nations. it is unlawful to banish for cause greater persecution to censure a for cause of conscience man any from the church conscience." " we may admit without prejudice to the truth." &c. DISCUSs'd. Truth. which either actually themselves. an obstmate gamsayer. or be opposite against them. or procured by them to fight for them. Peace. saith he. V. 2. . or princes given to by the civU power of kings and them. Sure I by the spiritual am. I answer. to persecute. or false chX'"' Christ's . the spiritual spiritual killing Spirit. church. 1 • • 1 ™c»m- munication. . and of the anti-christian. but to punish him for sinning against the light of his conscience. iii. as we have opened Tit. . but in the second place he addeth. 1 • Who 1 • questioneth whether to excommunicate a heretic. 3). do persecute such as dissent from them. of .. to Yea . Therefore. it is conscience. that is. according to the first institution. Rev." I answer. If this worthy answerer thoroughly awaked from the spouse's spiritual slumber (Cant. 161 : Yet to tliis he adds a colour thus " which. King of his church. If it . who ?* sees not that his answer comes not near our question ' [«If it be unlawful to banish any from the commonwealth for cause of man civil for cause of conscience by the ~ far sword be persecution. be a mark of the Christian PwMcuUng churches church to be persecuted. " that is excommunicate a heretic not to persecute. . a sentence denounced by the word of Christ Jesus.

Deut. Cotton's Re- withdraw her from her spouse to a false Christ. or a lamb pursue and tear the wolves. hawks and eagles. he would prove churches charged to be because they persecute . I conclude this passage with Hilarius and the answerer. p. THE BLOUDY TENENT In the answerer's second conclusion. as I have there made it evident. again. he proves persecution against a heretic for sinning against his conscience. opposing her in spiritual and church matters.and the practice of it un ng. banishing. 143. as the whole discourse. is second concluI." . he would prove them false. or a chaste and modest virgin fight and scratch like whores and harlots. stocking. whipping. 144. and so comes not near the question. ^g^^-Qj^ q£ ^j^g all ages testify. iii. fining. I say. civil have at large there answered. not to be because they persecute not is : for. Christ's spouse no scratcher or fighter. excommunication Moutionror not persecution. burning.] * than the eye of a holy to spare ["I see no reason why the chaste was and pity the and modest eye of a Christian church should any more spare and pity a like tempters in xiii.* And for punishing the heretic for sinning against his conscience after conviction sion he a/ffirmeth —which the —to be by a sword. &c. and quotes which only proves. Truth. days of old. p. 12. a spiritual rejecting or excommunicating from the church of God. Whereas the ques- tion is. that the Christian church doth not persecute no more than a lily doth scratch the thorns. lb. 10. not by excommunications. reckoneth excommunication for persecution. hanging. Tit. saith he. spiritual adulterer that seeketh to Luke xxi. in the entrance of this discourse. but by imprisonments. Israelite * ply. and Hilary's own amplifimatter in this speech.. whether be not a false church that doth persecute other churches or members. 8. notwithstanding that such persons in civil obedience and subjection are unreprovable. Here. false.. IS.] .162 Peace. or a turtle-dove hunt the .

they seduce from the truth to damnable heresy or idolatry. First. he selecteth one passage out —afthough there are golden passages there expressed against the use of in the affairs of Christ.. such encouragement and employment from him. Nerertheless. whether they be convinced or no. ""We acknowledge to be conhe be strained to believe or profess the true religion. this hindereth "but if they or any other should blashis true religion. 24. that neither the apostles JI won by"' we may if propagate Christian religion by the sword.^ viz. p. ^^8^0^' be but pagans cannot be won by the word. 163 CHAR of Hilary LXIX. US. Unto which I passage in his first reply and ask. In the next place. his agreement with Hilary. till convinced in judgment of the truth of things. it ?"^ implying two to constrain That the civil civil magistrate. they are not to by the be compelled by the sword. When magistrate discerns that his ' ' [See before.OF PERSECUTION DISCUSs'd. the civil Secondly. and profess Cotton's Re^ ply. In which answer I observe.] [« as a wise constrain- and discerning it. and no do they deserve. earthly powers : The passage is this " It nor is true gJso what he saith. first. that the Christian religion pagated by the civil may not be pro- sword. not." priflce would Thus far he may be otherwise grant to such as believe the truth by withholding such countenance and favour from him." Truth. M 2 . civil. p. they less pheme the true God and ought to if be severely punished ." saith he. many Peace. who is with the sword. then what means this answer to the former speeches of the that none is Mng. ed. must judge all the consciences of theig'jibiectB.

p. were compelled to at- pay any church tend church under the penalties of fine What they pay they give voluntarily. vii. and the true ' religion. Williams thus rejoins.] t" I in know of no constraint at all that lieth any ' New . The pilgrim any constraint will. who can be ignorant of the assessments upon all in other towns. " If Mr. and pay churdi duties.] church. and the magistrates insisted on the presence of every ship. fathers of similar 163. consciences." man at public wor- For a freedom of not paying town (Boston) it in his Knowles's Memoir of Roger Bancroft's Hist. ed by their general court. p. mendation and God's praise. and also seduce others to duties in [By the 35th of Elizabeth." obnoxious persecuting it law. hostilely. In the year 631. and for non-payment of church duties. inhabitant was compelled to themselves from church morning and bute to the support of religion.^ reli- Again." &c.164 THE BLOUDY TENENT then he subjects' consciences are convinced. and imprisonment. at all. ' States. all New England. upon the consciences of England. subjects of the realm above sixteen none to - in our own town are constrained duties all. blaspheme the true God. although he confesseth that propagation of gion ought not to be by the sword. the civil state and magistracy judging New Old and Eng- in spiritual things. Collier's each one with his own hand. a propagation of religion by the sword. Hist. p. . may constrain them Constraint upon conBciences in vi et armis. Least of all do I know that any are constrained to pay church . in the judgment of the damnable Sure I am. against such as absent evening. And upon accordingly. but their own directs New England adopted a and 1 as the Lord them. to wit. or if repealed have been. of is to their Williams. Cotton be forgetful. comYet U. years of age." " Every contri- New England that are. 44. unless he was a rant of the laws and penalties extant in member some church in the colony. 3G9. Mr. to come to . sure he can hardly be igno- one should enjoy the privileges of a freeman. when persons. for that is implied. 216. was enact"that no of Cotton's Reply. to come to is church. at civil state. although no members. all who knows not what constraint lies land. yet he maintaineth the use of the sword. without Modes. in old and New England. Bloody Tenent yet more Bloody.' which upon the point though with a sword of a finer gilt and trim in England — nothing New else but that which he confesseth Hilary saith true should not be done. 146. i. of the many suits and sentences in courts.

fetched and an argument from the law of natural or not to believe at equity. Scapula. p. to the seduction of any from the truth." Truth. from persecuting : the Christians. In this passage he agreeth with Tertulyet and gives instance in America of the English pernot lawful to tolerate worshipping mitting the Indians to continue in their unbelief: withal he affirmeth it of devils. 165 Which. it will not therefore be lawful [openly] to tolerate the worship of devils or idols. 26. Nevertheless. and in that place. for not offering sacrifice to their gods for that end. or seduction from the truth.] . I answer. I shall defer my answer unto the after reasons of Mr. LXX. Answ. . but permit them to believe [willingly]. Peace. lian. the English may permit the Indians to continue in their unbelief.OF PERSECUTION DISCUSs'd. where scriptures are alleged. the place alleged by you. because he barely affirmeth in this place. the only to restrain Roman governor of Africa. Which we acknowledge and accordingly we judge. heresy and idolatry. can help. not to compel any to any religion. CHAP. that in New England it is well known that ' ° they not only permit the Indians to continue in their _ _ The Indians of New ^^"s^*^^^^ unbelief. all. by God's assistance. Cotton and the elders of New English churches . writer is The answerer thus proceeds :9 " Your next Tertullian.f„'gV in their""' Christ on earth. they shall be examined and answered. which neither they nor all the ministers ofi''4'^°(. who speaketh to the same purpose in His intent is lertuuian's dSesed. nor angels in heaven. not being • [See before.

ii. &c. ii. commandments. Dutch.. will hurt. On the . or by such as have given their names to Christ. if &c. as appeareth by the threats of Christ to the churches. Secondly. Persians.. Williams re-asserts. that they shall sub- in utter opposition to. ' That . Jews. rwSn practice. Peace. which in point of all visible profession and worship will appear to be one. as all false might by And the therefore. and concomto an article of the covenant between and that their practices are such Indians as have submitted to our government. B-ev.the ten mandments they had receive. in their worship tinue in the public pagarush worship of devils openly. con- and government. Christ. of those that have given their names to First. 218. French. That Tertullian doth not there speak of but of public worship and rehgion. should also be civil Spanish. correspondent in He ad^s further. did they walk by rule and their not only Indians. Rev.166 ("wSthe THE BLOUDY TENENT *•' *^^® work belief: but they also permit or tolerate them Sa°8o°"°' in tlieir paganish worship. "When Tertullian saith." — I say openly..* Worshipping of devils. will be the ruin and desolation of the church. wo°rahiV° which cannot be denied to be a worship is. it is plain private. worship permitted. according to the same impartiailly.. I answer passing by that unsound distinction of members of the church. * yet in two [" It is not true that the New who contrary Mr. Although that a false religion it be true in a church of Christ. that certain tribes of the Indians " English do tolerate the Indians. permitted in their worships. who have submitted to the English protection profess to submit to the English. obedience." : Truth. Bloody Xenet. or according to those threats of Christ. Turks. . p." 148. It hath been of devils stantly. professed mit to the ten p. but countrymen. consequently.' another man's religion neither hurteth nor profiteth any it must be understood of private worship and : religion professed in private otherwise a false religion professed by the members of the church.] Cotton's Reply.

A little leaven leaveneth the whole lump. The eeduoing or in- not the truth. yea." Cotton's Reply. which is i" twocwes false reli- lo"hS"the First. laws about civil reli- out mfectious. . if heresy must be cut off with the sword this hinders not. to prevent the perdition And that to be Jerome's meaning. of Conscience.] [See before. and taking. Now religion is the best good of the city : work: the one to lay in antidotes to prevent infection. by the civil sword. ' p. Secondly. therefore. "a is spark as soon as appeareth. it Therefore.^ CHAP. A false religion out of the church will not hurt omfstat the church. in case the worshippers break no law: civil and the answerer elsewhere acknowledgeth. the other to weed and. enact- ed by civil authority. and antidotes are received against it." is saith he. cases I believe a false religion will not hurt. or poison hurt the body when it is not touched or taken. he may be cut off also of others. only is civil peace is not broken : and this the point in question. o 167 most like to have been Tertullian's meaning. . no more than weeds in the wilderness hurt the i I enclosed garden. the A false religion and worship will not hurt civil civil state. — 'a. p. LXXI. appeareth by his note upon that of the apostle. nor advantageth your cause for we grant feo^ng > what he down. . to be ex- * [But " that a civil law whatso- Christian magistrate.] . noisome weeds. crosseth .OF PERSECUTION DISCUSS'd. 220. *'»"™«d- of the Spirit but but that being so cut the heretic wiU persist in his heresy to the seduc- tion of others. "Your next author.' "Jerome. 27. 161. Tracts needful the faithful vigilancy of the on Lib. to assist the ever concemeth th6 good of the city. Peace. Also. that : saith he. which the sheep of Christ will be touching gion are truly called laws. that the laws not being broken. ofScers of the church in the Lord's and the propulsing of the contrary. about the best Here will be good of the city." saith. p.

or be^kept any other church.. soured with the leaven. lest whole house. or Gal." wtruS'' sword of the in spiritnai causes. Williams slip of the pen . first. Secondly. that heresy must be cut off of the *^^ sword of the Spirit. yet. above quotation to Tertul- inserted in the text " Jerome. 6. any other dough. his church * [In this paragraph Mr. or body. and the purging out of the leaven in the church. hcresy must be cut off with the sword of the Spirit _ yet. or but the dough. Answ. v. the house. civil It is no argument to prove that Jerome meant a alleging 1 sword. perish by the scabbed beast. or else spiritually to slay and execute him. he granteth to Jerome. therefore. not there to speak to the church ™' Corinth. and conceiveth that Jerome apostle. the flock of Christ. or house. and of the 2?chrirt''t'o Spirit of God. by Cor. mighty operation of powerfully scriptural sufficient. if Jerome should so mean as himself doth. rest of the dough . . mass of dough. body. we have. first. or Galatia. either to convert the heretic to God. because . ^ '^ the sword of the magistrate so means." in- but by an evident mistake or steadof "Tertullian/'asin thecopy. he quoteth that of the A little leaven leaveneth the whole lump.* that . with And The absosword Spirit. Truth. refers the lian. x. the body. I answer. concerning flock. v. and fire be on with the spark. which properly and only approve a cutting off by the sword of the Spirit in the church. according to that weapons. that grant of his. 9. It is clear to be the meaning of the apostle. and a the set scabbed beast to be driven from the sheepfold flock. and subdue his very thoughts into subjection to Christ. implies an absolute sufficiency in ^j^g sword of the Spirit to cut it down. in the cities of Corinth and Galatia. be putrefied with the rotten flesh.] . he maintaiucth a cutting off by a second sword. 4. 2 Cor. withal.168 tingTiishedj THE BLOUDY TENENT and the leaven to be removed from the rotten pieces of flesh are to be cut is off.

to bind conscience. through his grace. although! 1 the state or kingdom. as once it was in the national church of the \ g^^ ^^^ land of Canaan. neces. is as in old England. In granting with Brentius that man ' hath opened mine eye- ["The Lord. and scabbed sheep.OF PERSECUTION DISCUSS'd." saith he. 1S6. and offend men or devils. whether implicit. if the Sun of Jesus." • Cotton's Reply. are to be avoided. . many a year . " Brentius. p. We "IT ^ -^ . CHAP. whom you next quote. p. . consisting of Jews on Spiriti Gentiles. &c. such leaven. conscience . which elsewhere he professeth against. are powerfully able. 26.] . by the sword of the to defend themselves.^ t « " speaketh not to your cause. . a state-church. that a national church. LXXII." Truth. church not ^™ obscured. - that man hath no power to make laws to bmd . or as in New. as to run to a smith's shop for a sword of iron instituted Christ '' •' . I answer.] ago to discern that a national church [See before.The national ' r ' •> church of sarily called for such weapons . such rotten flesh. 169 out of which such sparks. but the particular churches *» •f«™- of Christ in all parts of the world. but men may see the laws of God observed which do bind conscience. explicit. Peace. not the institution of the Lord Jesus Christ. have neither carnal spear nor sword. wherein such a church or churches of Christ are gathered. typical state-church of the Jews. but this hinders not. is not the institution of the Lord Jesus. Man hath nopowerto make law. -¥XT wimngly grant you. Nor could the eye of this worthy answerer ever be so •* "at'onai chliTfl^ Tint. and steel to help the sword of the Spirit. righteousness had once been pleased to show him.* The national.

. Williams. that Either there of is no lawful commonwealth. worship against conscience or that not to science. that itself. Cotton's affirmations. muffled up under the yet. " every reader seriously to ponder the whole Christ Jesus.' Secondly."" And then I ask. hood or p..170 THE BLOUDY TENENT hath not power to make laws to bind consciencBj he over- throws such his tenent and practice as restrain their worship according to their conscience men from and beliefs and constrain them to such worships. discipline. [" It restrain is an untruth." Bloody Tenet propositions. . Mr. be their conscience paganish. nor is men in the world. which : not qualified with this the very spiritual discerning and then also. 167. and to determine in aU the great controversies that concerning doctrine. Desperate conse voidable. conis such is my tenet and practice. whether upon this ground it must not civil state evidently follow. than the church Or. that either we worship according &c. that common- weal hath more light concerning the church of Christ.] veil of a law against ana- stream and series of discourse. which their tell own souls them they have no satisfaction nor faith in. &c. those magistrates^ yea.. the commonweal and magistrates thereof. 233. baptistry. though it be out of a pretence that they are convinced. so those men." says Mr." And a cruel law yet Cotton's Reply. as God needeth not the help of a material sword of affairs steel to assist the sword of the Spirit in the of conscience. government. must needs have power and authority from Christ Jesus to sit as judge. must judge and punish as they are persuaded in their own belief and conscience. . or constrain them j to be untrue that his doctrine tends constrain nor restrain . p. through the whole book. Whereas he affirmeth that men may make laws to see the laws of God observed : I answer. &c. and he shall then it men from be able to judge whether to conscience. "I earnestly extant [in New England] against beseech. commonwealth which makes such magistrates.

" saith he. therefore. they may not imdertake to give laws unto the souls and con- men. But this. to L/uther. for this is to be done with spiritual weapons.11 allege. p. and. That the church of Christ doth not use the arm of secular power to compel men to the true profession sciences of of the truth.OF PERSECUTION DISCDSS'd. 171 Turkish. to wit. to wit. and the world out of the world. " [See before. " Secondly. whereby Christians are to be exhorted. not over their souls : who sees not is what a clear testimony from his own mouth and pen given. I answer. that either the spiritual and church estate. . T jI whom you next . that the government of the civil magistrate extendeth no further than over the bodies and goods of their subjects.^ "may be returned uSumony in this ease discussed. Peace.28. or anti-clirlstian. What is this but to confound heaven and earth together. The 1 like answer. may justly be cen- sured by the church with excommunication." Truth. " hindereth not that Christians sinning against light of faith and conscience. That the government of the civil magistrate extendeth no further than over the bodies and goods of their subjects. in this joint confession of the answerer with Luther. and to all upon heaps of confusion ? CHAP." saith he. " . and not only to take away the being of Christianity out of the world. LXXIII. not compelled. not over their souls . in case they shall corrupt others to the perdition of their souls.] . and by the civil sword also. "First. but to take away lay all civility.

their own convictions and Secondly. Or civil magistrate cannot. and the gathering of the church. .] . 162.172 THE BLOUDY TENENT the preaching of the word. ' [" Though the government of the improve that power of their souls . without exceeding the bounds of his office. differing from the worship allowed of in the civil state." The The power extends no further than the Christians for bodies and goods of the subject. yet advance the good of their outward he may and ought to man also. The Father all : of lights make this worthy answerer. may be it. not only from his itself. p. compelled when they are con^wnced of the truth of Secondly. Their that they viz.. -to the bodies and goods of men. to see their fear. necessarily must it follow. the baptism of it. the nainistry. he may much than over the bodies and goods of his subjects. and for corrupt- ing the souls of men. own practice who suffer no man of exercise of any different conscience and worship to live in their juris- diction. as His former implication. J*o8ifion8°° meddle with those spiritual affairs ? ^ Again. and yet magistrate must punish sinning against the light of faith and conscience. government. and administrations thereof. themL^TCs. that these two are magistrates' prOTed"/on- Contradictory to themselves. except that he depart from his own religion and worship. In his joint confession with Luther. but also from the light of reason confessions.'' Cotton's Reply. men to and profession of the truth. First. he condemneth.. which seems monstrous to imagine? that is. yea.. to wit. that the church doth not use the secular power to compel the faith before I have observed. and also actually submit to come to their church. belong to the civU body of the else that the commonweal. to the good civil magistrate do extend no further yea. and wandering in this case that fear him.

speak loud and fully for them when they are under the hatches. LXXIV. especially. p. CHAP. as both their writings and judicial pro- ceedings have testified to the world these many years. that are conscientious.OF PERSECUTION DISCUSs'd. alleged both against themselves and aU that associate with them (as power is in their hand) in such unchristian and bloody both tenents and practices. although both writings and practices have been such. Peace. All persons. a lively and shining testimony.. "we weigh as knowing whatever they speak for toleration of religion where themselves are under hatches. " As for the testimony of the popish book. hearing of the word. that teaching and being taught I'll m 46. 28. from scriptures answerer descends unto. I answer." Truth.^ it not. 173 Which. worship as the supper of the Lord. papist and protestant. as true and proper a church ii. unto which . however viz. this it of Gods worship. Srwo&°of ' that men are compelled no further than unto the chmll all . it is coloured over with this varnish. a chxirch estate is a church worghip. The next passage is in the author which the ^^^^f^ the testimony of the papists 5°„acSef themselves. yet the scriptures and expressions of truth alleged and uttered by them. Acts Secondly. that have always suffered upon ground they have refused to come to each other's church or meeting. that for their » LSee before. yet Will appear. when they come to 'sit at stern they judge and practise quite contrary." saith he. men are bound.] .

a . but suffered to breathe and walk upon the decks. Cant. when they are under when they come to helm. Cotton and others have formerly been under what sad and true complaints have they abun! dantly poured forth against persecution How have they opened that heavenly Jesus calls his scripture. that they are so partial as to per- ofpersectt- whcu they sit at helm. as he speaks of the papists. in the commonwealth. privilege them to persecute others. and yet cry put against persecution when they are under the hatches. tants^'paruai practice be so abominable in his eyes from the sccutc papists. . iv. ° otd''" stone and a stone. obedience to the if this Again. in the air of civil liberty ship of the civil and conversation. preaching. in. answering to each other in the sameness of partiality. practice. no. I shall beseech the righteous Judge of the whole world to present. as in a water or glass where face answereth to face. When hatches.. in the bag of weights! — one weight for . do they themselves —I God . 8. both by to the helm. printing. viz. Mr. upon good assurance given of civil state. which they judge the papists and others are not nor the truth itself. both of this doctrine and practice. the faces of the papist to the protestant. and another for Nor shall their confidence of their being in the truth. hope in their persons lambs —unnathem turally and partially express towards others the cruel ? nature of such lions and leopards A false ba- Oh ! that the of heaven might please to '' tell God'9 mattersabomi- how abominable themselves others in his eyes are a weight and a weieht. writing. where Christ tender wife and spouse from the fellowship with persecutors in their dens of lions and mountains of leopards ? But coming how. hatches.174 THE BLOUDY TENENT conscience and religion they should not there be choked and smothered.



and to exempt themselves from persecution, because

First, it Is against the nature of true sheep to persecute,

^""f "ifunrM


hunt the beasts of the
Secondly, if



no, not the

same wolves



fonnerly have persecuted themselves."

be a duty and charge upon


trates. In all parts of the world, to

judge and persecute In


for spiritual causes, then ei;ther they are

no magis-



are not able to judge in such cases, or else they
to their consciences, whether pagan,

must judge according

Turkish, or anti-christian.
P'''^ Lastly, notwithstanding their confidence of the truth of purge '" ^ J o out



own way, yet the own mistakes and

experience of our fathers' errors,
Ignorance, the sense of our



weaknesses and blindness In the depths of the prophecies

and mysteries of the kingdom of Christ, and the great
professed expectation of light to
able to

come which we are not now comprehend, may abate the edge, yea, sheath up
not from them In doctrines of repentance, or

the sword of persecution toward any, especially [toward]

such as


faith, or holiness

of heart and life, and hope of glorious and eternal union to come, but only in the way and

manner of the administrations of Jesus
* ["


the wolf runneth rais it

herd to send forth his dogs to worry

venously upon the sheep,
to their shepherd


such a wolf, without incurring the
reproach of a persecutor."

the nature of the true sheep to run





Keply, p. 171.]

against the nature of the true shep-





close this

head of the testimony of writers,


pleaseth the answerer to produce a contrary testimony of

Austin, OptatuSj &c.^

Truth. I readily acknowledge, as formerly I did con-

cutionhave had many votes from

ccming the testimony of

princes, that anti-christ *





hard for Christ at YOtes and numbers: yea, and believe






wherein the servants of



many hundred

years have been fast asleep, superstition and persecution have had more suffrages and votes from


people, than hath either been honourable to

the Lord, or peaceable to their
therefore, not to derogate


or the souls of others

from the precious memory of

any of them,


us briefly consider what they have in this

point affirmed.

To begin with Austin:

afflicted in

murder," saith he,
body, and they put

and themselves are

Austin's saying for persecution

to everlasting death,

and yet they complain when

themselves are put to temporal death."* I answer,, this rhetorical pervasion of

human wisdom


sccms vcrv reasonable in the eye of flesh and blood '


one scripture more prevails with faithful and obedient
souls than thousands of plausible

and eloquent speeches

in particular.

First, the scripture useth soul-killing in a large sense,

not only for the teaching of false prophets and seducers,

but even for the offensive walking of Christians




[See before,

p. 28.]


root of apostasy from

God: not only

* ["

The murder of the





himself from God, but'

the only proper cause of a heretic's
capital crime, but chiefly his bitter

seducing others."
p. 175.]

respect, 1 Cor.
viii. 9,

guilty of

a true Christian

may be

destroying a soul for
this rule


Christ died, and therefore


ought to be hanged, burned, &o.

Secondly, that plausible similitude will not prove that

every false teaching or
soul, as the


practice actually kills the


is slain,


but once; for souls

infected or bewitched

may again recover,

Cor. v. ; Gal. v.

2 Tim.



Thirdly, for soul-kiUings, yea, also for soul-woundings

and grievings, Christ Jesus hath appointed remedies
cient in
his church.


There comes forth a two-edged

sword out of

mouth (Rev. ^

and Eev.

ii.\ -'

able to cut


mentB procMst'jeBiiB


heresy, as



and to klU the heretic :

yea, and to punish his soul everlastingly, which no sword


of steel can reach unto in any punishment comparable or


therefore, in this case,

we may

say of

this spiritual soul-kiUing

by the sword of



Paul concerning the incestuous person, 2 Cor.
is this



punishment, &c.

Fourthly, although no soul-killers, nor soul-grievers,


be suffered in the spiritual

state, or

kingdom of
that such

Christ, the church; yet he hath


should be suffered and permitted to be and live in the
world, as I have proved on Matt.

otherwise thousands


millions, of soiils

and bodies both, must be murdered
combustions and bloody wars about

and cut



Fifthly, I argue thus


the souls of all


in the world Men

dead in

are either naturally dead in sin, or alive in Christ.

Ifbesouinational enforced reli-

dead in sm, no ^


is it


them, no more than he can

a dead

man nor
the very


false teacher, or false religion,




leligion, is

a capital crime, whether

attempt of killing a soul, in abusing

the soul die of that


or no."

an ordinance of God,

in corrupting a

Cotton's Reply, p. 175.]




^^^^ ^^^ ®o

much prevent

the means of spiritual



so™i™- one of these

— either the

force of a material sword,


imprisoning the souls of men in a state or national religion,
ministry, or worship

secondly, civil wars and


bustions for religion's sake, whereby


are immediately

cut off without any longer means of repentance.


again, for the souls that are alive in Christ,


hath graciously appointed ordinances powerfully sufficient
to maintain and cherish that

—armour of proof

able to

defend them against

men and


Secondly, the soul once alive in Christ,

like Christ





for ever,





and cannot

die a spiritual death.

Lastly, grant a


to be a false teacher, a heretic, a

Balaam, a

spiritual witch, a wolf, a persecutor, breathing

the grace of

out blasphemies against Christ and slaughters against his
foUowers, as Paul did. Acts
soul-kiUers to-day,
ix. 1,

I say, these

who appear
prove, as

by the grace of Christ may

Paul, soul-savers to-morrow


iv. [16,] all



and saith Paul to Timothy, Thou shalt save thyself and them that hear must necessarily be prevented, if aU that

comes within the sense of these

must, as guilty

of blood, be corporally kiUed and put to death.^

[" As for such as apostate from

proclaim a general
malefactors; for he

pardon for





of religion, and

a wilful

seek to subvert the foundation of

murderer and





draw away others from









plead for their toleration, in hope of

martyr hereafter."
p. 176."]

Cotton's Reply,


as to




Dear Truth, your answers

are so satisfactory to

Austin's speech, that

Austin himself were now

methinks he should be of your mind. Optatus, " who," saith the answerer,
for putting

I pray descend to


optatns ex-


heretics to death, affirming that

he had

done no more herein than what Moses, Phineas, and Elias

had done before him."
Truth. These are shafts usually drawn from the qtiiver

of the ceremonial and typical state of the national church ^ of the Jews, whose shadowish and figurative state vanished

Persecutors' leave Chnst,


at the appearing of the




body and substance, the Sun of uce.'''™ up another kingdom, or church,
and worship:



[27,] ministry

which we find

no such ordinance, precept, or precedent of killing men by
material swords for religion's sake.


particularly concerning

Moses, I query what

commandment, or

practice of Moses, either Optatus, or

the answerer here intend?

Probably that passage of

[15,] wherein

Mqses appointed a

either of a person or a city, that should depart from the


of Israel, with


that national church



place in


if so,

I shall particularly reply to that


answer to the reasons hereunder mentioned.^

Concerning Phineas's zealous act:
First, his slaying of the Israelitish

man, and woman of riiineas's

Midian, was not for spiritual but corporal
Secondly, no


will produce

his fact as precedential
and that of
Levit. xxiv.,

[" It appeareth he meant not


that passage of Deut.

but of

where he put the blasphemers
Cotton's Reply, p. 178.J




where he put to death




act, in

any minister of the gospel so to


civil state

or commonwealth; although I believe in the chvirch of


it is

precedential, for either minister or people, to kill

and slay with the two-edged sword of the Spirit of Grod, any
such bold and open presumptuous sinners as these were.
Lastly, concerning Elijah: there were

two famous


of Elijah of a killing nature
First, that of slaying
xviii. [40.] ^

850 of Baal's prophets,


Secondly, of the two captains, and their




^°^ *^®

^^^* °^ these,


cannot figure, or type out, any
thousands of false prophets

material slaughter of the
in the world


by any material sword of iron or steel for as that passage was miraculous,^ so find we not any such commission given by the Lord Jesus to the ministers of

the Lord.



such a slaughter must not only

extend to

the false prophets in the world, but, accord-

ing to the answerer's grounds, to the

many thousands


thousands of idolaters and false worshippers in the king-



doms and nations of the world. For the second act of Eliiah, "
^°"® uaturc, SO, secoudly,




also of a miracu-i


the followers of the


fire. (iieouB-



[54,J proposed such a practice to the Lord injury ofiered to his own person, he disclaimed

with a mild check to their angry

spirits, telling


plainly they

knew not what


they were of: and

addeth that gentle and merciful conclusion, that he came
not to destroy the bodies of men, as contrarily

' [" The text numbereth them 450 and he numbereth them 850." Cot-

of Israel, to put to death 450 men,



were discouraged, being


Reply, p. 179.]

convinced of their forgery and idolfor Elijah, with



a miracle

lb. p. 179.]

the aid of so

many thousand peoplu




these instances from the Old Testament, as

also Peter's killing Ananias, voice. Arise, Peter, kill


v. 5,

and Peter's vision
x. 13.





have so

satisfied these instances

brought by

Optatus, that methinks Optatus and the answerer himself


rest satisfied.

I win not trouble you with Bernard's argument from
Eom.xiii.,, which you have already on that scripture so
largely answered.

But what think you,


of Calvin,

Beza, and Axetius
Truth. Ans.

Since matters of fact and opinion are

barely related

by the answerer without

their grounds,

whose grounds, notwithstanding, in



Paul himself were joined with them, yea, or an angel from heaven bringing any other
rule than


what the Lord Jesus hath once



have Paul's conclusion and resolution, peremptory and
dreadful. Gal.

Peace. This passage finished, let


finish the

whole by

proposing one conclusion of the author of the arguments,'
viz., ''It is

no prejudice to the commonwealth,

if liberty

conscience were suffered to such as fear



Abraham abode

a long time amongst the Canaanites, yet
xiii. 7,

contrary to them in religion. Gen.



Again, he sojourned in Gerar, and King Abimelech gave

him leave

to abide in his land. Gen. xx., xxi., xxiii., xxiv.


[See before, p. 17.]



" Isaac also dwelt in the same land, yet contrary in religion.

Gen. xxvi.

" Jacob

twenty years in one house with
Gen. xxxi.

his uncle

Laban, " The people of Israel were about four hundred and thirty years in that infamous land of Egypt, and afteryet different in religion,

wards seventy years in Babylon:


which times they






2 Chron. xxxvi.

" Come to the time of Christ, where Israel was under
the Romans,

where lived divers


of religion,


Herodians, Scribes, and Pharisees, Sadducees and Libertines,

Theudaeans and Samaritans, beside the


religion of the Jews,

and Christ and

his apostles.

which differed from the common religion of the which was
like the worship of Diana,

which almost the

whole world then worshipped. Acts xix., xx. " All these lived under the government of Caesar, being
nothing hurtful unto the commonwealth, giving unto Caesar
that which




for their religion

and consciences

towards God, he



to themselves, as having


dominion over their souls and consciences

and when the

enemies of the truth raised up any tumults, the wisdom of
the magistrate most wisely appeased them. Acts
xviii. 14,


xix. 35."
this the


answerer returns thus




is true,

that without prejudice to the commonwealth,

liberty of conscience

may be

suffered to such as fear

indeed, as

knowing they

will not persist in heresy or tur-

bulent schism, when they are convinced in conscience of
the sinfulness thereof.


the question


whether a

heretic, after once or twice admonition,


so after con-


[See before, p. 30.]



and any other scandalous and heinous
tolerated either in the church without

may be


nication, or in the

commonweal without such punishment


preserve others from dangerous and damnable



I here observe the answerer's
as truly fear

partiality, that

none but such


should enjoy liberty of

conscience; whence the inhabitants of the world must


into the estate of


fearing God, or else

dissemble a religion in hypocrisy, or else be driven out of
the world.

One must


first is

only the gift



the second and third are too commonly practised


this ground.

Again. Since there



controversy in the world

where the name of Christ is taken up, concerning the true church, the ministry, and worship, and who are those that
truly fear



I ask,



judge in this


who be


they that fear

as have the

must needs be granted, that such
it follow,



of suffering, or not suffering such consciences, must judge:

and then must
civil state

as before I intimated, that the



must judge of the truth of the


then magistrates fearing or not fearing God, must judge of "a^V
the fear of



that their judgment or sentence

must be according

to their conscience, of



or that there

no lawful magistrate, who


able to judge in such cases.


lastly, that since

sovereign power of

all civil


founded in the

consent of the people, that every

common weal hath


and fundamentally in

a power of true discern-

ing the true fear of God, wliicli they transfer to their
The world
turned upBide

magistrates and officers o


or else, that .there are no lawful




or towns in the world, in which a




and unto whose

government he may

mit: andjthen, as I said^ before, there must-be-no world,
is it

lawful to live in



hath not a true

discerning spirit to judge

them that

fear or not fear




worthy answerer so readily

grants, that liberty of conscience should be suffered to

the minis°

The wonderanswer of tcrs 01
chm-ch of

yet we the nunispit the churchcs of New England wrote m answer to
that fear




know what





*^® thirty-two questions sent to them by some ministers of

Snd toThe
Se'ohurch ofOldEng-;

^^^ England,'
1 ,


that although they confessed

them T


be such persons
selves, yea,


they approved of far above them,

who were

m their hearts to • live

and die toge^



yet if they, and other godly people with them^ coming over to them, should differ in church constitution,
civil cohabitation


they then could not approve their


them, and, consequently, could not advise the magistrates



enjoy a


being within their




heavens !


give ear,
the earth


earth! yea,



heavens be astonished,



such an

answer as


from such excellent


to such


they esteem for godliness above themselves


[An answer to thirty-two quesby the elders of the churches in



Published by Mr.


Lond., 1643.]

of whose personal godliness nqt questioned. Yea. than conform. justification. to wit. Alas. LXXIX. and themselves ? whom they judge so in respect of godliness far above . who knows not what lamentable differ. amongst them that fear God. for. friends. life. some conforming. the ™™y >™j pmsom.OF PERSECUTION DISCUSs'd. have succeeded by conformity unto such forsaken called) livings ? How great the present differences. can do what only the key of David can do. they doubt not if they were there but they should agree will for . and dream not of perfection in this life. Beside. how can this be a faithful and upright acknowledgment of their weakness and imperfection. when they preach. and practise such violence to the souls and bodies of others. country. Let none now think that the passage to New England I by sea. (so f^°g''^J™bj. nanteia ana _ _ . say they. or you may show us come to you. concerning and the evidence of it? concerning repentance and godly matter. and government of it ? non-covenantera. and by their rules and grounds ought to proceed even to the killing of those dear unto them. rather God. . even Splnd"** faith. either you light to come to us.J'f^^nt"' Imongst fear ences have been between the same ministers of the church of England. administrations. Truth. form. it is when others again. others leaving their livings. we are but weak men. but they say. 185 CHAP. open and shut the consciences of men. Peace. print. or the nature of the coimtry. as also and mainly concerning the church..of sorrow.

. LXXX. but. they must necessarily be esteemed obstinate persons yield. So that in conclusion^ for no other reason in the world. as it Must . place. most godly persona. latter part of the answer. . Sweet Peace. could not be admitted to a civil being and habitation on the common The earth. then what consequences necessarily will follow I havc before mentioned. as maintained by the answerer. amongst them. commands him not to respect the holy or the godly person ? The doctrme of perdriYea°the Hence I could name the place and time * when a a J godly naau. for if they it were godly. and the scandalous oflFender to be punished in the commonweal. or obstinate person. according to this must foUow. that he that commanded the judge not to respect the poor in the cause of judgment. the godly will not persist in heresy. &c. if the most godly persons is yield not to once or twice admonition. to be excommunicated. or turbulent schism. Peace.186 THE BLOTJDY TENENT CHAP. and those civil courts are as lawful. consisting of natural commonly. . Truth. useful.. they would said. est men as of godly per- upon the sons. say they.not then be was by one passing sentence of banishment upon some whose godliness was acknowledged. saith he. conscience. yet some- persoMout thing diifereut in conscience. and peaceable. the poor man. conclusion it And I add. propounded his willingness and desire to come to dwell in a certain town in New England . "i^lelT er- when they are convinced in • neoessMiij. This man differs and we desire not to be troubled. though godly. if the civil court and magistracy must judge. a most desirable person for his trade. it was answered by a chief of the from us. in that wilderness. that. &c. as before I have written. Yea . concerning the heretic.

187 : which neither of both come near our question spoken [of] I fear too largely already. with fear and trembUng at the word of the Lord. Cotton concludes with a confident persuar removed the grounds of that great error. might flow without a stop or interruption Truth. and thee blessed. dear Peace. all the angels. Truth. spirit. Peace. the true awaked sons of peace. CHAP. that the charge of error reboundeth back. and commonwealths. The glorious white troopers (Rev.OF PERSECUTION DISCUSS'd. countries. and he that the most high Prince . that persons are not to be persecuted for cause of conscience. Peace. even such an error as called. honey and milk are under thy tongue oh I that these drops. these streams. To this conclusion. tions. Truth. will call How ! sweet and precious are these contemplathe actions and fruitions ? but oh how sweet lips . And I believe. Thy drop as the honey-comb. the Spirit. LXXXI.. and practice of the Prince of peace soiils. so deeply guilty of the blood of compelled and forced . it shall appear to~| them that. may well be tJ° ™t°°*^ The Bloody Tenent — so directly contradicting the . dear Truth. examine these passages. persecuted in all ages for the cause of conscience. and mind. the Prince. I heartily suband know [that] the God. to hypocrisy In a spiritual and soul-rape so deeply guilty of the blood of the souls under the altar.) shall is in time be mounted. scribe. and so destructive 1 to the civil peace and welfare of all kingdoms. xbr. Peace. I have Mr. sion of having viz.

and like the unwearied in thy shinings. dying. Error 's' impatient and soon tired. Were this foundation laid as the Magna all Mali^a^'^''* chartii.188 of princes. if I were once believed. Lo here what once again I present to thy impartial censure. and house be stuck with olive branches Peace. and THE BLOUDY TENENT. and shriU-sounding ° trumpets. slaughtered righteous with the wicked. but thou art light. and good security given on it. how long ? how ? long these dreadful sounds and direful sights before how long ? my glad return and restitution ? Truth. shall triumph But hark. Peace. the groans of wounded. Alas my is welcome changes and strongest swords and arms prevail: were I believed in this. Lord General of generals mounted upon the word of truth and meekness. should be molested with the civil own — sword. noise Wars for is this ? conscience. but shed his for his bloodiest enemies that by the word of Christ no man for gainsaying Christ. what gloriously. Dear Truth. or present expectations ? as the times. ETC. Psalm xlv. late Dear Truth.' murdering cannons. who will believe my true report yet true it is. the roaring. that Christ not delighted with the blood of men. Sweet Peace. Father of lights. Charta of highest jjajifjg liberties. blessed Truth and Peace should not so soon be parted. the shouts of conquerors. These are the doleful drums.. . Peace. what welcome hast thou found of times. for the preservation of how soon should every ? brow. beyond thy former ! Truth. and renew our meetings. This heavenly invitation makes me bold once more to crave thy patient ear and holy tongue. or joining with the enemy anti-christ.

Truth. here is a niodelofa IIP model. AND SENT TO THE OHUKOH AT SALEH. and godly hands. (called the power of the lu. Begin. and I shall weigh as in the Him whose pure eyes cannot behold distinct iniquity. read and propound. sweet Peace. What Here '' •' hast thou there ? is Peace. and hath made the members both societies subject to authorities. so that every soul in the church is subject . LXXXII. a combination of thine . EXAMINED AND ANSWERED. civil (called the power of the sword). CHAP. COMPOSED BY MR. 23.» life own against thy very ^^ and mine -t . JJ^'^jtY'- Thus. Truth. shl?. COTTON AND THE MINISTERS OF NEW BNaiAND. sanctuary: do thou put presence of Peace.A MODEL OF CHURCH AND CIYIL POWER. My hand shall not be tired with holding the balances of the in.. AS A FURTHER CONFIRMATION OF THE BLOODT DOCTRINE OF PERSECUTION FOB OACrSE OF CONSCIENCE. framed church and 1 children a strange common ^ by many able. iii^if isa. speaks the preface or entrance : " Seeing God hath given a commonweal. and denies Jesus yet to have seen the earth. the one kevs\ the other both spiritual power to church and e^. learned. then. of such a church JJ.^/Jj^g'^?J^ and commonweal as wakens Moses from his unknown pafurnT"'' grave. 1 : . of xux.

so . I observe the lamentable wresting of this one scripture. 28. that " every hath. ' ^aJ'ei'''^ Sometimes offensive this scripture must [" If princes be nursing fathers goTermnent of the church: to the church. church censure in the offensive go- And in . Hence. Gral. most (spiritually) able. xlix. and if obstinate may also cast forth any. and every mem- ber of the commonweal. From that conclusion." Cotton's Reply. in this spiritual society. all that the civil magistrate must keep the ^ first reform the church: and be judge and governor in ecclesiastical as well as civil causes ? Isa xlix 23 Secondly. Acts xv. iii. doing they keep . the bench over the church in the . being a member of the church. 20. set Lord fea"ed'to™e '^^'^^er of the is m^stratcs' thin^?'"*' church. and in him to the censures of the church statie : —the question is. and what bounds and limits the Christ's power in his between both the administrations. dear Peace. being mem- vide that the children pf the church bers of the church. 23. in sin. being a member of the subject to the laws of Christ's kingdom. commouweal. vemment p. 194. is subject to the laws of Christ's kingdom. yea. according to the scriptures quoted. xlix. Isa.190 to the higher THE BLOUDY TENENT powers in the commonweal. even the highest. then they are to pro- and yet may themselves. that soul is who hath most honourIsa. may she refuse to receive. be subject to be not nursed with poison instead of milk. how the civil and the church may dispense their several governments without infiingement and impeachment of the power and honour of the one or of the other.] of themselves against the the first table. out of her spiritual society. this stand And if so. of Christ." Truth. Princes sit on rules of the gospel. Hence therefore I infer. and in :" Him to the censures of the church —I observe. that they grant the church of Christ in spiritual causes to be superior and over the highest magistrates in the world. most of his Spirit. 23. if members of the church. how can with their common table : tenent set up.

Ezra Til. and the flourishing of commonweals with the well ordering of the people. zxix. Yet here this scripture is produced to prove kings and magis- trates (in spiritual causes) to be censured and corrected but in one and the sit by the same church. a governor may be a subject same spiritual respect to judge and to be judged. we do . man The not partial to church discipline. prove the power of the civil 191 kings. magistrates. The first Peace. of the world that the kingdom of Christ in his church cannot rise or stand without the falls of those commonJohn xvu. he . that both jurisdictions may stand together. being observed to arise civil from the vigilant adminis-j a{ tration of the holy discipline of the church: as Bodin.'it 2!' or temporal: ^the falls of commonweals being known toj . weals wherein it is set up. — arise from their scattering and diminishing the power of even in moral and the church. ward her own and the church's felicity by means political f ihii.' vices in the free estate of Geneva. que hgibus nus- . the church helping forward the prosperity of the commonweal by means only ecclesiastical and spiritual the commonweal helping for. virtues. being of this world. the other not. plainly testifieth. &c. Whereas divers affecting transcending power The first to themselves over the church. that is It is true in several respects. LXXXIII. impossible as to reconcile the east and west together. believe and profess the contrary to this suggestion the government of the one Jer. 7. to on as the bench and stand at the bar of Christ Jesus. and governors over the church in spiritual causes. is CHAP. have persuaded the princes amined. " head.OF PERSECUTION DISCUSs'd. 23.

the Christ. Women excommunicated by the were forbidden to wear golden omaments. weXthe inconsistent. quam by means of church discipline. were allowed. inflicted for Imprisonment was to many civU oflBce commotions. xxix.tumultu coercentur. which gave able with death. &c. flourishing commonweals and societies of men. be in commonweal may be distractions religions in perfect peace and quiet. according to John xviii. The prayers of God's people procure the peace of the city where they abide yet. ordinances and administrations of worship are appointed and given by Christ to any civU ' state.. contentions. 1843. town. 36. were punish- were also made. though commonweal. the church.192 THE BLOUDY TENENT vindicantur. but from enthralment . My kingdom is not of tMs world. church of Christ in Corinth troubled with divisions. yet that they are independent according to that scripture. notwith- standing the church. and each course to consist efforts rise of only four dishes. And. secondly. that the church. the commonweal of and spiritual oppositions. Great ing and striking parents. may be set up without prejudice of the civil ' The common- Truth.. where no church of Christ abideth. or Tp'S'"' kingdom of Christ. under the state instance of the church courts. and that therefore there may be. but that both may gether. to every immorality at the remove from persons church. or but city. Secondly."' From this conclusion. 173. adultery. and the civil ' ' jjjgjj^ kingdom or governo o j^g ^ot inconsistent. of Christ. I observe.] on their fingers. and not more than two rings Henry's Das Leben Calvins. &c. it is true the church helpeth for- ward the prosperity of the commonweal by spiritual means. as formerly I have proved. 7. that Christ's . curs- were regulated: the legislation of Geneva was entirely theocratic. the Christian liberty not freeing us lifrom subjection to authority. that although the ' ' ° •' kingdom ° stand to- independent the one on the other. and [bondage unto ' sin. as is three courses [Under the influence of Calvin Idolatry. both against their as the and sometimes amongst themselves. I observe. Even their feasts . sine vi et . edit. Ans. p. Jer.

ecclesiastically. for his soul's health. John'viii. we conceive. So that is •^ all the power the magistrate hath over the all church temporal. in a church way.n. —yet withal. and ^ is church hath over the magistrate the power the ^nd that ^ judmum of spiritual. 1 /. being a member of the church. I that the misapplication of ordinances to unre- generate and imrepentant persons hardens up their souls in a dreadful sleep and dream of their own blessed estate. . — for the shining ^ bnghtness of the very shadow of Christ's ordinances casts a shame upon barbarism and incivility affirm. Peace. ordinances and discipline of Christ Jesns. any other memLuke"xii. dignity. con- greatest. as . LXXXIV.but never Chris'jf"'^^ upon them. may cast a blush of civility and . The second ' head. earthly power. jny^jJ-J'j ia*<mVorM. him by spiritual ordinances according to God's [word]. in ordine ad bonum spirituale . honours. and sends millions of souls to hell in a secure expectation of a false salvation. 193 implied by the instance of Genevaj that I confidently deny.j4. penority of that the g^°^''°^"iux. as it oeming su' o first. " Because contention 1 • may ' arise in future times The ' second which of these powers under Christ is the ^ hath been under anti-christ. CHAP.OF PERSECUTION DISCUSS D. not temporal. in the world. though ^ o wrongfully and profanely applied to natural and unre•' The chiisfs or- dmancesput XSe^oity generate men. and the church superior to him. 1 r^ head.'zs?' power of the civil magistrate is superior to the church policy in place. so the magistrate cmSiL"'" o . moorality may mwe morauz'e. in Geneva and other places . that ruling and ordering is. as ber. not spiritual . And as the church hath no temporal power over the magistrate. concerning superiority of each power.

[the] keeper of both tables (as they speak). ad bomim for " Secondly. and yet have no spiritual power as is affirmed — how can he determine . So that if the church offend. and practices. consequently. . tcnets. in matters of the first and of the church. if the magistrate being a member of the church shall offend. removing of the and recovering of the offender. give supreme judgment. according to the quality of the offence. as ^ if this is confessed : — judgeTnspi- demand. or else. the offence of the church calleth upon the civil magistrate. Eom. For if the magistrate power. and be custo's utriusque tabula. If the end of spiritual or church power is bonum Vspirituale. " On the other side. and determination. by the course of civil justice. if they cannot then to exercise the superiority of their power in offence. no more than a church hath any temporal make the magistrate powcr ^ to attain to her spiritual end. his by own grave advice and the advice of other churches . either to seek the healing thereof as a nursing father. and table so. and secondly. be supreme judge. or else. the delinquency of either party caUeth the exercise of the power of terror from the other part for but to no rulers ordained of God are a terror to good works.temporal end. to put forth and exercise the of his power in redressing what is superiority amiss.'' Trutli. and disputes. by conviction of his sin prevail.194 THE BLOUDY TENENT in ordine hath no spiritual power over the church temporale. touching that question of no spiritual pcrsecutlon for cause of conscience. evil. be not a contradiction against their own SSs. sentence. by church Answer. f- censures. the offence calleth upon the church either to seek the healing thereof in a brotherly way. a temporal good . the magistrate have no spiritual power to attain to his A oontradic. xiii. 3. If he cannot so prevail. a spiritual good: and the end of civil or state power if is honum temporale.

who. from Christ Jesus for these ends and purposes ? : Further. a false doccivil trine. sion if are. false ordinances. judge. or else he hath none at all and so comso. and persecute in lest spiritual causes and to fear and tremble. or bonum temporah. mission and warrant from the consequently. not in soul-causes. 14. his power. is Secondly. . xvii. and beast. 195 what the true church and ordinances them up with the power of the sword ? judgment of a down. It here confessed. that to attain his civil end. authority. and commission must be : either spiritual or civil. he hath no spiritual JJ^JP""' power. o 2 . and therefore. and then set How can he give . to answer for such his practice as a transcendent delinquent. Christ Jesus. I argue thus If the civil officer of state must determine. by the same arguments which the authors here use. stir up the kings of the earth to make war against the Lamb. Now for civil power. [he] Lord Jesus and stands guilty at the bar of Christ Jesus. Rev. authority. a false ministry. of necessity. and false prophet. civil mouths must they be judged without either or spiritual power. these civil worthy authors confess that fur-S ike oivu *° the government of the magistrate extendeth no t"^™'* ther than over the bodies and goods of the subject. out of their own for provoking the magistrate. and punish in spiritual causes. and therefore. therefore hath no civil andloTCrtij'e'" power over the soul. or commis. they come near those frogs which proceed out of the mouth of the dragon. acts without a . false church. and with a sword puU them i he have no spiritual power. men" say I.OF PERSECUTION DISCUSs'd. to judge. in this passage. punish. and his followers.

the magistrate. shall be at one time the — —which delinquent at the bar and the judge upon the bench. And therefore. that a course of civil justice. such a conclusion as heaven and earth may stand amazed at.196 THE BLOUDY TENENT CHAP. Again. that as is afterward 1 to excommunication. clcar thus rp i . in conclusion the is church proceeds to censure. though the church make him a delinquent at the bar. In the next place. punish the magistrate spiritually. have been and must be spilt what tuupon these grounds ? blood. in this case [the magistrate] must judge. in spiritual cases and . : The church must judge when the and yet the magistrate must judge i i bench and deiinqnents magistrate offcuds when civil the church offends. If the church offend. ? who if jshaU judge tiat'ea^d* It is answered. to all cases in the world ' ^ church or magistrate. say they. And so.'made ^^^ on'the ^^ is that one person. the magistrate be a delinquent. for thus dealing with : him or whether she have broken the rules of the table. yet by their confession God hath made him a judge on f the bench. and not prevailing. after advice refused. if the civil magistrate offend after admonition used. whether she contemn first authority in the second table. more largely proved by them. Whence I observe grounds at one and the moustrous in ^^itj in™ne*Md causT. consequently. Dear Truth. What mults. in conclusion the magistrate must redress. that is punish the church. I observe upon the point of delinquency. no question but the church may . This . LXXXV. the church. I ask It is who shall judge? is bytheau-' thor'a auswcred. by On the other side. Peace. is in church offences and cases. Now I demand. of which (say they) God hath made him keeper and conserver. if the church be a delinquent.

and according. and. Acts xxv. according to his conscience. ai^llmei or The church.g otherwise I question not but he may put all the members of the church to death justly. yea. the magistrate cases . which these au- chmoh —according thors maintain against the magistrates' prohibition — ^pro- ceeds to ordain her officer. if they commit Jfe'^^^^f crimes worthy thereof. and therefore. Sweet Peace. and the magistrate the church. if no advice and admonition prevail. am and makes void the church's choice. not prevail-' ing with admonition./°'j. he suppresseth such officer. The magistrate chargeth the church to have made an unfit and unworthy choice. Truth. to the pattern of Israel cuts them as obstinate usurpers and profaners of the holy things of Christ. demon- true church of Christ. The magistrate opposeth. 11. therefore. chooseth and calls ^miotTa™ one of her members to office. as Paul spake. this seems monstrous. The magistrate. I illustrate with this instance : t A An niuBtra- tioD. of which. persuaded insufficient that the magistrates' exceptions are to her privilege. The punish°'^' by maintaining this power of the magistrate to which trate inflicts nunish the church of Christ. according to his place and power. I demand. . to his conscience and judgment. may punish the church in civil but that for one and the same cause the church I must punish the magistrate. and needs explication. I mean In spiritual and soult^ cases ? for upon the °f"i[''^. 197 civilly.OF PERSECUTION DISCUSS'd. the magistrate is tie^cwfi*''*' a member. may) in civil court of and off —I add according by the sword. he proceeds against such obstinate abusers of Christ's holy ordinances (as the authors grant he justice. according to the authors' supposition. endures not such profanation of ordinances as he conceives . Upon this the church complains against the magistrate's violation of her privileges given her by Christ Jesus. what help hath any poor church of Christ in this case. and cries out that the magistrate is turned persecutor. she proceeds to excommunication against him. and.

shall she say the magistrate is not a true magistrate. 13. The true way Fipst. to wit. in euch a case either the magistrate or the church must judge either the spiritual or civil state must be supreme. [12. V. or dominions. Cor. Some will here say. If the church oflfend against the civil peace of the state.198 THE BLOUDY TENENT Shall the church here fly to the pope's sanctuary against emperors and princes excommunicate. notwithstand- ing their confession to the contrary. kingdoms. thirdly. . Peace. whatever his conscience be : and then let all men judge into what a woful state they bring both the civil magistrate and church of Christ. Or secondly. because not able to judge and determine in such cases? This their confession will not give them leave to say. with spiritual and church censures.] Sccoudly. V. in spiritual and soul-cases. he must then judge according to his conscience and persuasion. that if it be the duty of the magistrate to punish the church in spiritual cases. their tenets imply that none but a magistrate after their own conscience is a lawful magistrate. of the What hath the church to iudge him beiuff witho JO p^ln hrtwem ttie out? 1 Cor. give away their crowns. they must ingenuously and honestly confess. 1 all that are within. by wronging the bodies or goods of any. by such a church-destroying and state-destroying doctrine. 1—11. \_Truth. because they cannot deny unbelievers to be lawful magistrates : and yet it shall appear. and invite foreign princes to make war upon them and their territories? The authors surely wiU disclaim this. If he be a member of the church. if the magistrate be of another religion. . Therefore. doubtless the magis- the chuTch hath power to judge.'\ I answer. and yet I shall prove their tenets tend directly unto such a practice. the Thirdly.

"* Chamier. or else the subject will not cives. not in liness all all and dishonesty. is the procuring. "First. 376. served. p. in the second for peace's He must see that honesty be preserved within be bonus his jurisdiction. 4. 1. lib. . a begetting. CHAP. the common and felicity. 1. "Secondly. And this I conceive to be the only way of the God of peace. because they are boimd to see that outward peiace be preserved. of both the tables of godliness. end of both is God's glory. of commonwealth. And sate. LXXXVI. part. and man's eternal " Secondly. 1 Tim. of the church. ii. He must see that godliness as well as honesty be previr. Parker. The third head concerns \_Peace. 7. He must see that godliness and honesty be preserved. i. but in godliness and honesty. So that magistrates have power given them ungod- from Christ in matters of religion. and ix. 199 xiii. preserving. for such peace is custos God aims at. preserving. Esay.'\ the end of both last these powers. polit. The proper ends "First. 3. to members of the church. De Eccles. in all godliness and honesty. cap. increasing of external and temporal peace and felicity of the state. in the first of honesty. ii. magistrate hears not the smard correct any or all the in vain. increasing of internal and spiritual peace and felicity of the church. in aU godliness and honesty. 4. Kom. for such peace hence the magistrate is Satanical. 2. or * else himself will not be bonu maffistratus. else the subject will not be bonus who is the best bonus cives.OF PERSECUTION DISCUSS'd.

Now if godliuess is be the worshipping and walking with not the magistrate and commonweal tythes"*^* G-od in Christ. or civil state. what ness ? is this internal peace in all godlisoul. If the powers of the world. godliness. whether they mean internal. and the spiritual and civil state . First. opposed can discern ? to external. thaworSip nanoea. or visible. The authors positions is. though under a fair The^garden mask and colour of both. matters of God's ? and then I say. and all the end of the church be to preserve internal peace in if their end (godliness) be the same. as I now perceive. are bound to propose external peace in all godliness for their end. that peace. I demand. I ask further. chS ot*""^ and howsoever . it Will appear that in spiritual things they make the wiidri? t^6 garden and the wilderness. . the best and most godly of that judgment declare themselves never to Peace. or the which— commonweal subordinate it to the church's it. the church and the all world. than the church. soul-matters. end. church but with the internal. charged more by this tenet with the worship and ordinanccs of God. of godliness or God's worship. within the which only the eye of God can see. . to wit. marvellously destructive both to godliness and honesty. The truth Q6V67 yfit saw a true difference have sccn a true difference between the church and the world. than the diTirch ? for the magistrate thev ° charge with the external peace in godliness. which man worship also or else. so ^being the governor and setter up of consequently the judge of mJ)nweai — and ^it cannot be. is not their power and state the same also? unless they make the church subordinate to the commonwealth's end. that is spiritual. as often I have intimated worid'Se — I say the garden and the wilderness. whether intend they internal. are one : for thus. and the •' . they had before granted to the civil state.200 Truth. THE BLOUDY TENENT In this passage here are divers particulars affirmed.

2. by compelling jurisdiction to an ship.OF PERSECUTION DISCUSs'd. and of this scripture. Tim. and profess that the church must consist ^0^%'°' of spiritual and living stones. of the flock of Christ and herds of the world clear is together —I mean. they evidently declare that they stiU lodge and dwell in the confused mixtures of the unclean and clean. or congregation of Christians. as the supper of the Lord. I queries. diacussed. For a more ii. keeper of both tables ? &c. which none. Fourthly. i. and so make some peculiar enclosed ordinances. civil may not live In godliness and honesty. discussion Truth. in spiritual full and religious worship. LXXXVII. 2. place ? Secondly. but godly persons must taste of. 1 1. 201 these wortliy authors seem to make a kind of separation f'/'^^J^'' from the world. on which weakly built such a mighty btulding. although the magistrate be of another conscience and worship. shall propose and resolve these four CHAP. what is meant by godliness and honesty in this i Tim. what may ? the scope of the Holy Spirit of God be in this place Thirdly. all within their outward conformity of the church wor- of the word and prayer. yet. and state first. say they. saints. regenerate persons. whether the civil magistrate was then custos utriusque tabuIcB. and maintenance of the ministry thereof. the whole and country with him? To the what is here meant by godliness and honesty ? . ii. First. whether a church.

is that great castle and stronghold which Secondly. place of Timothy should be thus rendered. but such an honesty as signifies solemnity. gravity . to godli- ness. what place God's°s''iiM "• so many two fly unto concerning the magistrates' charge over the is tables. Secondly. for the peaceable . and so it is turned by the translator. . in doctrine [showing] incorruptness. and Christians. 7. ev T^ BiSaaKoXiq aSia<l>Oopiav. first. iv(TE(3ila signify godliness. yet the second word. For. and solemnity of the spi- ritual doctrine of Christianity. gravity: which doctrine cannot there be taken for the doctrine of the civil state. according to the own rendering of that word in Titus. and the church of internal. secondly. secondubie. or second table. ii. And mistaken and misinterpreted scripture. or worshipping of God. but the gravity. and gravity . negatively. o-Ejuvorijc. I find not that the Spirit of God here intendeth the loZa^^L Timo?i^° °' first and second table. but. this in all godliness. Nor. that a solemn or yet this grave profession of the worship of God. majesty. is. the scope of the Spirit of God in this ? 3'iiswer. as is affirmed . Tit. atixvorryra.202 THE BLOUDY TENENT Answ. Timothy and the church : and so consequently all the ministers of Christ's churches. translators' So that. to pray for two things Sust^pray'^ First. who have chosen him.' of the duties of the and second table. that it signifies I find not nifyherethe righteous- such an honesty as compriseth the duties of the sccond table. the scope first is not to speak o?Kmo?hy. or God's worship. I say the Spirit of in this place provokes God by Paul at Ephesus. and quiet that is state of the countries dMTOmThe and places of their abode implied in their praying. according to his conscience —the magistrate keeping the peace of external godliness. however the word or the worship of God. is the scope to charge the magistrate with forcing the people. that is. positively .

Rev. 7. Christ Jesus. a state-worship. is or God's worship. Jer. against . even in Babel. Which rule will hold in any ^"'"^ pagan or popish and therefore consequently arCp^'^^lj God's people to pray against wars. and the setting up breachV that for godliness or worship which is no more than his image. implying that the grave —or solenm and shining sorts of — ^profession of godliness. Dan. and endeavour the bringing in and advancing their conscience by the sword. forcing all men to godliness. might be saved. Nebuchadnezzar's golden image. that men. Secondly. famines. xxix. and especially kings and magistrates. .. a blessed means to cause all men to be affected with the Christian profession. and to come to the same knowledge of that one God and one Mediator. ^°^!| ^^^ pSee't'' Which in truth causeth the greatest breach of peace. and in some places the worship of the beast and iii. or the worshipping of God. All which tends directly to wit. according to Christ Jesus. and seek the good of shall it . xiii. as 203 Paul directs them. and especially to be far from kindling coals of war. l^^i^^f^ ''^^ "' for in the people. pestilences. and the greatest distractions in the world. city. peace thereof it go weU with you. they are here salvation of all commanded all to pray for the men .OF PERSECUTION DISCUSS'd. the magistrates' ForciDg of what it is brought for. for a quiet and suits sweetly with the command of the Lord to his and peaceable condition. and come to the knowledge of the truth. pray for the peace of the city.

Hence. or swine. no not his beasts. &c. but professed worshippers. love. should be comtmitted to unworthy keepers And the can it be. and. without God. as also notorious for all sorts Roman gods of wickedness. as is affirmed ? all Scripture and history teU us. cruel and bloody lions and tigers toward the Christians for many hundred years. whether the civil magistrate. wickcd. . who is wisdom and faithfulness itself. that those Caesars were ^^^ ^^^j ignorant. which was then the Roman emperor. and broad seals of lastly. it is one thing what persons are and practice. it was impossible that he such idolatrous. tables. fitting keepers. conceived that his sheep. that the Lord Jesus. I query.204 THE BLOUDY TENENT CHAP. ®^*^ii^*l such ignorant. his children. that the records of parliament. LXXXVIII. his wife. lastly. without Christ. of the or devils. his thousand shields and bucklers in the tower of his church. . Tower of London. should deliver these to such keepers ? Peace. his great and glorious baptism and his supper. in fact Some will say. the king's children. of the ^°h*''christ ersand*"'*" and faithfulness such Lord Jesus appoint in his house. loving father was ever No wise and known to put his child. or maintainors. I argue from the wisdom. to be preserved pure in their administrations —I say. but unto Men judge the great it matter of high complaint. dogs. and such cruel persons to be his chief officers wa^ohmoL"' and deputy lieutenants under himself to keep the worship of God. another what they ought to be by right and office. without high blasphemy. Thirdly. his spouse. to guard his church. the seal. Lord Jesus should commit yea. was keeper or guardian of both Cfflta^""" described.

keeping the first table —the when church. under Jesus himself^ and suffered . Secondly. to. in David. to establish a covenant of succession in the type unto Christ. reforming of and so. to that great pretence of Israel. It will further be said. whom both Christ ^"^ as"' his servants after him. &c. I say. let be minded what pattern and to set for the after kings of after his precedent Israel it pleased the Lord and Judah. or cases of a more inferior nature. consequently. or any . for the Lord appointed the government of it Israel after the rejection of Saul. known "^^^ jf„. have pitched upon such perwould have sons for these custodes utriusque tabula. idolatrous. Peace. were notoriously wicked. But now having Lord Jesus being come the former church. I have largely spoken. or loving. Truth.OF PERSECUTION DISCUSS'd. the case is not alike . God's worship. keepers of both tables. Truth. and dissolved national state of the spiritual and established a more well way of worship the world over. Beside. that many of the kings of Judah. lived and dots.. chosen in any of the former instances. and appointed it is a spiritual government and governors. in the very first institution. as no man wise. and the n pleased Lord Jesm. in the first inatitition . who had the charge of establishing. all himself. In such cases as I have mentioned. how could the Roman Casars. nor ^™^°[ •» have a shadow of true reason so to think — ^he must. types. &c. no in 205 man doth the common eye of reason deliver such matters of charge and trust to such as declare themselves and sins (like Sodom) at the very time of this great charge and trust to be committed to them. or faithful. the man the fulfilled own heart. so that if the such deputies — Lord Jesus had appointed any ** he might commit the as we find not a tittle to that purpose. I ask. I must then say. 1^" what the Roman Csesars were.

? how come is Thirdly. appointed to be the shepherds or keepers of the flock of Christ. 20. Yea. [28— 31. that their civil power extends but to bodies and goods ? And for spiritual (to bonum tem-porah proper end . . v. Gal.. Eph. to keep out or cast out the impenitent and obstinate. whe- . xxi. 14. and by whom MdwOTsM ^^ Lord Jesus chained Timothy. unto whom the Lord Jesus gave the care and charge of the churches. 4. ad a temporal good). Kev. as the authors of these positions acknowledge. 1 . appointed to be the porters or door- keepers. and to watch in the absence of Christ? Mark xiii. which is their civil and then. Acts XX. even kings and emperors themselves. having neither pretended nor spiritual power from the Lord Jesus to they to be such keepers as The true which appointed this purpose. stars about the head of the woman. i. I ask. iii. what keepers were the apostles. what keepers then are the ordinary officers church.J itself.206 ciTil magistrates. v. 14. power they say they have none. ii. from their spiritual society ? 1 Cor. when. vi. James iii. 1 Tim. 15. Eev. in the midst of which Christ is present with his power. THE BLOUDY TENENT be custodes. also written whose names were in the twelve foundations of [the] New of the Jerusalem. 1 . 28. whether in the time of the kings of Israel and Judah —^whom not charged I confess in the typical and * woKht" al 'i^tional state to be charged with both tables —I "^ ask. The kings Byrians. Yea. and made up the crown of twelve xii. keepers of tlie church and worship of God. 1 Tim. &~. 34 . what charge hath the whole church the pillar which is and ground of the truth. If the Roman emperors were keepers. 1 Cor. to keep those commands of the Lord Jesus without spot until his coming ? These keepers were called the foundation of the church. Fourthly.

the king of his spiritual and government and governors therein. as that very difference between the national state of the church of God then. Truth. So likewise since. Theo<^?^™. whether had the Roman Caesars more Masters or the charge to see all their subjects observe and submit to the worship of God in their dominion of the world. for they were also lawful magistrates in their or. than a •» master.j„4ah"ta°' and aund ty'p™" "^ ° Moabites. 207 Ammon. more than they or more than the king of civil Babylon. was his own diadem. king of the church. You remember. and others. the church of '°™^*' God fidei. were also constituted ordained keepers of the worship of God as the kings of "" ' Judah were. ther the kings of the Assyrians. the kings of the ites. CHAP. Fifthly. and other kings and magistrates of the world. whether the Koman ? emperors yreve custodes. not so charged. Christ Jesus.OF PERSECUTION DISCUSs'd. the kings and queens of England have been instructed. LXXXIX. and Henry VIII. t^^^i^" for what fromtoeS . . under whose God's people lived. Philistines. doth clearly evince. under the gospel. ' ' o JT m his ™der gospel. and in his government ? own land and city Jer. or husband now. dear Truth. was told that that faith. dominions? or keepers. Nebuchadnezzar. not family? Families are the foundations of government . ^ Theodosius. *<=> miS'in- were the antitypes of the kings of Judah. But it was not so from the beginning. due unto him from Heaven. were ' ' made to believe that they >> constantine. father. Peace. that Constantine. I ask. xxix. title. and leadeth us to the spiritual Israel. Defensor defender of the though sent him by the pope for writing against Luther.

for whom Christ Jesus would not pray.i field of the world become his enclosed ? Seventhly. yea. /~. antitypes by Christ s appointment keepers of both of Israel and Judah's kings. that the world. Roman emperors ought to have been tables. Persian. governor of the commonweal. anti-christian wife. vii. the father or husband of the state differing from the commonweal in to religion. THE BLOUDY TENENT is a commonweal but a commonweal of families. as was the . and the whole garden Millions put to death. husband. yet is he to if continue a live husband's care. to be so far from forcing her from his. 1 if Cor. IT. suppose a believing Christian hath an unbelieving. . of dommion rt-. [12 — 15]. how many millions of . . his love to the truth. and holy conversation in and seasonable exhortations. over the world. what other charge in this respect is given to a husband. endea- vour to win and save If the ^i whom possibly he may. Consequently... in this case to child or servant . 1 Cor. *^^ whole world be forced to turn Christand since it as afterward hath pretended to do —who spouM of sees not then. mimou was ^^ . If the . civil the commonweal will with him. and their de- Roman emperor. agreeing to live together for common good ? husband Now in families. and the god of it. Now husband by it. ought not to force the commonweal nor civil be forced by it. he was not to force her to tarry with him. yet abhorring to use corporal punishment. as her conscience unto that if for his conscience' sake she would depart. vii. are reconciled to Jesus Christ.208 own consciences to his. ought to so endeavour to save his wife. yet far from the appearance of civil violence. dwell with him ? she be pleased to but. . ehMg^eof Bhip'wls'' left with the Sixthly. and abide in as a covenant. but to dweU with her as a husband. : ought the father. Roman TT emperors were charged by Christ with his worship in their dominion. whSe' world garde'n° ^^° i^u ®®^® ^'^^' ^^ — and Babylonian monarchy before them. . the bounder ^" Grrecian.

he should have overthrown his own apostleship and power given him by Christ Jesus in spiritual things. as the Roman emperors were. Blessed Truth. ^'^ them in mind of their to challenge and claim such a service from them. Peace.OF PERSECUTION DISCUSs'd. And I must refer them to what I formerly answered to that objection. office. if the Lord Jesus had delivered his sheep and children to these wolves. above the highest kings or emperors of the world beside. to wit. Some will here object Paul's appealing to Truth. XC. idolaters 209 his and blasphemers against Christ Jesus and worship. according to Israel's pattern Lastly. Paul justly appealed. whether a church of Christ Jesus may not live in God's worship and comeliaess. For other- wise. civu magistrAtfi for according to their as it pleased God always to sendi'^'P'" ? matters. I ask. of Timothy. CsBsar. his precious jewels to such great thieves and robbers of the world. to the kings of Israel and Judah. if in a spiritual cause he should have appealed. I shall now remember you of the fourth query upon this place. notwithstanding that the civU . his wife and spouse to such adulterers. ought they to have put to death. definitive sentence in Paul never appealed to church controversy Caesar as a judge appointed by Christ Jesus to give any spiritual or but against the civil violence and murder which the Jews intended against him. CHAP. to put office. what is the reason that he was never pleased to send any Be'||j'^„°'™ tora™"s'|r- of his servants to their gates to crave their help and assistance in this his work. in the like case Peace.

swne'L godliness ! enjoyed least peace and quietness. ' { when they were pounded and burnt in cruel persecution of the Roman censors. gravity. in his own person and the country with him? Truth. I they have yielded the sweetest savour to God and man. as appears by their holy and glorious Christ Jesus hath left power in his which the scripture abundantly testifies. Sccoudlv. calamus. i /. left by the Lord •' . and to to pray for it. conn ly. to keep the world : and quietness yet God's people have used most ^le^have" ! *° abound with godliness and honesty. : command them pointed in peace civil Timothy for those good ends and purposes for which . most sweet when most hunted God's stars shining brlght: . when they have Then. and forced them ' to hasten home to another country T\hich they profess to seek. est in the darkest night : more heavenly in conversation. V. the first appearance of it.. to be with God. when the inhospitable and savage world hath used them like strangers. &c. was to be ^ gugered. . This flows from an institution or appointt i meut of such a power and authority. like those spices. I answer. the churches of Christ under the live in all godliness all Roman emperors did and Christian practices. 1 even the . v. God hath ap- magistracy in the world. Cant.210 THE BLOUDY TENENT magistrate profess not the same but a contrary religion and worship. safiron. I add. Then are they. myrrh. have enjoy-i quietness. iv. frankincense. as God's venison. that no ungodliness or in idSroiTs™ dishonesty. more abounding each 'to other. . more longing . that although sometimes : pleaseth the Lord to vouchsafe his servants peace [as] here in and quietness. it Lastly. in love more I ! mortified. but suppressed and cast out from the churches of Christ. Cor. little leaven of doctrine or practice. I 14. Gal. . i herser/pme Jesus to his apostlcs and churches.

a good lawyer. a good merchant. also Hence we say. a good tree. a good sword. 1 Cor. " A subject without godliness will not be bonus a good man. fir." Truth. except he see godliness preserved. yet this I must remember you when the most high God created all things of . or a true wor. Yet diver* 8°°^||«™» which must : still be acknowledged in their distinct kinds a good air. cxxii.OF PERSECUTION DISCUSs'd.Few mafis- shipping of God with an upright heart. .. Peace. and so be spiritually or Christianly which few magistrates and few men either come to. morally. will not be bonus magistratus. and those generally poor and mean. father. of. house. that 26 James ii. i. in their several civil respects and employments. 5. or are ordained unto: God having chosen a little flock out of the world. a good city. a good physician. master. 1 also add. may be found in many towns and P 2 cities where yet hath not shined any spiritual or supernatural . according to God's men spiiuu- ordinances. XCI. a good """"^^ a good garment. com- pared to a city compact within which compactness of the world. a good sheep. a good husband. a pilot for good seaman. itself. viz. neither subjects nor magistrates can please ciiruuaniy God good in Christ Jesus. close it seems not to be unreasonable to up tbis passage with a short descant upon the asser- tion. a good such a shore or harbour : such or ' that is. nothing. he saw and acknowledged divers sorts of goodness. I confess that without godliness. is Hence (Ps. &c. a good company or corporation. Dear Truth. 211 CHAP. I say the same in artificials. and a magistrate. civilly good. a good ship.) the church. a good ground. or city of God.

" He must see that honesty be preserved . Ephes. that a subject. Lastly. although spiritual it commendable and beautiful. the holy nation." within his jurisdiction. Ji. doms. together with qualifications for a commander. The fourth head is. . CHAP. The proper means of both civil these powers to attain their ends. must may be civil or it is. however the authors deny that there can be bonus magistratus.. a good subject.. house or kingdom. make also a good magistrate. is sufficient make a good subject. the erecting and establishing what form of civil government may seem in wisdom most meet. Peace. goudneBS. political. in these viz. state. [25j] state of a itself. a good magistrate. a good magistrate. though godliness. viz. describes an THE BLOUDY TENENT Hence the Lord ill Jesus. king- which cannot stand. true church. if the law of relations hold true. according to general rules of the word. proper to the sta"e which jis is infinitely more beautiful." jlsrael.' or" Only propcr to the Christian the ii. in respect of moral goodness. xii. a good citizen and doubtless. the commonweal of wanun'g. magiS' trates. all yet themselves confess that civil to honesty words. be wanting. are five. 1 Pet. a magistrate. else the subject will not be bonus cives. the proper means whereby the only power may and princi- and should pally these ^ittain its end. that civil honesty which makes a good citizen.212 goodness. XCII. " First. and where and which ba owned. except he see godliness preserved. " First.. to be divided against ^otaMs of cities. and state of the people. fit must also. These I observe to prove. subjects. which thousands want is . Matt.

xv. to receive into their fellowship them that are approved. have no power of setting up the forni of church government. law^^ and the publishing of his "Thirdly. " Secondly. . not only such as concern : civil jus- but also the free passage of true religion is for outward civil peace ariseth and mamtamed from them both. officers only "Fourthly. though conversant about civil matters. "First. "Fourthly. civil punishments and rewards of trans- gressors and observers of these laws. 2 Chron. electing church . And may yet such still though conversant civil about religion. prayer and patience in suffering any evil them that be without. are only ecclesiastical. them from " Fifthly. the means whereby the church may and should attain her ends. 6 laws. civil " Secondly. 5. Clu:ist. to " Thirdly. acknowledging and admitting of no giver in the church but laws. which are chiefly five. " So that magistrates. election and appointment of see execution of those laws. from the latter as well as from the former. civil officers. be still counted laws : as on the contrary. " Fifthly. as magistrates. taking up arms against the enemies of peace.OF PERSECUTION DISCUSS'd. 213 " Secondly. is cor- Judges viii. 3. who disturb their peace. electing and ordaining of such as Christ hath appointed in his word. civil laws. the making. and establishing of wholesome tice. and inflicting spiritual censures against that offend. publishing. an oath doth remain religious. setting up that form of church government only of which Christ hath given them a pattern in his word. " Civil peace cannot stand entire where religion rupted.

though as memhers of the commonweal they may have power. parents. or withdrawing the hearts of the people against them. and also considered with the end of it. but as officers of the state. that the power may erect and establish wliat form of civil government may seem in wisdom most meet: I acknowledge the proposition to be most true. as before and fandanientaliy in the people. but to see that the the church doth her duty herein. or masters: or magistrates. Here are divers considerable passages.214 officers. THE BLOUDY TENENT punishing with church censures . no more than to discharge wives. electing of civil officers. who are public also of the civil state. as Jehoiada did Athaliah. Civil power originally ( But from this grnnt I infer. and foundation of civil power. inflicting civil — ^no. both in itself. lies in . of punishments erecting or altering forms of civil government. whereas they say. though members of churches. to their laws. which I far as concerns our controversy. or children. yet this they do not as members of the church. though they persecute for by taking up arms against their them for conscience: officers. civil shall briefly examine so First. the people —^whom they must needs mean by the set civil power distinct from the government erect up: and if so." civil Truth. as churches. as formerly hath been said. It is evident that such governments as are by for ythem erected and established. not on persons excomtheir civil municated —as by deposing magistrates from authority. have no power. churches... have no more power. that a civil government civil is an ordinance of God. nor . or servants. And on the other side. from due obedience to their husbands. to conserve the peace of people so far as concerns their bodies and goods. original. that a people and establish what form of for their civil con- government seems to them most meet dition. that the sovereign. may suppress by force the violence of usurpers. may hath been touched.

lastly." or the bands of power to govern the church. let heaven and earth judge. be denied. if Christ have betrusted and charged the civil power with his church. have fundamentally and originally. . or people consenting and agreeing. or America. by whom all peoples naturally are guided. by their that the wudest Indians in own grant. a church. This is clear not only in reason. Peace. &c. that their civil and earthly governments be these°^ri' "°'"' as lawful and true as any governments in the world. if arise or be amongst them: and therefore. and Spirit out of heaven. »• comroon- correct her. to see her do her duty. to the people. of both tables. and subject them unto natural. reform. some more less. sinful.. than the civil power. it Ji'^f'^J" "'^^ follows. and so consequently to Satan himself. naturally considered. they must judge according to their Indian or American consciences. And if this be not to pull God. for other consciences it cannot be supposed they should have. mMifrf™' of what nature or nation soever in Europe. but in the experience of all commonweals. where the people are not deprived of their natural freedom by the power of tyrants. and Christ.J^"'''* government.OF PERSECUTION DISCUSs'd. that a people. 215 no longer time. some As also. And if so — that the magistrates ° receive their ^ power of Mr cotton and the New govermng the church from the people —undeniably . &c.y°. It cannot. civil compact in towns. but iheveiyinin their ^n" *-* America ought (and ^ ™»<io governors of kind and several degrees do) to agree upon some forms of {. as a people. inconstant men. as men. to redress. and any church of Christ should therefore consequently their governors are keepers of the church. Africa. Asia. shall betrust them with. establish.

ix. XCIII. as to say that outward civil peace cannot stand where religion Many civil is corrupt.. and quote how such excellent spirits. And this every historian. in Europe.-xv. dealing them as he dealt not with any nation in the world. for corrupting of that religion which hath been revealed unto them. Asia.216 THE BLOUDY TENENT CHAP. must have reference to that peculiar state unto which God called the seed of one so with man. xv. 5. I answer. Truth. relating the miseries of Israel and Judah. which consequently hath been and afflicted with spiritual plagues. Again. traveller. [20. America. Ps. and Judges viii. The antitype to this state I have proved to be the is Christian church. for that scripture. notis the LOTd'" so corrupt. . and God's plagues it upon still that people for corruption of their religion. and be so fast asleep in things so palpably evident. not only in heavenly but earthly affairs.""' not the vcry name of Jesus Christ amongst them. John xvi. 3. whereas they civil peace cannot stand where religion is corrupted for it 2 Chron. now so many hundred years in woful bondage and slavery to the mystical Babel. : for so spake the shall sing Lord Jesus rejoice. Rom.. Africa.] The world and Secondly. 2 Chron. This appears by the seven churches . in a figure. &c. cxlvii. 6. 3. as that there sounded. as these authors are furnished with. say that outward . When so many stately kingdoms and governments in the world civil flourisiiing have long and long enjoyed withstanding their religion is peace and quiet. and the people of God. Abraham. merchant. should so forget. desolations^ and captivities. until the time of their joyful deliverance. with admiration. can testify himself.

on the other hand." or such a religion. state that laws -"^ restraining . laws respecting religion civil state. 24. matters. notorious for mutinies. God. set ministers. ministrations. bodies. and up : That such laws properly concerning religion. to be suppressed or established and for such laws we find no footing in the New Testament of Jesus Christ. Secondly. or Indians. a thing '^ ° which the very Indians abhor to _ The veiy in dians abhor *" "i'sturb any con- •' _ practise toward any. Also. concerning only the bodies and goods of such and such religious persons. Peace. be pulled down. be disarmed: no persons. merely concern the and goods of such religions. again. may be such as or cwi. papists. But now. I civil. as the magistrate pleaseth." taws con- Laws respecting religion are twofold. though conversant about Truth. First. the . be disturbed at their worship. 217 Yea . : their fitness or unfitness. These and such* as are of confess are merely this nature. and such persons. but they say that " such laws as are con- versant about religion as may still be accounted still civil laws.^tticr' ship itself. that immunity and freedom ^ J J r from tax and toll may be granted unto the people of such ^oraMp. such as concern the acts of worship and the wor- gi^. Ezra vii. ministries. on the contrary an oath doth civil remain religious. Jews. that treasons. "*'• because the civU state judgeth this to be the only true way of worshipping God : That such and such a reformation of worship be submitted unto by aU subjects In such a jurisdiction : That such and such churches. ministries. the ministers of it. rebellions. canons and constitupre- persons from such and such a worship.OF PERSECUTION DISCUSs'd. because the ^ civil uons tended siTil judgeth It to be false : e"cieSalt?- That laws constraining to such and such a worship. .. massacres. Turks. that such and such persons. professing these and these viz. and such and such churches.

it must of necessity put on the nature of religious or spiritual ordinance or constitution. CHAP. and 1 or that the canons and constitutions of either oecumenical " or national synods. xiv. being an invocation of a case. "First. concerning soul and worship. XCIV. is as from reason as that the commandments of Paul. xi. for it is a most improper and fallacious instance. and only prove. fl-ue an oath. it concern persons of this and of that religion. that it as the are concerned in civil respects if it of bodies or goods. To j^"^'. whatever the subject matter be about whiph taken. is or false God to judge in a an action of a spiritual and religious it is nature. though civil . Their fifth head is concerning the magistrates' power in making of laws. whether civil or religious: but a law or constitution may be civil or religious. merely concerning bodies or goods . things I answer and acknowledge. as I have opened . or religious. may be spiritual. Beside. concerning religion. as is the subject about which it is conversant either civil. which Cor.). they have power to publish and apply such civil . simply so considered in reference to God. Peace. were civil and earthly constitutions: he gave the churches concerning Christ's worship (1 Cor. civil what before I have persons professing said. that instance of an oath remaining religious. that a law may be though is. conversant about an oath business . should be civil and state conclusions and arguments. though taken about earthly it and accordingly will prove. whereas concern the souls and religions of men.™"!' thfngs'mns? Bpirituai. should be civil laws and constitutions.218 souls of far THE BLOUDY TENENT men.

wherein nothing good or evil is shown Col. but free consents. because of his authority and will. 6. Cor. 23. the sovereign a perfect it Lord of all. and to be deducted so binding all nations in all ages by way of general consequence and prono magistrate hath power over the portion from the word of God. indifferent in its nature. " For in a free state bodies. liberties. " Secondly. may sometimes be inex1 pedient in it and consequently unlawful. compared with Eph. he hath no power to make any such laws about indifferent things. Quicquid non expedit. ii. lands. but only on principally the mere authority or will of the imposer. quatenus non non licet. lands. 21. 22 is . he hath no power given him of God to make what laws he which is please. laws in a state. but according to the laws and rules of the word of God. " Secondly. will be therefore necessary that neither the people give consent. vii. " First. " It a prerogative proper to God 'to require obedience of the sons of men. alone. goods. expedit. goods. its use. there- fore they may not give their free consents to any magis- trate to dispose of their bodies. either in restraining from or conbecause that straining to the use of indifferent things. . so far as they are of general and moral equity. liberties of a free people. but as God. but are only stewards unto God. as well of righteousness as of holiness. goods.!. by their And because free men are not free lords of their own estates.OF PERSECUTION DISCUSS'd. 1 Cor. And because the word is rule. for the observance of them. having been long since defended upon good ground. nor that the magistrate take power to dispose of the bodies. as either are 219 expressed in the word of God in Moses's judicials — to wit. lands. vi. at large as themselves please. to the people. 5. in making laws about civil and indifferent things about the commonwea. ii. liberties of the people.

then the one cannot be punished in following the other. the rule of charity. 14. that in some things the it. If the blind lead the blind. not only the will: to show the ex- pediency. the rule of piety. but Christ saith the contrary. " Thirdly. viii. et lex est rex regis. all And therefore it is duty of the magistrate. xiv. because the judgment of expedient and inexpedient things is often difficult and diverse. men when the they command frivola et dura. will of the law. " First." . " For we conceive in laws of this nature. in to laws about indifferent things. " Secondly. an BYil speech of some. it is not the will of the lawgiver only. that no man be forced to submit against his conscience. E. 31. Ratio est rex legis. it is meet that which are for the such laws should not proceed without due consideration of the rules of expediency set these three down in the word. show the reasons. and that princes may forbid to seek any other reason but their authority. nor be judged of contempt of lawful authority. yea.220 THE BLOUDY TENENT will of "The " It is no man is regula recti. " Thirdly. not the ratio of must be the rule of conscience to walk by . in case he shall sin in calling inexpedient expedient. for if the people be bound by Grod to receive such laws about such things. because he is not suddenly persuaded of the expediency of indifferent things. that they may make glory of God. that 1 no scandal come 13. x. 23. without any conscience. the rule of charity. 1 Cor. but trial or satisfaction to the must judge them expedient because the magistrate thinks them so. unless first it be regula recta. Cor. but the reason of the law which binds.om. as well as the indifferency of things of that nature. they shall both fall. hereby to any weak brother.

If the blind civil lead the blind. worship. iv. in case he shall sin contrary to Christ Jesus. must be the rule of viz. either in restraining or constraining to the use of indiiFerent things. simply unlawful. that the it. and that they shall trate's they follow the magis- command. " The magistrate hath not power to make what laws he please. conscience. Cant. ent tilings bound to try and examine his commands. blindfold by the magistrate but though he yet they shall [fall] in after him and upon him. And they add this impregnable reason. this or that gesture ^^-in but that they satisfy indiffer- . by being led fall in first. that invincible truth. Truth. ministry. concerning the magistrates' walking in indifferent things *^ •/ rtenSerty science.OF PERSECUTION DISCUSs'd. if the magistrate have no power to f/JtL'con-' restrain or constrain their subjects in things in their own have*power* nature indifferent. to receive "If the people be bound satisfaction to conscience." who saith. 4. according to is their consciences' persuasion. . if judgment before the in their Lord. and they shall not escape the ditch. ' o whereon there hang a thousand shields and bucklers. and sin. as unto a falsely constituted church. : upon which ground that tower of Lebanon may be raised. such laws without then one cannot be punished for following the other. that no man is to be persecuted for cause of conscience.. to his greater and more dreadful judgment. both fall. i^ws of ciyi authority la ^^^H'^ to wit. not being persuaded his and conscience that it commands are according to own soul God will be much more unlawful and heinous in the magis- trate to compel the subjects unto that which. . are usmg . not the will of conscience. In this passage these worthy men lay 221 down such and authora i^rg/^o.. The ground is this. as in eating of meats. and their own reason. administration. a ground as the gates of heU are not able to shake. wearing this or coMdonc^ that garment. they shall Hence I argue." And further they confess. reason of the law.

only openeth the heart and work- eth the will. Methinks I discern a threefold guilt to upon upon civil powers comSibject'a such civil powers as impose upon and enforce the conscience. as if own power and ability to upon the magistrate's command. popish doc- trine of freewill. Thirdly. that God is also to be forced or commanded to give faith. Secondly. the magistrate may restrain from that gesture in the supper of the Lord which I persuaded I ought to practise.] . that together with a command restraining from or constraining to worship. Of an appearance it of that Arminian.222 THE BLOUDY TENENT if In particular thus. this or that day. constrain me to such or such a garment in the worship of God.] it seems to be a high presumption to suppose. can he constrain me to worship God by such a ministry. according to my conscience. [13. and with such worship. in forcing them is. Since God ii. 23. to incline the will. as they grant. ° though not uuto the ministration and participation of the seals. which my soul and conscience cannot be per- suaded If God ? he cannot command me is of in that circumstance of time to worship God. If he cannot. A guilt of ' the hypocrisy of their subjects and to act people. it is persuaded not faith First. &c. Phil. Rom. xiv. can he command me lie to the worship itself? threefold guilt Ijing A Peace. since it is confessed that what is submitted to by' any without faith it is sin. be lay in their believe it never so true and holy. and practise in matters of [That baptism and the Lord's suppei. . or to any exercise or worship which it hath in. he his me am may also restrain me by such commands from that supper of the Lord itself in or such a church. yet either to depart from that worship which of.^ worship. to open the heart.

&c. 15. religion and worship against 223 the doubts and checks of their consciences. and the . first. indeed. their hearts being far off. and in him all governors of the church. before Christ. Truth. righteousness. i. the administra- tion of all Christ's affairs. Sweet Peace. And. In that fifth head they further say thus : "Thirdly.OF PERSECUTION DISCUSs'd. who is Lord of lords. make or constitute which the Lord Jesus hath not power to . Lord Jesus the only Potentate. this is Tim. XCV. 16. to the unrebukevi. doth immediately aim at spiritual and divine ends. ordained in his word for the well-ordering of the church for the apostle solemnly chargeth Timothy. we believe. CHAP. appearing of the Lord Jesus Christ. when to draw near with their lips. causing their bodies to worship their souls are far off. 2 Tim. Cant. Peace. or the father of the commonweal force }OTced"o''° the maidens in a country to the marriage-beds of such Sey cmno? and such men which whom they cannot love. and oh ! that they might sink deep into those noble and it honourable bosoms so deeply concerns ! But proceed. 1 7. is «»""»' either a true or false bed. than the souls of to worship where thejr these and other subjects to such worship or ministry. the King of kings and that the commandment given by him for the spot. And apostle saith. 14. In matters ecclesiastical that civil magistrates have no laws about church affairs. With all less sin ten thousand-fold may •J p««oiis a natural father may with force his daughter. as the worship of God. 1 God and the ordering of the church be kept without able. your conclusions are undeniable. commandment given in the word. the able to make the man of God perfect in all iii.

may be no error on either " that When the apostle directeth the church of Corinth. but only for their unity.224 THE BLOUDY TENENT : salvation of men's souls and. and orderly. where there side. as the speaking of many at once in the church. that We magistrates. even though there were some error on one side. xiv. Eom. he meant not all things be to give power to church officers or to civil magistrates. or the like. or women's prophesying. " Paul. done decently and in order. " Thirdly. commendeth the unity of their faith in the Holy Spirit. upon due and diligent search what is the counsel and will of God in his word concerning the right . do nevertheless willingly grant. God hath " Secondly. giving order that . without confusion or disturbance of edification. but also such as concern outward order : as in rites and ceremonies for uniformity's sake. without unnatural or uncivil uncomeliness. therefore. in difference of judgment and practice of such things where men live to God on both sides. is not only thus limited and restrained by Christ to matters which concern the substance of God's worship and of church government. 1 — 6. but use must be made of such only as the divine wisdom and holy will of ordained. gospel. that Christ hath For we find not in the for the uni- anywhere provided formity of churches.no can be devised by the wisdom or wit of fit aw nor meani man that can be or able to reach such ends . as that of long hair. We believe the magistrate's power in making laws about church affairs.we should not judge nor condemn one another. but only to provide that aU the ordinances of God be administered in the church decently. How much less in things indifferent. to order whatever they should think meet for decency and order . in matters of Christian liberty.

establish D. of which Ezekiel speaks. The law of Artaxerxes. but such only as Christ hath commanded . 1 methinks I hear the voice of the people of God's uraei . such laws and ordinances as Christ hath appointed. In the Israel. such laws and ordinances as Christ hath appointed in his word for the well ordering of church affairs : both for the gathering of the church. methinks I see before mine eyes <i manded ly the God of heaven —-for wall daubed up. the figure of Christ Jesus... I shall examine that proof from Artaxerxes. who hath given his people the sceptre and sword of his word and Spirit. 23. amongst them. first. and sheltering themselves under an arm of flesh which arm of flesh God gave them in his anger. Secondly. in the mouth of his prophets. Dear Peace. &c. Sam. Where did the Lord Jesus or his messengers charge the Q . either concerning the substance or ceremony of religion. was not usurpation over the church's liberty royal and just confirmation of them Whatsoever : but a is com- why should thei's be " wrath against \the realm o/"] the king and his sons ? Truth. say they. 5. 225 may and ought to publish and de- and ratify. Here they restrain the magistrate from making laws. and refused a temporal crown or weapons in the dispensation of his kingdom. they must publish and declare after the example of Artaxerxes. with untempered mortar. in his wrath. in such a manner as the Lord hath ap- pointed to edification. and those. and all the right administration of the ordinances of God vii.. after he had persecuted David. examine this magistrate's duty to publish. Make us a king. I shall herein perform two things: first. clare. that : may rule over us desirous of saui's arm after the manner of the nations rejecting the Lord ruling over them by his holy word. vui. declare. 23. and cut off again . Ezra vii. Ezra .OF PERSECUTION DISCUSS ordering of the church.

I find the beast hath gotten the power and might of the kings of the earth. xv. to the magistrates' law. xix.226 THE BLOUDY TKNENT Christians to petition him. reason of that Here. conscience. or direct publish. the religion and worship of Christ Jesus I find the beast and false prophet. 9.J the Lamb's weapons are spiritually mighty. even in indifferent things. his i. Eev. to civil magistrate. 13. and his not bound. Rev. the magistrate must make laws for substance and ceremony which . let all be ratified by the king's authority. further than own soul. &c. which are confessed of a spiritual nature. When Was by the not this recorded for all God's Naboths. coming out of his for their wea- mouth. whether substance or ceremony but what is Christ's ? By their former conclusions. or establish by his arm of flesh and earthly ? weapons. Naboth-s caae typical. [4. I demand. Rev. it. Rcv. heade"™" the xvii. that . from heaven. 4. and seal. 2. but from the sea and earth. the magistrate who shall here command any other judge.. what a glorious mask or veil of holiness she put on ? Proclaim a fast. [16. 2 Cor. by a civil sword and dignity. whore Jezebel stabbed Naboth with her ^ up the people to stone him as a blasphemer of God and the king. name. and judgment ascends to the Christ appointed. by all to be in stirring pen. 1 Kings xxi. xiii. set a day apart for humiliation and for copfirmation.] His preparations war are white horses and white harness. declare. sit [to] Again. Lamb sword is two-edged. standing for their spiritual interests in heavenly things typical earth and ground of Canaan's land —typed out —that they through patience and comfort of the scriptures might have hope ? Rom. But X. whose rise and doctrine is not dreadful and terrible. every soul is must judge what the magistrate commandeth. 8.

xvii. XCVI. 2. 227 But yet he must not do fold this with his eyes open. xvii.OF PERSECUTION DISCUSs'd. ! what allurings are in Jereis my's curse and blessing Jer. but shall abide in drought in the wilder- a barren land.23. dear Truth. but blind- and hoodwinked . civil powers civu powers ^ abused aa a f^fb^J''""' Oh what ! is this but to make use of the and governors of the world. the people of God J^'^. kings of Babel and Persia. pass 23. Truth. for flesh to forsake the arm thereof! But vii.] Cursed the man that trusteth in man. and such to be the order therein. — as a guard. which their consciences judge otherwise. on. [5. for if he judge that to be the reli- gion of Christ. — too. they profess they must submit only to Christ's laws. captivated imder the dominion and government of the Q 2 . Peace.' ™v. commit spiritual fornication with the great whore. first. while the inhabitants of the earth are drinking themselves drunk with the fornication ? wine of her But oh ! what terrifyings. CHAP. as a guard about the spiritual bed of soul-whoredoms. that maketh flesh his arm. &c. in he shall be as a heath in the wilderness —even in the spiritual and mystical wilderness shall not see comes. Rev. In this scripture I mind. Ezra wherein Artaxerxes confirmed by law whatever was com- manded by the God of heaveli. and there- fore they are not bound to obey him. Oh! what mysteries are these to flesh and blood! how hard . to their proof propounded. too common in spiritual matters and whose heart and departeth from Jehovah : when comfort ness. in which the kings of the earth ttoSms. and assent not to.

lambs and sheep in the jaws of the the dearly he- loved of Hs soul under the devouring tyrants of the world. yet why should they now sit down in the throne of spiri- Israel. Of exempting of some of them from common charges. Fifthly. Consider his acts of favour. Ezra praising of God for putting this into the heart of the king. crown upon the head of these monarchs civil and although in things they might challenge subjection. the Lord Jesus In this respect it is clear. than the vessels of the sanctuary were subject to his person the king of Babel's use. both the Babylonian and the Persian. Thirdly. one of those devour- ing beasts. which he kept and judged own soul and people. Dan. Punishments on oiFenders.228 THE BLOUDY TENENT Secondly. 2. : a gentile idolater. in to a positivc i command i that any of the Jews -n own worship. first. and viii. that the Jews were no more in spiritual subject to the kings of Babylon and Persia things. 1. far from their nation and the government of their own own anointed kings. they were as lion. pcts?^'"'^ spirituais. not subject Concerning the people of God the Jews. nor that any of them should practise his the best for his It is true. Concerning this king. King of the Jews. Of botmty towards them. he freely permits them and exerciseth a . 3. Fourthly. an oppressing tyrant. and they wiU not amouut towards P'°- should go Up to build the temple. I consider. v. The ground that carries him on to all this. set the vii. the figures of the true Christ. Dan. and govern the people and church of God in tual things ? ISs' wonderfully mollifled Secondly. Artaxerxes's favour to these captives. A hand of bloody conquest . Of freedom to their consciences.

229 bounteous assistance to them. Da>^™. ^g^j. not. as they were from being affected the spi- crown of governing the worship of God. Agrippas spoken And what wonderful '='™'''=^- decrees have Nebuchadnezzar. permit them to return to their land. Cyrus. and the conscience of his people. so often as it pleaseth him to honour them that honour him before the sons of men. what have not Pharaohs. assist own them with other execute punishments upon favours. Ezra most piously and justly gave thanks this a pattern for the to . nor could he be a judge in for his . Peace. which he confirmed.. Sauls. should ? king all confirm all with such severe punishments and why for this should Ezra give thanks ? to God. Who sees not how little this scripture contributes this to their tenent? But why. of Israel. Artaxerxes. pleaseth God to open the hearts of Such- tyrants greatly to favour and further his people. favour foirnd Nehemiah and Daniel. and yet as from being to.OF PERSECUTION DISCUSS'd. And terrors ground. he knew and therefore neither was. Darius. and enable them to offenders according to their national state. It is true. and vii. that the gentile king should release them. and vi.' Ahabs.. and others of God's people have and shall find. Dan. But did God put such a thing as this into the heart of . what was . say some. &c. but that sometimes it All which argues no more. far iii. it but the common « and convictions of an affinghted conscience ? ° In such fits and pangs. ? iY» 1 Nebuchaanezzar. and Ezra ritual i. f^^ {^"gg'" God nors for putting such a thing into the heart of tlie king *" but what makes laws of civil gover- amtald"' now under the gospel? It suited well with that national state of God's church. »nii Artaxerxes. Herods. if it were not imit- able for after times Truth. charged with. the case. put forth concerning the God . The law of God.

| . conscience of their worships God of Israel : and no cause for Ezra then. If we The receive the witness of an honest man. to lie upon the shoulders of Artaxerxes. and ordinances. the consciences of their subjects. if he would plcasc to put and paruaments. ordain priests. upon the like penalty. and especially such as in truth to the make yet.* unto which all are bound to submit. and permit. to conform to the worship of the God of Israel. at least. compelling them is which but a natural thing. I answer. church. however. to acknowledge the care and charge of God's worship. to take it into the hearts of the kings. to restrain upon pain of death all the mil- of men under his dominion from the idolatries of their several and respective countries? to constrain them all. lions . pp. (jo^'g people in their worships. the witness of the most holy the'e^xSipies of gentile kings decreeuig God is greater. though only out of some ' [See Bi-oadmead Records. 1 John v. Introd. * ^^^'^ *° permit and tolerate. Ezra Sidvli^"^ ward the consciences of their gives thanks to God for the king and so should all that fear it God in all countries. never stood in need of a temposword or a himian witness to confirm and ratify them. notam'Tn'^ civil Lastly. and the two- edged sword of ral his word. Christ's truth.230 the king. in<ii>>-i off the yokes of violence. states. THE BLOUDY TKNENT viz. it may please to stir up the ^ rulers of wSi^'ta scriptuie. did all God put it into the king's heart to send Levites into to hear ? the parts of his dominion.. or any other prince or ruler. as some unsoundly speak. For the confirmation or ratification which Hon*™*" t^ey suppose magistrates are bound to give to the laws of Christ. 9. erect an altar. WeU.. xli. y 1. and sum of the whole matter /-hi God sometmies this: -. observe the fasts and feasts of Israel ? Yea. oifer sacrifice. or God's Ezras and Israelites now. to build him a temple. to favour and countenance. Ixxxvii. God's cause. Is result •.

XCVII. "who are members of the in commonweal are bound thereof." say they. and the most eminent most especially bound. but also because their ill examples are . Peace. not only because conscience doth more strongly bind. idolatry. as Christ himself and the apostles were in their places wherein they lived. Cyrus. churches not cutting weals. And therefore to the clergy. nor own state.OF PERSECUTION DISCUSs'd. bound to be Eom. Darius. and scandalous to the gospel of God equally subject. peace. although themselves be not persuaded to submit to them. is . CHAP. and aU men from example may charge upon the magistrates' conscience of the civil peace. they are men off from membership in commoneven every soul. or country's worship. is The sixth question ? is this : —How far the church subject to their laws "AU those. as the papists do. &c. and Artaxerxes did. xiii. to be subject to all the just and righteous laws and therefore. strong conviction of conscience or fear of wrath. from say that generatio civil exempt subjection. and to both sinful clerici is corruptio subditi. — learn. in the worship of God and souls men but hence are magistrates instructed favourably to permit their subjects in their worships. not to ^besides the care the bodies and goods of men —the of spiritual . as Nebuchadnezzar. 1. For this God's people ought to give thanks unto thi3 God yea. yet church and though are all are members more especially bound to yield subjection. : 231 and yet themselves neither understand leave their God's worship. membership subject.

1 Cor. and shall here only say two things. Levit. pernicious to the state. he should do more than he hath any word of Christ to Sum of Ch. whose very religion blasphemeth Christ in the highest degree —I say. First. shall sin against the state. Discipline. speak : evil of in a lesser or higher Jews of par- degree) that one true God it must unavoidably his blood. oppression. make whole kingdom a national church." Truth. &c. of so in one place. xxiv. xiv. by sedition. [23. If the rulers of the earth are bound to It put ^^ death all that worship other gods than the true phfmers^of off'aii'hil^'ls God. xiii." A Survey of the and oath. I shall at large show the difference between the national church and state of Israel. as Mr. "What concerns this subscribe unto : head in civil things. &c. and xviii. which. 5. upon the eleventh question. blasphemy. blasphemy. ac- cording to their righteous and wholesome laws. ' L" If a prince should. Deut. if the whole church. by covenant his warrant his work. " Hence.] many as may meet civil state and therefore no : can be the antitype and parallel to which pur-| pose.. 16 . and of putting to all other states and nations ip the world. part 2. ple of God Those scriptures produced concern only the peoin a church estate. that the beloved for the Fatlier's sake. that blaspheme (that is. more and pro- voke God's wrath to bring vengeance on the state. 20 . heresy. "^ The law Sccondly. or follow.'' is not national but congregational.232 THE BLOUDY TENENT infectious to others. members from the service of the state without the consent thereof. 10. or officers of the church. slander. or any person. 12. or shall withdraw any of their. their persons' and estates are liable to civil punishments of magistrates. xxii.. Exod. I gladly have plentifully before spoken what concerns heresy. the Jews. Cotton confesseth. and must have reference ) only to the church of Christ Jesus.. con- tempt of authority. I to.] Argument .

XCVIII. and so not reaching to the impiety or ungodliness but the incivility and unrighteousness of tongue or hand.. as it laws must the world come formerly noted and that unnecessarily. not to spare or show mercy upon person or in city falling to . must generally be put to the sword. and so cease to blaspheme the true God by force. they speedily renounce not their gods and worships. that bars out all favour or partiality and then and I have what heaps upon heaps shambles of civil . and xviii. Peace.. notorious sins. and all 233 to be immediately executed according to those quoted scriptures. and kingdoms if the world. Gross and public. Secondly. when Prince of peace appear. for if that rule be of Deut. idolatry. cities. these are the poisoned daggers shall the stabbing at my tender heart ! Oh. the magistrate execute punishthat offendeth his ment on a church or church member laws? "First. which are against the light of conscience. &c. The towns..OF PERSECUTION DISCUSS'd. nations. xiii. Dear Truth. CHAP. as heresy. and the magistrate's power and weapons being essentially civil. This bloody consequence cannot be avoided by any scripture rule. the slaughter-houses to. there the magistrate keeping him under safe ward should send the offender first to the church to heal his conscience. being not required by the Lord Jesus for his sake. they are actually sons of death. And o£'^^^^^^'^^'^^ for "^^ac°e^j conscience. and reconcile the bloody sons of men but let me now "In what order may propose their seventh head : viz. their idolatries. still provided that the church be both able and willing there- .

church or magistrate take this caution. see chap. but such a one for sinning rather 10. First. . Only with take it first in hand. and either exhortations pressed. as Truth. in such heresy. " Secondly. for their consciences. that if the state it first in hand. I have before discussed this point of a heretic sinning against light of conscience. strongly even to the death hold their delusions. to bring him to repentance. anti-christians. Tit. in which respect so may be that even themselves may be found powerfully heretical. they propose a distinction of some are against the light of conscience. and they instance in heresy. that however they lay Error is confident as this down as an infallible conclusion. . yea. And I shall add. they are not to proceed to death or banishment.234 unto : THE BLOUDY TENENT by which means the magistrate shall convince such healing. and that in fondamentals —^how do all idolaters after hght presented. Here I have many just exceptions and considerasome sins: tions to present. provided that the church be willing and ready thereunto. is against light of conscience. &c. sins wherein m^n plead conscience. Jews or fast. « The censure also against him shall proceed with more power and blessing. Turks or pagans. " Secondly. Ans." &c. against his conscience. xii. that all hcrcsy . until the church hath taken their course with him. rather than a one's conscience that he seeketh his his hurt. or rather are held fast by. and none shall have cause to say that the magistrate persecutes that he justly punishes men iii. in private offences how the magistrate may It is not material whether the proceed.. yet —to pass r°th*^ by it the discussion of the nature of heresy.

. . all Peace. &c.. that God strong deia- hath sent them strong delusions that they believe a lie. and the apostles. " Again. speaks not the scripture expressly of the Jew.. 10. hath the golden key of David can only shut all which He that and open. these consciences walk on confidently and conin their belief Now stantly. keeping him in safe ward : that is. I here ask men that love even the civil peace. because such bloody and cruel courses of persecution are used toward them. that God hath given them the all spirit of slumber. vi. &c. £Sn. in but according to the light or eye of a deceived wm* ^^- conscience. and yet not against the tundamentai errors. and prevent his time. especially of worship : light. are strongly confident even against some ftinda. persecutors cast the saints. so Paul. being deluded and cap. the magistrate. God's people themselves. eyes that they should not see. Acts xxviii. so strong and efiBcacious and that so confidently. xiii. ? ii. the heretic.^"wXm '* tivated. idolater. Matt. and some so conscientiously.. Secondly. 235 Yea. that death itself cannot part between the delusion and their conscience. Is it the picklocks or swords in all the smiths' shops in the world can neither by force or fraud not said of anti-christians..? Isa. Matt. all even to the suffering of death and torments . 2 Thess. Matt. the blasphemer. V. 25. We find a prison into which So John. say they. We find indeed a prison threatened by God to his irreconciled enemies. and are more strongly confirmed and conscience.be'tounTob' mentals. neglecting to account with him. tittle where the Lord Jesus hath spoken a safe of a prison or ward to this purpose ? Truth.OF PERSECUTION DISCUSs'd. which must be spoken of the very conscience. xiv." &c.

&c. XX. anti-christ. true. the spirits formerly rebellious against Christ Jesus. a prison for spirits.236 were Spiritual THE BliOUDY TENENT cast . But tlie neither amongst these. do we find a prison appointed by of um°&c" Christ Jesus for the heretic. "WTe find a spiritual prison. At first. shall eternally apMin/ed'" prisOTs^fOT be there secured and tormented. [2. ii. hath fast: his prisons to The bishops' keep Christ Jesus and his members such prisous may wcU be called the bishops' prisons. 10. and the devil that deceived them. There Eev. the pope's. but afterward they wrung the keys out of the magistrates' hands. and caster into prison. and he keeps him in in safe soul obstinate in sin is delivered safe ward. iii. . 1 Pet. nor in any other passage of New Testament. and the great commander Eev. the devil's prisons. if God prevent them not. persecuting bishops borrowed prisons of the civil magistrate. by the help of civil powers. by Noah unto them. These inquisition-houses have ever been more terrible than the magistrate's. is the devil. idolater. being not otherwise guilty against the It is civil state. until it pleaseth God is to release him. into a prison for the devil himself a thousand years. a to Satan his jailor. and not written in the Lamb's book. 19. of. blasphemer. all which the beast and prophet. indeed. and hung them at their own girdles. as now their successors do stUl in the. now kept the judgment of the great day. world. speaking ward against In excommunication. 3.] And a lake of eternal false fire and brimstone. and would have prisons of their own: that generation still as doubtless will do.

? is it be desperately hardened by such cruel courses (yet pretending soul-healing). and lies. supposed heretics. the magistrate should send first him mother to the church to heal his conscience. Peace.] like So the mother of whoredoms. when a heretic indeed brought to this college of physicians to have his conis science healed. and truths. xvi. suppose a man to be a heretic. he science [25. Again. Peace. Methinks also they approach near that popish tenent. peradventure. XCIX. to heal his conscience: what promise of presence wounding and blessing hath the Lord Jesus made to spouse and m such a way nilhow common . say they. the church of Rome. and ordinances. If it is God will give them repentance . ex opere operato nitions : for their exhortations and admo- must necessarily be so operative and prevalent. 237 CHAP. how doth the Lord Jesus suffer whippings and stabs. healed and how hard strong delusions are. and then deliver them to the secular power to receive the punish- ment of heretics. So when any of Christ's witnesses. i^''"' Truth. especially in as it spirituals Truth. and witnesses. or else through fear and either to . his • -i i- heaung of consciences. 44. 2 Tim. are all profaned and blasphemed. church. conscienco not remembering that peradventure. teacheth and practiseth with all her like mother daughter? da^shtw- heretics : first let the holy church convince them.] : now sins against his conii. Is not this as the prophet speaks [Ezek. when his name. is And may so prove. and one heretic also to cure another.OF PEKSECUTION DISCUSS'd. and yet suppose though to a true church and tor heretics i1 him brought as the magistrate's prisoner. Besides. are brought before them. that if the heretic repent not. and believing of to and how be undeceived.

Yea. Again. If a man thus bound be sent to a church to be ." &c. ministers thereof able to try false apostles. or never be able to convince him. Rev. which church will never be willing to deal with him. wounded consciences. 2. like Christ's spouse able ° gracious woman. Lastly. openeth her mouth with is andwuung tgisdom. from whence true Tim. viz. Doubtless their consciences tell of those churches which they yet acknowledge churches. healing with his wings the doubting and afflicted conscience. and 9. Doubtless this proviso derogates not a little the nature of the spouse of Christ. according to their principles of suppressing persons and churches falsely worshipping. For she. i. convince the gainsayers. their conscience tells them.._ in her tongue 1 the law of grace: she iii. wound them deeper. 26. how can they permit such a blind and dead church not able and willing to heal a wounded conscience ? Peace.238 THE BLODDY TENENT terror to practise gross hypocrisy. but they say.' Peace. Truth. . of no value. is the pillar stick and ground of truth. What should be the reason of this their expression? them how few Truth. . and xxxi. Peace. 15. and declare themselves chirurgeons and physicians sciences. Tit. But what think you of the proviso added to their proposition. the golden candlcT light shineth: the angels or ii. that a servant of possibly be Christ Jesus may false sent as a heretic to be healed by a church. " Provided the church be able and from that willing ?" Truth. Prov. "by such a course the magistrate shall convince such a one's conscience that he seeks his good. are able and willing to hold forth Christ Jesus the Sun of righteousness. even against their con- So that these chirurgeons and physicians pretending to heal consciences by such a course.

disputes he not as a lamb paw. . but for sinning against his conscience. they conclude. He hath promised his presence with his messengers. ^n^Xrch mouse disputes with a terrible persecuting cat. unto whom all power given from the Father. given by the Son of God to spiritual affairs of his Christian powers in these kingdom and worship? Peace. But tion.OF PERSECUTION DISCUSS'd. in heaven and earth. when he makes inquisition for blood. * Pereecutora endure not may seem to take excuse. insulting. but an i/». and sanctifying the *' •' plotted and intended murder with a day of humiliation. instruccivil and promise. " This course of first sending the heretic to be healed by the church. proceeds with more power and blessing. ^uff^ toss. is 239 is a heretic or he Admit he be [or as] the : yet he disputes in fear. let any man show me such a commission. and leave blasphemer worthy to be stoned. ratifying in heaven what they bind or on earth. li.JarwHh'he "11™ '^e n witness as a witness of ""nwitiia Iamb in hia in the lion's p"^- elusion 11 a proud. and devouring cruelty. to the world's loose end. takes away all excuse . They add." Truth. All power and blessing is is from the blessed Son of God. Lastly. placing poor as a blasphemer df Naboth before the elders God and away all the king. innocent no i-j-'-L neretic. this way.i/»iand faithful any truth of Jesus. the God of recompences (Jer. for none can say that he is persecuted for his conscience. and to conclude the ^^^^ But Jehovah. healed in his conscience. who Tz* while she seems to play and gently is yet the con. either he not. being sure in the end to be torn in pieces ? "Peace. and make the dogs a feast with the flesh of Jezebel. will find both Jezebel and Ahab guilty. not to in his Ahab a man to piss against the wall for (as Paul own plea) there was nothing committed worthy of . as the poor thief. 56). Jezebel. preaching and baptizing." Truth. "The censure.

vi. Jonah iii. but to enjoy them all in purity. is this. and it is his duty to encourage and countenance such persons as voluntarily join themselves in holy covenant. leaven. they accepting the right hand of fellowship from other neighbour churches. besides the provoking of God. CHAP. it whose waUs are made of the stones of the being also contrary to the end of our planting in this part of the world. ci. Their eighth question C. though a stranger. may in time not only corrupt. And Eglon. the magistrate hath power. viz.240 death : THE BLOUDY TENENT and against thee. what power ? magistrates have about the gathering of churches " First. their patronage. and so destroy the peace of the churches. For our tolerating many religions in a state in several churches. Peace. he hath power to compel all men within grant to hear the word : Ms is for hearing the word of God a duty. which was not only to enjoy the pure ordinances. saith Daniel. who shall offer to put themselves under and attempt to join themselves into a church-estate.. The Ninevites heard Jonah. which the light of nature leadeth even heathens to. and if they shall not hearken. and unknown unto them to be an extraordinary prophet. churches. " Thirdly. but also dissolve the continuity of the state. he hath power to forbid aU idolatrous and corrupt assemblies. 22) in any against the state. " Secondly. divide. Ps. hearing that Ehud had a . I have not civil fact sinned (Dan. both it by his presence (if may be) and promise of protection. to force them therefrom by the power of the sword. 8. the king of Moab. especially ours. O king.

so of. first. it but not permitting other consciences than their own. and yet doubtless will. all " Yet he hath no power to compel men to become members of churches. Jerusalem. I shall speak more largely on the eleventh head or os tKi- B . that Lord Jesus and his queen are driven and persecuted out of the world. yea. chastity. Lord Jesus transcends the queens. and so much boasted Truth.. and protect the persons of the church from violence. Concerning that holy land of Canaan. and innocency. that the magistrate should encourage and countenance the church. any for nor may we of. To times the second. and empresses of the world in glory. iii. ci. hath come to pass in the all ages. but by the power of the word.. more 20. it being truly noble and glo- by how much the spouse and queen of the ladies. Be- I will cut off the wicked of the land . Peace. all magistrates in the world do this: viz. To the branch of this head I answer. that the magistrate ought to suppress false. often quoted. 241 for message from God. out of which king David here resolves to cut off all the wicked and evil J^^-^'J^^'^g doers. &c. which is not wrought by the power of the sword. rious.OF PERSECUTION DISCUSS'd. that I may cut off all evil doers from the city of Jehovah: unto which he a word to that scripture. Judg. 8. Dear Truth. It is true. disturbance. because he hath not power to make them fit members for the church. all churches which he judgeth he quoteth Ps. encourage and protect the church or assembly of worshippers which they judge to be true and approve of. beauty. concern- ing the city of Jehovah. > addeth four reasons." force the churches to accept of mem- bers but those whom first the churches themselves can freely approve Truth. he rose out of his seat reverent attention.

Ss Is Bhfoe or countries. though not out of the city of Pergamos then Pergamos must have been thrown out of Perga- mos. of jesu8. was But the Lord Jesus John iv. 9. out of which the Balaamites. all out of which false ii. The was devil's throne was in the city of Pergamos in it. from having any respect of holiness more than other 21. in the differences between lands. Heb. according to 1 is Pet xii. present I answer. jf Qhrist Jesus had intended any difference of l j cities. • u. No differ- ence of place. out of which the Lord Jesus by holy ordinances. JO' and the King holy nation . no kins of Sion. °'" Lord. respect of the state and persecution of also and yet there set the throne of the Lord Jesus up in his church or worshippers in Pergamos. and Mcolaitanes. his God in iv. wherein the Chrisso gloriously planted. and Eev. n Ye are a and Jerusalem the holy people of Gal. Rev. in such a government. the true profession of Christianity. ™°be?" been thought tian religion or the cities of Asia. and every false Vorshipper. coming. xxi. were to be for cast.242 ed exami- THE BLOUDY TENENT that and all question.. and iii. and the world out of the world... And whole the Spirit of God cities evidently testifieth that the churches were in the cities and countries. doubtless Jerusalem and Samaria had of. but the church of Jesus Christ. . &c.. worshippers and wicked persons were to be cut. other No land of At ho^Tty now. and by such governors as he hath appointed. not that the or countries were God's holy land and cities. he cuts off every wicked person and evil doer. there is no holy land or city of the T> thereof. disclaims Jerusalem and Samaria cities.

nor God. how many off \ i thousands and millions of men and women in the several kingdoms and governments of the world. from which New England dares not separate. and this Ps. must be cut from their lands. as it estate. cities. not only such such as them- selves (as they here speak) in a corrupt church estate. Sweet Peace. but know no church &c. yet remain all members of the church of England. I every wicked person and evil doer. literally to since the gospel. was in Israel . set up a separate assembly. thy tears are seasonable and precious. no not in their sacraments (as some of the independents have published). as this scripture speaks Thirdly. yea. and when and would soon become ana- summoned before baptists. Truth. Peace. 243 CHAP. CI. what riddle or mystery. consideration from that scripture. must be hanged or j stoned. and if so. and destroyed from their cities. since those persons in the New English plan- tations accounted unfit for church estate. may ci.. \ now to literally be applied to nations and be applied to in a parallel j^^te^'^to? Canaan and Jerusalem. thus darkening that and other lightsome scriptures with such dark and direful clouds of blood. nor Christ. but let me add a second If that scripture cities. attached to the rites of the church. accused the ministers of departing from the usages of that two brothers of the name of Brown. and countries in ^™°'^"as essay to join Europe and America. To this the ministers made B 2 . adding that they were separatistSj church of England. or rather fallacy of Satan is this !^ ' [Among still the earJy settlers were the governor.OF PERSECUTION DISCUSS D. Oh! that my head were a fountain. the children of peace and light. and bottled up in the heavens. be towns. who. and mine eyes rivers of ^.earsJ to lament my children.

that they did not separate from the church of England. It will not be offence to charity to jecture their : make con- first. 144. n t ' own assemblies- would the contributions and maintenance of their ministers. maintenance of the ministry. herein New England churches secretly call mother whore. prayer. The two brothers were sent back to En^:'land in the they came away from the Common same ship that brought them over. nor permit sciences. because they judged the imposition of these things to be sinful corruptions of the " That they were neither sepanor anabaptists. own confession because differing in conscience and Prayer and ceremonies .] . such members of Old England should be consciences in suffered to enjoy their New England to cnjof™ however are uot it is pretended they would profane ordinances for (as true it is sciences. which pub- they would seem to disclaim. singing. . these are more than thousands now this. they have a mind to do. &c. lest their own which they are unfit fit in that natural persons numbers own. but only from the corruptions and disorders of that church. though unexcommunicate: no. and profess against. unto which all or most have been forced. for in Old England the New English join g'eatnMs of asBembiies With Old iu the mluistratiou of the word. but such as themselves esteemed beloved and godly have they driven forth. of New p. if Sccondly. and all that love the purity of the „ worship of the living shall God should lament such halting. and with all iii ' ii — If. and Tnainte•/ nances decrease. Dear Peace. not daring in America to join with their own mother's children. they should set up churches after their conscience." England. I add not only do they partially neglect to cut off the wicked of the land. espy. Neal's Hist. Truth. I say. the x greatness and multitudes of their decay. word of God. conjectures. them their to worship God after their con- and and as mother hath taught them this secretly licly En*iS''erb'reth?en''o°f silently. nor from the ordinances of God there. for spiritual worship). eminently godly by . i. Contribution. ratists come unto them. yet this appears not to o'l-^at ^^ *^^ bottom. and keep out others which would their repl}'. .244 EnliuHeAmerkil E'irop"^"' THE BLOUDY TENENT Peace.

ii. Thirdly. any of these. expressly against the tares. the not cutting off by the sword. shall the sooner answer). or the ordinance of magistracy. and that to admiration.-a&. Matt. say they. or the baptizing of infants. but tolerating many fii." Hist. make war. other consciences and religions. first the resurrection of the body. p. let us now First. or the morality of the New England. Let conscience and experience speak how the not cutting dff of their many religions. that national church in that typical land of Canaan being abolished and the Christian commonweal or church instituted. but to prosper the state of the United Provinces. that scripture alleged. both to the souls and bodies of in men. The second reason is. such tolerating would • thus in [The law concerning heresy stood New England: " Whoever fourth camraa. as I have before proved as also the bloody mpther of such cutting off is all those monstrous mischiefs. or their authority to denies the immortality of the soul.OF PERSECUTION DISCUSs'd. it hath pleased God not only not to be provoked.9 But having examined weigh their reasons. our next neighbours. Secondly. or that Christ gave himself a ransom for sins. must be we are justified by his banished . 245 worship from them. whoever denies done by the outward man is sin. and consequently not to be suffered in their holy land of Canaan. xiii.. or that or seduces others to do so.st religions in a state would provoke God unto which I answer.'"''" by the civil sword . where used. Peace. (and here being no scripture produced to Christ jesus these reasons. 344. or the evil or punish offenders against the table . I affirm that the cutting off by the sword ^^^^^ is (contrarlly) most prohis will concerning .] . of Neal's righteousness. that no proof can pointed •>»' ti' aii be made from the institutions of the Lord Jesus that religions but one are to be cut off all »wn to be cut oil ^ J^j!^. voking unto God.the jurisdiction.

biddiy°his -' *'^*^' ^^^y ha-ve. viii. viii. 9. Cant. can be able to destroy the true Christian wall. or the scriptures of truth. or false company of w^FSnSot Again. especially theirs. I auswcr briefly to this bare affirmation thus discnssed. false how the false company of worshippers suffered in a city. or believers. v. i Cant. how church per- . will leaven the churches . to false doctrine in : p°ermTr°*° thrchurch. I desire it may be proved from spiritual wall. practiccs lu the church. this false spiritual wall. divide. it implicit parish churches in one implicit national church. This must also be denied upon so many former powlrfS"" scriptures and reasons produced.246 THE BLOUDY TENENT the churches. provc that the permitting of leaven of the world or civil state. • • • Truth. and destroy the peace of spiritual Truth.. x. but this reason should never have been alleged. proving the power of the Lord Jesus.. in consideration of these four walls. 1 Cor. and the sufficiency of his spiritual power in his church. only we find that the permission of leaven in persons. Their third reason will dissolve the conti- nuity of the state. Now. that indeed will corrupt and spread. 9. and Gal. civil state. That consequently a false church or company is a false or pretended wall. v. The walls of earth or stone about a city. where the walls are made The wall. and government is a civil wall. 2 Cor.. and Lastly. or . leaven. for the purging forth and conquering of the least evil: yea. bid to permit leaven in the world. nor can. power. and none of Christ's. doctrines. Peace. . that the true church i i is a wall spiritual and mystical. were not the particular churches in New England but as so many is. The &c. not produced one scripture. of the stones of the churches. are the natural or artificial wall or defence of it. and for the bringing every thought in subjection unto Christ Jesus.

the third. "all because hearing of the word ' men are to be compelled.christians to live amongst them subject unto CHAP. viz. can destroy the civil wdl. although they did —as by the word of the Lord they their civil government. p.] . Yea false spiritual wall may destroy their churches. CIL Peace. remains of head. 247 f^p^^'^ha °'^"' mitted. Their civil their New yet framed out of °""' churches. any more than a it can destroy the natural or artificial wall of earth or stone. concerns the hearing of the word. or Turks. may subsist. this • One branch more. •' We shall find lawful in civil states. that none but members of churches enjoy civil freedom amongst them. SHo'^ state. and it viz. Peace. 'where true God or Christ. stronger or and victorious . ought —permit either Jews. " Unto which. they that foUow Moses's church constitution.OF PERSECUTION DISCUSs'd. both before Many fiouiisliing civil Btatos and since Christ Jesus. artificial civil. must cease to pretend to the Lord Jesus Christ and his institutions. but spiritual cannot reach to but they fear the civil. and flourish.. if may . is a duty which even nature [See note before.' in imitation of that national church or state of the Jews." say they. ordinarily. If this have reference to that practice amongst them.. destroy spiritual. then I answer. Lastly. because it is made of the stones of Truth. the state and govern- ment of the Spiritual city and citizens. or anti. which the New English by such a practice implicitly do. Secondly. of the true which we find not any tidings English stand. 164.

" they quote the practice of the Ninevites hearing Jonah. or preacher. the command of the Lord Jesus to his messengers was only to depart from them.. which persons ought to express to what they are persuaded comes from God. false whom . '' own to be true. message. Matt. is a messenger or deceiver. which is the question.248 THE BLOUDY TENENT For this leadeth heathens to. but also persecute or hurt. the matter of compulsion to a constant worship eMminedf^' of the word in church estate. minister. or any of his ambassadors. all such as shall dare to profess a ministry or church estate differing from their own. Bcsidcs. Concerning ^°* Eglon's rising up: first. . and comes to deceive : my soul as millions of men and women in their several re- spective religions and consciences are so persuaded. I must deny that position : for light of nature leadeth men to hear that only it. and Eglon. comes not near Jonah's case. x. ^^^ ^™o either to hear or reverence. king of Moab's rising up to Ehud's pretended message from God. so . Judg. be imitable in Eglon a voluntary and willing reverence. which nature conceiveth to conscience persuades _ . who not only profess to turn away from. but if persons refused to hear. Ehud and compelled ihat can mess^ie. Egion-sris- Acts xiv. is all examined. SbousIIci iii. Jonah did not compcl the Ninevitcs to hear that message which he brought uuto them. shaking oflf the dust of their feet with a denuncia. though for personal godliness and excellency of gifts reverenced by themselves. con- ceiving their Jonah's preaching Ninevites hearing'of Sccondlv. tion of God's wrath against them. ^m^tera be good for prieXand ministers before au and therefore not to hear a messenger. Truth. But how do both these instances mightily convince and condemn themselves. Nor practise did Christ Jesus. As conccming the *-* instances.

settled formality of religion And what is this but a and worship. practice gospel. such as are converted and brought into church according to Ephes.nY. or practised by any of his. and to have kept one day in seven to the Christian's God. xxviii. and to have come to the Christian's church all their days. the D. Mark xvi. Lord Jesus to appoint a twofold ministry of his word. ySg Si °*' First.Si™™" it) to peUed the people still.OF PERSECUTION DISCUSS Thirdly. consolation. Secondly. I apply. edifi- exhortation. dispensed only in the churches of worshippers. tte"™Saye. to When Christ. Paul came first Corinth to preach Jesus by their rule the magistrates of Corinth ought all by the sword to have compelled the people of Corinth to hear Paul. A ministry of feeding and nourishing up estate. and to constitute churches. even those who had refused his doctrine (for the few only of the church embraced have heard the word still. 249 it To the point of compulsion : hath pleased m. is not to the hearing of that ministry sent forth to convert unbelievers. nor the church : '""jingrtei compelled to receive any yet if persons be compelled to to. 16. 19. After a church of Christ was gathered. first and the constant preaching of the of the apostles in the Secondly. iv.f°'*. by their rule. For unbelievers and their conversionj according to " Matt. ?o"cing forsake their religion which their hearts cleave and to . 15. the magistrates of Corinth ought to have Pani never com. &c. The compulsion preached and practised in New England. for such a ministry they practise not . Now to neither of these do we find any compulsion appointed by the Lord Jesus. but to the hearing of the word of cation. unto which a people are brought by the power of the sword ? And however they affirm that persons are not to be ^compelled to be The New members of churches.

and this all their ^"opiftheh reii^otau be not this people's religion. or *-' ^ ^ prayer. I ask. Jesus. or rather irreligious compulsion. at least every conscience in the world is shy of the priests and ministers of other gods and worships. add —From the ordinance of the Lord ii. to wit. who' dare not religion according as they are persuaded. to all their comall pel men to be of no religion days. to wit. and of holding spiritual fellowship in any of viz. will not inevitably follow. or feUowship. all their days ? i This toleration of religion. unto which submitting. Secondly. in which exercises the church The civil continued constantly —that it is apparent that a the civil civil state more law- Mly compel mav ' as lawfuUv compel J r men by J sword to the the consciences o\ breaking of bread. practice of any other religion ? it And be not then I ask. which is the case of many a soul. I. is above all tolerations monstrous. where the word joined with the exercise of their fellowship and breaking of bread. they shall be quiet all their days. and these worthy authors of pulsion of carries this model. to lay their hands upon their heart. unto which persons are compelled) and church worship. and contributions. Sch to worf'toan theBacraments. first. without Lastly. that they not only permit but enforce people to be of no religion at aU. or Lord's supper. to be of no religion their days live worse than the very Indians. prayers. For. fearful. they are all of the same nature. to the worship come of the word. as to the word. as they say. to their services . I desire men. supper . and practice of the apostles (Acts and prayer is 42). ordinances the in the chuTch (I spcak of the feeding ministry in church. without the whether this enforcing if this \ them to the so. as well as the itself. and to consider whether this com- men to hear the word. question the ministers themselves. all whether : it men. _ _ ^ days. £y)!1hey psalms.250 them not to any religion THE BLOUDY TENENT to chuTch.

contend with the people. and it lying chiefly in the . depending much upon erecting and maintenance of schools. cm. 10. 251 CHAP. freely and bountifully. why (as it is many thousands fly the ninth But I present you with What power officers ? the magistrate hath in providing of church say they. the maintenance of church-officers being to arise from all those who are ordinarily taught thereby. 2 Cor. the election of church officers being the proper act of the church. who do neglect and forsake the due maintenance of the church of God. chap. ix. and to command them of church to give such as portion for the maintenance officers. no power. vi. 7. to gather churches. and good education of youth. and may force people to hear them. According as Hezekiah commanded the people the portions appointed to give to the priests and Levites by the law. battles Dear Truth. question. therefore the magistrate hath " First. Whom Christ sends to preach by his supreme power. " Secondly. 4. xxxi. the gospel commandeth to be offered to them. 2 Chron. that they might be ericouraged in the law of the Lor'd. viz. this pressing is of men to the spiritual of Christ Jesus. the furnishing the church with set officers. the magistrate may send forth by his power subordinate. but not invest them with office amongst them. 5. Gal. the cause that so commonly with pressed soldiers) in the day of battle. to assume such power unto himself. Peace. hence it is the duty of the civil magistrate to xiii. as Nehemiah did. either as prince or patron. " Thirdly. 11. 6. 6.OF PERSECUTION DISCUSS'd.

to be brought on the day of election to the treasury of the college. once in a year. In the choice of officers. but mediate. Sthei-7b" no""of°' Kom. take care for governors and tutors see it : and commend all it to all the churches. We know the commission of messengers to go into all the Lord Jesus to his first nations to preach and gather churches. from the church. according to Matt.252 THE BLOUDY TENENT to provide for hand of the magistrate thereof. according to the course of scripture. that in the churches within the jurisdiction.. viz. the sabbath before the general court of election. no . if they hold a sending forth to preach by Christ's xxviii. In the firat First. gathering and : espousing the church to Christ and therefore their own that there is tenent must needs be too light. is But Mr. church X. Mark xvi. they the furthering may therefore and should so far provide for fit the churches as to erect schools. when the' : but is to be constituted out of the nations this preaching and peoples now converted by work. and if it may be. there be a free-will offering of all people for the maintenance of such schools : and the monies of every town so given. and how they agree with the magistrate in this Let us secondly business. ronvertin Supreme power. and they were immediately sent forth by him. and the monies to be disposed thereof. if they meet. that there now extant no immediate ministry from Christ.. holdeth. Cotton elsewhere that is. it is apparent that a ministry before the church. first see how they agree with themselves. is they must necessarily grant a time not." by such who are so chosen for the disposing Truth. and their there is whence.. it is very obscure what they mean by this supreme power of Christ Jesus sending to preach. the nature of the own grant in this place.

or three. it is You know. Peace. themselves : or if it be said. may join themselves together. yet most true.. """^ Z7a. Two things must here be cleared. We find it when the Thessalonians turned to God from Thess. make officers. i. the scrippatterns tures let one instance be produced in the practice. did gather and constitute themselves a church of Sfgand™"' Christ. their idols. without a ministry sent call from God to invite and themtelifeB them by the word. &c. this people unto Jesus Christ. Matt. sent from God to the souls of men. how. most sweet. pleased God to biing a in mouth of Paul. two or three become a church ? and how the power of Christ is conveyed unto them? who espoused 2. and gather new churches.^o pre- cedent of f^^lh'y gJl! tution and pattern. that ever any such two.1 9. to serve the living and true God. I answer. send them forth to preach. Kom. Blessed Truth. and to receive them unto fellow. Truth. first and practices of such a It hath been generally confessed. dear Truth. is harsh and deep. their ground. that there is no coming to the marriage-feast without a messenger inviting. If : it be said. the church at Corinth was espoused by Paul ? 2 Cor. and therefore may congregate themselves. 253 from the but that which is mediate Peace. Luke xiv. to baptize. to convert.OF PERSECUTION DISCUSs'd. this doctrine of a ministry before the church. xxii. .'""" "'=»Benger sent ship with God upon the receiving of that word and ^'^{^ f^" message. ministry church. Truth. that Yet you know persons two or three godly become a church. . And therefore it may very well be queried. we find not in the first insti.. X. as xi. or more. without such a ministry. first. word of power unto them by the the same place. now a common plea^ that God's people are converted already.

who wrought for this conversion. if it God in Christ. and salvation of as there his people. Cotton himself elsewhere acknowledgeth. consolation. there them ? Or are i two ways appomted by the Lord Jesus. It is true. converted from anti-christian idols. to the true worship of God in the true church estate and ordinances. even in to his ordinance Babel mystical. God hath done great things to the personal conversion. and So even in the wildermost popish and popish ness ' God xii. mieht have ten thousand teachers. Eev. and by most' false (now in this lightsome age confessed so to be). estate without such a ministry sent unto . . so also such a calling and converting of God's : people from anti-christian idols to the Christian worship and therefore such a ministry. even in the times and places. will it not follow that in all other countries of the world God's elect Thetrae miJistiy''^ must or may be so con- vcrtcd from their several respective false worships and idolatries.254 Professed public con- THE BLOUDY TENENT doth their conTersion amount to external turning Thess. according to pattern. provideth for the sustentation of the woman. callings yea. Secondly. and brought into the true Christian church i i that com. love ? in°peraonai° &c.. Sto't"tie faith. God sendeth many preachers in the way of his providence.. who begot thcsB children? though the Corinthians "-^ but from"' false worship also. A true But seems yet to be desired such constitution ministry necessary before con- q£ ^hc Christian church. one for this country. Matt. and another for the rest of the world ? Or lastly. beside their internal repentance. ^ iroSy' from idols.xxviii. as the for : . yet Paul had begotten " o j_ them by the word. 1 9. First. as Mr. sent from Christ Jesus to the first renew and restore the worship and ordinances of Lastly. though not according institution. that God's people in this country may be called. first mstitution and pattern '- thSiforete* calls ctaroh!in pattern. should be granted that without a ministry sent firom Christ to gather churches. by which provision.'«.mission. i.

xxviii. there can be no true ministry. without a true make a church and first ministry of Christ Jesus this that commission. enforcing the people to hear. CIV. and yet. &c. Matt. without a ministryj become a church. whether those two or three. to gather churches ? —I ask. now wait to hear. 19. xxviii. or more. as they say. viz. how. sent unto themselves ? all Is which first. I ask. as they say. supreme power. You have taken great pains to show the irrecon- cilableness of those their is two assertions. in the hands of two or three private persons becoming a church.. and a ministry sent forth by the magistrate's subordinate is power.OF PERSECUTION DISCUSS if D. what the difference between these two Is there any gather- ing of churches but by that commission. make ministers. but what is mediate from Jesus sends the church. Christ preachers forth by his supreme power to gather the church. there now no ministry. secondly. and the magistrate by his power subordinate to gather churches ? CHAP. oi'. "the may send forth by his power subordinate I churches. First." &c. say they. ministers pretend unto. Peace. gathering of Qhurches. Matt. which they speak persons to sending forth two or three private ministers. Teach and baptize ? And is the civil magistrate entrusted . 255 shall arise up. without a mediate call from which church. two or three more. &c. magistrate to gather Truth.. must not be accounted immediately and extraordinarily stirred up by God ? and whether this be that supreme power of Christ Jesus. and yet also confess that Christ sendeth forth to preach by his supreme power. If there be a ministry sent forth by Christ's xhe civu noTbetmlt.

by this means.. vi.. since in every more To""" people of the world. as they allege ^""^^y gure of ^™^ ™°'^® fil'his appear to be a type and figure of Christ Jesus. and baptize themselves ? How inevitably this follows upon their conclusion of power in magistrates to send.256 THE BLOUDY TENENT with a power from Christ. whether or no. be pleased. Peace. providing for the feeding of bis church and people by his true Christian priests and Levites. the ministry which in the gospel he hath appointed. from whom the magistrates receive their i°g such a delegation or assignment of such power of (2. all consider in the fear of God.. force out the minister's maintenance from all that are taught Israel by them. and the argument from Cor. CHAP. 'JO' It not. lands. Jchoshaphat's Sending forth the Levites to teach in Judah. 6. and send out ministers to themselves.gt to the civil magistrate : free state civil magistrates have no power but what the peoples of those states. _^g there is nothing in the o Testament of Christ concernso I also ask. &c. let jehoshaphat xvii. dear Truth. the only king of his church.. and countries betrust with. as bis deputy. to speak to the second branch of this head viz. and so to send out ministers to preach and baptize If the ? ma' gistrate. the maintenance of it. "We have examined the ministry. &c. Gal.ijj. to preach. and what unchristian and unreasonable consequences must flow from hence. them power. convert..)afl. They affirm that the magis- trate may . to give this commission. so elsewhere it shall S"th?'ci"vn taThe'etate. CV. . viz. and that 1 after the pattern of ix. it must not follow. that Christ Jesus hath left with the peoples and nations of the world his spiritual kingly power to grant commissions..

reasonable to expect and civil demand of such It is as live within the state a maintenance of their denied. Now for those sorts of persons to whom Jews Christ Jesus or Gentiles. civil officers. and souls in and from him. but concerning God: nor by spiritual power. But this forcing intended and practised to all sorts of persons. I the mamte- answer. Tit. This theme. unconverted. least of exacted. viz. indeed the apple of the eye. as well those that live and. 1 Cor. believers ^ ^ o r entered into the school and family of Christ. natural and dead in as sin. tittle we never find all to ™ oonverte ueving. . both more common and frequent than easily is discernible.OF PERSECUTION DISCUSS'd. Let him that is taught in GaL tK : 6. hearers. vested with the power of the therein is also rightly in- Lord Jesus. 7. It is v.. to force every soul its by spiritual weapons and penalties to do of the magistrate is duty. from it is be forced and them. vi. ^ according to the parable of Matt. word make him that teacheth '^ partaker of all his goods •' "^ . i. chriat jesna sends his word out of church estate. 6. and the wages of Balaam. and thorny ground hearers. nance of the mmistiy. the church . which church being rightly gathered. highway stony ground.examined.] S . for no power they payment or business. of any maintenance to be expected. will readily profess to abhor filthy lucre. and to force it where it is reasonable for a schoolmaster to demand his recompence for his labour in ' \p%ana. no civil By matter of Csesar. enjoy the benefits of spiritual food. Truth.i] &c. the Diana of the [Ephesians. in the original copy. never appointed a maintemtailtera xiii. Gal. civil cannot be forced. To the that scripture. feeding. 257 concerning the maintenance of is the priests and ministers of worship. without as well as within the church. which hath nothing to do with those which are without. that teaching was of persons converted. yet all that love Christ Jesus in sincerity.

viz. Calvin in loc. but not from strangers. that is men most true that the sin goes in a link *^ : for that pei"men°aiTo' aE men of the world may be compelled to thek heSiOTsion. say the New English. torn. or else is would not be received into the What the church of Christ Jesus. kisses. Prov. and to maintain the unity of the . family. to prove that godly princes edicts to may lawfully issue re- are useful to subdue the obstinacy of those who wUl not until compelled compel obstinate and obey. They that compel Peoce. ii. for their conversion. bellious persons to worship the true Tholuck. and family of Christ ? the oflScers of this city. such was the persuasion used to Joseph by his mistress such was the persuasions of Tamar from Ammon . moral and persuasive. vii. come Compel them to mass. it from strangers. Augus- tary thing.258 his school . JomVuision. &c. may reasonably expect maintenance from such they minister unto. Compel them papists . all these compulsions they disagree amongst this. 23. but the city. 43. themselves but in Compel them to pay.. and enjoy the labours of the teacher as well as the church itself. such was the compelhng First. the school. Truth. enemies." edit. Luke xiv. for although faith a volun- frequently made of it by St. viz. she caught him by her much ' speech and And we thus is is the [« I do not diaapprove of the use faith . enemies.. yet see that such means tme against the Donatists."""" ^^^^ Christ preached. first : of the young man by the fair harlot. which both error and false- hood use Moral and to the souls of men. THE BLOUDY TENENT but it is not reasonable to expect or force city. school. forceth on another also as evil..] God. that they should also be compelled to pay. rebels to that from such as come not school. compel them to the meeting.'^ In . within. as» being most equal and reasonable to pay ampaLr^ examined. It t^neut. say the protestants .' ^^®'"® ^^ ^ AoxMb violence. say the compel them to church and common prayer. in this they aU agree. Some use to to urge that text of in.

The first sort of these violences. Prov. a sword with two edges. and pull some out spwt with* saith Jude . 42. and mystimark. by powerful -^ argument and persuasion. saith Paul. men to be Naturaimen tmiy wor" maintain it. viz."?"'" use. and by any spiritual ordinance. the powerful persuasions of the word. also. to wit. But more kingdom are particularly. his fiery furnace. xiii.) and joined with prayer and the Lord's supper. Hence. to satisfy his brutish lust and such was Nebuchadnezzar's iii. of the fire. Dan. Acts ii. so are the consaints.. and to edified be nourished. the ministers of the gospel also •^ The ministeraofChrist '"J"^. of the Lord. bread and wine in the supper. 2 Cor. second compulsion. ix. 8 2 no more than a dead . [18. (as water in baptism. being that two-edgefl sword coming out of the mouth of Christ Jesus in his true ministers. sacrifices. such as to Joseph's civu com'' upon Joseph. capable of God's worship. is though consisting of mS?^"^* material earthly substance. the all contributions of Christ's j^^ mainte^^'^ "* holy and spiritual.] Hence. 259 whole world compelled to the worship of the golden image. cal Nebuchadnezzar's killing all that receive not his Rev. sent forth to invite poor sinners to partake of the feast of the civil ministers Lamb of God. attain her whorish desires : such as . knowing the terror mouth. 23. Dan. and mutual supplies of the Phil. iii. Ammon practised on Tamar. . Hence all those powerful persuasions of wisdom's tia^^haCof maidens.\hB v. Hence tributions as prayer is called God's sacrifice. such must that compulsion be^ Luke xiv. we persuade men. iv. sent The upon / of the commonweal cannot be civil this business with their weapons and compulsions. sword of Christ's mouth. as it is impossible for natural feed. . The second compulsion mistress began to practise is civil . with his spiritual but the spiritual minister of the gospel.OF PERSECUTION DISCUSs'd.

and such preachers and preaching such as pretend to be the true ministry of Christ ought to be and practise to : not forcing them all their days come to church and pay is their duties. preached the word of the Lord to unbelievers without mingling in worship with them. nature. &c. and yield willing subcity. and practised.260 THE BLOUDY TENENT dead child can suck the breast. men may for the outward act . They The will what is to be done for their Truth. by forcing them to keep the city •^ watches. they worshippers suitable to him who a Spirit. treacherously is the first with such powerfully to subdue their judgments and wiUs. as for a ' dead I question not but natural pray. all may be work upon compulsion. or the maintenance of Peace. say. to contribute I mean according to scripture's rule. but is neither are iv. man to pay a reckoning. souls ? it. either so con- fessing that this their religion unto which they are forced . Rebels not subdued by buTresisr' ""'^' The wav to silbdue rebels is not by correspondence and j r communiou with them. preach. without a guilt of their hypocrisy. yet lodged in the grave of spiritually. they are forced to be of no religion all their days. whom we profess to imitate. least of all. contribute. then down their weapons. which . John 24 nor can they. as before. to lay jection. or else that. pay assessments. . come they orderly into the and so to city privileges. apostles. be forced to worship. so also is as impossible for a dead man. or a it man feast . &c..

Therefore the compulsion used under Hezekiah and ^^ ^i^j. the promised continuation and increase of afford a large temporal supply to their priests and Levites. even to the tenth of all they did possess.OF PERSECUTION DISCUSS'd. brought into a spiritual land of Canaan. 1 1 i> 1 the jewa. in the gospel. God gave unto that national church of the The national church of the Jews that excellent land of Canaan.] which is ^^^. dear Truth. fields. God's people are now. [12. ° that tvDical state) not of another material and corporal. from Old Testament. they might well. vii. He that submits not at . . was by the civil and corporal sword. though in a poor and persecuted condition is therefore an enforced settled maintenance to the gospel. olive-yards. ^'g"™* wells. Heb. CVI. Heb. 261 CHAP. [12. and it. Nehemiah. gardens. . "^nce of but'nofso''' tian church. flowing with spiritual milk and honey. Neh. the to discuss the xiii. Please scriptures you now. in this settled abundance. "Olid not type out a with wHch Christ fighteth. Eev. entering in between the soul and spirit. as it not suitable was to the ministry of priests and Levites in the law. the civil spiritual sword sword of the ministry should alone compel. .1^^^ SSchf''' exceeding sharp.] and bringing every thought into captivity to the obedience of Christ Jesus. iv. orchards. Secondly.. even the sword ot the ii. and they abound with spiritual and heavenly comforts. xxxi. [12. &c. . a type (in nltlona/' 3. in the change of the church estate.] Nor did the Lord Jesus appoint but that the that in his church. vineyards. and therein houses Jows '" might well furnished. Truth. and for the maintenance of of the magistrate . his ministry. there was also a change of the priesthood and of the law. and 2 Chron. but of a heavenly and Spirit. spiritual. Peace.

' for not if ^ paying him his wages or his due I ask. but to a Jewish maintenance Peace. 31. he laboureth or ministereth. state: worthy of state : no more than the minister of the civU state is his hire from the church. desfiseth this sword. and force not only to maintenance. C. Yes. why may men ? they not determine the tenth and more. say they. the voluntary own"con-'* conscnt of the party hath not obliged him. Lastly. say they. provided that not only members of churches. the if whose duty it was held to be to see that the ministry be duly provided for. but. not from the civil the'mtSt hire them. shall man professing to be a minister bring men before the magistrate. how can either the officers of the parish. more or less. ^eed upon at Cambridge in it is New England in 1648. whom them that hire him. church. all cut off by it . ii. or of the civil state. 301. is not the labourer worthy of his hire ? chriat'8 Truth. Neal's Hist. ^^*^ been. from to labourers worthy of their mre. to maintain such a worship or ministry? the determining what I ask further.1 the ministry: the deacons faUed to . or by his purse a maintaiaer of God's worship. if each man's due to pay. Mather's Magnalia. of maintenance of New England. shall contribute to book v. if any No man Jesus. ' [In the Platform of Church Dis- recourse was then to be had cipline. and he that the power in the world cannot make him a true worshipper. p. both in Old and : New England. as some desired (others opposing) in New England. to the magistrate. Peace. Yea . as of Christ the prac- ^^°^ wor8hi'°nor "orawp" sent. shall the ministry of the gospel have ? tTnance"'''"'" ^'"M^^- ^6 find two ways of maintenance for the minisobtain it. from the church. compel this or that man is to pay so much. What maintenance. p. but hearers of the word also.262 THE BLOUDY TENENT is the shaking of this sword. but from the civil in which I grant the persons in the church ought to be assistant in their civil respects.

and follow the Lord Jesus. to us than our right eye or such as will foUow Paul. One and the last branch.. pretending that he shamed to beg. and willing contribution of the *°°''° First. . but peremptorily dig he could not.. CVIL Peace. 2. remains concerning schools. churches. as Paul cases 1. lived.-. is ^'^^^ of said) for scholars in a monastical way. must not think much ties. "The schools. cold. &c. the and the schools upon the magistrates. and falls to work amongst the for if persecu- Corinthians and Thessalonians. j. xvi. 3.. .. Secondly. As when Paul saw it would more advantage the name of Christ. upon which both the Lord Jesus. dear Truth. and his ministers hands. nakedness. but rejoice in. and the business or work of Christ must be dearer lives. The stewards of Christ Jesus must be like their Lord. the diligent work and labour of their tells own the Thessalonians." of Europe s Truth.. Let none call these cases extraordinary : tion be the portion of Christ's sheep. Or for the greater advantage of Christ's truth.. necessi- hunger. according to 1 Cor. he denies himself. univerBities persons (as of Europe a .• devotmg but the . forbidding marriage.OF PERSECUTION DISCUSs'd. ^^^. Luke -viii. &c. and that in two Either in the inabilities and necessities of the church. ^ ES. at. CHAP. the free saints." say they. I honour schools for tongues and arts institution universities. and abhor to steal as the evil steward. try of the gospel proposed for our direction in the 263 New ^""itoted"" Testament. "much depend upon . poverties.

but have not those fountains to the prince's eye ever sent what streams the times have liked? and ever changed their palate ? taste and colour and For any depending of the church of Christ upon such schools. •' Sh the" tongues? knows but that it may please the Lord again to ° ^ _ clothe his people with a spirit of zeal and courage for the _ Who name of Christ. and also for the propagating of the name of Who knows but God ma. but the particular Jesus. scho- Peace. ^ ' J ' ix. Christ's I find the church of Christ frequently compared to a . 3°' and >d G from propagating his name and worship. 1 Cor. or scholar. to wit. I know no schools of prophets in the New Christ Testament. shall as Dorcas. -^yomcn also. yea. . . piety We count the universities the or seed-plots of all . the seminaries. Acts 36. There was a certain disciple. Some will object. how the scriptures be brought to light from out of popish darkness.264 honourable fort THE BLOUDY TENENT too. • chnrchhis school and scholars. gciiool. to call Grod's people. xiv. all believers All bclievers are his disciples or scholars. called Dorcas. serving so admirably both for the understanding of the original scriptures. . especially lars? women. I find not a tittle in the Testament of Christ Jesus. .. yea. Have not the universities sacrilegiously stolen this Is not blessed name of Christ's scholars from his people ? the very scripture language itself become absurd. congregation of And I question whether any thing but sin stopped and dried up the current of the Spirit in those rare gifts of tongues to God's sons and daughters. except these schools of prophets convey them to us ? Truth. Christ. . . and pour forth those fiery streams again of tongues and prophecy in the restoration of Zion ? . I hold as far ^^^ labouT as it is from the mind of Jesus Christ fountains.

as also of several especially of Moses's rituals.OF PERSECUTION DISCUSS If it D. God's people have many ways. was the author of a very learned commentary hath not been unuseful to the church in his exposition of the Pentateuch.. magistrates' concerning the power in matters of doctrine. Peace. and yet CHAP." Truth. to have power of making new articles of faith. "That which is unjustly ascribed to the pope. on the Pentateuch and Canticles.] . or rules of life. or of pressing upon the churches to give such public honour to the apocrypha writings. Cotton." Way other minor works. of Cong. 265 be not his holy pleasure so to do. "dili- Two Treatises. as to read them to the people in the room of the oracles of God.. to attain to an excellent measure of the knowledge of those tongues. Stuart's edit. his peer a thousand academians for the scripture originals.* had scarce he scarce set foot within a college-walls. 6S. of his 6. Yet two things here I shall propose to consideration : * [Mr. I shall viz. p. or homilies of men. viz. This position. "He was. simply considered. now present you with their tenth head. but that hisJ™8J™j^ for/o' °ctra*°" people with daily study and labour must dig to come at the original fountains. eminent of the Brownists. both against the pope. Churches. p." says Mr. while living. CVIII. I acknowledge a most holy truth of God. is as unjustly ascribed to the magistrates. and the civil magistrates' challenge. besides " the university. the most gently studious of the Hebrew text. That most despised and now much amongst '^'vf'"'- honoured Mr. lazy and monkish. both pretending to be the vicars of Christ Jesus upon the earth. Ainsworth. Henry Ainsworth.

if the homilies of England contain not in Secondly. upon his judgment must the people rest. Ridley. at least . -. to all false./ i i • ' JS'tore-*" fathers. when she performs or not performs or when she exceeds. men i in matters of God's worship. set up the true worship. and homilies. establishing : poprt" Eighth and his successors in the pope's Eifguid. since the the"M^hth^ the THE BLOUDY TENENT parKament of England thrust the pope out of his chair in England. or when they exceed And if own eye. holiness. though assembled in a national or general council Then also. the magistrate must judge. by excellent men for learning.. and therefore consequently they must judge and determine what the true is.. or else it must be confessed that he hath no such power left him by Christ to compel the souls of Apocrypha. concerning the apocrypha writings and homi- urgcd by the magistrate to be read unto the o o . by these authors' officers. Latimer. many of them. Edward VI. .1bc lies to matter? Secondly. the church and is must' of ° members do . then head of the church of England ?* 5 [The composition of the book of Homilies is generally first buted to Cranmer. were they not authorized by that most rare and pious prince. Hopkins. and Becon. spiritual"! principles.266 First. he must therefore judge what . attri- Jewel is said . them supreme governors of the church of England since such an absolute government is given by all men to them to be guardians of the first table and worship of God. if them much precious and heavenly they were not penned. Commonprayer. to see the church. then certainly by his and not by the eyes of : others. and it. to suppress and that by the power of the sword. so likewise when it : the ministers ! perform their duty. and set down King Henry the room. their duty.. as upon the mind and judgment of Christ. and what the false itthemagis: And siucc the magistrate is bound. and witness of Christ's truth incomparable? Thirdly. people as the oracles of God: I ask. ia.&ia\Ii^ritual cauees ais"j the church's duty.

what bloody conclusions are presented to the world. zealous for his glorious reformation. 427. i. and if so. Whitgift. and as an obstinate person sinning against the light of his this case own shall the consciences of the subject do. i. and so falling into the consure sideration of a false and counterfeit scripture. according ciples. although Archbishop Parker speaks of them as "revised and finished. what privilege have those worthy servants ofKefoma- God. yea. either in Old or Edward's time did New tions are England. of-^''*^'- I demand of these worthy men. being by his clergy of his lieutenantship received from Christ ? Again. 1 first book appeared in the in July. 239. behold their children after them sharply centhem for apocrypha writings.OF PERSECUTION DISCUSs'd. 267 With what great eolemnity and rejoicing were they re- ceived of thousands Yet now. Neal. awed by the dread of constantly persuaded the Most High? What shall the magistrate do. Strype's Edward VI. second. the mistakes into which those glorious worthies in fall ? King Biooay conclusions. ajid other bishops. conscience ? man In shall now prove what a heretic. then lawfully have refused to read or hear false scripture ? if so. The use of the S90. persuading men to pluck by the to have roots from the land of the living. and homilies thrust into the room of the word of God. whether he ought to have spared him because this after the admonitions of such pious and learned men. with a second part. or to" else have persecuted him. the authors' prin. whether King Edward might have law- fully compelled such a man to yield and submit. Church of England. to be exempted from Miibie. p.] Apocrypha church service was . whether a servant God might such a Secondly. by him The apocryphal hooks were commanded to he bound up with the other books of scripture by Archbishop Whitgift." The first edition of of the 1S47. Short's Hist. all such as up seem in their eyes heretical or obstinate had the largest share in the an early complaint of the Puritans.

xiii. 1 Tim. hath been the cause of anti-christian . Acts xviii. cried up. Ezra 23. forwardness this way is a duty not only for kings in the Old Testament. and in Gallic who cared not for such things. Neither did the kings of Israel reform things amiss as types of Christ. " to reform things in the worship of God in a church corrupted. 2 . 17. the reigning of idolatry and corruption in religion is 5. who shall " For first. 23. comwell mendable in a Persian king. CIX. xlix." say they. Christians. defending the same by the power of the sword agaiast aU those to corrupt it. they have power. and to attempt establish the pure worship of God. the magistrates' power in worship ? " First. Judges xra. but for princes under the New. to the clergy. Eom.268 The bloudy tenent CHAP. religion is a fault " Secondly. remissness in reforming imputed to them who suffered the high places in Israel. 6. yet as an English flag in a Spanish bottom. " Thirdly. but dangerous treachery and abuse both of truth which concerns and peace Eleventh -yy'g ^^^ ^^^ comc to the eleventh head. and so exemplary to is it is all And here reformation in religion vii. And known that remissness in princes of Christendom in mat- ters of religion and worship. what dark and dismal bloody paths do we walk in ? How is thy name and mine in all ages Peace. upon the church's head. imputed to the want of a king. Esay. Dear Truth. 4 . but as civil magistrates. not in truth. devolving the care thereof and so setting the horns thereof only. ii.

as hath been said before.] . using them without opinion of sanctity. Together pp. whether new or popish or others. yet is not governor of the actions of the mariners. and corruptions. as it is with a prince in a ship. so abused by man. kneeling at sacrament. under colour of uniformity of wor- ship. is acts of worship in the " It with a magistrate in a state in respect of the acts of those who worship in a church. 1637. 269 mventions. what colour soever of indifFerency. they have not power to govern and rule the church of God. " Secondly. usurpations. holy days. though he be governor of their persons. Published 16'43. 90. * [A Letter of many MinisteiB in with their answer thereto returned. ^ " Thirdly. &c. else he should not be their prince. they have not power to press upon the churches stinted prayers. cross. 1639. salt and spittle in baptism. " Fourthly. then he should be pilot : indeed if the pilot shall manifestly err in his action. wherein. the receiving of way some making the conscience bow to the burden of all. public peace. Merforials. in the worship and temple of God. under civility. conceiving our arguments sent to our brethren in England concerning this question to evince this truth. it. liturgies. New tions: England concerning nine written a.d. they have churches. Old England requesting the judg- anno of ii. or obedience to righteous authority. ment of their reverend brethren in posi- 4to. pp. the imposing of some ever making for the urging of more. or set old.OF PERSECUTION DISCUSS'd. 18— 39. neither no power to press upon the by law. whether more or less popish or Jewish rite. or moral goodness of them both for matter and form. any sacred significant ceremonies. as surplice. be it never so little in the worship of God. they having been so accursed of God. or any other device of man. see For a condensed view Hanbury's Hist. nor by proclamation and command.

this positive part of his duty. Secondly. Mather's Magnalia. the head of for. may he may : or in due time and place passenger can do . are pro- For the proof of pounded three First. is What he lars : ought to do comprised in these particu- First."'' Truth. Esay.book v. 6. as to prescribe so to rule the actions of his own worship in The government no civil officer the ways of his servants. He He ought to establish a pure worship of it by the sword he ought by the sword. ought to defend to restrain idolatry as former passages have opened.270 he if THE BLOUDY TENENT reprove hinij and so any other passenger life may he offend against the and 'goods of any. many years the ruling principles of ' [Sentiments precisely similar to the above were embodied in the the congregational chui-ches of New seventeenth chapter of the Cambridge England. In this general head are proposed two things. is He ought to reform the worship of God when it corrupted. p. or in what manner they shall worship lest God. From the practice of the kings of Israel and Judah. See C. : God. First. hereby they shall advance themselves above Christ. and continued to be for . sorts of scriptures. which no other proper to Christ. Thirdly. which ought to attempt. upon his shoulder. either to what he preach or pray. and limit his Spirit. of the church is ix. civilly punish him. What he may do in the worship of God. Some from the New Testament. 7. Secondly. con- cerning the worship of God. Secondly. 37. what the magistrate ouffht to do positively.] . it is the church. and to cut off offenders. Platform. And therefore magis- trates shall have no power to limit a minister.

as they believed their own also did. Artaxerxes— they did not worship nor know. nor meant Tie argument from JoniM and I conceive I have sufficiently before proved. However I have often touched those scriptures produced from the practice of the kings of Israel and Judah. that the of Israel a . did only permit. Concerning '^ this latter. and tolerate. I shall. 271 From the practice of kings of other nations.] The precedent of the kings and govemoi-s of J^'I^J*'"* ^'"""'"='*- Lastly. In which as I shall evidently prove. because so great a weight of this controversy lies upon this precedent of the Old Testament. and countenance the Jewish worship. declare and demonstrate weak and brittle this supposed pillar of marble is. ™'° ° idolatrous princes making such acts concerning the God of Israel. whom so to do. yet. *'" Secondly. to challenge or assume the power of ruling or governing the church of Christ. Darius. as I believe. obeying or disobeying. with the help of Christ King of Israel. So also that prophecy of Isa. and of wearing the nors after his spiritual crown of the Lord. For those of the New Testament I have. Thirdly. which he his officers alone weareth in a spiritual way by and gover- own holy appointment. that these wn^™. accordingly commended or reproved. in which respect all the kings of the world may be easily brought to the like but [they] are no precedent or pattern for all princes . [23. to how bear up and sustain such a mighty burden and weight of Jesus. to bring wrath upon them and their kingdoms. First. xlix. fully an^ sufficiently answered. the true so many high concernments as are laid upon state it. as well as own gods. Unto which I answer. Cyrus. the ' Babylonian and Per•/ sian kings —Nebuchadnezzar. and civil magistrates in the world. from the duties of this nature enjoined to those kings and governors and their practices. and out of strong convictions that this their God of Israel was able to do them good.OF PERSECUTION DISCUSS'd.

with more delight pass on these rough ways. before you descend to particulars.. only to be Israel. precedents ^ Methinks those Cyrus. much imitated. dear Truth.. who hath so long preserved us in this our retired confer- ence without interruptions. was merely trei(S?™* and typing out the Christian churches consisting of both Jews and Gentiles. so far figurative. the God still of peace. sweet Peace. i-t t* . New England's tenent and theS to™ anra'oTthe doctrine of persecation. His mercy shields us while you express and I listen to that so yet most inimitable state of Israel. all CHAP. reforming. Truth. rituafmat- spiritual. » and agitnst'Juch Artaxerxes. are strong against practice. matched and paralleled by the Christian church or I shaU select some main and principal considerations con- .. from your kind acceptance and un- wearied patience in attention. as it attended made up of upon the spiritual and civil power. which religion was most eminently contrary to their own religion and their country's worship. Peace./ Darius.272 urad'rei'at'-' THE BLOUDY TENENT national state. correcting. Blessed be the God of truth. just make now mentioned. I shall. enjoying the true power of the Lord Jesus. concerning of the Persian kings. of that instance. ^ . and bouutiful encouragcmeut to the consciences of the . defending in cases concerning the kingdom and government. let me The Persian kings cast one mite into your great treasury. establishing. Those princes professedly gave free permission Jews to usc and practisc their religion. In this discovery of that vast and mighty difference be- tween that state of Israel and all other states.. ex. Yet.

xx. First. I shall consider the very land and country o it Canaan itself. XltXt earth. But now there is no respect of of places. it in every nation. [21. Deut. he is tliatfear- God and X. accepted with him. First. ' and chosen by the Lord. This land was espied r out. So testified the Christ himself to the woman of Samaria. and present some considerations proving to be a non-such. which was performed by the impartial hand of the children of without any sparing or showing mercy. seven great vii. Deut. The former inhabitants thereof. But so now it hath not ' pleased the Lord to devote ^ ^ ite inhabitants of j^^^*''"^^ any people to present destruction. not so now. worketh righteousness. P'^oVa^h. Ezek. national state of the church of the While that Jews remained. 35. to be the ''IJ?'"' out of all the countries of the world. to be the seat of his ^ 6. tbat the Israelites Vll. . not the whole land or country as eth was with Canaan. . 2. . and mighty nations. men. . Secondly.] professing that neither at that mountain. Where have emperors. 1. orSfewiesta- countries with the Lord. struction were all devoted to deto by the Lord's own mouth. 273 cerning that state. John iv. J ' ite land of Canaan cho!™. city after city. commanding * his people to kill and slay without covenant or compassion. But now. . cxxii. be Israel. the tribes were bound to go up to Jerusalem to worship. g. &c. wherein the irreconcilable differences and disproportion may appear. kings. to carry tidings of mercy. Acts This then appeared in that large commission first of the Lord Jesus to his ministers : Go into all nations. . Ps. and not only into Canaan.OF PERSECUTION DISCUSs'd. should men worship the Father. church and people. or generals an immediate their pM-°^ sessions ~ call from God to destroy whole cities. nor at Jerusalem. . Lord Jesus tions alike.

vii. like Noah. &c. CXI. that gold. abominable things. curse. habitations. 26. old women. silver : ployed and used. Matt. as they and draw us from God in Christ. Deut. were odious and abominable. present and future sentence. 1 Cor. against the most plausible and pleasing enticlngs. them- selves also become a and like unto those cursed. and possessions. that they might not desire '^^> b?abhlm°d ^°^ *^® ^* ^^ themselves. are to be abomi- nated and hated by us. the gold and silver of the idols of this land. fellow heirs with Christ Jesus.] They mystically. slay the ungodly and become heirs. but that. as Joshua practised? them- x. children yea. Eom. the silver and gold may be Yet allure cast and coined. v. This only is true in a spiritual antitype. house. Whereas we find not any such accursed nature in the materials of idols or images now . 17. viii. [5. life itself. God's meek people iii- herit the earth. 2. without which hatred and indignation. The very materials. vi. land yea.. CHAP. the two-edged sword of God's Spirit. xi. Heb. when God's people by the sword. wives. and dan25. 7. both by vi. and other materials lawfully emfind in the antitype. this we : : yea. Josh. and young. lest canaan'a gerous to the pcoplc of Isracl. yea. condemn the whole unbelieving world. that they This did and selves might succeed them in their cities. ^ Israel to these seven nations. .274 THE BLOUDY TENENT children. The very gold and Thirdly. the idolatrous forms being changed.

[22. Tit. London and Constantinople ? This land. Tim.] meats and drinks are sanctified. The Lord ix. 1 iv. what difference between Asia and Africa. [25 Heb. but spiritual. Bmanuera land : so no was called Emanuel's land. JJ'^^^ ™^«°'™i»"y 12. xii. Lev. iv. a term proper unto f°^l^'" spiritual Canaan. 3. the pure. &c. or Christian land. is. is. garden. was a holy land. and the unbelieving husband. and their children. spiritual ^ land of Canaan. Zech. shall be written upon the very holiness. This land. [15. to under'the''* fnthe'typea law.. house. that dedicated to the holy use of the thankful believers. it is impossible for any man to be a Luke xiv. between Europe and America. Ceremonially and typically holy. Isa. is not material and Gal. fields. 5 . as all are dedicated to the service of Christ Jesus in the gospel's peace and Fifthly. Yet in the . the church of God. 8. field. this earth. bridles of the horses.. gardens. that viii. ii. and in re- spect of the Lord's special propriety to one country more than another. wife. land. Christ's'™* °' ^ countiy . houses. are sanctified and made holy to believers. between England and Turkey. ' God with is . which must needs be in respect of his choice of that land to be the seat and residence of his church and ordinances. in Christian oreater holiness in chiirch. Jerusalem from above earthly. Hos. one above another. 23 . The land of XXV. true Cbristian. the ' pure. &c. 275 from Cheist Jesus. Jehovah's land. insomuch that that golden inscription. expressly calls it his own land. yea. Zlt^^^ But now. peculiar to the foreto head of the high priest. But now the partition-wall is broken down. i. "' Fourthly. which holiness the world knows not now in one land or country. 26.] us.] Material Jerusalem no more the Lord's T 2 city than Jeri- . all things are made holy and all lands.. orchards. Holiness Jehovah.OF PERSECUTION DISCUSs'd. among many other glorious *-' titles given to ° it.

in respect of place or country for even at 1 Babel literal. makcs this land to extend to Asia. phlmOTs chrf'tened'* -^^^ Hundius. there is a spiritual soul-rest or sabbath. &c. in his map of all the Christian world. but to eat that which itself or grew of fields. a great part of ian world. own accord. false Christians. and a vast part of America. Christians. Lev. gracious towy. a living by faith in him. and casting all care upon him who careth for us hS^som^-°"' y®^ sometimes he feedeth his by immediate. V. a quiet depending upon God.276 THE BLOUDY TENENT cho.™°°" works of providgnce. and prune To materi^" country but in the seventh year they were not to sow their uor prune their vineyards. fields.' Africa. all Europe. without secondary means or causes. 23. Yet. xxv. when comforts arise out of the earth. Christ. with the of Christ's land. their to kitp h'w Six years they were to sow their viues. was a church of Jesus hath christened sitteth. Christian land or country. or Babel. in the spiritual land of Canaan. false faith. fields. Nineveh. [13.] It is true. xvii. vineyards.. are not now enjoined by . even so hath gone. far as his unchristian christening false Christ But as every hath false teachers. a making him our portion. hope. manna descended from heaven. so doth he also counterfeit the false name of Christ. love. or as elsewhere. such provisos. God. Such cautions... Pet. and in the end false salvation. Seventhly. the true church. were sold with caution or proviso of returning again in the year of jubilee to the right owners. that anti-christ all those countries whereon the title whore Kev. &c. riaf irndof Sixthly. This land was to keep her sabbaths unto fields. Such portions and possessions of lands. or Christian land. under the gospel. as here. But such observations doth not God now lay upon any vineyards. houses.

the church of God. ii. Yea. Babel's bondage. though his refusal cost him his very life. 9.IT hazwd land. peculiar and called out to him out of every nation and country.^^ part with his inheritance to King Ahab. 8 . fields. upon of ufe. are captive.] lastly. xi. mb and asung. unto which the silver trumpet of?e*Stu>n fulfilling in jubilee. nor no such jubilee or redemption to be expected. though it be to his king or sovereign. In which every true spiritual Naboth hath his spiritual inheritance. ^ heaTen. Ahab's seeming reasonable soliciting offers him to part with a garden plot of Canaan s . which either they the first have lost in the fall of falls. counting allj"^^™"' most unreasonable. in How sweet then the name of a Sa- whom is the joyful sound of a deliverance and redemption Eighthly. Heb. vii. and though such his refusal cost him this present life. begun here below in thedomofood • ° o on earth and church and kingdom of God. and sold unto sin. "What land.OF PERSECUTION DISCUSS'd. iv. 1 Pet. Hence was a birthright so precious in Canaan's land: hence Naboth so inexorable and resolute in refusing to^^^^*. Heb. inheritances. the gospel. or in their particular when they or. which he dares not part with. man Adam. 10. this also finds a or church of the spiritual Canaan. . This land or country was a figure or type of land at5j)e the kingdom of heaven above. ot'cl^r God. what country now is Israel's parallel antitype. in the spiritual captivity of is Eom. 9. hath sounded a spiritual restitution of tion?nther all their spiritual rights and inheritances. 277 God in the sale of lands. viour. but that holy mystical nation. [14.

from all the people and . This spiritual seed figurative is the only antitype of the former and typical.278 THE BLOUDY TENENT CHAP. the new born. Secondly. and Normans. and pass on to a second head concerning the people themselves. Many '' other considerations of the same nature I Si\nd ™ght peopier annexj but I pick here and there a flower. A seed which aU Christians ought men and women is this to propagate. Mod qf one gpj. The people of Israel were all the seed or off6. 21. leed'th^ regenerate^ are but one. Peace. Gal. The differ- ence of the Trutli. Abraham. Komans. for thus called the seed of Christ Isa. Doubtless that Canaan land was not a pattern for aU lands: it was a non-such. Saxons. even the unmarried who are not capable of natural offspring. th^t is. ot'is?ae?the ^i^^t. hence and so down- called the Israel of God. dis- tinguished into loins. by a wonderful providence of God. Picts. : the people of England especially the Britons. yea. Christ is the seed.] and they ornew-l Only that are Christ's are only Abraham's seed. few nations of the world but are a mixed seed. Psalm cv. (who lived and died unmarried).jjjg q£ Qjjg m^n. CXII. : wherein the state of the people shall appear unmatchable but only by the true church and Israel of God. wrestlers and prevaUers with God. twelve tribes. and un- matchable. aU sprimg out of Israel's But now. lix. [16. ward the seed of Isaac and Jacob. his covenant and worship. Danes. unparallelled. 'oadS ttTo Only the spiritual Israel and seed of God. This people was selected and separated to the Lord. iii. being become one English people. and heirs according to the promise.

And in that solemn humiliation and confession be. &c. and land. to be his peculiar and only people.. S\m Sings. to hate wife and children. Dutch. in every nation. and life itself for Thirdly. Abraham thus separate from 26. This seed of the Lord Jesus. English. Irish. Neh. the passover. [29 :] yea.OF PERSECUTION DISCUSS'd. but even to temporal and thus (Ezra ix. 279 nations of the world beside. ' 'of ^''» people Israel they separated themselves to eat the passover. Luke xiv.] unclean things or persons? 2 Cor. sepa. xx. yea. ix. 15 : only to manner of civil marry in the Lord. Ezra [21. and ^^jjfj. [2. marry as if they married not. and to set apart to the 1 Lord in all conversation. because of that peculiar respect upon them in civil things. Lev. unto the land of Canaan. was wonderfully redeemed andisraeimi^ ^ raculoualj brought from Egypt bondage. where the least footing in all fS^GoSfn ? nation. &c. the scripture for a national church after Christ's coming Can any people Acts all in the world pattern this sampler but the new-born Israel.] vi. of heaven. 35.) civil things they separated or put away their very wives.iSiJatS" fore the Lord.dvu rated themselves from all strangers. vii. mother. which they had taken of the strange nations.' 111 the wilderness. Jij**"*'"! But where hath the God French. by signs many strange ^^^'"• and wonderful miracles. and though yet to not bound to put away strange wives as Israel did. be holy or yea. such as returned from Babylon to Jerusalem. Pet. and matters of God's worship. in the gospel. Scotch. and separate from [17.No nation ^ ^ 80 separated rated whole nations or kingdoms. that extended not only to circumcision. father. house. contrary to the commandment of the Lord. God vi.] the children of Israel sepa. wrought by the out-stretched . Therefore. 1 Cor. all The whole people unto the Lord. through the Red Sea. 26. it This separation of theirs was so famous. commanded to come forth. such as fear X. i. as a peculiar people and antitype of new-bdm"'' the people of Israel ? Yea.

are apt to make themselves of popery. The English.280 THE BLOUDY TENENT hand of the Lord. 2. to papists. submit &pfbeitownfeu. Dutch. bulk. the parallels. Ask now from one side of the heaven unto the other. as he did Peace. &c. S'Sy"' turned from aB is conceived. Truth. &c. And I add. as wonderfully come forth But first. bring the nations of Europe professing protestantism to the balance of the sanctuary. And we may ask again from one side of the heaven unto the other. . Secondly. must confess that a victorious sword and a Spanish inquisition will soon make millions face about as they were in the forefathers' time. half protestant. whether the Lord hath now so miraculously redeemed and brought unto himself any nation or people. Scotch. 32 34.. famous and dreadful. from absolute protestants The pope not unlike to reeoTer hia monar- changing as fashions. *^®i^ ^^^ necks to the pope's but this I say. papist. and turn. to be absolute protest-i absolute papists from absolute protestants. to absolute ? I win uot Say. and ponder well whether the body. be truly turned to God from popery : Who Wonderful turnings in knows not how easy it is to turn. 1. Deut. whethis ? ther there hath been such a thing as &c. that all •' n -n England and Europe must o ± yoke . all England hath become twefvT pSrin"™ ** aerain o ? from half ants . they that feel the pulse of the people seriously. whole nations from one religion to another Who kuows not that within the compass of one poor ™ ®P^^ °^ twelve years' revolution. the general. this people of Israel. and turn again. wMeVr/ tion now. or one hundredth part of such peoples. whole nations are no churches under the gospel. and to he admired hy all succeeding peoples and generations. iv. many scriptures concerning the destruction of the beast and the whore look that way. as some worthy witnesses of Christ have uttered.

brought through the Red Sea of baptism. Hence. all this people universally. 9. in typical and omS'Li tnilcShoU- ceremonial respect.. Truth. I therefore. lest eternally. — The holy seed have mingled But where bound to so is now that nation. viii. Peace. new-born. Oh this. 1 ii. 281 CHAP. x. xx. or country. thus clean and holy unto God. ix. alike unclean. that only such as are who are Abraham s seed. Ezek. circumcised m heart. he go on in and dash them in pieces here and kiss the Son.OF PERSECUTION DISCUSS D. and Ezra makes it the matter of his great complaint. ! that the steersmen of the nations might re- member be wise and this his dreadful anger. Israel (or '™« Abraham. add. Cor. even that Christian land of promise where flow the everlasting streams and rivers of spiritual milk and honey. until ' his Son. were holy and clean in this their separation and sequestration unto God.. ii. 14 . Fourthly. redeemed from the Egypt of through the wilderness of Deut. 5. and strangeness from the commonweal of Israel. God ? making them to see their filthiness. Ezra themselves. Exod. 2 and of the peoples. 2. ' ' ?««* «' \ wrestlers with God). afflictions. into the kingdom of heaven begun below. this world. even in respect of their natural birth in that land. and many all ceremonial cleansings and purgings? ^ Are not the nations of the earth alike clean unto au nations now alike it pleaseth ^ the Father "'"=? ">». are the antitype of the former Israel these are only the holy nation. commg of of mercies to call some out to the knowledge and grace of joaM""^ or rather. wonderfully Tit. they were a holy seed. thirdly. xix. CXIII. I Pet. and to wash in the blood of the Lamb of God ? . upon the face of the earth. 1.

and hath made no difference between the Jews and Gentiles.] But such a all typical respect we find not now upon any people. where lies a clear distinction of the true and false Christian under the consideration of the true and false Jew : Behold I will make them of not. Gal. ii. Jneraefr iS. iii. and Gal. : which niai worships. Cor. Hence Christians now [9. called Jews. God. or people. or country of the whole world. Rev. Heb.°(ir ° Fifthly—uot Only to speak of all.] and the true Jerusalem. [22. in a clear xix. vi. and languages is God v. all this whole nation. them to himself. pleased to call some. iii. nation. Rev. nations. Acts x.] the temple of xii. and manifest antitype to the former Israel. and the Israel of God.] are figuratively. the syna- gogue of Satan that say they are Jews and are but do lie. become the God.282 This taking nation.v(aj the difference between nation and is and countryj most fully and admirably all sorts declared in that great vision of of living creatures it presented unto Peter. whereby pleased the Lord to inform Peter of the abolishing of the difference between Jew and Gentile in any holy or unholy. or second birth. country THE BLOUDY TENENT a. them from all the world beside so they bound to such and such solemnities of also were figurative . 9. and sealed with a shameful lignrathre and paiuful ordinance of cutting differenced off the foreskin. Greeks and Scythians.] A kingly priesthood and holy nation. [16. Jf'iBJaeTdif- Lastly. [17. Gal. iii. in this respect. who are therefore called the children of Abraham. [28..] who by regeneration. Exod. Rev. as they were of an th'e worid one typical seed of Abraham. 6.] 1 Israel of iii. and redeem 9. Fut out of tongues. God in all ages ° under profession of the gospel. Gal. 1 Pet. [9. [16. vi. iii. clean or unclean respect. but to select one or two more "^ —this people of Israel in that national state the children of God oiiiy were a type of ^_ tiie all under the gospel.

AVhat horrible profanations. like the vessels of the sanctuary. whether man or woman. what slaughters. -*- 2 Chron. later.™j8^^ J^l oovenLnt nfaiworshlpl which othsr nations cannot imitate. whom yet in truth their hearts affect not Yea. AVhat a world of hypocrisy from that for fear hence is practised by thousands.. and that shall not so whosoever do shall be put to death? hypocrisies.OF PERSECUTION DISCUSS worships. follow that pattern of Israel. upon such a course with ! It is true. wUl stoop to give that God their bodies in a form. according to tittle But may whole any one expressed by Christ Jesus to that purpose. xv. penitent. the God 13. and put to death both men and women.^^* things of God. Dan. profa- ji*""^^. impenitent. all. and so successively born in cove. nant with God. country. D. or else they were to be put to death. whether small or great. what gross what wonderful desolations. in that state of a national church.^'^SZf gos^ei'pro- Lastly. might. &c. to profane. all that others I shall end this passage concerning the people with a famous observation out of Num. and unregenerate persons I v. sooner or must needs follow God's only church.] of Israel. or But doth God kingdom now thus to celebrate the spiritual passover. the supper and feast of the Lamb Christ Jesus. at such a time once a year. that according to the rules of the gospel are not born again. nations or kingdoms now. viz. israoi. patient ? great and small. ix. . in prostituting the holy • iho hypoensj. . require a whole nation. heavenly. humble. whole nation was bound to celebrate and keep the feast of the passover in his season. brought into covenant ' ' r r O God in Abraham. the people of Israel. [12. must by the insurrections this necessarily bring into the world. 283 Amongst many 13. both of men and women. also what a world of profanation of the holy name ' ^ ^ and holy ordinances of the Lord. yea.. should be put to death. solemnly covenant and swear that whosoever would not seek Jehovah.

as all civil state in ages have brought forth upon this compelling a whole nation or kingdom to be the antitype of Israel. dear Truth. what slaughters of the innocent and faithful witnesses of Christ Jesus. were' all the church. the elders of Israel. CXIV. Truth. or shadow. cation. And bom. so unmatchable and never national state v/as that Israel in by any the figure. only and to fight for their Lord and Master ! with spiritual and Christian weapons CHAP. As sure as the blessed substance to is all those shadows. Peace. and the judges and kings of Israel afterward. . sake. and of firing the such bloody combustions. concern' thlwrn. from and Truth. the regenerate or new by repentance and mortifiwho willingly submit unto the Lord Jesus as their only King and Head. some hopes would kings and governors of Israel all iLings shine forth for my '' return and restoration. who choose to be slain all the day long for Christ's Christ. without such danger of hypocrisy. of such horrible profanations. members of the true church of God as appears : in the history of Moses.284 and civil THE BLOUDY TENENT wars about religion and conscience ! Yea. yet the Israel of God now."' i'^g the kings °^ and governors of that land and people. of their brethren. unless in their captivities. Christ Jesus. may fitly parallel and answer that the circumcised in heart Israel in the type. a mighty gulf between that people and nation. Were this light entertained. to be parallelled come. The differ- Peace. They were to be. and the nations of the world then extant and ever since. It seems. I have yet to add a third consideration.




But first, who can deny but that there may be now many lawful governors, magistrates, and kings, in the
nations of the world, where

no true church of Jesus



we know the many excellent gifts wherewith fj°^"™' hath pleased God to furnish many, ^enabling them for by'God*'?o*

public service to their countries both in peace and war, as

ages and experience testify, on whose souls he hath not

yet pleased to shine in the face of Jesus Christ: which

and talents must

all lie

buried in the earth, unless

such persons


lawfully be called and chosen to, and
service, notwithstanding their different

improved in public

or contrary conscience or worship.



none but true Christians, members of Christ a

publicly entrusted Jesus, might be civil magistrates, and JT ^ ^ C3 o

doctrine contrary to aiitrue piety and liumani'




then none but members of churches,


Christians, should be husbands of wives, fathers of children, masters of servants.


against this doctrine the

whole creation, the whole world, may justly



arms, as not only contrary to true piety, but






a commonweal be lawful amongst


that have not heard of


nor Christ, certainly
tiic papists-

their officers, ministers,

and governors must be lawful



it is


to be the dangerous °

etfec?to to"

doctriae professed

by some

papists, that princes degene-

rating from their religion, and turning heretics, are to be

deposed, and their subjects actually discharged from their





such must necessarily

however most loath


that hold the magis-

trate guardian of both tables; and consequently such a

one as


enabled to judge, yea, and to demonstrate to



the worship of


yea, and being thus governor
it it

and head of the church, he must necessarily be a part of himself; which when by heresy he falls from though


be by truth, miscalled heresy
of magistracy, and





hia his


utterly disabled from

(pretended) guardianship and government of the church.


we may remember

the practice of the









obedience to the higher powers, though


find not one

magistrate a Christian in





contrarily, the civil magistrate at that time

was the bloody


made up


Daniel seems to imply concerning the


xiii. 2.

7) of the lion, the bear, and the

leopard. Rev.



these weights

we may

try the weight of that
opinion, viz., that

commonly received and not questioned
civil state

and the

spiritual, the

church and the comthey are

monweal, they are

like Hippocrates' twins,


grow up

together, laugh together,



sicken and die together.
Five demonstrative ar-


. *

Witty, yet a most dangerous fiction of the


^^*^®^ of ^^®»

hardened in rebellion against God,

persuades God's people to drink

down such deadly


an/ though he

thecommon•wealth are

1 shall



knows the truth of these n remind you ot


five particulars,







flourishing states in the world

ishing states


true church,

and are

at this day,

have been which hear not of Jesus Christ, and

therefore have not the presence

and concurrence of a
thousands of God's

church of Christ with them.


Secondly, there have bee'n



in their personal estate


of grace were


God; but

in respect of church estate, they




no other than a church of dead
cranny, yet they

stones, the parish church

or though some light be of late


in through



after, or least



are joined

to any true church of God, consisting of living and believing stones.

So that by these


English ministers' principles, not



the door of calling to magistracy shut against

natural and unregenerate men, though excellently fitted
for civil offices,


also against the best

and ablest


vants of God, except they be entered into church estate
so that thousands of God's


people, excellently quali-

not knowing or not entering into such a church
not be accounted
for civil services.

estate, shall

Thirdly, admit that a civil magistrate be neither a


of a true church of Christ, if any be in his

dominions, nor in his person fear God, yet

may he


sibly) give free permission without molestation, yea,

ooa'speopiB permitted

sometimes encouragement and assistance, to the service

and church of God.
build and set

Thus we
altar to his


Abraham permitted '^


up an


wheresoever he came,


amongst the idolatrous nations in the land of Canaan.

Thus Cyrus proclaims

liberty to all the people of



his dominions, freely to

go up and build the temple of

him confirmed it. Thus the Roman emperors, and governors under them, permitted the church of God, the Jews, in the Lord
at Jerusalem,


and Artaxerxes

Christ's time, their temple

and worship, although in


things they were subject to the Romans.

Fourthly, the scriptures of truth and the records ofchnst-sga^ J^ church tiine concur in this, that the first chiu:ehes of Christ g^'eme™''
Jesus, the lights, patterns, and precedents to


Mp of an*"*

ing ages, were gathered and governed without the
assistance, or countenance of



authority, from


for the

which they suffered great persecutions


of the

Lord Jesus professed amongst them. The nations, rulers, and kings of the earth, tumultuously rage against the Lord and his anointed, Ps. ii. 1, 2. Yet, ver. 6, it hath pleased the Father to set the Lord Jesus

Bang upon

his holy hill of Zion.

Christ Jesus

would not be pleased to make use of the

magistrate to assist


in his spiritual kingdom, nor

would he
all their

be daunted or discouraged in his servants by


and terrors


for love is strong as death,

and the coals thereof give a most vehement flame, and are
not quenched by
opposition. Cant.
chrisfB true
faithftif to


the waters and floods of mightiest

viii. [6, 7.]

li^art is



like a chaste

and loving "

wife, in


fixed her husband's


who hath found

in the midst

tenderness of his love towards her, and hath been


favours from the -world.

by Mm, and

nor fears the irowns, oi


therefore' seeks she not the smiles,

put the


•! in m the world

bring her Christ unto her, or keep him from her.
find in the tyrannical usurpations of the

horns, Bev.

anti-christ, the ten horns^


some of good

uotc conccivc to be the ten kingdoms into which the






empire was quartered and divided
xvii. 13, to




have one mind to give their power
ver. 17, their

and strength unto the beast; yea,
unto the beast, until the works of






follows, that all those nations that are gilded

over with the


of Christ, have under that



vizard (as some executioners and tormenters in the inquisition

use to torment) persecuted the Lord Jesus Christ,

either with a

more open,


and bloody, or with a and


subtle, secret,

and gentle violence.

Let US

cast our eyes about, turn over the records,



examine the experience of past and present generations,
and see
if all particular


amount not to



that the great

whore hath committed fornication

with the kings of the earth, and made drunk thereof
nations with the cup of the wine of her fornications: in

which drunkenness and whoredom


whores use to prac-

she hath robbed the kings and nations of their power

and strength, and, Jezebel

having procured the kings'


names and


she drinks [herself] drunk, Eev. xvii. [6,]

with the blood of Naboth, who, because he dares not part with his rightful inheritance in the land of Canaan, the
blessed land of promise and salvation in Christ, as a traitor
to the civil state and blasphemer against God, she, under

the colour of a day of humiliation in prayer and fasting,
stones to death.

Peace. of

Dear Truth, how

art thou hidden

from the eyes
to open these


in these mysteries



men weep abun-

dantly with John, that the
blessed seals unto

Lamb may please






men more

prized their Maker's fear


then should they be more acquainted with their Maker's councils, for his secret is with them that fear him. Pa.
XXV. 14.

I pass on to a second difference.

g^^^^^ j^_

The kings
anointed with



and Judah were



iJe mystery


Ps. Ixxxix. 20,

/ have found David lnoi^ting


servant, with




anointed him.



israd and




and Judah

were honoured with that

mystical and glorious

of the anointed, or Christ of

the Lord,





The Ireath of our



anointed of Jehovah, was taken in their pits, &c. anointing and title however, the man of sin,


together with the crown and diadem of spiritual Israel,

the church of God, he hath given to some of the kings of the earth, that so he


in lieu thereof dispose of their

crowns the easier

yet shall




an incom-

municable privilege and prerogative of the saints and
people of God.


as the

Lord Jesus himself

in the antitype

was not

anointed with material but spiritual

Ps. xlv. 7, with the
Ixi. 1,

of gladness; and


iv. 18,

from Isaiah

the Spirit of God, The Spirit of

The name

the_ Lord is upon me, the Lord hath anointed me to preach good tidings, &c. ; so also aU his members are anointed with the Holy Spirit of God, 2 Cor. i. 21, and 1 John ii. 20, Hcncc is it that Christians rejoice in that name, as

Carrying the very express


of the anointed of the

Lord ; which most


and sacrilegiously hath
the great Searcher of

been applied only unto kings.
A sacriiegi
poiy'of "the


dear Truth,

how doth

hearts find out the thefts of the anti-christian world



carried in the dark they

know not whither

How is that heavenly charge.
Ps. cv. 15,

Touch not mine anointed, &o.,
of monopoly or privilege




Christians, or anointed [ones]

with Christ their head, by


appropriated to kings and princes
Truth. It

win not be here unseasonable

to call to


that admirable prophecy, Ezek. xxi. 26, 27,
The crown
of Christ's


Jehovah God, remove the diadem, take away the crown
Shalt not be the

77. 7.




77.7 him that




and abase him






will overturn, overturn, overturn, until he

come whose right

it is; and I will give it him. The matter a crown and diadem to be taken from a usurper's head,



upon th^ head of the right owner.




Peace. Doubtless this mystically intends the spiritual


crown of the Lord Jesus, for these many hundred years upon the heads of the competitors and co-rivals of the


Jesus, upon whose glorious head, in his messengers and churches, the crown shall be established. The anoint-

and the crown and power, must return to the Lord Jesus in his saints, unto whom alone belongs his power and authority in ecclesiastical or spiritual cases.

ing, the title,

Truth. I therefore proceed to a third difference between


those kings and governors of Israel and Judah, and other kings and rulers of the eartL


uX and
vested with a spiritual power.

Look upon


administrations of the kings of Israel and Judah, and well

weigh the power and authority which those kings of
and Judah exercised in



spiritual causes

and upon a due search we shall not of spiritual power in the hand of

find the

same sceptre which

civil authority,


settled in the

hands of the kings of Israel and Judah.

David appointed the orders of the


for the

he brought the ark to Jerusalem, he prepared

building of the Temple, the pattern whereof he delivered



yet David herein could not be a type of the

kings and rulers of the earth, but of the king of heaven,
Christ Jesus


First, David, as he was a king, so was he also a prophet.

Acts ii. 30


and therefore a type,



also was, of that

great prophet, the Son of God.


they that plead for

David's kingly power, must also by the same rule plead u 2



for his prophetical,

by which he swayed the



Israel in church affairs,
David im-




expressly said,


xxviii. 11, 12,


ohmoh mat-

13' t^^t *^® pattern which David gave to Solomon, concerning the matter of the temple and worship of God, j^^ j^^^ j^ ^^ ^-^^ Spirit, which was no other but a figure of

the immediate inspiration of the Spirit of


unto the


Jesus, the true spiritual king of Israel,



Rabbi, thou art the

Son of God; Rabbi, thou art

King of

Again, what


may now

act as Solomon,


^ *yP^ ^^ Christ, doth act, 1
ver. 26,


26, 27 ?


thrust out Abiathar from being priest unto Jehovah.


object that Abiathar
die, as

was a man of death,

worthy to

having followed Adonijah; and

therefore Solomon executed no

more than


upon him.
athar from

Truth. Solomou remits the civil punishment, and inflicts

upou Mm a



but by what right, but as he was king

hood examined.

of the church, a figure of Christ ' °


life is

spared with respect to his former

good service

in following after


but yet he


turned out from the priesthood.
case put


now put

"finof Sia-

of the


the case suppose that any of the England churches should prove false


to the

and be discovered joining with a French Monsieur, or Spanish Don, thirsting after conquest and dominion, to
yet for some

further their invasions of that country;

former faithful service to the


he should not be

adjudged to




ask now, might their

governors, or their general court (their parliament), depose

such a man, a pastor, teacher, or elder, from his holy
calling or office in God's house ?
OJ" suppose, in


a partial and corrupt







of a church should escape with his life upon the commission of murder, ought not a church of Christ upon repentance to receive him ? I suppose it will not be said,
that he ought to execute himself; or that the church


use a


sword against him.' In these cases may such
be punished spiritually by the

persons, spared in civil punishments for some reason of or


partiality of state,


magistrate, as Abiathar was.

Let the very enemies of
was a

Zion be judges.


in thrusting out of Abiathar
all civil

pattern and precedent unto
also in putting




in his room, ver. 35 ?



this the pope, the bishops, the presbyterians,

and the inde-

pendents, will

cry out against such a practice, in their








find the liberty of the subiects of Christ in the •'

choice of an apostle, Acts



The liberties


of a deacon. Acts


of "^^J^^'J^^




and guided by the assistance either of JSei5''offl™°'

the apostles or evangelists,
least influence of





without the




which shows the

beauty of their



parliaments of England have by right free choice

of their speaker :

yet some princes have thus far been oSrto^r

gratified as to nominate, yea,

and implicitly to commend k
evil conseA


speaker to them.

Wise men have seen the

quences of those influences, though but in




how much far greater and stronger are when the golden keys of the Son of God
into the hands of Peace.

those snares,
are delivered


You know

the noise raised concerning those

famous acts of Asa, Hezejsiah, Jehoshaphat, Josiah. What think you of the fast proclaimed by Jehoshaphat ?
2 Chron. xx.

Truth. I find


to be the duty of kings and




messengers of truth

proclaiming repentance, &o.

But under

the gospel, to enforce aU natural and unre-

generate people to acts of worship, what precedent hath
Christ Jesus given us


First, it is true
-^^g jjg

Jehoshaphat proclaimed a






^q^ Jq matters Spiritual a type of Christ, the true

king of Israel

Secondly, Jehoshaphat calls the

members of the true

church to church service and worship of God.
iudge of and o So/thB determine the actions of worship proper to the saints if they may appoint the time of the church's worship, wsMp,

powers may


consider, if civil ^

powers now

may J



also forbid


and prayer,


why may

they not as well forbid

those times which a church of Christ shall seeing
it is




a branch of the same root to forbid what liketh

not, as well as to enjoin

what pleaseth ?

And if
if so,

in those

most solemn duties and

not also in other ordinary meetings and worships

why And



the power of the

to his ministers and churches, of which the

Lord Jesus, bequeathed power of those

kings was but a shadow


Peace. The liberty of the subject sounds most sweet London and Oxford both profess to fight for how much infinitely more sweet is that true soul liberty according to

Christ Jesus
will not


know you would not

take from Caesar aught, although


were to give to God ;

and what


God's and his

de facto. First. 32 . power. making himself a covenant before the Lord. without such immediate signs and miracles that Israel had. and compelling all that were found in Jerusalem and Benjamin to stand to Truth. to force the many hundred thousands of English men and women. yet. Acts ii. 295 Yet. it.. receive their callings. Levites. tu' so not England.™nd But what commission from Christ Jesus had Henry VIII. though government in general be from God.OF PERSECUTION DISCUSs'd. . To these famous practices of Josiah. who was immediately a*t1 S™jT designed by ^lili God and when : the golden links of the royal chain broke in the usurpations of the Boman conqueror. discuss what Josiah was a precious branch of that royal root king David. famous acts in the church of God. and authority. it pleased the most wise God to send a son of David. to begin again that royal line. dejure. ^^S^ STpStfou(rom°th'e whether monarchical. : then.. compelling the people to keep the passover. de jure . they had been brought. be pleased to glance upon Josiah. or democratical who. first. and their services. It is not so with the Gentile princes. both kings and . Josiah and those kings. I shall parallel the practices of England's Mngs and . Josiah like. a Son of God. with such immediate signs and miracles. a word or two of their right hath been done. to enter into a holy and spiritual covenant with the invisible . Secondly. rulers. and magis. or any. and so downward : and they might well be forced to stand to that covenant into which. concerning the worship of Godj the priests. Edward VI. parliaments. 30. for the'^j^jj"* his '^'^ may not take. people's I wish that Caesar satisfaction of some. . were kings and governors over the then true and only church of national. aristocratical. flr^^^nk ?*Tenant by eigns. mediately from the people. to sit upon the throne of his father David. trates. brought into the covenant of God God in Abraham. Luke i.

It pleased the most high : by Henry VIII. as in Josiah's time. Mary's plants. and challengeth that very power to himself of which he had despoiled the pope. Queen Mary. The foundation earth. succeeding brings forth an old to the helm. Introd. gjg^gj. What sober man stands not amazed at these revolutions ? ' [See Tracts on Lib. turns about the wheels of the state.to the crown. nor be well remembered before evangelical repentance are possibly capable of? thlTSsT'"' governor of at England^ Now secondly. breaks in pieces all that Edward wrought. as the prophet speaks of bloody. Mary not living out half her days. let it Concerning the kings of England professing reformation. like Joseph. &c. steers a direct contrary course. half papist. Henry VIII. God. xxxii. as appears establishing by that act of parliament Henry VIII. reforms all England to a new fashion. Hertry VII. 's means but neither pope nor king can ever prove such power from to plague the pope God Christ derived to either of them. to of all was laid in Henry VIII. King Edward VI. the supreme head and governor ^ in all cases ecclesiastical. ^^ *^^ palace. half protestant. and works the whole land to absolute protestantism. Icavcs England under the slavish bondage of the pope's yoke. de facto . SatM up often P^'''so'^^5 Elizabeth. of Conscience. redressing : abuses. M^tomtogs tags^frdiEngland's Secondly. The pope chaUengeth to be the vicar of Christ Jesus here upon have power of reforming the church. the Father of or upon pain of death. she plucks all ^^ ^ j^^j.296 THE BLOUDY TENENT spirits. advanced from the prison often ptack religions.] . as before intimated. Henry VIII. and sounds a trumpet protestant. let us view the works and acts of England's imitation of Josiah's practice. and edition of England's reformation all popish. p. &c. and from the irons . falls out with the pope. to stand to that which they never made.

challenged. ihe papists nearer to ""= t™'?" Truth. woman. You bring to mind. viz. ministry or than to such as are merely temporal and ' [The Assembly of Divines was at * [The central part of a target. tohite. as his daughter Elizabeth.] . if attained. in imitation of Judah and Josiah ! which. as Henry VIH.^ . kings or parliaments will quite pull Thirdly. that the government of them|nf™Se church of Christ should rather belong to such as profess a most" pro-*" office spiritual. Queen Elizabeth papissa or she-pope : herself. but the very same which a woman. a ^ plea of some ^ " viz. dear Truth. CHAP. CXIX. styling her withal pleading. or wiser papists for the pope's supremacy. and better edition of a national Canaan.. 297 and yet. the time is yet to come whenever the Lord Jesus hath given a institution word of and appointment. their offspring. .. for another impression. in '' who knows how soon succeeding down and abrogate ? ^ all these formings and reformings.'] this time engaged in forming a direct- which anciently was painted ory of worship for the entire nation. Peace. *''° papiBsa. like mother like daughter : and how zealous are we. that it was no 1^^°^ such exorbitant or unheard of power and jurisdiction which the pope challenged.OF PERSECUTION DISCUSs'd. unregenerate men. a national a national o & ^ church ever church of natural. or a woman. I believe that neither one or the other hit the white it yet I believe the papists' arrows fall the nearest to in this particular. was popish or protestant (like wax) the t^™nd° ^°' subject matter of all these forms and changes. that in point of reasuitable that the son it was far more Lord Jesus woidd delegate his power rather to a clergyman than a layman. whether ™'"°' : concerning which national state. civil.

lift their first hands unto. but against his second exaltation in his true kingly power and government. either monarchical in himself." A second exaltation of Christ Jesus. are mustered up. poweVofthe troubiesTi Peace.298 THE BLOUDY TENENT in conclusion. Lord Jesus. or over their lives and worships. my people. and keys from Christ. both challenging the true commission. report of a The and all new king . the at. or ministerial in the hands of his ministers and churches. wiaitSion of Christ. upon the throne of David ihe world stormeth at both. is ^ _ is I coufess there jjjto his a tumultuous rage at his entrance ° throne in the soul and consciences of any of his chosen . Mngs and rulers of the world have always ' the -world. of the Jews puts Herod this Jerusalem into frights and the power of is stiU most glorious King of kings over the souls and consciences of men. which kingdom here below. Lord Jesus. But I shall mention one difference more between the . power. and are enin his raged at the tidings of the true servants. and before they hearken to the voice of the Lord. dear Peace. the So that found to whole controversy concerning the government of Christ's kingdom or church. a twofold exaltation in the souls and spirits of men. though yet remaining in Babel's captivity. This all glorious diadem of the kingly power of the . that all the white the princes of this world shoot heir. difference. jj£ ^j^g You is well mind. one he exalted and so by all that truly love him. and shall be in the battles of Christ yet to be fought. in his his spiritual church and congregation. will be lie between the true and false ministry. Lord up Jesus hath been the eye-sore of the world. his father. and and rulers of that which the . " Come forth of Babel. all the powers of the gates of earth and hell. Truth.

32 ii. civil powers and rulers now. spi- wore a double JJ^J. of his people. saviours. that since the kings of Israel were ceremonially anointed with oil : and Secondly. with which now no civil ^ i^'nss <>' Israel types. judges. Christ Jesus. in that they sat upon the throne of David. kings of Israel and Judah. . and deliverers of God's people. Luke i. &c. when. I . therein types. but some here question. 49. Gideon. whether or no they were not types of mothers. When I say they were types. their crowns were figurative and ceremonial . ^the Baruc. make them not in all respects so to be but as kings and governors over the church and kingdom of God.. kings and queens shall be nursing fathers and nursing . secondly.OF PERSECUTION DISCUSS D. by such whom he pleaseth to send to vindicate the liberties and inheritances CHAP. which it pleased jeml' God to stir up extraordinarily to his people. of Israel. civil . either monarchically ruling by himself immediately. all 299 other kings and rulers Those kings as kings of Israel were all invested with a ^ ° typical and figurative respect. : They wore a double crown : first. 30 John i. CXX. which Acts is expressly applied to Christ Jesus. Hence all those sa\dours and deliverers. &c. Sampson. power ritual in the world can be invested. Peace. and of the Gentiles. It must needs be confessed. in which respect they typed out the spiritual king crown. in that respect of their being f^^ayJour woria. so were or ministerially they types of Jesus Christ.

but over the souls and consciences of aU his vassals.. the let Truth. but is the son of perdition arising out of the bottomless to destruction. and xi. ordain ministers. the pretended vicar of ' power of Christ. them first remember power that the dispute lies not concerning the monarchical of the Lord power of making laws. Jesus. of heaven. over the holy scriptures. . that they are the antitypes of the kings of Israel and Judah. The second great pretender. although he professeth to claim but the ministerial u''onthe° Fenge'the^" monarcliical power of Christ. or other inferior officers of state. for so hath the his Lord Jesus decreed mouth. The second Jcsus is great competitor to this crown of the Lord by magis- the civil magistrate. This pretender. for this deputed or power of the Lord Jesus. yea. and making . ordinances to his saints and subjects but concerniag a deputed and ministerial power. faotSmf ^* Under factious the wing of the civil magistrate do three great shcltcr an arm of thcmselvcs. the false prophets of the world. who sits as God over the temple of God. together with 2 Thess. vii. ii. to preach. 25. over the Spirit of Christ. baptize. and yet doth he upon also. ^^ point challenge the monarchical being full or absolute power of self-exalting and blasphemingj Dan. xv. and wear the crown of Christ. the ciTii to consume him by the breath of ii. viii. who are made to believe. arch-vicar of Satan. is power'o"^ exalting himself not only above all that called God.ev.. and this distinction the very pope himself acknowledgeth. to declare his ordinances. kings. Dan. 6. speaking blasphemies against the God he pit. thinking to change times and laws . and xi. Tiie popes great fcr The the*™ Christ on earth. and E. whether emperors.. and mutually oppose each .300 ewLTan"" power 0?"' THE BLOUDY TENENT For answer unto such. xvii. and comes Kev. and God himself. xiii. yea. 2 Thess. Mmpeutors material " There are three great competitors ministerial First. 36 Eev.

who The pope make him only an executioner. and to creep under justly said they are the king's bishops. as I believe The inde- hath manifested. &c. lated but also yet doth it more naturally as the prelates delight in the element of an aristocratical government of state. And although they pre- tend to receive their ministry from the choice of two or three private persons in church covenant. and so may properly be said to be the king's. though not ° more fuUy. : The worth of any of the three this discourse sorts : this latter. in true.. . that it is ' Secondly. nearest to •''^''p^' presbyterians. but to make him what is the judge of the true and false church. not only regutyrannical . the protector and defender of the church. . the prelacy late : flesh. the pope doth in his punishing of heretics.. though some extravagants of ^ . striving as for life 301 the who shall sit down under shadow of that arm of First. yet would they fain persuade the mother of Old England to imitate her viz. . yet growing faction is that (so called) independent I prejudice not the personal third. to keep out the . •' heretical? unless they who is schismatical. jumps with the prelates. other. the suppressor of schismatics and heretics. judge of truth and what error. yet more i/ . so these —the — state-bishop's. asteiymake "^ .OP PERSECUTION BISCUSs'd. plain English. dentil*''''™" though not so great. yet so far depends upon the king. : the wings of the pope. though in truth they %^l\^ much to the civil magistrate as some too i grossly do. who. if they make him the reformer of the church. cast down the crown of the Lord Jesus at '"f the feet of the civil magistrate. and. ''•'« pa- have inclined to waive the king. use of the ""^isJ'^j' I doubt not but the aristocratical government of presbyterians uonerr^™" may well subsist in a monardiy. what is this. the presbytery ascribe not so who.> explicitlv than the "V" "°"« ^ 1. daughter New England's practice. yet they give so as to much to the civil magistrate : make him absolutely the head of the church for.

these. their exposing of themselves for Christ to greater sufferings. and of the inhabitants of the world be make Jesus. patience. as (not offend- ing the the civil state) in the freedom of their souls. And on other side.302 THE BLOUDY TENENT presbyterians. many Of less. let the latter be considered. conformity to the world. in their more sin thorough departure from tentments of this 'eslftbT^' and sinful worship. both as the state's and the people's bishops. they bid the most. the fairest plea for the purity and power of Christ — let the rest judges. they that come nearer to the go furthest profess they must yet ways of the Son of God and doubt: so far as they have gone. Let XmLmtty' to Christ. to enjoy in. but the two-edged sword of God's Spirit to try out the matter by i * : and then let the inhabi- tants 01 the world ludge . ^jjg pomp. and only to embrace themselves. but sword nor arm of n ^ flesh. and their desiring no civil lug^tohnrabjedts™ liberty not to be oppressed. ii-i which come nearest to the doc< i permuted *™^5 so holiuess. common air to breathe . povcrty. . and practice of the Lord latter deserve not Jesus Christ and whether or no these much of humanity and subjects' liberty. yet divided also amongst themselves into several professions. ^^® third competition for this crown and power of the rampSon Lord Jesus is of those that separate both from one and that^'epathe other. their condescending (generally) to the lowest and meanest conlife. ^tatc. all the former well be viewed in their external richcs. &c.

Secondly.* Peace. I Sny o? suppose. figures. look down from heaven. and holy name of God is profaned and blasphemed. An arm of flesh and sword of steel cannot reach to cut the darkness of the mind. Dear Truth. will The vision yet doth tarry. were types and figures of a spiritual land. Civil types of their worships. Although the magistrate by a civil sword civii compulsion was might well compel that national church to the external p^up" in ' national *=* the exercise of their national worship : yet it is not possible. spiritual people. But to your last proposition. comforteth. and have mercy on her ? &c. . consequently. in whole nations to true repentance and regeneration. to compel iSpropS lan. and so consequently not civil but spiritual governors and rulers..] • [There are two chapters numbered CXX.proving and Judah were not types of civU magistrates ? Now. ' n t t spiritual antitype. Habakkuk. Therefore. Truth. . ^^^f^areB ed by™itype's. without which (so far as which may be discerned true) the worship national. '''=*. CXX.. : not have any other but a That those former types of the / r and spiritual land. saviours. .OF PERSECUTION DISCUSS'd. these things ju'dah car . kings.^" worship under Christ. 303 CHAP. but most surely come and therefore the patient and be- lieving must wait for it. their liverers. and kindly operate upon the soul's affections to forin the original copy. and builds up Zion. by what hath beep already spoken. theTows' according to the rule of the New Testament. her children tearing out their mother's bowels. judges. lest the very essential nature of types. you have shown me a little draught of Zion's sorrows. . de- must also have their spiritual anti- types. of the r r ' people. whether the kings of Israel ^»^'=° ^ J r r o Bona. and shadows be overthrown. Oh when ! will He that stahlisheth. saith . . Will be evident First. the hardness and unbehef of the heart. redeemers.

Thirdly. iv. and Christianity professed in it as in Pergamos. ii. • i. mouth of Christ. iDj^ 1. provinces. kingdoms : —I say the same essentially it both from.304 THE BLOCDY TENENT sake a long-continued father's worsliip. Christianity taken away. We have not one tittle. to wit. the people's choice 2. a nish it.. or safety of such a people in their bodies and goods. forty days after his resurrection. wherever people live upon the of the earth. Testament from Be°nera™aTO^f Srti Christ Jesus. though the best and truest. and to embrace a new. cities. evidently proves the Fifthly. vii. 23 . Fourthly. but the contrary. This work performs alone that sword out of the edges. the commonweal. agreeing together in towns. xiii. Acts Civil magistracy essentially civil. The Spirit of God expressly relates the work xiii. . Christianity this model have themselves adds not to the nature of a civil ^ This civil nature of the magistrate we have proved to receive no addition of Christian. power from the magistrate being a it commonweal. with two and iii. The rise and fountain whence and free consent. neither ma^a- Mmsclf uor from n i • with o whom he conversed raors antitype. nor no more than receives diminution from his is doth want of Ch'istianity dimi- not being a Christian. it have not heard of Chrisit. although tianity . even as the commonweal true commonweal. Eom. Acts i • i a j. and v. in the New his ministers. ^ Neither find we any such commission or direction given to the civil magistrate to this purpose. nor to the saints for their submission in matters spiritual. Ephesus. and the parts and essence of a all and find it the same in face S the parts of the world. S. . 1 Cor. springs.. Rev. Hom. viz. jrviiwk civil magistrate under the gospel. civil. conceming such a parallel. Neither i. We have formerly viewed the very matter civil magistrate. makes never no more a commonweal . &c.. 18. and candlestick removed. instructing them in the matters 01 his kingdom. and the V makes of the it nevertheless a commonweal. as the authors of confessed. The object of it. Col. but the contrary.

must herself be subject to the changeable pleasures lies of the people of the world. then. Ps. Hence. no person' esteemed a believer. therefore. therefore. who enjoy the same benefit of public peace and commerce in the nation. but tribute. J • more m most strange. then the greatest number of the people of every land has received from Christ Jesus a power to establish. it ^titype°of iBraerand" must inevitably have touched. as the magistrates' object.Most I- liaments. that if magistrates have received their power from the people. and added if no reii* ^ gion but to the church thfJm''''' No officer chosen and ordained :— ^p™£^_ No person cast forth and excommunicated. but and instruments of the people. as formerly I 9"™°^' JrafesTow"" simply considered. 8. 1 9. natives and foreigners.. 305 „? ^thlTvu expressly mentioning. yet true conse- justice than the eyes. where all may personally meet. even in matters of heavenly and spiritual controversies concerning the nature. what the people give: and are. without respect to this or that religion . all sorts toll. concerning the bodies and goods of the subject. custom. John V. in all church. °"*'"™*°' The reward or wages which people owe for such a work. and governors. but as the clSstrno : X . reform his saints and servants. the church : and she that by the express word of the Lord. as in some commonweals of small number. cxlix. 2. and hands. and nobles in links of iron. which 1 in wickedness. correct. binds kings in chains. the duties of the second table. follow. whether kings or par. Since civil magistrates. to wit.. or in greater by their representatives. not the contribution of the church for any spiritual work. which are wages payable by of men. his wife and spouse. ministry and worship. Hence.OF PKRSECUTION DISCUSS'd. can receive no ^ . states. the last appeal must come to the bar of the people or commonweal. Sixthly.

. xviii.. men walk by own common principles. Dan. Peace. to be the true antitype of those all former figures in spiritual the prophecies concerning Christ's power. &c. and churches. ix. v. all israer4d°' wliich a necessary consequence of itself: viz. their Mtit'Tof Judah. Isa. you cannot if rise: and yet so high must the inevitable and undeniable conse- quences of these their doctrines reach. Mich. ii..306 tii°e%ieMMe 2 John'g' *' THE BLOUDY TENENT please . by these doctrines driven out of the world. ments. Matt. and an argument spiritual we power of Christ Jesus in the hands of his ministers. Glorious and conquering Truth. the former argufind expressly a saints. i. commonweal and people no visible Christ the and in conclusion.. sequently no God in the world worshipped according to the institutions of Christ Jesus —except the seteral peoples of the nations of the world shall give allowance. methinks I see most' evidently thy glorious conquests: how mighty are thy spiritual weapons. oh I whither have our forefathers and teachers led us ? Higher than to God himself. 2 Cor. iv. no Yea.. 4. &c. com- pared with Luke 34. I may therefore here is seasonably add a seventh. 1 Cor. Dear Truth. Truth. and consequently head of it. Acts 30... vii. yet higher. break down those mighty and strong holds and fortified which men have ? themselves withal against thee Oh ! that even to the the thoughts of men may submit and bow down captivity of Jesus Christ A fourth dif. to castles. x. . Peace. CHAP. con- church of Christ in this land or world. S^d Your kind encouragement makes me proceed more cheerfully to a fourth difference from the laws and Truth. CXXI. 32. Mark xiii.

. never had any stirred state or people as Moses the type. as xviii. the people and the church of God. all those wonderful significant priesthood. cxlvii. and God did not deal so with other nations: which laws for the matter of the worship in sacrifices. flesh Heb. Moses he is calls himself. xxxi. the law of the ten words. miraculously up and sent as the mouth of God between God and it is his people. it pleased the most high his God to frame and finger pen?ed laws for pen twice. greater than Moses. and x. viii. consider we the law-maker. yet such a law was also given to this people as never to any people in the world: such was the law of worship. or prophet. First. in whose hearts of his laws. but only to that spiritual Israel.] and Acts iii. with own most holy and dreadful finger. Deut. and afterward of temple. The uwa of the second table contains the law of nature.. or rather the Moses a type of chnst. Secondly.. such a and for the manner by such a place of tabernacle. Deut. Thirdly. law-publisher. [22.OF PERSECUTION DISCUSS'd. X 2 . were never to be paralleled by any other nation. statutes of this land. Ps. or law-publishers. different from all the laws 307 and statutes statutea "'hers- of the world. such times and solemnities of festivals. upon Mount Sinai. according to Jer. and paralleled only by the laws and ordi- nances of spiritual Israel. [15.] expressly called that prophet like who figured out Christ Jesus who was to come unto Moses. which he never did to any other nation he writes before or since. x. Such lawgivers. peculiarly given to Jacob. or Christ Jesus. then. but only by the true Christian Israel established by Jesus Christ amongst Jews and Gentiles throughout the world. concerning the laws themselves : true. the epitome God's own of aU the rest. the law moral raiMed!"''* and civU. as the son is greater than the servant.

pro^p^ruy I^i^st.308 Peace. or carried commnnication was. or kmg- " dom. xiii.1 now The antitype. by stoning him to death. viz. of health. and that in the very same words. as before I have noted. See"' Truth. captivc. 23. The corporal stoning in And jg g^jy. and Luke And yet herein the Israel of Gal. Ward pcace and plenty of all things. sideration of this blessings and curses of all sorts xxviii. to : be cast out or cut off from this holy land paralleled which punishment cannot be by the punishment of any state or kingdom in the world. and all manner of evil speeches for Christ's sake. Matt. t i which canl not possibly be made good m • any state. but in a Christ. thosc wMch werc life : of a temporal and present con- tTtheS" Honai"uit8 of the Jews. Out of that blessed temporal estate to be cast. v. ' r was their excommunication or xvii. the false prophet. consider we the punishments and rewards annexed to the breach or observation of these laws. tions. God's sight. fellowship of the saints and churches of Christ Jesus in the gospel. soul-blessedness. Deut. 16. afflictions soul-blessedness. xxvi. ' . q£ cattle. in the midst of revilings. suits not temporally with the afflicted and persecuted estate of God's people now: and therefore spiritual and soul-blessedness must be the antitype. spiritual answered. therefore. of increase of children. TheBpirifnai prosperity of '''^ spiritual sense in the church and kingdom of The rcasou is this : such a temporal prosperity of out* X i. What Israel's ex- God should enjoy their spiritual peace. In the midst of and persecuvi.. of success. of honour. vi. country. by such a prophet. 2 Kings casting out of o Therefore was the blas- phemer.. In the fifth place. the putting jr o away . must needs be matchless and unparalleled../ {""^d ™t °^ *^^ ^*^®^ prophet. in the . i Lev. THE BLOUDY TENENT Such promulgation of such laws. opened at -i i large. the idolater. and Deut. but only by the excommunicating or out-casting of person or church from the. of victory.

and . spiritually cut Cor. [ Truth. 4. more or israers cne- some time or &*' XT other. First. Dear Truth. Assyrians. James since is So E. he that believeth in that Son of life. > Edomites. V. to glance at the difference of the wars of this people from the wars of other nations. Lastly. Such a covenant God made not before nor with any state or people in the world. And. you have most lively set forth the The wars typical. any wicked person amongst them. Gal. antitype : 309 'g" when.. in the history of Moses. life . x. The breach of any one of these laws was death. hath eternal is he that believeth not hath not iii. CXXII. that is. Ammonites. x. the great and high reward or punishment of the ^punS-*' keeping or breach of these laws to Israel.. ' ' ' ' Babylonians.OF PERSECUTION DISCUSs'd. For. Eom. Moabites.'] less. &c. the end of the law for righteousness to every one that believeth. in the last place. Samuel. the people or church 1 v. God. be parauei-" The reward of the observation was life. as appears Philistines. God. Midians.om. eternal death. put away from off out of the land of' of the spiritually living. or damnation from the presence of the Lord. had indignation against and this people mies round "'""»'• —Egyptians. and Kings. was such asS^^f'""" cannot suit with any state or kingdom in the world beside. all nations round about Israel.. by the general consent or stoning of the is l^^^^H whole assembly. but condemned already. eternal life. John and 1 John v. Peace. Judges. CHAP. and of their having no antitype but the churches of Christ Jesus. Christ ii. unparalleled state of that typical land and people of the Jews in their peace and quiet government: let me now request you.

sometimes field against many hundred thousand them : enemies in pitched of Ethiopians ten hundred thousand xiv. Shebas. the spiritual state or country now. 19. Rev. and the whole anti- under the Roman popes. the antitype and parallel. (Rev. deliverances. 2 Chron. Jeroboams. Matt. Such enemies. John xv. Such enemies the Lord Jesus foretold ^orld shall- The be All hate you. Israel is betrayed J™toweis! within her Adonijahs. raising insurrections.310 in all THE BLOUDY TENENT the prophets: you have an express catalogue of Ixxxiii. The enemies of mystical Israel. blood.' by the kings of the earth.) Peace. Secondly. and xiii. the spiritual state of the Christian church. such armies.] and quarters of the world. but mystically and spiritually the true Christian Israel of God.] You shall hated of aU that men for my name's sake. but the Israel of Jews. no experience proves ever to have come against one poor nation as against Israel in the type . Eph. them.] And vi. spiritual wicked- ness in high places. Bcsidc aU these without. we the famous and wonderful battles. and never was nor shall be known to come against any God.] wiU live godly in Christ Jesus must be persecuted. xx. consider victories. Arid Gog and Magog. but also [12. world under the christian world Roman emperors. Christ's true followers in all parts a^atnir [ TVzt^A. [9. in conspiracies. Ps. not only by flesh and by principalities. or iii. Absaloms... shore. Rev. like the sand upon the shore. 16. [12. tumults. hunted. powers. and let if us search they can be paralleled by any state or people. xvii.] at once in the days of Asa. Gal. xxiv. no history.] by the whole pagan xii. . and at other times as the sand upon the sea his Israel. vi. 2 Tim. Athaliahs. captivities. own bowels: bloody Sauls. [9. [18. which it pleased the God of Israel to dispense to that people and nation.

fight ° the great Lord General. 311 How famous was glorious. 8. and nation 430 years the bondage and slavery of that people Jp°oS™pin the land of Egypt. and deliverances. men and women. vi. Rev. a figure of baptism. x. their mighty and miraculous victories against so many hundred thousand enemies. in down the strongest holds the very souls of men. xi. the slaughter of thirty-one kings. and miraculous was their return through the Red Sea. fail xviii. can but the and mystical Israel of God in every nation and country of the world. Eph. the land of Canaan ? under The mystical battleeof ^^"^'^ The Israel of God now. in that little spot of ground. cometh. typed out by that small typical handful. as in all the seven churches of Asia. How Jews famous was the seventy years' captivity of the in Babel. . Time would literal me to speak of Joshua's conquest ofTi""'™"* '- derful victo- Canaan. and carry into captivity the very thoughts of men. and artUlery. subjecting them tliat to Christ Jesus.] and Egypt a figure of an Egypt now.OF PERSECUTION DISCUSS'd. the Lord Jesus Christ: their weapons. a type of the captivity of God's people now. what wars and combats. Hezekiah. Rev. They and are spiritual conquerors. and at the fuU period returned again to Jerusalem. Jehoshaphat. five by his smooth stones against Goliah: Asa. 1 Cor. . spiritually captivated in spiritual Babel. are hke themselves. and that sometimes without a blow given. spiset '™^' ritual. yea. ii. so mighty and and so potent that they break castles. what kingdom. 4. forth from top to toe. He that omreometh : He over- Rev. What victories spiritual state. iii. [2. parallel this people. and as famousj th^Jows. of the cities: "°^- miraculous taking of Jericho and other Gideon's miraculous battle against the Midianites: Jonathan and bis armour-bearer against the Philistines: David. armour. transported from the land of Canaan.

it and might display those excellent passages which pleaseth God to mention. but what and of a heavenly nature. and not between nations and countries of the world Canaan and the civil . 37. Themysticai viii.. they conquer the devil himself. yet then they conquer. are slain and slaughtered. this for they loved not their lives unto the death and in aU they more than conquerors through him that loved them. presented the face of old and new Israel. CXXIII. emperors. This glorious oxmy of white troopers. Rev. the prophet. I could further insist on other particulars of Israel's unparalleled state. and shall fulfilled ritually. xix. and.312 THE BLOUDY TENENT Their victories and conquests in this country are contrary to those of this world. So overcame they [11. Eom. up in arms against a them. like the sand on the sea shore.J the devil in the Koman 2. Rev. false "^' gloriously conquer and overcome the beast. CHAP. dear Truth. breastplate. AU be which wars of Israel have mystically and spi- may be. between whom. of Gog and Magog : and yet not a tittle of mention of any sword. xix. is spiritual helmet. ix. and as in water face answereth to face. and the numberless armies. Peace. as in a glass. so doth the face of typical Israel to the face of the antitype. Neh. and the kings of the earth. for when they xii. been. horses and har^^^s ers' Rev?"'"' —Christ Jcsus and his true Israel. reigning with Christ thousand years. You have. lastly. the Lamb: By the word of their testimony: The a7-e cheerful spilling of their own blood : for Christ. shield. By the Mood of 3. or horse. Rev.

) their civils. laws. there is 313 an admirable consent and harmony. 12. punishments. and so setting their horns upon the church's head. and might further discover. . devolving the care thereof only to the clergy. and the corruption of princes and magistrates. what was simply moral. was not the of that people precedential ? and judicials Truth. yea. hath been the cause of and corruption in the anti-christian invention. the people's sin. now. worship and temple of God. civil state But I have heard some say. may be imitated and followed by the of the world: yet states. "It is well known that the remissness of princes in Christendom in matters of religion and worship. laws. xxiii. that so many inventions. unto which God's people are com- manded even which if for the Lord's sake to submit themselves." Truth. countries. what conceive you of that next assertion. and kingdoms who can question the lawfulness of other forms of government. Deut. creation. I have in part.OF PERSECUTION DISCUSs'd. viz. cities. and corruptions are risen in the worship and temple of God.. the malice of the wicked against Christ. Satan's policy. is called Chris^^^ and may most properly be called the pope's Christendom in opposition to Christ Jesus's true Christian com- ^^ "" domf' . [to] the Jrecedm-' we see in their going to morals. usurpaition. in their constitutions. throughout that part of the world which tian. It is lamentably come to pass by God's just permission. 2 Pet. excrements of their bodies (as war. and punishments which differ. . since civil constitutions are men's ordinances (or ii. 13). that Jy'fs^fj** from the king and his throne to the very beasts. Having thus far proceeded in civil state examining whether God hath charged the with the establishing of the spiritual and religious. and naturals were carried on in types and however I acknowledge that civil. they were unlawful they ought not to do ? Peace. usurpations. and natural in Israel's state.

and to punish. I say. doctrine. can never be evinced. thTioLmo™ Isodies of people.314 THE BLOUDY TENENT mon-weal. but that this hath arisen from princes' remissness in not keeping their watch to establish the purity of religion. xxviii. may is concern the common rights. that weaiorworid the world who have funda-- mgn^aUy in themselves the root of power. to conceive that emperors. and the many thousands blood hath been of glorious souls under the altar whose . runs on with boldness at his master's coming and presence at his back. and the souls. upon the kings ± o upon the very commonweals. according to Israel's pattern. up what government and governors they Secondly. many by millions of souls forced to hypocrisy enforced uniformities in worship. thTcwr magistrate. the true Christendom . driven out of their bodies by civil and ruin to &ithfu™esa eternal. enough for the ablest shoulders in the commonweal but . ^^S^> and rulers of the earth. 20. peace. and the many hundred thousand wars. is. false ministers. yea. and which work and business. Matt. To govern and judge iffaiS'ioad Thirdly. or church. it Indeed. that. affairs of life. it shows abundance of carnal diffidence and power and gracious presence of the Lord Jesus. itself. shows a most injurious idleness and unfaithr S c™t the"^ den of judging and eatane chril fulness in such as profess to be messengers of Christ Jesus. to cast the heaviest weight of their care o ^^^ rulcrs of the earth. ' That dog that fears to meet a man in the path. by rooting them and their worships out of the world. to set shall agree upon. spilt by this position. must not only be qualified ^j^j^ political and state abilities to make and execute such civil laws which safety. load and burden . what imprudence and indiscretion "^°^* is it in the common . will all eternity proclaim the contrary. and all worship. who hath given his promise and word to be distrust of the glorious with such his messengers to the end of the world.

and punish in spiritual controversies. which the people choose and set up. and The Lord fused' would not give a precedent to any king. to judge. who were born members oi magistrates. nagedbyone ^ ^ and the and his apostles. Concerning that obiection wMch may arise from the ihousanda kings of Israel and Judah. being the son of David: yet being sought for by the people to be made a king. kept themselves to one. so unsuitable is sufficiently to such as have the commixing and entangling of the civil it with the spiritual charge for (except was and government. subsistence. John vi.OF PERSECUTION DISCUSS'd. . wisdom heir to the yea. [15. church and commonweal. Lastly. which ^^l°l^^^ °°''thousands of lawful magistrates in the world. tables. itself: it was the Lord Jesus. and trained up therein aU their days. pagan or anti-christian. to pull down. or ruler. them with. PIT to manage both swords. Magistrates can have no and fundamentally. the King of Israel. also furnished with such spiritual 315 abilities to and heavenly govern the spiritual and Christian commonweal. but that spective all re- commonweals or bodies 'of people are charged (much more) by God with radically trates. determine. he was the true crown of Israel. and to assume the charge or both 11 11 tT manage both. possibly born °' and bred in false worships. I have spoken an ear to hear: and therefore. this work and all business. the flock and church of Christ. beside. but what more power than the measureJ out toThem from the free consent of _the_ whole common consent of the people shall betrust even as a cornimttee of parliament cannot further act than the power of the house shall arm and enable them. o who never God's church. never heard o^ and were therein types of the great anointed. even to death or banishment. as we see in Paul and sword can- Barnabas workmg with their own hands) the Liord Jesus. and set up religion. If ever any in same perthis world was able to manage both the spiritual and civil. that not only shall officers. the several sorts of eivU And. prince. that ng spirf. must be so authorized. because true civil magisii have not the least inch of civil power.] he refused.

&c. Cant. or whether Nero. but the iU-managing of as Truth. Secondly. their assuming of this power. though not willing to have been forced themselves in the matters of God and conscience. who assumed this power and It authority in and over the church in spiritual things. the church. "iito their = Nero and the persecuting emand others who Under Constantine into Christianity fell perors were not so injurious to Christianity.316 THE BLOUDY TENENT concerning princes. Julian. this was not through it. I sleep. as Constantine corruption. whatever they were. religion. though mine heart waketh. Chris- on the beds of carnal ease and liberty his times that sleep of the insomuch that some apply to church. is confessed by the answerer and others of note. Hence have *^ey f°r«=ed their subjects to uniformity and conformity own consciences. &c. Yet are they all commonly brought the great precedents for ages: succeeding princes and rulers in after and in this very controversy.^ CHAP. the Christian state. Domitian. CXXIV.j persecutors Constantine. but some will say. Peace.. 2. their practices are brought as precedential to establish persecution for conscience. those emperors and other princes and magistrates acted in religion according to their consciences' per- who force ®"^®^°°' ^^^ '^^'°- beyond the ^'""^g light and persuasion of conscience SoFo> ^'not^t to?J^them. were most corrupted tians fell asleep : under Constantine. : who were most and dangerous to Christianity. assumed a power in spiritual things. . I desire injurious it Now may be remembered. selves ^"^ ™^° ^^1^ ^^ a°7 fear of God. and worship. Yea. Theodosius. that under these latter. v. and Christians fell asleep.

. ^much""' . Josiah. been darkened. in persuading themselves to be the parallels and antitypes to those figurative and typical princes : whence they conand themselves all ceived themselves bound to empires. pro- pounding to themselves the best patterns of the kings of Judah. Solomon. Upon * how was.. Asa. and (where power of resistance) civil combustion : as at this very day. David. have been the : cause. have civu been the cause of anti-christian inventions. Jehoshaphat. giving i o t7 their power and authority to the seven-headed and ten. If they mean that the princes of Europe. and themselves. these roots. new holy lands Canaan. They add Chris- tendom setting their horns upon the church's head. 317 and the consciences . kingdoms. but lend their horns to the bishops. how is it possible. &c. &c. governors and judges in spiritual causes. in some .""'^' horned it besist of Rome. fnfonnation of conBoienco. they could not have been condemned for want of heavenly afifection. that even before such princes set their horns. persecution of such godly who : happily see more ^^eo^^ their dominions dis^'"'^ of Christ than such rulers themselves and jurisdictions being overwhelmed with enforced with flames of that runs simulation and hypocrisy.^ such bitter fruits should grow of corruption of Christianity. Hezekiah. to or authority. and persecuting the contrary with fire and sword. make of their cities. he may read and tremble at ? further. be one concurring cause yet withal it must be remembered. I confess M°ho^j'° oua'to^tiie"' curist. upon the beast's head. ^Xo^hen* also of their teachers. ^ but that sad con»equences of °J^*'"o^g']. had not the light of their eye of conscience. Truth. But here they lost the path. that the princes of Peace. And though I confess there but small difierence. compelling consciences to Christ. Thirdly. even anti-christian is then up many abominations. wonderful care and dihgence.OF PERSECUTION DISCUSs'd. mien giving and 'i^^j"^. even as I when they did. may rose say. rare devotion.

xvi. as was and practised in : some countries before and since the pope rose that neither the yet I confidently affirm. Ep. Dear Truth. or rhinoceros.318 respects. kings and queens shall be ' [Martial. the souls and thoughts of the highest kings and emperors must [be] subject.. 23. THE BLOUDY TENENT between the setting their horns upon the priests' whereby they are enabled immediately to push and gore whoever cross their doctrine. CXXV. ii. CHAP. The spiritual power of the Lord Jesus in the xxiii. according to that record of the poet Quantus erat comu cui pila taurus erat I Unto this spiritual power of the Lord Jesus. strongest horn in the world in comparison of which the and strongest horns of the bulls of recds. and the lending of their horns. and x. and practice.] . themselves. Bashan break as sticks History tells us how that unicorn. Peace. :' before the emperor. and xviii. you know the noise is made from those prophecies. or one-horned like a tennis ball./ Jesu^°coin- '•i^'icorn..] which is the sSpto to pwabie""' rhinoceros. Ps. . took up a buU the theatre at Rome. is hands of his true ministers and churches. De Spectaculis Libellus. pushing and goring such heads. 1 Cor. the horn of that j. Lord Jesus nor his first ordained ministers and churches (gathered by such ministers). Matt. in beast the rhinoceros. as are declared by is their bishops and priests to be heretical. that is. : [10. did ever wear. or crave the help of such horns in spiritual and Christian affairs. according to ThespHtual power of Balaam's prophecy. Isaiah xlix. x -^ Num. xcii. v.

and proceeding out of the mouth of his . and Rev. John. I answer with that mournful prophet. those prophecies Daniel. Truth. those kings and queens shall lick the dust of thy feet. fight each against other with their pens (like swords) in the application of ^ those prophecies of David. Zechariah. Secondly. by the power of the Lord Jesus therein. Jeremiah. but be themselves judged and ruled. but be''of'a the at the lips. that can tell us how long.. when and how shaU be fulfilled! fulfilled. or rhinoceros. kxiv. or else that and those Crist' persuaded are first. whenever those prophecies are yet Nursing mothers. ration. EzeMel. if within the church. but of a it and therefore I sideration : shall end this passage with this con- The civil magistrate either respecteth that religion and is The civu ""'"ss J""?* "' worship which his conscience persuaded : is true. and judges in ecclesiastical or spiritual causes . and upon which he ventures which he is his soul false. &c. civil What may the magistrate then lawfully do with his of religion? horn. xxi. : The ciril power of the Lord Jesus in spiritual p°™ rbeing his sword not the two-edged sword of the Spirit. fa- shaU those kings not be heads. 319 nursing fathers. Some will here ask. in matters Truth. when God Sly SI God-s°wor'*' How many excellent penmen Isaiah. Hence saith Isaiah. or power..OF PERSECUTION DISCUSS'd. human and civil nature and constitution / must consequently be of a human and civil operation :/ for who knows not that operation follows constitution? ministers. c™*titS cases " the word of God. His horn not being the horn of that unicorn. 24. governors. Ps. &c. the kings of the earth shall bring their glory and honour to the new a time Jerusalem. Concerning the if that which the magistrate . Peace. &c. ' ^ ^ ' I see not that man. that prophet. hanging not about the loins or side.

a reverent esteem and honourable testimony. ix. that his government should be Isa. Permission.. according to Matt. as The also of their estates xiii. Submis- Secondly. v. evil. upon his shoulders. First. that excellent prophecy concerning Christ Jesus. Pom. civil _ _ Now ^^^^^ niagistvate -"^^^ secondlv. 3. according to Rom. where he hath no governing power over the actions of the mariners and secondly. you have examined what is affirmed the magistrate may do in point of worship . xxi. Dear Truth. Secondly. They say. sion. 30. he owes. that which they say the magistrate may not do in worship. whether apart. or met together. . that no injury be offered either to the persons or goods of any. 2. he subjects. according to Isaiah xlix. be true. Protection of such true professors of Christ.320 believetli to THE BLOUDY TENENT be true. . for approbation is I he owes not to what xiii. xiii. magistrate dare not adjoin yet. Cor. ion. Peace. 1 government and kingdom.." for which they bring an excellent similitude of a prince or magistrate in a ship. bring in significant ceremonies nor thirdly. to wit. " The magistrate : may not bring in set forms : of prayer nor secondly. from violence and injury. not govern and rule the acts of worship in the church of God . and the professors of it.. and this according to Matt. Approbation and countenance. for public peace and quiet's sake. be a false relisjion. ' _ : unto which the _ worshi' peis. there remains a second. 2. with a tender respect of truth. Rev. I say he owes a threefold duty unto 1. . Personal submission of his own soul to the power of the Lord Jesus in that spiritual xviii. ' •' if it . Protect- Thirdly. 7. 6. it Approba- First. protec- owes protection to the persons of his tliough of a false worship. in this eleventh head concerning the magistrates' power in worship.

methinks in this case they deal with the magistrate as the soldiers dealt with the . ^hieh"„ther CTnloieMes Edw. . the knee. and all men bound in obedience to obey him. false ministers. from the thorny vexation of that The rise of misBions. Anon again they take off this purple robe.OF PERSECUTION DISCUSS Truth. he must keep her in this purity. he must establish the true church. or monarchies. They cannot '^^^°^^^ ters' conform to a set form of prayer. holy days. Again. plat a crown of thorns on his head. even to banish- ment and death. VI. whence in great states. &c. common prayer. he must see the church do her duty. Lord Jesus anions deal -with the and put upon him a fiTji magis- purple robe. Thus indeed do they make the blood run down the head of the civil magistrate. as evenof'the' reformeraf godly. they take off his own clothes.. afterwards Y . 321 The civu magistrate's conscience Unto all this • . . put him into Pious mahis own clothes. . high commissions. magistrate must not bring Others again. true ministry. he must abolish superstition. if indeed the power either of establishing or abolishing in church matters be committed to him Secondly. They tell him that he is the keeper of both tables. kingdoms. and his famous bishops. How shall the magistrate's con- science be herein (between both) torn and distracted. f D. pass by a most injunous and unequal practice toward the civil • . necessarily arise delegations of that spiritual power. have conceived the magistrate may are approve or permit these in the church. nor holy days. &c. nor to ceremonies. and salute him by the bow ^"'j^J^^jt^ name of King of the j^bub!""* Jews. true ordinances. magistrate : ceremonies. -. > I willingly subscribe: yet can I not -. and punish false churches. dislikes in. civil The authors : First.. although the civil magistrate (that most pious prince. that the ^^^^' fontJ^^""* and whatever else their consciences. and tell him that he hath no power to and minisconcommand what is against their conscience. as wise. power which sometimes they crown him with . as learned.

Pass on.spwtuai i i power to judge what right in our own eyes. bloody sword of steel can alone decide the question. IS governor over the bodies of all in : . is to yctj be obeyed in any matter displeasing to God hOTtoty" not judge" when in matters of worship we ascribe the absolute headship and gOTcrnment to the magistrate." and so. dear Peace. but he hath no power to govern the ship or the it.i . with Christ Jesus ? &c. these trate Which : of two consciences must put forth shall stand? if either. ministers and people. with God. Say tucy. which no private person may. Although. i mariners in the actions of in his action.profess the magis. but to play ™. to that similitude whereby muitSdeiscussed. Peace. the prince If the pilot manifestly err may reprove him. as no other ^ _ Superior. since Christ Jesus's coming : yet. . the prince may in due time and place punish they. we both agree that civil powers may not enjoin such devices. that ^ no magistrate. and to judge the magistrate in and for those very things wherein we confess he hath power to see us do our duty. To. they illustrate that negative assertion " The prince in „ . with the souls of men. and therefore consequently must judge what our duty is what is this but to play : with magistrates. and force her to her duty. and yet take unto ourselves is .i „ i_. "if he offend against the life or goods of any. [the] magisthe his civil power in these cases strongest arm of it IS flesh.. and most conquering. CHAP. say passenger. the stup. . .322 THE BLOUDY TENENT burnt for Christ) were of another conscience. holy Truth. no nor enforce on any God's institutions./ force the"* / I coufcss most truc. concerning the cml magistrate. the ship i . with heaven. CXXVI. . as to keep ' what is it the church pure." Truth. may any him.

as the pilot himself? I conceive it will be answered. the civil 11 ii-i is i. the master of the ship or pilot is to pre- sent reasons and arguments from his mariner's art. &c. steering of the course." ship. managing the helm. which the master knows not their course. in respect of unless their office. whether every sailor and^JJ.»/»f^ mariner. are chief and above. what if the prince have as ^ *' much _ skill. the youngest and lowest. in cunning the ship. I shall propose some queries con- cerning the civil magistrate's passing in the ship of the church. to steer upon such orj^^"™"''* such a point. which is a. governing of the ship. the prince himself. 323 for further illustration. and obey the governor of the ship in the actions of the ship. so far as con- hi»''Bkm°and Y 2 . Query. and the prince command the mariners a different or contrary course. it is granted any passenger if may Fourthly. £iow ) wiu^ and which if they steer he shall never -hring the ship to : never bri to t the harbour? them that port or harbour all what shall the master do ? Surely men will say. wherein Christ Jesus hath appointed his ministers and !• officers as governors and pilots. jaXe^mas'" ^''°'' that the master of the ship and pilot. or else in humble and submissive manner to persuade the prince not to interrupt them in their course and duty properly belonging to them. the prince and his attendants be ^vfeS'tho unskilful in the ship's affairs. 2. trimto be obeyed of the ship command '*« mariners ming the It is sail. If in a ship at sea.OF PERSECUTION DISCUSS'd. who is ? rammlS" ° °^° confessed that the mariners may lawfully disobey whoTtoTe the prince. if the prince have rare. and their commands ought it to be attended by all the mariners : be in manifest error. in what concerns the ^J. wherein reprove the pilot. if the prince be capable of them. w and thus. to wit.-i First query: '"''"' prfnoe com- " "« magistrate (suppose a king or emperor) shall command the pi^t'"„" master such and such a course. If the master of the ship command the mariners thus . &c. be not. Thirdlv. . wherein the governor or pUot of a ship imdertakes to carry the ship to such a port. I ask.

in case humble persuasions prevail not. in case power be in their hands. he not be' to guilty. is and charge. grace to be of more knowledge and grace of Christ. ^hc ship. and so save the ship ? Query. and those that perished with clear. chief. and the prince to be stand by and let the business alone in their hands ? ^^ ^^ attended to. ought not the ship's company to refuse to act in such a course. to be preferred before the J^' counsel and advice ers. resist and suppress these dangerous practices of the prince and his followers. and suffer as guilty a. shall yield to gratify prince tothe the mind of the prince. according to this similitude. suppose the master. TheappiicatioD in but such whose rcsult of all oflBce. 6. this: the church of Christ is the theTwp'^to wherein the prince is &c ' case altered — — if a member. concerning religion and Christian- . of th^^Bhip or covetous desire of reward. yea. out of opinion of their skill. yea. : and and the prince with it ^ m^y j^g ^Qt bc justly These cases are if the master get to shore.324 service) THE BLOUDY TENENT '- be not to be firthe prince him- prince's followggrns the ship. livable and the ship come in danger.. In this ship the officers and governors. sail. works and administrations. and the prince himself? and their 111* ^^^^ and their service more to be requested to desired and respected. ThememeBt f^n this rcspect if man or S^fJ^oL^'/woman. as that in the judgment of the master and seamen the ship and lives shall be endan- gered: whether. Fifthly. in case a wilful king b: Query.. Ac. they are the himself. him ? wherein. and perish. and his attendants. •! of the prince's death. Lastly. and in those respects above the prince and are to be obeyed and submitted to in their cvcry Christian in the church. the prince ought not to govern and rule the actions of the ship. trim &c. would so steer the course. ought t^^ ^^ ^^ higher esteem. for otherwise the ^is a passenger. and skill it is. or wilfulness of passion. and. &c. even before the prince himself. whether qucstioiied. out of base fear and cowardif's. such as are appointed by the Lord Jesus. contrary to the rules of art and ^^thlMTp^ experience.

: then I rejoin thus how agree these truths of this .-! that the civu is Fonnerpositions com?"«<•. be resisted. 1J J be by 11 Therefore. notwithstanding the prince's command. in the fear and presence of Him whose eyes are posing of as a flame of fire.. (for : . that he ought to establish the true religion. . in setting the course. the souls that perish. and reform by the civil sword? I desire it may be answered. judge. correct. and so consequently must discern. ing and governing of the church minister of Christ what the duty of every is. suppress and punish the false. and where they therefore. church do her duty. J -^ or leea grace of Christ. punish. if in matters of religion the king ' what contrary to Christ's rule. if this be not —according to the similitude. and (in civn author- and power. to the danger of the church and souls committed to his charge. w*. what the true ordinances are. though according to his tomiihf^ ° persuasion and conscience.. that he . to punish them and by undeniable consequence. who sees not that. aU men. he ought not to be obeyed case) boldly.. according to than'Tbe™ is GO ? . sails. &c.PERSECUTION DISCUSS'd.It. and what the true administrations of them. and when they do wrong and this not only to manifest error. And if any officer of shall out of baseness yield to the command of the prince. pilot. ' ' ^ is keeper of both tables.. when they do right. shall be laid to his charge.'''"' than all the princes in the world who have or less grace or knowledge of Christ: although in things all civil reverence. and obedience ought tq U yielded 1. though contrary to their scope in proit — ^to be governor of the ship of the church. see the master. honour. viz. trimming the the watch. he ought to the church of Christ ntuai causes. to keeping . to judge and determine what their duties are. 325 either nonete^'^^J^ civiuJa^'J*'. ity. with spiritual force Yea. fail. steering the ship.* this simili- to see the ^^^^0* eMh'otter. command Atruemimeter of the similitude. If so. magistrate simihtude with those former positions. and where men fail. and mariners do their duty. and determine what the true gatheris.

and not ' r j Se^" Us body.326 THE BLOUDY TENENT then they say every passenger ordinary course and practice. let the twelfth head. me present you with Concerning the magistrates' power in the censures^ of the church. though a magistrate may immediately civilly censure such an offender. any church censure. a 1 Cor. as any member of the church is. V. which is. Kx-"" amined. tadsofthi' "rToribtog cian'in civil may reprove) but in their ^^® ^odj similitude of a physician obeying the prince in the politic. member of the church and within. unless the physician the physioian to the manifestly err. you have uprightly and aptly untied the knots of that eleventh head. is to be obedient to the physician. or to substitute any civil officer to execute. CXXVII. under the notion of civil or ecclesiastical men. wherein the prince. but to be ruled and judged as touching the state of his —I say body by the physician this similitude and many others suiting with the former of a ship. . the civil magistrate civil only to attend the calling of the magistracy conis cerning the bodies and goods of the subjects. but prescribing to the prince concerning the prince's body. Dear Truth. which . to be judge of the physician in his art. Peace. whose secret sins are fest made mani- by their casting out to be injurious to the good of the state. subject to the power of the Lord Jesus therein. and that according to the rule of the is Lord Jesus in the gospel. might be alleged to prove the distinction of the civil and spiritual estate. yet such offences of excommunicate persons. CHAP. " Secondly. " ^™t'" «ay they. and if himself. « he hath no power to execute.

members of viz. remotely hurts the civil state. magistrates have no power to censure for secret sins. trates. to the church who may desire. we say immediately. and God who calls for longer indulgence from the hands of for persons not excommunicate. and yet is make a deeper wound and greater way by the may be best healed prosecuted by the state. which may be best healed in a private way. even original sin.. trate hath no power immediately to censure such offences of the church members by the power of the sword. first. and given in their just reasons for help from them. sooner or later. For that which hj the church. for every sin. 327 manifestly hurt not the good of the state. as deadness [or] unbelief) because they are and not yet come forth immediately to hurt the peace of the state. but only for such as do immediately hurt the peace of the state: because the proper [end of civil government being the preservation of the peace and welfare of the state. secret. are bound to the rule of Christ. not to produce any thing in public against a brother. they ought not to break down those bounds. For to give liberty to magisall without exception. to punish excommunicate persons within so the person to many months. " Hence. . until the church hath made her complaint to him. and so to censure immediately for such sins which hurt not their peace. which being not may be best healed in a private churches themselves. may rent in the peace both of church and state: the magistrates also being the church. " Now we call that private. may prove injurious to who needs. he ought not to proceed against them. " Secondly) hence they have no power to censure such private heinous sins in for church members. " Thirdly.OF PERSECUTION DISCXJSS'd. the magis- them.

or law of the state published according to it : for the peace of the state being preserved by wholesome laws. but hurts many ways the peace of the state. transgresseth the rule of Christ. in case either criminis suspecti.328 THE BLOUDY TENENT is " First. " Thirdly. because this preserves not. vi. hence they have no power to censure any for such offences as break either no civil law of God. ex officio. he ought not to make public as yet. vi. is and abuseth the ordinance of an oath. secondly. not known and therefore a magistrate to hear and prosecute the complaint of children against their parents. or pratensi. which of others : only remaining in families. are not hurt. hence they have no power to put any to an oath. Heb. by some among So that the magistrates should refer the differences of church that free way first : members to private healing. nor to require the grand jury to present the same. " Fourthly. to accuse themselves. seeing the church was able to judge arbitrators of such kind of differences themselves. no more than the other private brother. or of divers churches for it was a double fault of the Corinthians. not to begin them. and the from much trouble. who is dealing with him. that which between members of the same : church. which ordained to end controversies. to do it before an infidel. servants against masters. the peace is when they not hurt. dares not as yet publish openly." . 16. without ac- quainting the church first. in beholding and the hearts of the godly from much grief such breaches. until he see some issue of the private way.. first to go to law. " Thirdly. and try by means whereof the churches should be state from much scandal. wives against their husbands. coming to the notice of the magistrate accidentally. 1 Cor. is " Secondly. such offences which the conscience of a brother dealing with another privately. or the brethren.

and that the . sit judges over the magistrates' actions in church civil also. partially they deal with the souls of magis- in telling them they are the guardians of both . the magistrates have no power to censure such offences of church members by the power of the civil sword. light. and some for observation. punish. lantern unto the feet of absolute all men but to give such an ISridge Ms power in after their spiritual things to the civil magistrate. what'uu' and yet is own ends or consciences to abridge it. as I said before. or at the best their consciences. where the is magistrate a member of the church. &c. tables. ought not to First. Many of the particulars I acknowledge true. In this passage.OF PERSECUTION DISCUSS'd. and yet in this passage the elders or ministers of the churches not only affairs. straitening but in and enlarging his com- mission according to the particular interests of their ends. with bX" but the former sportmg with holy things. because the civil proper end of the government being the preservation ^(. but only such as do immediately hurt the peace of the civil state. own to gwe tho otthechurch to the ciyil I grant the word of the Lord lantern in all cases is the only rule. and to walk in contradictions. I : grant that First. yet some passages call for explication. which manifestly hurt not the good of the observe two things state. hold out this J or magistrate (as before). must see the church do her duty. then the magistrate when the church complaineth An evident ^ contradicmay punish such offences as ''""• ^ : hurt not the good of the state and yet in a few lines after they say. ministers of the gospel are to teach this way. concerning God . as before I noted. a clear ^ ^ for help. until the church hath made her complaint for help from them. in that they say the civil magistrate proceed against the offences of an excommunicate person. they ought not to end oTcivu . Truth. I observe 329 how weakly and trates. and or man."feMim of of the peace and welfare of the state. and they add the reason.

punish any for any such offences as break no civil law of God. nor heard in Askelon that eye be. and thereof. Dear Truth. Oh j ! let ! not this be told in Gath. I obscrvc sccondly. when they are not hurt. but that she is forced to make complaint to the civil state. "being preserved by is wholesome laws. and consequently upon the is Lord Jesus with all himself: to wit. what a deep charge of weakis laid SSia^° ness the Ktoro* upon the church of officers Christ. censure in the world.330 fvhtn THE BLOCDY TENENT S?n break " down those bounds. casting to the devil — which civil offender's crime reacheth not to hurt the good of the state . and the officers thereof." say they. that the church not enabled the power of Christ to censure sufficiently an offender —on whom yet they have executed the deepest Christ. unto . they acknowledge the magistrate hath no power to " ''° hurt." CHAP. Peace. for their help.. here are excellent confessions. the laws. But what should be meant by this passage. ' That they cannot give liberty to the magistrate to . to wit. CXXVIII. and so to censure inunediately which hurt not their peace. which both truth and grace may gladly assent is but what your second observation from hence ? A grieyona Truth. which is and oh 1 how dim must needs blood- shot with that bloody and cruel tenent of persecution for cause of conscience I Peace. viz. the peace \ not hurt. govem- ment. cutting off from shutting out of heaven. or law of the state published according to it " for for such sins : the peace of the state. And in the last "^LTitt thatS place.

is not idolatry sin ? ? heresy. as I have heard. True. as the pope : teacheth yea. as inclinations to murder. theft. ••• / T> ml t t (viz.OF PERSECUTION DISCUSS'd. though it law upon appears not it. xm." It is 11"^° stitl'!'' wsl°'"' true some do. I dare not assent to that assertion. sin Yet here in this passage many evils. many even of parents against their children. son repented not within. I observe p'jjjfj^ja ^y how they " cross the plea which commonly they bring • • ' for Jrat"and charge'hta" to punish the magistrates punishing of false doctrines. Why ? sins. husbands against their wives. by their words that they wholly condemn magistrate only they desire a longer time. then the civil magis- trate might proceed with him. heretics. iiom. reference to a law if many months ?" It may be this hath J made ^ ^'™"e" law in New formerly in an excommunicate per. though happily [haply ?] he had not offended against either bodies or goods of any subject. and when table. but accordthe magistrate himself should be ^ civil (^ngerowi ing to such principles. evU) . sin ? schism and false worship. 331 exception all excommunicate persons. evil against the second of. Thirdly. &c. he state. implying that after some longer time the may proceed : and indeed I see not. if ought to be proceeded against by the ^"^^^3. whoredom.. .Egm.. masters against their servants. cast out. that ififter New sentence of excommunication. the magistrate ought not to meddle with. that the magistrate ought Many sins not to punish for many sins above-mentioned. punish without within so Truth. which are the proper object of the civil magistrate.fom^^. three months ^mmuiS^ England. Fourthly. which is there only spoken and against the bodies and goods of the subject. from this confession.. " That ' original sin chavged to even original [sin] remotely hurts the civil state. this These worthy men see cause to question good reasons rendered. as they confess : it is replied. The magistrate is to punish them that do 11 aiisin. *™'°°' and consequently deposed and punished. it is answered.

332 THE BLOUDY TENENT to parents. Let me. First. this or that Christ. I have long observed. ' * remind you of their . hardness of heart. wives.. *-' magistrate and his sword more • T is mo8t?pt to ''^^^ Grod hath ascribed. and the whole body of the commonweal being of families.. B-om. the magistrate plaints may refuse to hear and help the just petitioners comand of any such servants ''Therwho give to magistrates —against oppression. that such as have been more than rcadv to ascribc to the •* civil . Sweet Peace. have also been most ready to cut . inclination to choose or worship this or that God. I see not how. the magistrates' according to their own families pro- grant. this "^ weals where no true Christ". disobedience but blindness of mind. of wives against their husbands. transgresseth the rule of Christ. these hurt not remotely the civil state. Thousands of to prove this deep charge ? and accusation against the civil magistrate common- Sccondlv. . Truth. how many where the thousand commonweals have been and of Christ hath not (or not truly) been founded office. they that pretend to be thy dearest friends. : in hearing and prosecuting the complaints of children against their parents. that there must necessarily ' is built ^ be a true church of Christ in every lawful state. beside the true. h/ar dvu complaints. and goods of their nirance°lf magistrate. slander. Thirdly. charge against the magistrate. and which will necessarily ^^^ ^^ ^^ wroug and prejudice they say. without acquainting the church first. unto whom name The com^ these complaints must go: whereas. xiii. the magistrate.. of servants against their masters. will prove thy bitter enemies. as not concerning Migistrates Strangely *" it. — children. Peace."^ f^j^g put jq upon a supposition of what rarely xx x the world. Peace. I ask for one rule out of the Testament of the Lord Jesus. to wit. propcrly respecting the bodies subjccts. &c. and magistrates. but the spiritual. according to the rule of Christ. as the made up members constituting that body. in the last place. are.

What power " magistrates have in public assemblies of churches. title is. and. CHAP. 333 disrobe them of what iB off the skirts. not rebellious or seditious. then magistrates. lath head. not to forsake their assemblies. without or against the consent of the magistrate. CXXIX. 23. though it were in dangerous times. because " Christians are commanded so to do. because an angel from apostles so to do. God commanded the " Likewise from the practice of the apostles. 27. 20. from the practice of the primitive church at Jerusalem. In case of his inclinins to another con° science than their own. censures. renuente magistratu. minister sacra- ments. who were iv. But I whose shall now present you with the thirteenth head. renuente magistratu. preach. First. " Moreover. Acts v. who did meet. to spoil due authority with which it him of the robe of that "'*'" hath pleased God and the people to invest and clothe him. Acts Iv. [chap." say they. else we may much more under Christian we were worse under Christian magis- . xxvlii. from the exhortation to the Hebrews.OF PERSECUTION DISCUSs'd. Acts V. 25. Matt. "Also. "the churches have power to assemble for the and continue such assemblies performance of all God's ordinances. so. " Further. and If they might do this under professed enemies. 18—20.] X. pray. yet they did Acts 18 20. 28.

" Thirdly. 2. "First. and the king and his sons. the magistrate. " Secondly. for this end we conceive may " " 1. wrath will be upon the realm. consult of such things as make for the good of the churches. in the reformed times. and to help forward the reformation of the churches of God : this did Josiah. " Secondly. Monthly. which immediately he cannot nor ought not to do. in corrupt times. concerning the power of synod assemblies : " First. " Secondly. of some: first. he ought to give liberty to the elders of several churches to assemble selves them- by their own manual and voluntary agreement. Monthly. those meetings be of two sorts. as Ezra vii. of some of the elders and messengers of Annual. at convenient times. and places of worship rather let the churches be left herein to their inoffensive liberty. herein. may and should call those who are most fit in several churches to assemble together in a synod. desirous to make reformation of religion. tries it hath been a usurpation of foreign coun- and magistrates to take upon them to determine times .334 THE BLOUDY TENENT : trates than heathen therefore magistrates may not hinder them for Pharaoh did the people from sacrificing. 23. those members of churches which are nearest together. as the means appointed by God whereby he may mediately reform matters amiss in churches. to discuss and declare from the word of God matters of doctrine and worship. sometimes at another. may. upon the lecture . " Thirdly. once in a month. and so conveniently assemble together. of the messengers and elders of the the churches. may most by mutual agree- ment. all churches. The time of this meeting may be some- times at one place.

" Secondly. the "First. and to all the officers thereof disperse them speedily the churches. leaving the determination of within themselves. " Secondly. Love of each "Thirdly. six weeks or a time. xi. X. whereto the churches may send once in the all year to consult together for the public welfare of churches. but by way of counsel. Cor. Let this assembly do nothing by authority. "First. 33. may "Secondly. as the need of churches shall require. other's fellowship. " Thirdly. of all the elders within our jurisdic- tion or others. sometimes at another. and controversies. in aU cases which fall out. Let all the churches send their weighty questions and cases. doubts. Let the end of this assembly be to do nothing by way of authority. annual. in regard of daQy emergent troubles. all things to particular churches who are to judge and so to receive aU doctrines and directions agreeing only with the word of God. as well as their own. but only by counsel. Need of each other's help. . out of a public spirit to 1 seek the welfare of the churches. as reasons for the present require." Tlie grounds of these assemblies. 335 let day of every church where lectures axe ture that day be ended : and clock. Of God's glory.OF PERSECUTION DISCUSS'd. 28. that so they may have time to come prepared to the discussing of them. 2 Cor. " Fourthly. Let the place be sometimes at one church. the lec- by eleven of the "Thirdly. to the church month before the is set where the assembly to be held. The great blessing and special presence of God upon such assemblies hitherto.

by whose communion of love know they are the disciples of Christ. to hold with for. CXXX. """"''Snd ^^^ Christ the guardian of the Christian church and wors^Pj bound to set up the true church. The good others shall churches shall have hereby. he enlargeth and amplifieth so far. dow™not to to force her . and ordinances. God. that rather the churches should be left to ship : their inoifensive liberty. I desire may may take deep impression. from the apostles' and churches' practice. de- formed look of a mere human invention. dSLeM. may •' well compare this passage to a double x o '^ *""• on the first part or side of it a most fair and beautiful countenance of the pure and holy word of God on the The great priTileges of latter side or part. whom it This liberty of the churches of Christ. spouBeV questionable cSt! °' power and privilege of the churches of Christ to assemble and practise all the holy ordinances of Their arguments from Christ's and the angels' voice. ministry. ABtrango double pio- Truth. is walk in darkness ? How Can they say the magistrate appointed by God chief gover- church. I picture . without or against the consent of the magistrate. the finger pf God's Spirit. to see the church do her duty. Conceruinff the former.336 THE BLOUDY TENENT report the elders and brethren of " Fifthly. The magis- be not to walk in contradictions. To hold with Upon which whether light yet this grant I must renew my former query. written by the point of a diamond. they prove the true and un' ° •/ i. in aU hearts concern." CHAP. a most sour and uncomely. that is. that he calls it a usurpation of some magistrates to determine the time and place of worand says.

say they. trate'sconafflmcd)'' they become a church.*! if .cers is the false. without his consent. when they and how they please. then the magis» . As managing of the ship. mariners. sent. that make disciples and wash them into the true profession of Christianity. Yea. constitute and gather vrithout or against the consent of the magistrate. the churches must assemble. and were bound to see them each ^th goverchurch. consequently. ministry.It 337 the false ?o*Ippoinr time'<ff°° by the civil sword : bound to suppress church. p 1 1 T and asamst the consent oi the magistrate. against not so it. and place for the churches to assemble in which if he should do. such churches to be heretical. Thirdly. the master or governor of a ship had power to two aimiu° tudes. is the duty of the church : and members of and what not and all yet. ft may . to.. at home in his chamber or abroad in the air ? if a Secondly. by their grant in this passage. 1 inter. and should abridge the church of her inoffensive liberty. day or night. fore is. summer or winter.OF PERSECUTION DISCUSS'd. and perform his duty. though the magistrate determine and publicly declare such ministers. and yet he shotdd be a usurper if he should abridge them of meeting at incommand- and managing the please. according to the commission. for the ^^''^f. illuajudge who were true and fit officers. There- more^oMtibecome a may the messengers of Christ preach and baptize. "°° "^" which oflS. • ' aJso may . &c.. vessel their pleasure. and practise ordinances. he should be a usurper. and ordinances. what power z is now . and what it. and therefore. and he hath is much power as to judge what a convenient time . use. and to force them thereunto. such baptisms. can and what course of physic he must he be counted a usurper unless the patient might take what physic himself pleased. to judge and determine which is the true church. if a physician have power to judge the disease of his patient. it may here be questioned. that God's church people thus assemble and practise ordinances without Se without *°^ against . without and against his con- Certainly. yea.

should be the reason why in their native country. as before. whether the magistrate consent or consent not. or their own Lord Jesus and his first messengers did: —I say. Secondly. teiTogatoiy to the con- othcrs of their iudgment. they forebore to where the magistrate consenteth . renuente magistratu. that the civil magistrate must set up the Christian church ^ ^^'^ houae"he'™ mus^judge worship ? Therefore. if this lay not in the bottom. whether or no they could not be willingly shut of the civil power. not. but all the subjects in a kingdom or monarchy. whether or God upon this pos'Sa. they ought to go on in the ordinances. supply of maintenance without the help of the upon the voluntary contribution labour. and what unfit A close and faithful in- Thosc worthv men. viz. that although God's people this against the magistrates' consent. he must discern who are living stones. or the whole world beside. must be compelled by the power of the civil sword to assemble thus and thus. civil and the^uthora with fear and trembling in the presence of interrogatory. yet others Gross partiaiity. have cause to examine their souls ^ on . as the of poor saints.. the authors of these . I demand. Hthe oivu magistrate be to build the spiritual How agrccs this with their former and general -^ assertion.338 given to the affairs? civil THE BLOUDY TENENT magistrate in church matters and spiritual If it be answered.. and left only to their inoffensive liberties ? tos^eS p^toe!''"'^ yiZ'j "w^liat ^ '^^'^^ ^^^ P"* ^ ^^ query to the consciences of some.. . by their own grant. judge so or not. positions. no this be not the bottom and root of the matter: or were persuaded to live if they could have the same sword. who shall judge whether they are God's people or no ? for they say. matter for the house of God.' may do may not I answer. trash and rubbish. that is. matter. he must fit j^j^gg the godly themselves. themselves? conscience. who sees not herein partiality to God's people must enjoy their liberty of and not be forced.

OF PERSECUTION DISCUSS practise such ordinances as D. with Pharaoh and Artaxerxes. expecting that the Christian magistrate should act and command no more in God's worship than they. since the Christians took that liberty in dangerous times under the heathen. But what can those instances of Pharaoh's evil in hin- dering the Israelites worshipping of God. that in case their magistrate should alter. that knew not Grod. and a chnl sword ? How much it to be feared. and. Pharaoh's hindering the from worship. whether they would then maintain their separate meetings without and against the consent of the magistrate. the first Christians wanted? and yet do they scare the Christian magistrate. what can they prove but a duty in civil princes and magistrates to take off the yoke of bondage. 23. »"*"' why he quotes to Israelites m^^'rate the heathen. aet up magistrates of is own. Ezra vii. renuente magistratu. whom they account the governor of the church. Artaxerxes's fear of wrath upon the realm ? Are not all their hopes and arguments built upon the Christian magistrate. and intended to do so soon as they got into another place where they might &c. how •' it comes to pass that a marvei- in pleading for the church's liberty ^ " more now under the ''"sa of more „^Ser liberty Christian magistrate. Lastly. 339 now their they do. and Artaxerxes giving liberty to Israel to worship God and all biiild the temple. it may be questioned. say they. or their persons be cast under a magistracy prohibiting their practice. prove such liberty. which lay on the necks of the souls of their ? commonly they subjects in matters of conscience and religion z 2 . whom.

but now we enjoy Christian magistrates. Truth. there were no it Christian magistrates. to a Christian magistrate. a heathen all or unbelieving What becomc of the great expectation what a to do in establishing Christian magistrate may and ought the church. that God's ^ gistrates 'Snted'b P^^pl® should (considering the drift of these positions) 6^psc* more liberty goranoraTf it under a Christian than under a were noT' heathen magistrate. in matters concerning Christ. xiii. and the greater devour the — so also it is true. Have God's people more liberty to that Christians should break the command of a Christian than a heathen governor ? and SO to Set up Christ's church and ordinances after •- more freely break the ofT™"'^^ their own conscience consent of is against his consent. say they. was in vain for Christians to seek unto the heathen magistrates to govern the church. and in the time of the first ministers and churches. as it is most true that magistracy in J a for the preservation of fn™™eraTof ^^ of God. hay. in reforming the church.. ma- Peuce. civil order and peace sea. [13. like would hunt and less: devour each other. —the world otherwise would fishes. It is plausible. in men's upright intention.] what is but wood. than to a pagan or anti-christian ruler ! But. suppress heretics. more than against magistrate? thmoTthe the magistrate. to wind up g®^®"^^ i'l all. man- ?p°eciXtad9 ^^^ PeLii!'i3. in Christ's time. and stubble.340 THE BLOUDY TENENT CHAP. If the CXXXL . . on that foundation. though built. iii. and therefore in that case. The necesslty of civil But. that magistracy in special for the several . &c. All reason and religion would now expect more submission thereof. E.om. the 1 fire will try. Ssc. Jesus Christ. dear Peace. Cor. but not reasonable. the day will discover. be like the wherein men. and in punishing the contrary ? It is true.

ii. might. &c. is ^^J°™k beii«Ting!°" merchant. and it is civil. 13. civu magiaaeriTativea coming of Christ Jesus and since. of or religion.'if^J"y "^ principles. Christian pilot. that a Christian captain. father. as men. &c._human. physician. physician. All lawful magistrates in the world. than fundamentally selves. father. from higher P''. Christianity teaches all these to act in their 1™^^'"'^'- several callings to a higher ultunate end. whether he reQeive Christianity before he be whether he receive Christianity after.. &c. lawyer. kinds of it is 341 of man. communicate unto them. It is true. For neither of them both can receive more than the commonweal. but natu ral. (excepting those un- paralleled typical magistrates of the church of Israel) areff^t^nsoi j jbut 'derivatives and agents immediately derived and for the em-P'^^''- ployed as eyes and hands. in a more heavenly and spiritual manner. .OF PERSECUTION DISCUSs'd. consequently magistrate. Now set what kind of in office. the body of people and civil state. magistrate. 1 Pet. and so ma^strate no more a captain. lawyer. the bodies or fountains themis which power. merany other conscience chant. And hence true. both before the . master. &c. &c. than a captain.. or he receives no more power of magistracy than a magistrate that hath received no Christianity. master. pilot. or authority Christian. serving whole : 'hence they have and can have no lies in good of the more power not religiou s. merchant. and betrust them with. magistrate soever the people shall agree to set up...

So that the thread of navigation being ip it ^^^e°mir hisZtaets gerefthan tian or pagan pilot. if I request a little further illustration of it. although they „. and speei: christian pilot may be as skilful to carry the ship to its desired port. calms. otherwise than he can subdue the souls of any edged sword of the Spirit. ! that thy light and brightness. . he performs this. A Christian pilot. as any Christian mariner or pilot in the world. The magispuot in the ship of the and may perform that work with as much yet havc they not common- of theu* passcngcrs. ^^^J spi™ ^J a believing or unbelieving pilot. The Chris- in a constant observation of God's hand yet in storms. Thirdly. dear Truth. but more than the fear of he acts from a root of in his cSLn course. 15. or mariners under them. the same work. &c. by the twothe word of God. thus A pagan or antisafety.. all manner of Chrispilot's Pet. God and is love to mankind whole course. he walks heavenly with men and God. than to gain make his voyage. command over the souls and consciences may justly see to the labour of the one. all and the civil be- haviour of in the ship.342 THE BLOUDY TENENT CHAP. Peace. his aim pay. and by his holy demeanour in his place. Oh. : might shine to the dark world in this particular let it not therefore be grievous. i. CXXXII. ^ Christian pilot. as likewise doth the metaphorical pilot in the ship of the commonweal. &c. Truth. God will glorify himself in all his : But to gratify thy desire. from a principle of knowledge Christianity ^^^ experience. 1 is drawn over with the gold of godliness and Christianity by holy in lastly. In his season. truths. his Secondly. But the Christian power over the passengers is souls and consciences of his sailors and not greater than that of the anti-christian. while he tianity. or more to glorify God.

&c. and since his coming. The word B'iiS in the Hebrew. Although the term heathen most commonly appropri. CXXXIII. Gentile. Au^out of Translators promiscuously render the words. are yet name is. First. Peace. I shall present 343 consideration you with no other is in this first part of the picture. but this only.. Truth. It contains two sorts of religious meetings or assemblies. and Wvn in the Greek. Peace. signifies no more than the Gentiles. &c. or of the nations. Truth. whether papist. yet these worthy men justly apply it consequently must christians. it and be applied to the most civilized anti- who are not the church and people of God in Christ. even to the civilized E>omans. who and are without that one holy nation of the Christian Israel. heathens. in particular distinct congregations aU the world over.Sentul" penitent estate. more extraordinary and occasional. or protestant. Dear Truth.OF PERSECUTION DISCUSs'd. nations profess the : whence it is evident that even such as J^'^j'^^^f't^^ of Christ in an unregenerate and im. it is now time to cast your eye on the second part of this head or picture.J^^th^nd S^g^"rate . the Gentiles. or nations of the earth. or nations of the world. for which he quotes the practice of Josiab . uncomely and deformed. which were without and not within the true ifeypical national church of the Jews before Christ. the church gathered unto Christ Jesus. ated to the wild naked Americans. CHAP. without : that heathen. Gentiles.

it is not proper for them to give liberty or freedom. and not own religion and conscience also. how wiU . their consciences. and from the good report of them. but they intend that the magistrate should give liberty only unto themselves. that is and not to the rest of their to desire their own souls only to be free. and unequal balance If the civil state and civil officers be of their religion and conscience. and not to be paralleled but in the antitype. yearly and monthly. If tj'ate they intend that the civil magis- ubertyfo should permit liberty to the free and voluntary BcienoXand Spiritual unto au' meetings of their subjects. and to those of his be bound to grant permission and liberty to them. 33. xi. the civil state and officers be of another conscience shall But if and worship. they propound meetings or assemblings ordir stated. from the experience of the benefit of them. and meetings.-: if Secondly. it is then I say.. and all other souls of their subjects to be kept in bondage. unto magistrate should give liberty. and their own personal submission to the churches. kmgs or governors oi the • church church or Israel . I shall subscribe unto if them . whose state I have proved to be a non- such. and constant.344 joaiahatype of Christ Jesus. to cause him . as before. Secondly. but to give honourable testimony and approbation. in his own most holy government. from Christian fellowship. 2 Cor. '^^ thcsc I answer. X. THE BLOUDY TENENT An. from God's glory. to give liberty with for thus I argue : a partial hand. Josiah was in the type: so are not now the several PI 1 1 governors of commonweals. the particular -church of Christ. the . enforce all they intend that the magistrate should the elders of such churches under their juris- diction to keep correspondency with them in such meetings. 28. as also those two scriptures> 1 and"artiii Cor. subjects. where Christ Jesus alone sits King nary. which the civil For these meetings they propound plausible arguments from the necessity of them.

do go forth personally with that comTir '•• rt 1 1 and baptize.OF PERSECUTION DISCUSS this D. least of all commonwealth. who can hear but will ctarehes . nor the civil magistrate. . and least of kii to the corn- monwealth. xiii. For those and scriptures. the pastors and elders of the church. but it is of another nature. his care for all the churches. Matt. xxviu. Cor. expressing the apostle Paul's zeal for glorifying God. xi. and the churches themselves. but those scriptures the civil state and pastors. Led teaohdistinct. magistrates are God's ministers. the shepherds of those churches. sent forth by Christ Jesus to preach and gather churches . the churches. these scriptures alleged concern not any of a these to have care of Peace.1 to preach r '' to gather churches unto Christ. that f > T 1 • 1 J?* . As for the civil magistrate. nor the pastors of the churches properly. but to govern and 1 feed them. work is not to gather churches. the churches are not ministers of Sato the gospel . &c. first. v. God's glory.xxriii > gf preaching concern not the churches themselves. 345 appear to be equal in the very eye of ? common peace and righteousness For those yearly and monthly meetings^ as we find not any such in the first churches.. [19. were ill. the angels or messengers of the churches. now the Dear Truth. 28. • is. Acts xx. it is clear they concern such as are indeed Paul's successors. the mission. Matt. Rev. not the •'"p- For as for the . x. neither of which. 33. And therefore none the of these —the first query care ? churches of Christ.. The oommission. it is a ministry indeed. and Pet. this word. Eom. 4 . without some precept or precedent of such 1 a kind. and 2 Cor. O I- or commonwealth. ii. tiziDg. As their for the second. so neither will those general arguments from the plausible pretence of Christian feUowship. prove such particular ways of glorifying God. succeeding apostles or messengers. all the churches.

&c. in due place and season that but doubtless question successors disciples. and. maMng did." Truth. as generally pretended. Swcct Peace. viz. and send their particular determinations or these assemblies were of the nature of that is decrees to the churches afterward. commonly misappued consult and advise. At the meeting at Jerusalem. they might then say to the as that Spirit assembly did.. " There is no power of determination in any of these all meetings. the apostles and elders did not only Acts XV. but that must be left to the particular deter- mination of the churches. Acts xv. Peace. xxviii. marvel what should be the reason of that conclusion..346 presently cry out. Acts XV. So that if pattern or precedent.. I cease to urge this further. may be resolved. It seemeth good Holy and to usJ and should not leave particular determinations to the particular churches. THE BLOUDY TENENT Who then may rightly challenge that commission. but particularly * '' determined the question which the church of Antioch sent to them about. CHAP. who were neither the churches. and had such a promise of the assistance and concurrence of the Spirit as that assembly had. Aminirti'y before the chinch. in which sometimes are very few able guides and leaders. but as they gathered. nor the pastors and fixed teachers of them. in the last place. and that promise? Matt.. . when Paul and Barnabas and others were sent thither from the church of Christ at Antioch. so had the care of the churches. the true and baptizing as the apostles must precede or go before the church. Truth.. CXXXIV.

. because magistrates must be subject to Christ but Christ censures all oflFenders. made to the church. is Peace. The fourteenth general head is this. xviii. v. 1 Cor. gathered after his mind and Mes^edr*'' will. Acts xv. chrisfs pro- Truth. a xxviii. though a magistrate. xviii. [20. It generally conceived. But magistrates are brethren. " First. more than unto such kind of assemblies. to be more fit and competent judges in such high points. Peace. Matt. Doubtless there souls of* a strong conviction in their miae and a professed promised presence of the Lord Jesus JJJy^^jg in the midst of his church. 15. 15." say they.] but the promise of Christ's presence. Christ Jesus will be pleased to send such forth. but to such ministers or messengers of Christ Jesus whom he is pleased to employ to gather and constitute the church by if converting and baptizing : unto which messengers. "Secondly.] is end of the world. Matt. than an assembly of so excellent and choice persons. Matt.of promiBe ChriBt presenoo. But what should be the reason to persuade these worthy men to conceive the particular congregations. What wth po- Bition ex- power trates. . or churches. particular churches have particularly over magis- amincd. 16.OF PERSECUTION DISCUSs'd. [20.. 347 Peace. is Truth. viz. that passage. 4. "First. 17. .] cannot properly and immediately belong to '^^"' the church constituted and gathered. that the promise of Christ's presence to the [20. There doubtless promise of Christ's The presence in the midst of his church and congregation. Deut. th°j"''MS?" Matt. though consisting of far more able persons. 5. even the flower and cream of all the churches. who must only consult and advise is *-" ? &c. every brother must be subject to Christ's censure. if by sin he deserve it. xxviii. xvii. "they may censure any member. will be precedential.

Fourthly. x. 6 . Matt. private may admonish and offence. Civil magistracy doth not exempt any church from faithful watchfulness over any member. the for they : are either without. that the church may do publicly in case of public scandal. Luke Psalm " Lastly. what a brother may do privately in case of private offence. Col. And as much spoken against. 1. They 1 may censure all within the church. or above the church first. 3. needful and requisite to their winning and ergo. Magistrates may be censured for apparent and manifest sin against any moral law of God no in their judicial office. but magistrates must not be denied any privi-i lege for their souls. In church privileges Christians are aU one. 17. Fifthly. which is to partake of every ordinance of salvation^ God. 28. "2. proceedings. or within. then not for such especially. the members. 11. and must give account thereof. 1. 1 Cor. reprove privately in case of any 15. brother private cxli. V. iii. for then they must lose a privilege of Christ by being magistrates. "First. or in the execution of their are not sanctuaries for sin . 2. But a xvii. Micah iii. 11. — . xviii. nor a church member of his due privilege. not nor the last. for so Christ is only above all it. V. because sins of magistrates in court are as hateful to God. " Sixthly. God hath nowhere granted such immunity to them. Thirdly. nor deprive a church of her due power. Gal. " But the magistrates are within the church. 5. Isa.THE BLOUDY TENENT " Thirdly. Christ's censures are for the good of souls. Heb. the church hath a charge of the souls of xiii. Cor. "Fourthly. iii. Courts and if for sin.

. The miniaters or goI. iv. and charge.'"!''?^ and espoused the churches to Christ. feeding. Hence their first for the apostles. CXXXV. and governing the church. for the ordinary officers ordained for the ordinary and constant guiding. even for sin committed injudicial proceeding. and every true Christian that a magistrate wUl judge so with me : yet a query or two will not be unseasonable. Those excellent men concealed not this out . who converted. letter ii. &c. xiii. and to them was every reproof.] Say Archippus.OF PERSECUTION DISCUSS'd. Truth. immoveable. And that place by them quoted church. whether they mean the church without the ministry elders tj«n»»fB or governors of jointly ? it. having as to take much power to down as to set up. yet in the ordinary dispensations and administrations first of the ordiaances. 3. the church hath power over him. as many scriptures Secondly. &c. I judge. but ? and properly upon the elders It is true in case of the elder's obstinacy in apparent sin. Eev. commendation or Acts xx. or overseers. These arguments to prove tha magistrate subject. and governors they not the f^f'^jX" ''" t''^""'- and if the why name all governors at aU. they were rulers. First. directed. Col. gathered. °JSwi°dgafspenM-" churches. Heb. it for the submission of the magistrates to the mentions only submission to the rulers thereof. . since that in administrations of the church the duty firstly lies not upon the body of the church. or with the latter. the ministers or elders thereof are charged with duty. bishops. [17. I question whether •' power to edification was not a power over the seem to imply. 349 CHAP. like Mount is Zion. 17. shepherds. where they name the church in this whole pas- chrisfe administra- sage.



of ignorance, and therefore most certainly in a silent way confess, that their doctrine concerning the magistrates*

would seem too gross, should not have named the whole church, and but power
A paradox
in church causes





M*e8*of the

implied the governors of it. And is it not wonderful in o r ^^7 sober eye, how the same persons, magistrates, can be

exalted over the ministers and members, as being
establish, reform, suppress

bound to

by the


sword in punishing

by them.


the body or goods, and yet for the same actions, if the

church and governors thereof so conceive, be

liable to

punishment ten thousand times more transcendent, to wit,
excommunication, a punishment reaching to their souls,

and consciences, and eternal




this not

only for



but for those actions which immediately
civil office, in judicial

concern the execution of their




prelates in


Elizabeth's daya, kept


^'^^ more plajuncss to their principles




the queeu to be supreme in aU church causes, according to the


and power of Henry VIII. her

father, taken

from the pope, and given to him by the parliament, they
professed that the queen

was not a sheep, but under Christ

the chief shepherd, and that the church had not power to

excommunicate the queen.
Mr. Barrowe's profession con,

Truth. Therefore, sweet Peace,


was esteemed



m that faithful witness of so much


truth as he saw, even ^

^^^'^ death,

the council, that the

Mr. Barrowe, to maintain before the lords of queen herself was subject to the
in the church

power of Christ Jesus

which truth over-

threw that other tenent, that the queen should be head and supreme in aU church causes.^

Those bishops according to their principles,

[See Neal's Hist, of Puritans,


353, edit. 1837.]

though bad and
false, dealt plainly,


though cruelly, with

Mr. Barrowe


but these authors, whose principles are the
bishops', concerning the

same with the

power of the magistitle,

trate in church affairs,

though they waive the


win not


them heads or governors, which now in


times seems too grossi yet give they as



power and authority

to the civil magistrates to the


ever the bishops gave unto them

although they yet also

with the same breath lay

all their

honour in the dust, and

make them
it is

to lick the dust of the feet of the churches, as

prophesied the kings and the queens of the earth shall




makes them nursing


and nursing

mothers, Isa. xlix.*




Christ Jesus









punisheth any


or elder of the church with the

sword, even to the death, for any crime against the

civil state, so


he bears not the sword in



Christ Jesus


again most highly honoured,

of the

for apparent sin in the magistrate, being a


church, for otherwise they have not to meddle with him,

the elders with the church admonish him, and recover his

or if obstinate in sin, cast


forth of their spiri-

tual and Christian fellowship

which doubtless they could

not do, were the magistrate supreme governor under
Christ in ecclesiastical or church causes, and so conse-

quently the true heir and successor of the apostles.
* Is not thi? too like the


yet holding put his slipper to the lips

profession of servus

servorum Dei,

of princes, kings, and emperors




Bth head.





head runs thus



In what cases

must churches proceed with magistrates

in case



like it

well, that churches be slower in proall other,

ceeding to excommunication, as of

so of civil

magistrates, especially in point of their judicial proceedings,



be in scandalous breach of a manifest law of God,
after notorious evidence

and that

of the fact, and that

due seeking and waiting for satisfaction in a previous



though each particular church in
yet where the


spect of the government of Christ be independent and

absolute within



of church members,


may be

a point of Christian


to consider and consult with the court also, so far as any

may seem doubtful to them in the magistrate's case, which may be further cleared by intelligence given from them but otherwise we dare not leave it in the power of

any church to forbear to proceed and agree upon that on

which they plainly see Christ hath resolved

in his

word, and will ratify in heaven."
Truth. If the scope of this head be to qualify and adorn

Christian impartiality and faithfulness with Christian wis-

dom and



honour and applaud



Christian motion

but whereas that case

put which

nowhere found in the pattern of the

churches, nor

"the commonweal should consist of church members," which must be taken privately, to wit, that none should be adsuiting with the rule of Christianity, to wit, that

mitted members of the commonweal but such as are


members of the church which must necessarily run the church upon that temptation to feel the pulse of the court




concerning a delinquent magistrate, before they dare pro-



say, let such practices

be brought to the touch"^^ "n™"tions of men

stone of the true frame of a civil commonweal, and the true ^

frame of the spiritual or Christian commonweal, the church
of Christ, and




be seen what wood, hay, and stubble

tSs lf™rti

of carnal policy and


inventions in Christ's matters common-"

are put in place of the precious stones, gold, and silver of

the ordinances of the most high and only wise God.

Peace. Dear Truth,




arrived at their last

leth and



the title

is this, viz.,


Their power in the


and privileges of

these churches.


First, all magistrates

ought to be chosen out of church

members, Exod.






Prov. xxix.



the righteous rule, the people rejoice.

" Secondly, that all free men elected, be only church members " 1. Because if none but church members should rule,

then others should not choose, because they
others beside church members.




the pattern of Israel, where none had power

to choose but only Israel, or such as were joined to the

people of God.

" 3. If

it shall fall

out that, in the court consisting of

magistrates and deputies, there be a dissent between them

which may hinder the common good, that they now return
for ending the free


to their first principles,

which are the

men, and

them be consulted with."

Truth. In this head are two branches


concern- a

great queation,


Ser o^y


that such ought to be chosen ^^S ^^^ cholce of magistrates, which is quoted, Exod. xviii. as are church members : for







Prov. xxix.


a partic'vaSr church
only eligible oni"eii''°bie or '" *>»' to be

Unto which I answer
*^® poiut


were to be wished, that



wcightj, as

concermng the









steersmen of kingdoms and nations, &c., on whose abilities,


^^^^ ^^^ faithfulucss dcpcuds most commouly the peace and safety of the commonweals they sail in I say, it were



be wished that they had more fully explained what they by this affirmative, viz., " Magistrates ought to be
they intend by this

chosen out of church members."



ouffht to be chosen, a necessity

of convenience,

that for the greater advancement of



and rejoicing of the people, according to

the place quoted, Prov. xxix. 2,

were to be


and peaceably endeavoured, then I readily
this ought

sent unto them.




they intend such a necessity as

those scriptures quoted imply,

that people shall sin

by choosing such

for magistrates as are not



as the Israelites should

have sinned,

they had

not, according to Jethro's counsel,





cording to the


of God, Deut. xvii., chosen their

judges and kings within themselves in Israel
pose these necessary queries

then I pro-

churches of



those are not lawful civil combinations,
cities, states,

and communions of men, in towns,


^^ kingdoms, where no church of Christ

resident, yea,



name was never yet heard


I add to




of no small note, skilful in the state of the world,

acknowledge, that the world divided into thirty parts,
twenty-five of that thirty have never yet heard of the


name of Chrfst : if [therefore] their civil politics and '— combinations be not lawful, because they are not churches



disorder, con)

and their magistrates church members, then






and pleasing to





such states or commonweals

^^^''^ heire or crowns

where a church or churches of Christ are

resident, such loye^ment,

may not lawfully ment in whom the fear
counsel, cannot be

succeed to the crown or govern- chrSn""'

God, according to Jethro's
are brethren of the

discerned, nor

church, according to Deut. xvii. 15, but only are fitted



and moral

abilities to

manage the

civil affairs


the civU estate.
Thirdly. Since not


wise and noble are called, but

y™ ^^|"

the poor receive the gospel, as

God hath

chosen the poor ^^ ""^'la-gj

of the world to be rich in

faith, 1








not ordinarily come to pass, that there


not be found in a true church of Christ, which somefit

times consisteth but of few persons, persons
either kings or governors, &c.,




civil office is


than the


of a doctor of physic, a master or

commander of a band or army of men: for which services the children of God may be no ways qualified, though otherwise excellent for the fear of God, and the knowledge and grace of the Lord
pilot of a ship, or a captain or



Fourthly. If magistrates ought, that




to smne


be chosen out of the church, I demand,
also to be dethroned


they ought not


and deposed when they cease to be of ^'J^igu-''*

the church, either

by voluntary departure from



excommunication out of it, according to the bloody tenents

and practice of some



the protestants,

according to their principles, although they seem to abhor

do absolutely agree


Fifthly. Therefore, lastly, I ask,

if this

be not to turn

the world upside down, to turn the world out of the





world, to pluck up the roots and foundations of aU common society in the world, to turn the garden and paradise of

the chiu:ch and saints into the field of the civil state of
the world, and to reduce the world to the


chaos or

Peace. Dear Truth, thou conquerest, and shalt triumph
in season, but


will say,

how answer you

those scrip-

tures alleged?


Truth. I have fully and


declared the vast


between that holy nation of typical Israel and other lands and countries, how unmatchable then and and never to be


but by the true Israel

iand particular churches of Christ residing in
paraiieied in the true




under the several


governments of the world.

which churches, the Israel of God and kingdom of Christ
Jcsus, such Only are to be chosen spiritual officers and


governors, to



his kingly



power and authority





^^^ church, as are, according to the scriptures quoted, not

pope, bishops, or civil powers, but from amongst themselves, brethren, fearing

God, hating covetousness or filthy
golden rules given by the Lord

lucre, according to those









The want

of discerning this true parallel between Israel


in the type then,

and Israel the antitype now,


that rock

whereon, through the Lord's righteous jealousy, punishing
the world and chastising his people, thousands dash, and

make woful shipwreck. The second branch,



aU freemen elected be

only church members, I have before shown to be built on



sandy and dangerous ground of





please the Father of lights to discover

this to all that fear his



Then would they not


to save a kingdom, nor run into the lamentable breach of

peace and order in the world, nor be guilty of forcing

thousands to hypocrisy in a state-worship, nor of profaning
the holy



God and


by putting



and ordinances upon unclean and unholy persons, nor of
shedding the blood of such heretics, &c.,


would have enjoy longer patience and permission until the harvest, nor of the blood of the Lord Jesus himself in
his faithful witnesses of truth, nor lastly, of the blood of


many hundred
by such

thousands slaughtered men, women, and


and unchristian wars and com-

bustions about the Christian faith and religion.

Dear Truth, before we part, I ask your faithful help once more, to two or three scriptures which many allege, and yet we have not spoken of. Here is some sand left in this our Truth. Speak on.

hour-glass of merciful opportunity.


grain of time's

inestimable sand


worth a golden mountain


us not


The first is that of the

Ninevites' fast,


Tie NineTitca' fast,


the king of Nineveh and his nobles upon the preaching


of Jonah

succeeded by God's merciful answer in sparing

of the city the

and quoted with honourable approbation by

Lord Jesus



and Matt.



Truth. I have before proved, that even Jehoshaphat's

he being king of the national church and people of Israel, could not possibly be a type or warrant for every

king or magistrate in the world, whose nations, countries, or cities cannot be churches of God now in the gospel,
according to Christ Jesus.



can this pattern of the king of Nineveh and

his nobles, be a

for kings

and magistrates now


force all their subjects

under them in the matters of

Peace. It will be said,


did Grod thus answer



Truth. God's


in hearing doth not prove an action

right and according to rule.
It pleased


to hear the Israelites cry for flesh,


afterward for a king, giving both in anger to them.
It pleased


to hear Ahab's prayer, yea,

and the

prayer of the devils,



[32,] although their per-

sons and prayers in themselves abominable.






did Christ approve this example ?


I auswcr, the Lord Jesus Christ did not approve the
king of Nineveh's compelling
all to

worship, but the


of Nineveh's repentance at the preaching of Jonah.
Peace. It will be said,


shall kings

and magistrates

now do

in the plagues of sword, famine, pestUence

Truth. Kings and magistrates must be considered, as

formerly, invested with no

more power than the people bethem with any



But no people can




in matters of worship

but with a

power belonging
as either

to their goods and bodies.


and magistrates must be considered

godly or ungodly.
If ungodly, his own and people's duty is repentance, and reconciling of their persons unto God, before their sacrifice can be accepted. Without repentance what

have any to do with the covenant or promise of God?





godly, they are to

humble themselves, and beg

mercies for themselves and people.
to stir



advantage and occasion, they are


their people, as possibly they

may, to repent-



but not to force the consciences of people to

worship. If



what must be attended

to in this





things are most eminent in this example.






work of repentance, which God upon the true preaching of his word.


legal or

The nature of that true repentance, whether evangelical. The people of Nineveh turned from




the violence that was in their hands
if this

and confident I am,


nation shall turn, though but with a legal repent-

ance, from that violent persecuting or hunting each of

other for religion's sake,

in the wilderness of the whole world

—the greatest violence and hunting —even Sodom and

Gomorrah upon a

legal repentance

had continued




so consequently might England, London,

&c., continue free from a general destruction,

upon such a

turning from their violence, until the heavens and the

whole world be with
his coat



The second scripture is that speech of the Lord Luke xxii. 36, He that hath not a sword, let him sell
hiiy one.


For the

clearing of this scripture, I

must proof the

ij^ke xxu.,

pose and reconcile that seeming contrary




Lord Jesus

to Peter, Matt. xxvi. [52,]

P%d up thy sword "ZtSi^^'



all that take the

sword shall perish by

In the former



xxii. 36, it pleased



Jesus, speaking of his present trouble, to compare

his former sending forth of his disciples without scrip, &c.,

with that present condition and trial coming upon them, wherein they should provide both scrip and sword, &c.

Yet now,
answers. It


when they


him of two swords, he

enough: which shows his former meaning

was not


but figurative, foreshowing his present

danger above

his former.

that some most contrary itself. cause &c. It much questioned by some. tyrants. All that take the sword shall perish by the sword. It is The foolishness of God is wiser than the wisdom not the purpose of God. private. ships. xxvi. &c. The counsel it is of God to be fulfilled in the scripture thus ought to be.) From the event of it : for all that take the sword shall perish hy 2. or secondly. what should be the meaning of Christ Jesus in that speech. 52. a just and righteous taking of the sword in punishing offenders against the personal. civil . not his pleasure that the world shaU flame on civil with It is . Truth. when Christ is in danger which made Peter Peace. jjy murdcrous cruelty.persons. public states or societies. that the spiritual battles of his It fire Son is shall be fought by carnal weapons and persons. forbidden to Peter. peace. Truth. it Neither of these can be imagined that Christ Jesus intended to Peter. It seems to son. (ver. commanding Peter to put up his sword. 3. he could have twelve legions of angels. to all true rea- Christ Jesus. he gives a threefold reason thereof.360 THE BLOUDY TENENT Secondly. ' theaword. that for Christ : and the gospel's strike. either more op- and ordinary or more public. it. Matt. of man. The needlessness of it: for with a word to his Father. Peace. 1. is. innocency should not be defended. 52. there is therefore a third taking of the sword. Secondly. pressors. There is A threefold taking of a threefold taking of the sword ° _ _ : first. combustions for his Son's sake. Thirdly. navies. in the same sense at the same time. in wrath or revenge each against other. either of private.

I shall propose the last scripture much insisted ^^. 16. Not to controvert with some. kingdoms. whether those ten horns signify those kings. can the time be now clearly demonstrated to be be proved. which the high- est contrariety to civil converse.. Secondly. or the whore. who most delighted to converse with the greatest It is the counsel of God. ^^^ \^^ heastj ^saed. that this hatred of this come ? &c.J^"- on by many xvii. will cost some work to clear against aU opposites) First. and shall make her shall desolate and naked. may be taken literally for any corporal beast whore : Or Or thirdly. Rev. fire. directly saints 361 his contrary to the nature truths. should be torn out for his sake sinners. it is the counsel of God. (which yet yet. how will it . whether these ten horns be punctually and : exactly ten kings fourthly. and shall eat her flesh. or the horns. The which thou sawest upon the these shall hate the whore. whether either the beast. and burn her with Truth. : whether or no the beast be yet risen and extant Nor or secondly. is and men. Eev. and governments. and have committed fornication with that great whore the church of Rome : Let this last be admitted. Lastly. for carnal ten horns weapons in spiritual cases. that Christ Jesus shall shortly appear a most glorious judge and revenger against all his enemies. Peace. that throats of of Christ Jesus. many who have bowed down : to the pope's yoke.OF PERSECUTION DISCUSS'd. when the heavens and the earth shall flee before his most glorious presence. 11 and that all that take the sword of steel shall perish. xii. that his servants shall over- come by three weapons of a spiritual nature.

torn and consumed. not by way of an ordinance warranted by the. nor for magistrates betrust to to assume a . and and bum this whore. Truth. when. shall j&rst hate. which hatred shall make her a poor. these mighty and mutual slaughters each of other. tittle more than the people and slau^ter please the them with each nor for one people out of conscience God. You know it is a great controversy. If we take it that these kings of the earth tear. However. . and plunder. how the kings of the earth shall thus deal with the whore in the seventeenth chapter. that as some kings deal so terribly with her. Thirdly.362 THE BLOUDY TENENT whore. institution of Christ Jesus. Peace. for their conscience. Christian hatred against anti-christian. whorish practices ? &c. or rather that this hating. and for Christ's sake. the church of Kome and her great lovers shall fall out. and making naked. according to the famous types of Gideon's and Jehoshaphat's battles. yet none of two answers them can prove stand. yet others of those kings shall be- wail her : If either of these given. but by way of providence. to permit in justice. desolate. chaste. thus to kill and bum other. and yet afterward shall relent and bewail their cruel dealing toward her : or else. and desolating. these mighty fornicators shall turn their love into hatred. naked whore. and burning shall arise. drunk with the blood of ones. their subjects. it may righteous judge. and yet so bewail her in the eighteenth chapter. shall be a true. and to order in wisdom. or a better be it lawful for people to give power to their kings and magistrates thus to deal with them. as it useth to be with all whores and their lovers. and by the righteous vengeance saints or holy of God upon her. &c.

a the plunderers'. But lo Who's there? Our sister Patience. ravishers'. through the gracious this hand of God. and that together Peace. murderers' reach past and fury Peace. plundering. clambered up to the top of discourse. Truth. Habakkuk's bloody game of persecutions fishes keep their con- in the world's mighty ocean. ? if not of Christianity.OF PERSECUTION DISCUSS'd. ! it is mercy inexpressible that either thou or I have had so long a breathing time. swallowing up the lesser. and the God of peace miraculously please to quench these all-devouring flames. If English ground must yet be drunk with Peace repose her wearied English blood. Peace. 363 We have now. our tedious Truth. a crown. prevail "with the sons of men. therein the lamentable ex- produced by thee. the commands and declarations of the all Son of God. whose ! desired company is as needful as delightful. a name. oh ! where ? shall head and heavy heart Truth. the greater taking. to depart from the dens of lions. of Jacob ! Oh ! happy he whose portion is the . Oh ! will not the authority of holy scriptures. together with periences of former and present slaughters. and mountains of leopards. Oh dear Truth. an inheritance. and to put on the bowels. yet o: hxunanity each to other Truth. yet tions ? Truth find rest from cruel persecu- Peace. where shall if thou find welcome. state. God but who hath nothing to lose under the sun hath a life. all a house. It is like the wolf will send the scattered sheep in one loose : the : common pirate gather up the and scattered navy the slaughter of the witnesses . stant Dear Peace. Dear Peace. especially with the sons of peace.

is most evidently and lamentably CONTRARY TO THE DOCTRINE OF ChRIST JeSUS. ETC.364 THK BLOUDY TENENT. and make it evident to the whole world. will shortly seal and confirm this witness. THE Prince of peace. of peace. The God this truth. FINIS. Amen. That the docteine of persecution for cause of conscience. by that bloody beast unite the Independents and presbyterians. the God of truth. .



and ever since suppressed . though hardly. of clothes. if it might please the Father of Cotton's reply. I truly whom for his personal excellencies honour and love: yet at such a time of my distressed wanderings amongst the barbarians. in which I proved if and expressed. I reserved it. &c. and afterward pre- pared an answer to be returned. Cotton. it was your SiSmSr and your sorrow to suffer it. Some letters then passed between us. that one. amidst so many barbarous distractions. to have received from Mr. that he was no procurer of my sorrows. and dearly ™°- beloved. cotton's ''"'?='' publicly acknowledged to be godly. should yet be so exposed to the mercy of a™Juoa*. mine answer ' waiting. : Mr. see the Biographical Introduction."' howling wilderness in frost and snow. and for Mr. " Had you . perished." Here I confess I stopped. In the interim. your blood ^n sin to procure nnmer- had been on your own head it.' This Letter I acknowledge Cotton. Mr. some friends being much grieved.] rences [For elucidations of the refemade by Mr. that being destitute of food. answer was. to y take off the edge of censure from himself. .TO THE IMPARTIAL READER. professed both in speech and writing. that I had perished in that sorrowfiil v winter's flight. of time. only the blood of Jesus Christ could have washed him from the His final guilt of mine. Williams in this preface to his sufferings.

whoever thou art. Mine own • ears were glad and witnesses of a "that heavenly speech of one of the most eminent of j ± assembly of parliament . '- -I . A golden speech of a parliament man. according to God of which God Israel with a giveth his Israel an answer. me hope for better things. [28. to seek what worship and worshippers late acceptable to him in Jesus Christ. that Ms pcople retumiug from W^7' ^iid find God's promise captivity. _ Jer. We now profess to seek God. MR. Times of inquiry after Christ. and render more humane and merciful. Times when God comes too late. Jer.] Love ®®®^ their bids assuTes US. Wholeseekers the [13. the ear and heart of that otherwise excellent and worthy man. ^* cannot now be justly offensive. who is the Father of lights and mercies." &c.368 mercies.] all fears And God's angel comforts those against crucified. Ezek.] There is a seeking of the stumbling-block. high o " Why should the labours of though never so different? any be suppressed. I rejoice in the goodness and wisdom of him . when they seek him with whole heart. know there is a time when God wUl not be found. in ordermg the season both of mine own present opportunity of answer : as also and especially of such protestations and resolutions of so many are fearing God. . . Prov. God re- turned in answer by the prophet. Thy soul so prosper. xiv. that seek Jesus that was Mark xvi. . there is [4. •' . i. xiv. [10. though men seek him early. [13.] a proud refusal of the mind of xlii. xxix. that finding this letter public (by whose procurement I know not) I also present to the same public view. . Jer. my formerly intended answer. viz. we desire to see light. worthy reader. doml^the season of publishing this letter.. cotton's letter more to mollify and soften. Lastly. [6]. I if sober.1 ° There is a time when prayer and fasting come too late. shall j^^^ris' ^^' '^^^ tim.

ROGER WILLIAMS. shameful gibbet If Him thou seekest in these searching times. a conjuror. the pure and spotless lamb. tent: makers. a carpenter. Heb. [23]. who is holiness and requires a spiritual and holy bride like to himself. as He °^^JJ^|™'' telcheth! he is able to save thee to the utmost from thy sins his blood. and every soul bound. gracious answer. Acts iii. according to his first pattern : Yet to shalt thou see him. makest [robe] and soul's beloved. vii. and at last chose to depart : on the stage of a painful. &c. itself. reign with him. statutes. and be like him ^ in doing [and] in suffering . who purposely chose to descend of ihstrue : mean and mferior parents. &c. eternally admire him. and destitute of an house wherein to rest his head his first : who made choice of and greatest ambassadors out of fishermen. Lord Jesas That Lord Jesus. a traitor against Csesar. so and sorrows by hath he brought his Father's is counsel from his bosom. willing to him alone thy white follow. ordinances. Your most unworthy country-man. to attend alone [to] his laws and ordinances. and enjoy him. as unworthy the society of men: who passed through this world with the esteem of a madman. alone.. as with thy 369 whole heart thou seekest that true Lord Jesus. 2 although thou findest him not in the restoration of his . commands and . on--pain of eternal pains. when he shortly comes in flaming fire bum up millions of ignorant and disobedient. B B .EXAMINED AND ANSWERED. seekers of sure of a. a deceiver. beasts. studied hu^^''-d^'a'- Who amongst disdained not to enter this world in a stable.

should New England ?" ' not suffer each other to live in this " [" Though God's God's children children. COTTON'S LETTER EXAMINED AND ANSWERED. and a civil cohabitation upon the same common earth. may nor wicked men either. whether the Lord Jesus be well pleased that one. and also without mercy and human compassion." Answer. Though I humbly desire to acknowledge myself unworthy to be beloved. to one so afflicted and persecuted by himself and others. Mr. be exposed to winter miseries in a howling wilderness 1 [It is] a monstrous paradox. for well-doing not persecute yet if they be found to walk in the . it &c. beloved in him. should. and most of all unworthy of the name of Christ.ME. and to be beloved for his sake yet since Mr. " Beloved in Christ. Cotton. commofl formed air together. whom for their personal' worth and godliness I also honour and love. I am in- that God's childrpn should persecute was the speech of aa God's children. Cotton is pleased to use such an affectionate compel: lation ^nd testimonial expression. I desire it may be seriously reviewed by himself and them. CHAP. and that they that hope to live eternally together with honourable knight of the parliament " What Christ persecute Christ in ! Christ Jesus in the heavens. I. ?^ yea. for no other cause than shall presently appear. and all men. be denied the common air to breathe in.

show of humility. 1 n 1 o Where proiesseth to expect far greater hght than yet mo™ light. by his help. . upon the same grounds and practice. and the testimony and judgment of so many elders and brethren of other churches : yet I trust my labour will be accepted of the Lord also. Whether. by banishment. Christ Jesus himself shall find the mercy ithebiingiT- and humanity of a civil and temporal I have life and being with them? Mr. cotton's letter."w o? fiaat his ™ "^' God graciously vouchsafeth to find. spir[t„j sweii. since Mr. I acknowledge it a holy character of a wm-wortrue acknowledgment spirit. "Though little 'hope. their humility. ETC. shall not only not only the wiU-worships of men may be painted and varnished over with the glittering Col. but also God's dearest servants. I endeavour to may bless it to you show you the sandiness churches in these of those grounds. First. to make ingenuous lip : of an uncircumcised yet that discerning which f|. may yet be troubled with a swelling of spiritual pride out of the very sense of aman-s.aocordiJf '"(""'Ij^ peraerat'e shines. in the midst of way of the wicked —their them brethren in death.Mr. °'fth°th^'" heavenly spirit. and who can tell but that he if. Cotton else. p. It pleased God to give Paul himself pre- venting physic against this distemper.] the country. who have not hearkened to the body of the whole church of Christ with you.MR. but even of the common air of the world by B B 2 . and yet hope to live eternally may justly deprive some air of with them in the heavens. Cotton. ^ ^ ° ° ' 1 1 And must. ii." Master cases not only of the common John Cotton's Answerto Master Roger Williams. out o't eminent for humility and meekness. 371 I ask further.. 14. cotton expecting 1. when I you conwill sider the uncircumcision of mine own lips. if Christ Jesus in any of his servants shall be pleased to hold forth a further light. that them that tremble word. that hearken to my voice. out of which you have banished yourself from the fellowship of all the countries ?" Answer.

j.372 Humility ME cotton's letter God's gracious revelation to him. or to persecute God's children. as then sins.'j. when himself. I observe' his II. Most of which eleven (in not all) that church then seemed to assent unto until afterward in my troubles the greater part of that church was swayed and bowed. CHAP. many of them mourned under. of the chinch at Salem. but the ark of vii. Secondly.] . 2. And what an humble arby Nathan. I dwell in a house of Cedar. of which Mr. I discovered eleven public it which I believed (and do) pleased God to inflict. Behold. in faithfulness and uprightness. according to my conscience and persuasion. ' [That is. whether for fear of persecution or otherwise. with sighs ai^d my know- groans. to wit.gQ+ """" an evil work out of a holy mtention. ™* stUl I am persuaded. for not hearkening to a twofold voice of Christ: of the whole church of Christ with me. and further to threaten public calamities. " ""="" about i-ji o a work of wiU-worship. advised f -i • up wiuworBhip.or KT""^ t ^ ™. to sound the trumpet and give the alarm : feuhfuu and by spirut^ upou a and for fast day. charge agaiast me first. Williams was then the pastor. I was then charged by oiBfice with the feeding of that flock: and when in the apprehension of some Public sins public oalamities public evils. to say and practise what. as a faithful watchman on *^® walls. the whole country professed to humble itself and seek God. Sasonabie in setting ° eument doth David use. to ledge.^ Unto which I answer. Humility is never in season to set up superstition. 2 Sam. God in a tent. in building the temple unbidden? j. I endeavoured.

one many hundreds of Arian John Huss Yet against the whole council of Constance.* one Micaiah against four hundred of Ahab's prophets. carrying up the ark. and wiU do in all the reformations that have been hitherto after the made by his Davids which are not purpose.i know the church of Colosse must say to Archippus. himself. that and the princes of and thirty thousand ff *„'j. 19—22 :— or including the "prophets of the groves. hearkening to the second voice. ment. iv.] . that scripture only must be heard yea. this I many David David and the princeB may truly say. but let my case my be con- ^enaureT' ™ioi?g7n"' and the word of the Lord examined. which he may neghgently . the due order of the Lord yet being wanting to their holy intentions not atter the and affections.?J""'^ and proudly refuse to hearken to sidered. •' Take heed to thy ministry.. souls of that people will when my soul comes to Hezekiah's case on and in that great day approaching. and by their councils.EXAMINED AND ANSWERED. •'•'•' Israel.^^^^ Israel. that God New sometimes stirs up one Elijah against eight hundred of Baal's priests. To which : maintained by the papists themselves. Faithfalneas J^^^°.. and uprightness to God and the witness for me. as he hath ever yet done. the elders testi- For my not of so mony the many and brethren of other churches because I truly esteem and honour the persons of which "^^ pop'^ii English churches are constituted. I 373 coi. and the Lord at last sending in a sad stop and breach of Uzzah amongst them (Perez TJzzah). Luther and the two witnesses against thousands. before the ^^°Sng scripture. were not to be hearkened to a't^^S' servants re- nor followed in their (as I may say) holy rejoicings and triumphings." 850. &c. as we use to answer the popish universality. [i6. &c. and the difference of my case will shine forth. one ^^fg^°f"„*°J scripture in the mouth of one simple mechanic and fifty. I will not argument ^ " answer the argument of numbers and multitudes against ^Xs™"' one. * [This should be four hundred See 1 Kings xviii. one Athanasius against bishops. and faithfulness andludg* . his death-bed. it is due order. .

with the Lord. learnedest. Sand"" wTtifGod. as *° bS'h &c ^^^^^^ grounds. for aU and the beauty is of flesh. Cotton himself and other eminent God my grounds against their using of the Commou Prayer. p°^uaL to which since in my grounds seemed sandy to them.t the only the word of Jehovah standeth fast for ever. Cotton hath acknow- . I have banished myself. those shall perish and burn like hay or stubble. through the to mercy of the Most High. flower or beauty of grass : bu. as he saith. though on sandy Yet Mr. discovered servants of Mr. Cotton's endeavours to prove the firm rock of the truth of Jesus to be the weak and uncertain sand of man's invention. the most wisest. though for that time their Mwhicon. David of his ^^'^^ *^e I^ord a temple. holiest. fall in trial or judgment . as his person. III. Mr. &c. as since much. Thirdly.gJ'ounds seemed sandy to him. CHAP. Those intentions and affections may be accepted. and the ™°^i°ess of their grounds that witnessed against them confess so more appear in the Lord's season. New England Mr. Cotton endeavoureth to discover the sandiness of those grounds out of which. I question not his holy and loving intentions G^d"p"opie.*'^<i afiections.374 whole council. heretofore. MR. The rocky strength of those grounds shall Many Sio and himself may yet he came into New England he hath confessed the sandiness of the grounds of many of his practiccs in which he walked in Old England. ondeavoura perish and -' answer. COTTONS LETTER By that only do I desire to stand or flesh is grass. and that my grounds seem sandy to himself and others. Eife fessethtobB ^^^ timself in those -^ijgj^ jjjygglf practices.

whose name and speech others be remembered." &c. and others of them not to mention. Cotton and me. ' " [" The truth is. what were the grounds of such a sentence of banishment against me. and outward state of men. stood up and spake " Mr. said he. but that the natives are the true owners of and ™™ that we ought to repent of such a receiving it is it by patent. ' " holds forth these four par^ The four particnlar grounds of " First.] to hear our judgment of it. that discourse to the world — A brief —that a At his How it came to be published I do discourse in defence of set forms of not know. " Secondly. as being actions of God's " Thirdly." Cotton's Answer. ii. which are here called sandy.] copy to the knight . That worship. Ball against set forms of ri^e"ith"' prayer. 167. 23." ' ticulars ' . I did not publish another to Mr. religious knight sent over with desire an abstract of [See also it. That it is not lawful to hear any of the ministers of the parish assemblies in England.® After my public may by trial and answers at the general court. world. prayer was penned by Mr. "Fourthly. Biographical Intro- request I drew sent one up a short answer. That we have not our land by patent from the it. and goods. Williams. p. that the civil magistrate's power extends only to the bodies. for " Mem. some whereof he pleased to discuss in this letter.EXAMINED AND ANSWERED. Ball See Hanbury's Hist. [or] to pray. SVa'nth"™ king. Ball divers years ago. one of the most eminent magistrates. not lawful to call a wicked person to swear. in his discourse to Mr. I acknowledge the particulars were rightly summed up. both Mr. and and duction to this volume." But because the reader may ask. and hath seen cause so to publish to the ~ g™"™ written against it. I shall relate in brief is what those grounds were. 375 ledged rocty.

the devil hath deceived thee. if Mr. as I then maintained the rocky and other consciences' satisI shall be ready faction. heresy. ^ the experience of all men. ' • i l . why should he call a civil sentence from the civil state. o x ^j^g Among o other expressions ol x dragou. but. his down the streiigth and confidence of those inventions of men in the worshipping of the true And lastly. you are persecuted. mieBtobe of their own persecution. saith he. thou hast' banished thyself. upon those grounds you banished yourself from the society of the churches in these coun- I answer. instances are abundant i -i m so many . obstinacy. i books ot martyrs. cotton's letter also tope. But if by banishing myself he of intend the act of earth and The dragon's language in a lamb's banishment from their common air. and recite i f. rent and torn by his persecutions ? " Go now: _ gay. through the Lord's assistance. I confess it was mine own voluntary t— t j} ^ct vca. you are persecuted for Christ. His act in enabling me to and living God own holy season cast : — be faithful.l. as for most holy truths of God in Christ Jesus. I hopc the act of the Lord Jesus soundmg torth r J ' il in me. that. are not these common to the witnesses of the God's chii- Lord Jesus. so. in any measure. Cotton mean my own voluntary with- drawing from those churches resolved to continue in those' Christ Jesu» speakethand Buffereth in his witnes^*'- and persecuting the witnesses of the Lord presenting light unto them. oO : ^. if he mean this civil act of banishing. for the same grounds not only to strength of them to my own but to die also in New England. Secondly. suffcr for — charged^bv youT conscieucc : no. it is your schism. be bound and banished. and therefore T spare to in so short a treatise. a poor despised ram's horn. the blast which shall m evils. tries. civil to suffer such great and mighty trials for his name's sake. I then observe with grief the language the draffon in a lamb's Kp.3^6 and I MR. Yea." &c. thou hast justly brought this upou thcc. within .

yea. bodies so much mercy and loving-kindness his whereas the bishops on the contrary persecute. CHAP. I beseech you. That °^ritam™t '"*°' the bishops were far from the practice of the Lord Jesus. IV. and he that is banished from the one must necessarily be banished from the other also. a few weeks' execution. Hence. lenVMn- which yet they profess against : for otherwise why was I cotton to be not yet permitted to live in the world. an enemy . excellent' was the observation of a worthy An excellent ^ observation gentleman in the parliament against the bishops.EXAMINED AND ANSWERED. I doubt not but that what ren. to the ground from wheiice my prejudice might fen^^^" not' he professeth my banishment counsel or consent. Although I desire observe to hear the voice of God from pe„ecutor» a stranger. forestal either your as if I judgment. except for this reason. &c. as per- . banishment for what was done by the magistrates in that kind was neither done by my counsel nor consent. proceeded not with his pemo„ung I answer. that the frame mowea"r is or constitution of their churches but implicitly national. Now arise. had hasted forward the sentence of your civU . together with showed their word preached to the souls of men. and that only for their soul and conscience' sake. to speak effectually todothosr^ souls T ™™'' the soul or conscience oi any whose body he atnicts and good. viz. or commonweal. in so sharp a time of land's cold 377 New Eng- —Why should he ? call this a banishment from ^"r^^^Jg the churches except he silently confess." Answ. " Let not any prejudice against aflfection or my person. Cotton. who. an equal.. yet I how is this excellent man cannot but confess how boiUesMi- to do good. an inferior. Mr. hardit for any man 1111/YT persecutes. that the commonweal and church is yet but one.

gQuJg havc been brought to have consented to the sentence. that Mr. civil he. Jrirat^iy™ the power or empire thereof were in his Secondly. and yet if so. that he withdrew himself and went out out of that reluctation which from the rest —^probably before I mentioned . court ? But that he counselled and so consented. I shall produce a double and unbeside answerable testimony. nor and free Asa imprison Yet to the conscience. proving sciences. was and it is. and state-killing doctrine of not permitting but persecuting all other consciences and ways of worship but his own in the civil state. Cotton in private given them advice and counsel.tiQ^_ag like it is that David could not procure Uriah's death. with a quiet particular. had not Mr. . and teacheth. hand. by teaching perBccution cannot but con|entto Christ Jcsus hath taught ° he publicly taught. what other proof I might produce. not without some regret and reluctancy of conscience and ^£pe(. and so consequently in the if whole world. what need the prophet. except lately ^ j . Cot- ton consented not. and therefore would hope that either his memory failed him. and with tears since to mvself confessed. that body-kimng. ^ . whether persecution for conscience was lawful.378 MR. Cotton First. or that else he meant. it just and warrantable to their con- I desire to be as charitable as charity would have me. so some that did conscnt have solemnly testified. that they could not in their ' ^ *' consdenoes^ questioned. as at that sentence divers worthy gentlemen durst Bot concur with the rest in such a course. goul-kiUing.n* t i him better. that in the very time of sentence passing he neither counselled nor consented — as he hath since said. Mr. being not one of the it. ^ . cotton's letter Xs""™nat™ trade M""- Cotton and others did in procuring my sorrows. I cannot reconcile his own expression : for thus he goes on : . and what himself hereunder expresseth.

cotton was concerning the true ministry appointed by the Lord to prove my o J J irx: Jesus. "Although I dare not deny the sentence passed to be righteous in the eyes of God. xi. which are in Christ the bread of Hfe. said. let true ministry of Christ Jesus. that it pleaseth ^™i™"^^ '^'y*^"^' °f Mr. from the people. the multitude shall curse him. against the oflSce of any ministry but such as the Lord Jesus appointeth. implying what our chief difference was. how much more shall they separate such from them as do withhold and separate them from the ordinances. let this be observed for satisfaction to many Mr. ducedby tion of such persons as have right. ture pro- Mr. that he that withholdeth the com. but to convince the . to choose and enjoy such a true ministry of the Lord Jesus. life.EXAMINED AND ANSWERED. Cotton only to produce this scripture for justifying the sentence as righteous the eyes ot God. m the people curse such as hoard up corporal or spiritual com. . [" to The scope of confirm the my letter yrns. Cotton to produce this scripture. se. that either the one or the other may lawfully be or bought but with the good will. which is who hath Prov. Secondly.{"a^juf"?"' . Co«on. ?^ iniquity of his separation. 26. or the ordinances from them. and do. and sold let those be blessed that sell it : wiU it therefore ^^'^„°l\°' cOTnTyet dispensed' follow. I desire to inform the reader why it pleaseth prov. of our disputes > ^r. One . Hence because I is professed. concerning the But to the scripture. consent." Answ. and consequently what it was for which I chiefly suffered. to wit. Another was concerning the fitness and qualifica. 41. Mr. 379 CHAP. V. according to the rules ™°*° ' of the gospel." and authority of the true owner ' the word of the Lord. this scripture produced against me. cotton Eatisfies all who inquire into the cause of my sufferings. p. .] banishment. Cotton's not equity of his Answer. the staff of xi.

civil market abhor and curse that man. or the bread of feeding hungry souls : from and yet I would not. Far be from my life soul's we'forbidpreach. that one drop. their qualifications. with submission but to some few ceremonies. the persons whom. thought to stop the sweet streams of the water of life from flowiug to refresh the thirsty. and the Lord thednst. and from others io depart.from the scorners. &c. to have been silenced (as they ^^^ imprfsoned. messengers of the Lord Jesus. for the persons selling. which must humbly and faithfully be attended on. jegug TjpQuld uot. Cotton himself choosing rather to coat. the price for which. who carries to market and throws about good corn against the owner's mind and express command ? —who partsThe yet is willing and desirous it should be sold plen- teously. as the selling of this spiritual corn in a white Mr. for. or he in will New England. per- secutors. disorderly. or prodigally disposed of. the place where. according to his honest Ms it order. if with his consent. should be unlawfully. and time when. Cotton deals most partially for would Mr. is and to and reasonable advantage ? This the case of the true and false ministry. or callings. or one crumb or grain. to have shut call it) sell ritiS^clm to^mecer'e* "P ^® sack's mouth.380 MR. or the parents themselves unto . Cotton himself have preached in Old. cotton's letter Doth not even the common. the quantities Scord*in°°to ordinance! ^^^ ^0 qualities of the corn. : were to turn and to shake it off the dust of their feet yea. Cotton's honour. which I menand Mr. the apostles. commissions. than to he not in that heavenly corn otherwise ? than as he was persuaded the Lord appointed Yea. the great Lord of the harvest must express his holy will and pleasure. despisers. a suTphcc ? tion to the Lord's Did he not rather choose. at some times: so that the whole dispose of this Au the spiritual corn.. contradicters. hath New England refused to admit the children of godly parents to baptism. pleased the Spirit of the all Lord to forbid the apostles to preach at to son^e places.&c. : In which regard Mr. .

consequently. the not or the withholding of Israel. And secondly. [17. merchan- dizdng. church of Christ. to descend to human courses. and to be is. for as for banishment. com presumptuously. yea. is who refusing to hear the voice of Christ to be cut off from Christ and Christians. that Matt. until they came into that order which he conceived was the order of the Lord's appointing ? Again. I judge not here seasonable to entertain the dispute of the true power and caU of Christ's ministry: I shall only add a word to this scripture. was death in that every wilful But Mr. esteemed as a heathen. execution of justice. '' It is true in the i™^' <' «'*> IB spiritual national church of Israel. and beyond exception. selling. it excellent. true commanders. who Shniy"' are the true oflBcers. which truth is is the true seal? is And true. but by a true and right commission and in a right order ? Is it not. Cotton cannot prove in all or is withholding of com. Hence. 381 the fellowship of the supper. planting. we never hear of any such course in Israel. forbid all building.] a Gentile. as it is brought to prove cnrsa of a righteous sentence of banishment on myself or any that ne plead against a false ° *• office of ministrv.] a figure and cMst- of the spiritual putting to death an obstinate sinner in the now. any state in the world. the then only church and nation fpfj^ia!"' of God. and ought to it be submitted and the contrary resisted. marrying. true justices. he that did aught presumptuously was to beinthTdi^ih accursed and to be put to death. sorrows. [12. least of aU can he prove. do not all civil men Jjj"' 3" SS'bKhlt throughout the world.EXAMINED AND ANSWERED. and that in time of plenty. xvii. true Hm tml" commissioners. that in aU civil e«eiitltSr° . in this present storm of England's ^"^"^'fp^j. doubtless as but one. one of the greatest queries in all the kingdom. so but the one sort to. all actions ofto^°and*' peace or war. or publican. death. Deut. xviii. although officers should be granted that the actions questioned and their were noble.

be bMi'eh'e°d [3. Mr. Or that many ex- death cellent others. o ° both of only liable to a spiritual censm-e. Cotton doth not. should have either banished or put Paul state to death. ^ sniritual uaturc. or themselves from And this proportion will hold as well in spiritual corn as bodily. nor will he ever prove that these. as most that profess the ministry. for thus he goes on: ° ["He that shall withdraw or ° ["If men hinder the enjoyment separate the com from the people. are j. that therefore the Roman Nero. [16. p. he cries out. 44.] he spake not of any temporal death or banish- Yet nearer.'' Cotton's Answer. Rom.. Cotton himself seemeth to question the sandiness of s^ch a ground to warrant such proceedings. or any subordinate power under him in Corinth. physicians.1 . or of spiritual good things. carnal good things ?" lb. . lawyers. 1 Cor. and as well gifted in the knowledge of the scripture. pj"j^to ministry. or any of these. that of the true man that pleadeth against a false wo?d°onhe yeTflnTnot theminisirj. ment. may they not the people from the corn. Srgospfi.] \t by Woe to Nero! te not '"^ I prettch jiot tile gospel ! yet did not Paul intend. cotton's letter mS states of the world.382 the^B ME. to separate either him be hindered from the enjoyment of that which is less. and worthy gentlemen. as questioning their true calling and commission —I say.^ Paul wishing himself accursed from Christ for his countrymen's sake. being fitly qualified and truly called Christ to the ministry. ix. or that being able to preach Christ and doubting way of the ministry since the apostacy of anti- christ. 46. and yet are not persuaded to sell spiritual corn. dares not practise a ministry.. gifts of and furnished with the tongues and utterance. the people have j ust cause him.^ Spiritual offences are The selling or withholding of spiritual corn. ought to be put to death or banishment in every land or country. and therefore must necessarily sr •' . p.* m a true parallel bear relation to a spiritual curse. and Mr. having committed nothing against the civil worthy of such a civil punishment: yea.] from themselves. ix.

] I answer. it and yet concludeth scripture to prove for that cause. the purity of the Lord's much concerning afflicted worship. not upon that ground but for aught I know." [Answer. little But though he name not ^ these corrupt doctrines. nor any them corrupt.'' swer. 47. to see how though their hearts wake. since Mr. [" I spent a great part of the in seeking . whom they style brethren and beloved in Christ. yet they sleep.EXAMINED AND ANSWERED. Cotton. And even then I ceased . p. a not to follow him this very letter is atill. lights to may be it was not for that. " And yet it may be they passed that sentence against you. writ- a pregnant and Cotton's ing to satisfy his scruples. but for other corrupt doctrines which he nameth not. Mr. Cotton himself it knows not distinctly what cause to assign . as may appear by that answer which was sent to the brethren of the church of Salem and yourself. . and beloved in Christ so ! he knows not distinctly for what ^ He allegeth a scripture to prove the sentence righteous."™ of '"' been demanded the cause of my sufferings have answered. but saith. by them. VI. 383 CHAP. or the sorrows of such. until he rejected both dent demonstration. which tend to the : disturbance both of civil and holy peace. whereof evi- summer by word and callings.] An- our and our churches. for your other corrupt doctrines. in respect of personal grace and insensible of of Jesus. . Oh ! where was the waking care of his brother and worthy a man. it is no wonder that so many having Jl^j^. so excellent &c. to see afflicted. or the sentence righteous Oh! that it may please the Father of awaken both himself and other of life my honoured countrymen. fhemuse Sgs!" that they could not tell for what. may be they passed not that sentence on that ground.

but only a Cotton's Answer. and yet none of them tending to the breach of holy or civil peace.] consolation to him. were soul's stead. and the confounding them brings. to abate the rigour of his .384 MB. He adds CHAP. governors. as they were publicly summed up and Civil peace and civil charged upon me. my soul in your I should think the it a work of of such mercy of God to banish me from civil society a commonweal. . acknowledging the ordinance of magistracy to be properly and adequately fitted to preserve the civil state in civil peace by God as he and order. COTTONS LETTER before I have. . of which I have ever desired ^ fee SSldS-to GoT' °' unfeignedly tender. noltoBatoi. Cotton. " [" I intended not a cordial of . both which governments. Mr. " And to speak freely what I think. flee God amongst them without sin." 48. where I could not enjoy holy fellowship with any church of should the daughter of Sion do in Babel. punishments. indignation against the dispensation of divine justice. laws. conviction. Cotton here in- tended me a cordial to revive me in my sorrows :^ yet. What why should she ?" from thence bids Love me hope. offences. p. mystically. If he call the land Babel. there wUl appear no less than dishonour to the name of God. are essentially distinct. all the world into combustion. For the last first. and contradiction within itself. not hasten to Answer. that Mr. hath also appointed a spiritual government and governors in matters pertaining to his worship and the consciences of men of . if the ingredients be examined. a miserable comfort to myself. VII. danger to every civil state.

xi. I acknowledge a blessed gift of J''o°™"^t* frommorciea God to be enabled to suffer. Was . and protection of the state. with the enjoyment of the civil peace. Egypt. it then a mercy for n ft ail the t m. whom the church Babylon. a dangerous doctrine to affirm it a misery to live in that state. he MtureT""' Cotton himself would have counted a mercy if might have practised in Old England what now he doth in New.' Or should he dissent from the New English churches. Jer. and xviii. as some few years was upon the point to do in a separation from the ' [" I bless the Lord iSrom for his abundant mercy in forcing my soul me out thence. xxix. for myself. signify material Sodom.] C C . and yet the church of Christ also ? it is Secondly. safety. [7. Do we not know many famous *^ states church of Jesus Christ ? Did not known no Famona civil states God command his peo.EXAMINED AND AKSWERED. Babel ? Kev. v.Jesus Christ in material • church of habitants of Babel to have been banished. where a Christian cannot enjoy the fellowship of the public churches of God without is sin." Cot- Answer. and so to be banished for his : name's sake and yet I doubt not to it affirm. in so ton's fit a season. 8. that Mr. wherein it. p.] and to seek the peace of though no it ? church of God in Babel. 49. Babel. 2. and driven to the miseries of a barbarous wUdemess. Egypt."=" Jfof ^ no sound . pie to pray for the peace of the material city of Babel. «• There was a true church of Jesus Christ in material a true 1 Pet. 13. how can it be Babel. him and his. Babel. since he and join in worship with some other. of Jesus Christ durst not to have received to holy fellow- ship? Or was it a mercy for any person to have been banished the city. which he must needs do or else 385 JJ'p^^^^J"'' speak not to the point.. if some bar had lain upon his conscience that he could not have enjoyed fellowship with the true church of Christ ? it Thirdly. J^^^ Christ. in the form and order of Or did Sodom.

to enjoy their con- science to God. equa^udge of them. He however denied that he wished to separate on the ship. her daughter. distractious. he would. debts.. than to such as were at that time jealous which. and to persuade the daughter to permit the inhabitants of the mother. the countries and governments : Old and please ants of New England—^for to persuade the are lands and governments incomparable and might it God mother to permit the inhabit^ New England.386 MR. hardships of sea and land. and to endure the do attend such a condi- gOTemment tion ? able. Job xii. there. wants. I presume. cotton's lktter it churches there as legal. 183 . Old England. led to " of him of A timely no small disturbance in perception errors led Mrs. p^ 140. miseries that his. reach forth a more merciful cordial to the he that is despised and afflicted. The truth is. Cotton was at one time inclined to to the pastor and some others in Boston. necessities. 5. N. in the hands of Mrs.] . Williams. had Ms soul been in my soul's case. iii. Cotton I count Mth°''™ rieso'f'ottjera it were he seated in Old England again. i. I conceive Mr. 21 . both the mother and the daughter. therefore. ' [Mr. Knowles's munion.* would he count New™n iomi'tries** a mercy to be plucked up by the roots. but thought of removing to New Haven. in a banished condition. lastly. But lamp despised in the eyes of him that at ease. Ma- Magnalia. of ther's E. as Gro'^j ^^^ ^^^^ o^ SO he casts dishonour upon the to make Him the author of such cruel mercy. would not a mercy to be banished from the civU state. him and losscs. Hutchinson. ground of the legal teaching of the churches with whom he held com- Neal's HiSt. to walk there after their conscience of J : a parishional is way (^hich yet neither mother nor daughter himself. is is like a afflicted. persuaded to permit). much Antinomianism. Hutchinson's New England. "as being better known Life of R. him to renounce her fellowand he remained at Boston. after a particular congregational way. exposed to the miseries. poverties.

in the mouths and testimonies of the churches and brethren. chose rather : to persist in the way. 387 CHAP. VIIL Mr.. but he speaks not these things to it affliction to the afflicted.EXAMINED AND ANSWERED. yea. in- tolerable errors. unrighteous and uncharitable censure of the To the first I say no more. tho And whether myself and Christ in Old ajid siring in such poor witnesses of Jesus ^™« word New England. a glorious justification and boasting of Secondly. an humble and discerning spirit ^first. instead of recoiling. &c. against whom. de- meekness and patience to c c 2 testify the truth of .. ii. Yea. mouth. it pleased the "Against your corrupt to fight against you. Kev. Lord Jesus with the sword of his mouth. and turn from the error of your way. in all the churches and brethren rather than in yourself. even Balaam offered to do in the like case. In these may espy — : lines. »"' with God's holy •^ scripture for Christ against abideth. and to threaten take breath from you but you. add of Cotton." Answer. the sword of God's mouth. and of the justice of God's hand against doctrines. himself and others concurring with him. that the testimony of the antichrist. but let the light of the holy J^aid^s"" lantern of the word of God discover and try with whom Ii°n* ^°' is. Low Countries. as himself speaketh. . an afflicted. hath rather hardened you and quickened you only to see failings. it pleased him mouth by a sudden disease. when you overheat yourself in reasoning and disputing against the to stop your to as light of his truth. my sin. and protest against all the churches and brethren that stood in your way : and thus the good see hand of Christ that should have humbled you to therein. but if were the holy will God to move me to a serious sight of it.

hSto^^'x- I hope my soul shall never forget. whether of either be the witnesses of Christ Jesus. Mr. swimnung peSk bsaLZ "* with the stream of outward credit and profit. the sword of the is Spirit. notwithstanding the mediating testimony of two skilful in physic. I was unmercifully driven from chamber to a winter's flight. and the to the by the officer. pleased God wS him. confessing publicly my moderation. cotton's letter all false callings of ministers. Williams was treated most tenderly of public ordinances. and smiting -with the fist and sword of persecution such as dare not join in worship with him : —I say. MR." in this dia- than to breed a winter's Cotton's Answer. it pleased God to bring me near unto death ." Notwithstanding. that the increase of concourse country. in which time. divers of themselves their court. &c. to put . I niind not to number up a catalogue many censures ' ["t have been given to under- him a winter's journey out of the stand. and whether The answercerainThis most : like to Balaam ? It is true. 57. in the examination of all passages.388 Scotfon Jesus against pereecuting. and thrice a week by labours day and night in my field with my at Salem : braids to owu also hauds.] spiritual plague in the country. diligent search my my spirit made after him. the holy word of God. to the neglect or deserting Cotton asserts that Mr. or Mr. of people to him on the Lord's days in private. " who dare not allow that liberty to his tongue. Mr.^ During my sickness. and what gracious fruit I reaped from that sickness. hy excesslvc labours on the Lord's days. and public agitations of points contro- verted . p. rather provoked magis- examiner often useth com-se.. Q^^^^^^ howcver in Ms person holy and beloved. of the However. both my private disquisitions with all the chief of their ministers. in whose his mouth is the sword of mouth. I humbly appeal unto the Father of spirits for witness of the upright and constant. James Boone. which the spreading of the leaven of his corrupt imaginations. it rp^ ^^g ggcond his ccnsurc. trates. for the maintenance of my charge : by travels by day and night to go and return from and not by overheating in dispute.

To that part which concerns myself. App. ii. the speech hath reference either to the matter of justification.EXAMINED AND ANSWERED. of both which I remember I have had ' ["This Confession may be found never yet been able to find. and yet resolve to pray against their evils. and way of precedence and but in the ways of humility and truth. which many of their own have observed and reported to me but I commit my cause to him that judgeth righteously. and up°n"God'« experience. though you say you do not remember an hour wherein the countenance of the Lord was darkened to you yet be not deceived.™ft^" and visitations on them. and with Sad and woeful is the memory of Mr." Hist.] in Crosby. it is no : new thing Tjcith Satan to transform himself into an angel false peace. Christ. 1. but without the 'story of ot"Eng. or else matter of my affiction for discourse. Baptists. not The countenance of God is upon when they presume of error. No. history. Mr. Cotton. Ps. both in scripture. i"thei/ afflictions. r" Nor retort the many evils which it pleased sorrows. CHAP. his people when they fear their his consolations are not found in the own strength." Answer. Smith's strong consolation on his deathbed. which is set as a seal to his gross and damnable of light. and to cheer the soul with flashes of counterfeit consolation. cxli. IX. him. " In which course. Axminianism and enthusiasm delivered in the confession of his faith.'' prefixed to the story of his life and death.- my nor upon the whole state immediately after them. his life and death." which we have . God J X brmg upon some to V • e e chiei procurers or I. 389 upon God's servants in the time of God's chastisements ^Jj.

vct two things I desir« to speak to aU ° ^ •' men and and then another. Smith. if any rather is love God. and fellowship with the holiness of God. j^^^g rejoicinff and not in Secondly. . that wMch concemcth Mr. 4. and water. and all God's EweS. and have heard of many points in which my though left science tells self: to himself tSinT^ me it pleased the Lord to leave him to him-»jt i yet I have also heard by some. reconciled- BaSca"'"' the blood of his Son unto my soul. in the bitterness of that my spirit. of God. Let every j^g man man ^ prove his work... and suffer with a To him i/. and pleasures of this present evil world. in which respect I desire to cry. Self-love may bum him. who shall deliver me from the body of this death ? Secondly. Cotton himself hath also related concerning some ^itjj -^fhom I am not worthy to be named.. as God°mIy great combats con- Mr. in himself. to be with his in six troubles and in seven. Cor. with Paul. although I knew con- uot. viii. vi. cerning it may have reference to some conference con- affliction for his name's sake. that fellowship is with the Lord Jesus in his sufferings the fellowship with sinners in all sweeter than all the profits. making good a hundred-fold with such of his servants as suffer aught for his Affliction for persecution to names'-sake and I have said and must say. honours. Two can- And gj^^^^n tionsfor secntion for conscience. in which respect I his desire to acknowledge the faithfulness of word and promise. that soul knows God. Gal. ^diy"nd Cotton and the body but happy only he whose love alone to Christ constrains him to be like unto him. manifestations of the countenance of God. 3.. myself. my questions' and trouble have not been concerning my reconciliation and peace with God.. that after first . O wretched man I am. or 1 known .390 A Boul at MR. For the I have expressed in some conference. cotton's letter first. whose testimony Mr. but concerning sanctification. through fire : witnesses that have borne any pain or loss for Jesus must say.

of the Separation. Smith could be charged with. PI. Cotton's " man fearing first God. diligence. accepting and crowning their uprightness and faithfulness.] ance of the opinions of certain Dutch baptists. on the nature of pute with his In addition to spiritual worship. and passing by what otherwise is offensive to him. Smith and others went.^ easily refuse. Smith he standeth to his which and falleth own master.EXAMINED AND ANSWERED. Smith held peculiar views what temptations the evil befel him by workings of evil men. God then after. Smith's Differences of i. appears to have been the Ch. hewts^rr' infinite The have graciously comforted the souls of his on their death. 1609. p. that 391 he was a man fearing And I am sure Mr. above ' the affairs of this vanishing baptists held generally opinions [" As for Mr. concerning the constitution of the Christian ^ - com- church. 9." his Answer edit.™g work out salvation with fear affairs and trembling. Cotton. and consideration. . with ' [See Smith's Parallels and Cen- whom he sures. and not comparable to any that ever Mr. 1 Kings xv. the countenance and consolations of God are found in the ways of humility as tho and to truth. city of : became known after the Synod of Whilst he was preacher to the Lincoln. p. or any. That opinion in Mr. the to tremble at. 5. I choose rather which brought him into great fellow disre- some good men fault of this exiles.^™ sin to David's charge but the sin of Uriah. and then his acceptheld com- 1608.^*" whom we are forced to caU beloved in Christ. indeed from the due consideration 1 it appears that no sm .] munion in Amsterdam. part coming a baptist.wm? grievous and bed. oi that mstance. S8. is the most grievous to God or man. It is true. The early ." The be- Brownists and Independents. which lay no f^|. and Satan transformeth him of both of : like to an angel of *-* "le sanctuaiy were light in a counterfeit in which respect I desire his worship ^™*t'°i. and to do pmaTriig in nothing in the God and all but (likcof go"b°^"' the weights of the sanctuary) with double care. &c. and too. And . o"f„^f(. these Mr. he wrought with Dort as Arminian. Cotton hath made some use of ""d-s insnite those principles and arguments on which Mr.8 compassions of God. edit. is comparably so 11**^ putting uriah to The opinion grievous in God's David as a treacherous slaughter of the faithful. Cotton will not God. than discourse of.

wiU." " For the that first. fit no more than trees or This itself. ministry. 11. fit a necessity lying upon godly matter for church fellowship. First. judgment and affection. X. separate churches in England under as ourselves practising separation in peace. in suffering for any truth of his. but by a deliverance of the soul. Mr. 2 Cor. government. And yet Christ's consolations are so sweet. that the soul that tasteth them in truth. " Two stumbling blocks. members of these churches. disrespect of the affliction. of Cotton. CHAP. we grant that it is not local removal . have Firsts the turned you off from fellowship with us. you acknowledge. according to scriptures. Isa. Ixii. they are not then as trees unfelled. : godliness cutteth men down from and heweth them out of the pit of corrupt nature. Secondly. MR cotton's letter. object." " Answer. and this is to be done not by a local removal or contrary practice. to men see. godly persons are the visible you say with joy. understanding. . will not easily part with them." "You bewail. worship. I perceive. and stones unhewn root. before they can be repent. fit want matter of our church. and fitteth them for fellowship with Christ and with his people.392 life. first. and come out of the 17 false churches. exception seemeth to me to imply a contradiction to for if the matter of the churches be as you say godly the former persons. vi. though thousands are deceived and deluded with counterfeits. quarries are matter proportioned to the building. but yet you see not that godly persons are matter fitted to constitute a church.

to wit. denying and foreswearing .drunkenness. as to separate them from Christ. thus lying. such a person remaineth still godly." is "We grant further. s^*"^"" during those although before the all-searching and tender eye of God. &c. which a godly person may fall into. yet to the eye of the world externally such a person seemeth ungodly. may be godly. that fitteth . For the clearing of which let the word of truth be rightly divided. that likewise necessary to all church fellowship we But should see and discern such pollutions as do so far enthral us to antichrist as to separate us from Christ. David. from former pollution. and a sinner. nor contrary necessary also that 393 practice. there will appear nothing contradictory. That persons estate. That which requireth answer in this passage. nor the church estate of all. cursings. murder. then. Abraham. Lot. and yet not fitted for church but remain as trees and quarries. Peter. and also in the eyes of such as are godly. but clear and satisfactory to each man's conscience. it is Contrary to which affirmed. intheir •whoredoms. unfelled. the hidden hypocrisy of some will not prejudice the sincerity and faithfulness of others. and a right distinction of things applied. is a charge of a seeming contradiction. . I distinguish of a godly person thus: In^'j^^'^'o"' some acts of sin acts. that wherein we have reformed our practice. therein have endeavoured unfeignedly to humble former contrary walking. Thus Noah in his . First. oiu* we our souls for If any through hypocrisy are wanting herein. this we profess unto you. us for feUowship with Christ and his church is but that it we repent of such former pollutions defiled it wherewith we have been and enthralled. that godly persons cannot be so enthralled to antichrist. Job.EXAMINED AND ANSWERED. Samson." Answer.

. the church.. since as. before their sight of humble bewailing and confessing of such evils. . whoredom. notwithstanding a . common- Fourthly. failing i"n°. cannot receive such persons into church fellowship. of a true ministry called Thirdly. First. that a godly person the into drunkeuness. and the show of bad and In such a case Mr. although they lost not their inward sap life. all. can"! ad-. God'a chiidren long may conceive there is a root of TM \*ct°f priiiciple of spiritual life in their souls. a true worship free from ceremonies. in which the choicest servants of God. a true government in the hands only of such . deliberate murder.. by that church. that which so many thousands of godly persons of high note. The heart is awake spiritual life and grace. and consequently gross abominations and pollutions of worship .. Cotton points. fall of leaf. denying and forswcariug of Christ. Cant. yet are lulled into : rfi°ip° though ^ ^^'^S continued sleep in the matters of God's worship I ia gra°e'ot"'° slcep. and root of Godly per. and most faithful witnesses of many Not truths have lived in more or less. sons falling yet suffered they a decay and evil trees. saw not : all ages... notwithstanding that love godliness within. God's children. ever since the apostacy. my heart waketli. ^^' Cotton hath in beseech himself and New all England reformed: I earnestly well to ponder how far he himself ^0^ profcsscth to scc and practise. prayer. to instance in now pro- but in some particulars which ''See ^"d^arfGoTs ma°ny°aie8 seen.. in main and fundamental Mr. as concerning personal union to to please Lord Jesus. in the apostacy. Secondly. concerning the nature of a particular church. yea. 2. v. church of Christ. though Secondly. &c.394 of! MR. to consist only of holy and godly persons. cotton's letter Christ Jesus.Cto penSnce"' Cotton wUl not deny. and conscionable endeavours him in what the heart is convinced yet asleep the : in respect of abundant ignorance and negligence.

XI. Hence in the antitype. and a power and strength from Jesus Christ to bring Jemsa- them out. ood-s myeti"•« antitype Daniel. &c.J\'J| people and church of old. ministry. not seeing the evil of their anti-christian Go'dTwor? . of their • • captivity r J were broken.. or spiritual^ life within them.) nor the necessity of their coming forth. cannot i: ' J J r altar of the Lord's true worship. to set up his worship in . without a true sight of their spiritual canbuM bondage in respect of God's worship. 395 governors and elders as are appointed by the Lord Jesus. xviii. CHAP.EXAMINED AND ANSWERED. and a necessity of their coming forth before they could build the temple. Haggai. the Jews. we consider God's °' ^^. Hence God's people not points. must also and build the temple of ""XMbeat his true church. God's people. captivated in material ^^oKw'^ Babel. And as the being of God's people in material Babel. they could not possibly build God's altar and temp4''in temple at Jerusalem. Nehemiah. and carry them through aU difficulties in so mighty a work. J how many famous 'I servants of God and wit- Luther and other famous ^'tnesses Tery gross nesses of Jesus. did not in the least deny them to be God's people: no more now doth God's people being in mystical Babel. if Secondly. worship.. lived and died and were burnt for other ' truths of Jesus. with "1 ^^3* come fonh and then build 'gj'"""*' Jerusalem : see in the books of Ezra. and they ' J as 11 we arst they 11 set free to return n the vessels of the Lord's house. &c. seeing their captivity in these must first necessarily be enlightened and called out fitted from such captivity before they can be nextly and prepared for the true church. possibly erect the the spiritual and mystical Jews. until the yoke and bonds. this will be more clear. hinder or deny the godliness of their persons. (Rev. Thirdly.

&c.396 emfne^nt'fof MR. yet are they not admitted. as before . although pleased Mr. notwithstanding the of Christ Jesus in him. with a confession of faith. and if any cannot be persuaded of such a covenant and confession. and their hopes of agreement. set forth the German life mass." persons are not matter for church- Cotton's Answer."^ continue a monk. Cotton and the New above hie own) if they iTs°chn'h' (eUowship. Cotton godi7 persons cxcGptr Fourthly. requisite to church estate. J™^^'°^™ w^thstondfefsetVtteir whether they might be permitted in the New England to enjoy their consciences in a church estate dijBferent from Ncw . p. accord- ing to the profession of their church estate. not enjoy church-fellowship together. Cotton must be requested to remember j^g QTv^n ^ practice. notwithstanding their godliness.' [" It which was my case. ' is not because I think such fit fit form. Mr. and other privileges of Christians. English eldcrs return a plain negative. i acknowledgment of their worth and godliness ^^^^ abovc their own. How did famous Luther himself |^"e. hut because they yet want a [''The answer to that question . Mr. if they agree not.] ' estate. as Mr. Mr. and wrought in thousands by his means.. and held other gross abominations concerning God's worship. New English by divers of the ministers of _ Old England. they cannot only do. acknowledge the pope. . English . cotton's letter ! Calling of bIshops. 63. how famous is that passage of that solemn quesrest of the tiou put to elders. which they are not like to and submit to that way of church-feUowship and worship which in New England is set up. Cotton acknowledgeth. and people for personal godliness. Cotton and the . yet in conclusion. unto which Mr. 9 Md So'"" Sderarefuse emfnent' zuinisiers Lastly. how doth he refuse to receive t^noed^of""" persons eminent for personal grace and godliness to the MTeuM™"'' Lord's supper. eminent viz. until they be convinced of the necessity of making and entering into a church covenant with them.. &c. but not permit them to live and breathe in the same air and commonweal it to- gether. in effect thus much.

63.' And this is the reason why. in his tells of the same.. 1 1 : Hence. Mader the substance of that all One of his friends for being active in ^however. and arguing against their covenant.." ' [" It was his doctrines and praccivil which tended to the dis- answer . until all the former in- stances and reasons.J^J need they a mighty work of J'JJj^l™"' i^JmfaisTto God's Spirit to humble and ashame them. in God's nostrils. yet I said. &c. are not fitted to constitute the true it hath pleased God to convince their souls of the evil of the false church. who " standing upon that made him in the unfit for enjoying Eng- communion other. vi. Ezek.. &c. nor digging I confess that godly persons are -I-I11-- and need no new regeneration (and so in that respect need no felling out).." one state or in the land. pleaseth God's Spirit to speak of xlili. 64.-. ministry. God's people are not fit for God's house until holy shame be wrought in them what they have done.. in whom life they cannot first discern true regeneration still and the of Jesus. is notoriously slandered turbance of the commonwealth." &c. Cotton and others most incensed to give myself a 397 testi- mony of godliness. Lechford. because they have broken him with their whorish hearts.] Weymouth. as false worships. that godly and regenerate persons. — were drawn up by Mr. And hence it for and to all the other thirty-two ques- was compelled to recant some words. payed tices it down. it." utter- tions.. and to cause them to loathe themselves for their abominations or stinks it bMp. But his our minds.-. Ezek. however his ministry as of the church of churches here. according to Christian church. these they were us of a minister. p. p. 22. as I conceive.. and affirm. yet °'°°/5.£5 more.] answer doth generally read suit with ing some cross word8. together with his heady and busy pursuit and abused by the examiner. worGoaiy pcrtrees 1 ^**°^ living not dead but livmg trees. ship. even to the rejection of all "Plain Dealing. Hence God promiseth to cause them to loathe themselves." ton's Cot- Answer. although I confess with joy the care of the New English churches that no person be received to fellowship with them. not dead but living stones. and P. " and 1 have and did readily approve it to be judicious and solid. . and And although -.EXAMINED AND ANSWERED. his election was fined £10. 9. and being elected at Cotton's Answer.

Jehovah liveth who is conceived them from the land of the north—a type of God's invented worships. man peraonaiiy. which is not concerning personal godliness or grace of Christ. whom all God's pcoplc by faith receive. at their first conversion. xii. Christ two *^^* ^^^ Mediator between God and man. Jcsus. John 12. that it pleased God to say concerning his people's return from their material captivity. Thus was lius. Hence was spiritual it. that godly persons are not so enthralled to anti-christ as to separate them from Christ. the woman of Canaan. Jehovah liveth who brought them Egypt—a type of first conversion as tte'™/or fcrings the north. in which is rcspect the church called Christ. people. formed into a body of worshippers. Now XII. CHAP. hath been a second kind of regeneration. church. Corne- and most. cotton's letter Smd'kfna rfrege'S. the scripture holdeth forth Christ as head of liis sSSoto absent from his Bpouso. 12 is : and the description of Christ admirably set forth in ten several .^"*" some precious godly hearts confess. this comes not near our question. is that I have known. as that God-man. people can separated receiving become the sons of God. people's return from spiritual bondage to confused and but. Hence the the scripture holds forth Christ Jesus sidered first personally. although they yet scc uot the particular ways of his worship. head^of^hif it with the centurion. say. that the plucking of their souls out from the abominations of falsc worsHp. a figure of our and mystical. that they should not from the land of . Secondly. whereas Mr. 1 Cor. Cotton addeth. but the godliness or Christianity of worship. and in i.398 forthTfiSfe MR. else they could not be godly persons : I answer.

diocesan. that is.] [" What if ecclesiastical stories be deficient in telling us the times and places of their church assemblies ? Is therefore the be separate from Christ. more or less submitted to anti-christ and his church. and so consequently have been ignorant of ' [" His distinction. Sodom.* nunistry. Cotlittle ton himself wiU not deny. fitting 399 to the visible and suiting profession of Christ in the church. &c. parts of a man's body. worship. according xi. xm. beast: yet God hath stirred up witnesses to prophesy in sackcloth against the beast. and the truth of a particular congregation.EXAMINED AND ANSWERED. Cant. although he enthral Egypt. 8sCr. thus well answered.. in the general as head * of the visible church. during his forty-two months' reign: yet those witnesses have in their times. p. may separate from Christ's true visible church and worship. and parishional church. that enthral God's people as to separate is. have been trodden under foot. as to Cotton'is Answer. to wit." do approve it. provincial. appeared unto him. 66. ^ is where was The «•"»<='» before your church before Luther ? to the prophecy. anti-christ can never so Christ. and xiii. v. Yet in the second respect. taking Christ word of God defi- . them for into never so gross abominations concerning worship: will not lose his in God His jewels are most precious to him though in a Babylonish dunghill. and his lily sweet and lovely in the wilderness commixed with Christ is briars. and do willingly acknowledge that a godly person may I be. them from from the life and grace of Christ. consisting only of holy persons. white it is he remember how a since the falsehood of a national. JN^ow in the former respect. viz..^ if This Mr.. I conceive that anti-christ God's people from Christ. through ignorance or negligence. Kev. ^""'"'• that since the apostacy. so far enthralled to anti-christ. and the whole earth hath wondered after the Eev. as God-s people afaisechriBt and the true togs'tw- taken for the church. truth and the holy city. The papists' question to the protestant. Babel.

Cotton. as them to anti-christ so as to separate them from Christ. but under the bondage of the law yea." cient. and the apostle Paul directeth the Komans to receive faith. xiv. they see and bewail so did enthral much of their former pollutions. because ? . the church deficient.. is.400 MR. or denses. and be ready in preparation of heart. that it is " Secondly. and Christ and his churches. . 69. and days. XIII. and saw not the beggarly emptiness of Moses's ceremonies. cotton's letter is. so to it is hate more and more eveiy false way . we conceive as much as is necessarily required to fellowship with to separate them from anti-christ. The church of Christ admitted many thousand Jews although they were that believed on the still name of Christ. Acts xxi. stories are deficient Yet been extant a tempore apostoloritm. as they shall see more light.] sometimes their own inquisitors conthat the churches of the Wal- . worship. Eom. that the members admitted thereunto should tions all of them see and expressly bewail defiled all the pollu- which they have been with in the former if church fellowship. because Christ hath received them. government. &c. that so necessary that without a church cannot be. or men of that way. that Christ taken for the churchin the true profession of that holy way of worship. zealous of the law. Mr. CHAP. . p. to the 6th. the true Christ." Cotton's Answer. we deny necessary to it church fellowship. which he himself at first appointed. he wisheth them to receive such upon this 1 ground. have human feSB. 20 . such unto them as are weak in the liberty still lie and see not their from the servile difference of meats. ministry.

cotton confessing church estate. God's people may be and the contradiction misreport. worship. whether a godly person remain ji member of a falsely constituted church. there is not the like anti-chrlst if 401 danger of lying under : bondage to Moses as to for even the bondage under Moses was such. true.* anti-christ. Mr. p. &c. respect. as being in external covenant with him.. as to Lnswer separate them from Christ them : for. would separate them from Christ. as continued in after instruction v. and bondage under anti-christ could do no more. but godly persons cannot be so people. 71 . cotton own confession of that which a little confeasingto before he would make so odious in me to hold. Gal. viz. saith he. in that ' Christ. them utterly from Christ. so as to separate them from in his Faiiacj in jjp_ Cotton's «''^"^'^ Christ. Mr.. that JeMM^Jeth God's people may be so far enthralled to anti-christ. of a false and so consequently. " all the * 8»diy ' o A gon remainjjg o." : Answ. " If they see and bewail so much of enthral their former pollutions. to chmoh"' embraced and submitted Secondly. and them -from per- And yet he expresseth nothing of that. 2. Cotton's own confession of that twofold former false. and conviction. and yet they are net always Cotton's Answer. his ' •^ Mr. as to separate For God's people and all one.] D D . ariseth from his so enthralled to anti-christ." visible and inviiible church members maybe called God's church. both godly persons are not Any as head of the enthralled." enthral Christ. as did to anti-christ." nor what so much is as will separate them from if Christ. ["My words are misreported: godly persons. Here I desire three things may be observed First. for thus he writes •' Though they been if see not all the pollutions wherewith they have defiled in the former church fellowship.EXAMINED AND ANSWERED. I observe •' how easily a soul J : may wander J generals. " Say not."^™' pollutions."* Thirdly." Again. " they see so separate much as did them to . Hence upon is that former distinction that Christ ifthereiTa' false Christ? in visible worship Christ. I demand. the or else why f^ige'j^njti'* be ""* to be so bewailed and forsaken ? the second to.

CHAP. although bitween''° MytasrtuVeTs. yet the difference bondage to Moses would separate from must be observed between those Ordinances of Moses which it pleased God himself to ordaiu and appoint. whether be not absolutely necessary is. that Jews. which separates though more subtilly. &c. .. Thus and as as Thessalonians turned from their idols before they 1 could serve the living and true God. Egypt before they The Jews come or she be legally Boulfrom^ theidoia- of Babel before they build the temple in Jerusalem. so in anti-christianism.*" his Uniting with the true church. Thus the 1 Cor. another stock. die. Ti.see and bewail.. that he. as his then only worship in the world. two things must here carefully be minded ^irst. Christ. they were washed from the their idolatry. ™ The husband of a woman [must] *" Invented worships of can^'be""™ch"ristJe°sus. Yea ties. i. that there can be true. before she can lawfully be married to another: graft cut off from one before it can be ingrafted into is. Seiy ncces. with Christ in truc Christian worship. weak in Christian liber- and zealous for Moses's law. XIV. cotton's letter visible ? it worship he be not separate from the Secondly. and is cut out of the Corinthians. they were to be received. and absolutely come out from that former false church or Christ. The kingdom of ii. from Christ Jesu. but it is said. 9 . I ask. or Christ. in paganism. uniting with Christ Jesus. before he can be united to the true Israel —must come God forth of ^™ lion ^^tl'If or SGpti- sacrifice to in the wilderness. Roman monarchy. divorccd. 9 — 11. . Thess. : I answer. that yii. certainly. worship. bed of his own most Jl^'y^institu- mouutaiu of the . and can oiit his ministry. Dan. as well as other sins.402 whether in true Christ from^s™ MR. the king- virgin Sto dom /-i of the saints.'and' pa«anih.

""i *» ti»« U'6ntli68) AS and ordinances of anti-christ. the Christians at l^^^ D D 2 . v. secondly. Now the first was silver. observe the difierence of time. xxxiv. i. nor with such solemnity to be laid down. . in the type and shadow.a comtwcen'the^ christian ordinances. as a silver candlestick. Mosee-s or- which Mr. at one season. and would separate from Christ. ish. to wit. The national church of the Jews." therefore. at anotlier^time ^eg^^iy and lamented for—^as I%)nceive days.) by the hand of the Son of God himself. and did not separate from Christ. abolished as the former. lasting nature. that if they were circumcised Christ should profit them nothing.] — in the type and figure thirty Therefore.EXAMINED AND ANSWERED. until Moses was honourably fallen asleep. Paul circumcised Timothy: at another time. though now in the coming of take away.] Hence. " Moses s law was deadly. there was a time when they were not deadly. typical ordinances of kings. Son he was pleased 1 and on the other ii'ii^*^ the side. Gal. and obstinately would be cumcised. not for Timothy's weak conscience. That silver candlestick it pleased the Most Holy and Only Wise to take away. were on which the light ° Lord Jesus. Therefore. but intended only for a season . were from to last never to be received and submitted to one moment. that 28. and instead thereof to set up the golden candlesticks of particular churches (Rev. but to be abhorred and abominated for ever. kingdom not xii. priests. first which the devil t™ mamfr firtHr"^ himself invented. yet with solemnity institutions 1 403 to anti-chriatinstitu- 'IT" his . was set up and shined. to be shaken. sacrifices. the pure of the knowledge of the God and — will and mind of God. prophets. with all the shadow. temple. [2. a is." saith he. the second of a more precious. when the Jews cir- had sufiGicient instruction. and that necessarily to salvation. Deut. but for the Jews' sake. Cotton himself confesseth: "after instruction and 11 iTi 1 conviction. and one'timl* precious and toiy. [8. Heb. Paul seasonably cries out.

which pleaseth the Father of lights to dispeusc variouslv. and the ceremonies of then they Timothy. to observe the unholy holy days of feasting and fasting invented by antichrist? of Yea. cotton's letter Ephesus conversed with the Jewish synagogue until the J^ws contradictcd and blasphemed. and. or any . may o rM therefore a messenger or L/hnst now. and then were speedily separated Jewsotn. in the fear and presence of God. uniting or adding himself to the true church now. Acts xix. to prove the same tenderness to Satan's inventions. received to the true Christian church. parishional.] ' But to apply. observed a vow. laexcommunicated. pray to saints. Christmas and other popish feasts and Again. it will appear how vain the allegation is. to another ° T T_ 1 ^clievc it absolutcly necessary to see and ^^^' — • . necessity o( cutting off fais" before sorrow for anti-christian abominations it — spcak in rcspcct of degrees..404 communifyTagogaeB MR. although I prescribe not such a of01^ measure foVantr™ of sig^t ab?mina. anti. (fcc. to practise I doubt not . when once the time of their full peeof^sight . to one more. and [to] the consciences of men in the re- nouncing of paganical. it.* "^^ conclude. Turkish. from that tender and honourable respect to God's ordinances vanishing from the Jews. vanishing was come. and their now weak consciences about the same. yea. by Paul. couvinccd before excommunication: but the question still observing and so practising. &c. as the Jews ? although they yet practised Moses's ceremonies These things duly pondered. keep fasts ? &c. is there such a time allowed to any man. as Paul. and I add Judaical worships now. as Paul did circumcision. pracHce"not any paganish or popish whether he must be instructed and is. a person may be wer^e. [9. but if any Ttrae" *^® popish sacraments ? of a t^^iie member fall to tag tato'Uiy church or assembly of worshippers. {"rue^churct wirawp'^'iie. ^^wail SO much as may amount to cut off the soul from the false church. perform penance. Paul anVspoke evil.christian. whether national. shall practice. ' in circumcised go to mass.

for that of Revelation.EXAMINED AND ANSWERED. Cotton. To vi. pp. 77. " Ans. although may be they do not see the utmost skirts of all that pollution they have sometimes been defiled with: as the patriarchs saw not the pollution of • [" He requireth that we should If he speak of the national church cut off ourselves from hearing the ministry of the parishes in England. 3. you do not apprehend that it be suflacient. 2 Cor.* CHAP. xviii. is faisely consti- and all the ministry. and can challenge no warrant of truth but falsely. nor any fellowship were they to keep with them in the unfruitful works of darkness. only requireth coming out from idolaters in the fellowship of their idolatry. as being the ministry of a national. Isa. marriages were they to No were make with them. there indeed truth fallen and or parishional church. no idol's feasts they to hold with them in the familiarity temple : no intimate were they to maintain with them. and quireth. Mr. two of them make nothing to your purpose Isaiah and the other of the separation. As for that place of the Corinthians. we must is confess the truth. 405 other falsely constituted church. government. Cotton's Answer. lii. Eev. and yet to you say. and who do professedly renounce and if bewail all known sin. speak of local which yourself know we have made. and government of it. 17 . false also. this is all which that place reprove. 11 . ministry. XV. that But what makes all this to we may not receive such persons to church fellowship as yourself confess to be godly. 4." — the church estate tuted. worship. it and would renounce more they knew more. All ofthem are forsaken of Truth. places of scripture which you object. worship. and government thereof 84.] . whereof both falsehood hath prevailed much. : we answer.

But. first he might find I was ton's Answer. xviii.'' Isa. saith he. make For that lii- local and typical separation from Babylon. MR. they speak of local separation. or writings of truth. Cotton. not the xviii. 4. x x j ^ . 1 Pet. antitype. 87. a true church of Jesus Christ.406 their polygamy. two Isa. Brightman Cot- on Rev. nation. of those scriptures alleged by me./ comings [11'] I could uot wcU havc believed that Mr. Cotton cannot know we have made." pleased to have read Mr. Cotton Babeiboth andantitype. Rev. in the Certainly. The scriptures. saith Mr. COTTON S LETTER you may plainly see this place wrested beside the apostle's scope when you argue from But that that such persons are not fit matter for church fellowanti-christian ship as are defiled with any remnants of any more to pollution.] It a local Babel. p. if Babel be local " are called. nor such churches be accounted consider. a land of [« If the examiner that place in Isaiah. and that blessed star that leads all those souls to Jesus that seek him. which. are those heavenly righteous scales wherein all our controversies must be tried. [13. were there not at that time in the church of Corinth such as partook with the idolaters in the idol's temple thing? ? And And did was not this the touching of an unclean this sin reject these ? members from did it church fellowship before conviction Or evacuate ?'' their church estate for not casting out such members Answ. of a local separation. is it. then also now a Secondly. Hi. but there we find. v. then ' now whence must there be a had been God's people r r local Judea. or auy would • make that coming forth of Babel in the antitype. yourself Mr. to be local. or country m ? the world.. What •! civil state. xviii. Kev. 4. which I brought to prove a necessity of leaving the false before a joining to the true church. or this in Revelation. to -xxr-i be local and material also.] that interpreted either . must now be itself called Babel then Babel properly so called . 4. as before. if any. 11. churches as do receive such amongst them: I pray you.

difference of places. ' that the whole nation forced. •^ . or the souls other men. government. 8. all difference of persons for myself. but have been distressed and persecuted by them. that all others dissenting from them. of New England Judea. I }j°''a°ffg°™ pJa'ces and ''°"™° acknowledge the land of England. my people.^ ' [" The two say causes of God's in- I should so assent to the latter. into 407 '"ra"' J«df shall and temple. and people of England." &c ? Doth he and so and the land count the very land of England literally Babel. The Lord and John iv. Acts x.] . though unre. as the greatest causes. these last times ? made from the church of Kome in But Mr.. according to '' and generations of men have been the institution of the Lord Jesus. all and top roots of the indignation of the >/ Most High These two particulars I against the state and country ° . which they are called •1 . the civil laws. Canaan also. tals. clearly \ breaks down all The Lord JeauB hath . have not been per- mitted civil cohabitation in this world with them. whether more "** n°uon Engiimd. high and honourable at the helm of government. Secondly. consequently Egypt and Sodom. whether Jews or Gentiles. " Come out of Babel. p. my dear countrymen.EXAMINED AND ANSWERED. Canaan ? &c. as dignation against England — I would than not to move for a toleration of in all rather Amen to them. that he hath obeyed that voice. ' first. 8 9. partake not of her sins. and.h„™y ''° generate and unrepentant. not to be inferior to any under heaven. for strangers have a liberty. or more who labour and sail in this famous ship of Eng- land's commonwealth. dissenters. Jesus. Only Cotton's Answer. can he satisfy his New England of own soul. to truly regenerate and repenting souls. Only two things I c -^ shall TwochUfest causes of humbly suggest unto inferior. xi." dissenters fundamen- weaken the weight of them. their countrymen especially. to pretend and assume the "^J p^of name of Christ Jesus. which only belongs. Rev. ' and where all both that Babel and Canaan be found in forth that have been the comings fut'of Baw. fountains. Cotton having made a local butmysucai! departure from Old England in Europe to in America..

it vi. Answ. *i iMpMnot guwiand* tut a habit' or disposi- whether or no that false worshipping of the God be J. and one good means practised i5r'Mr™ot. Mr.toward the convincing and saving of the souls of such from whom in these particulars they depart. but also an habit..408 The Boui-s MR. COTTON to return is. in the fellowship of their idolatry. a sick by the change of a or sleepy man. CHAP. but they remain the same until that disposition of sickness. &c. 3. and a soul-sickness : so that as chamber. whore or stiU. not only a spiritual guilt liable to God's . are not changed.. xvu. From intimate familiarity with them. sleepiness. and dare not . Now here concerning that scripture. t-» " • sentence and plagues. a gieep chair. sobriety. If regenerate and truly repenting English thus come forth from the unregenerate and unrepenting. From feasting in their idols' temples. 2. chastity be put on. to a disposition of spiritual drunkenness spirit and soul- i JiSen-"'"' nesB. drunkard. 4. repenting Corinthians were called out from the unre- penting First. how thmr coming forth" from would the name of the Lord Jesus be sanctified. From all fellowship in the unfruitful works of dark- ness. XVI. or bed. drunkenness. whoredom be put off. and whoredom. 5. S'there-^'^ English. and Kev. watchfulness. their own souls cleansed. frequently como tionofspi- pared in the prophets. and a new habit of spiritual health. ^ S LETTER captiyity to But Cotton true the sum of my >i controversy with Mr. in'thMe^"^'' pScuim judgments prevented. the the impenijealousy of the Lord pacified. . yea. 2 Cor. From making marriages with them. Cotton confesseth holdeth forth five things that the in.

and cheerful submission to civil laws.». may not be received to church fellowship. Cotton demands. ship. the mouths of his witnesses against these .. levies. according to Mr. arecusethnot wholly. our question pollution. And I add. not of the utmost skirts of false but the substance of a true or i. And yet I believe that a Mr. all this Yea . Cant.. his consent to receive such filthiness of he would not give an one skirts. Ixiii. what makes to prove that godly persons. case put to Mr. Cotton's own interpretation of this place to the Corinthians. gestures. therefore to that instance of the fathers' polygamy. without sound repentance for the her Lam.] not only in actual whoredoms. who possibly may live in ungodly practices. bed of worfalse. especially of «« somepj'^^^^J^^Jj. if there be any voice of Christ in flu^OT* sins. they came Tre^of M^ii- not forth. who formerly hath been infamous for corporal whoredom. have fellowship with: especially when in all civil 409 things they walk unblameably. although they see not the utmost skirts of their pollution. but also in whorish speeches. in respect of coming out of the before the entrance into the true. and spiritual hardness. and then.EXAMINED AND ANSWERED. not then of ignorance.. should there be a greater strictness for the no capse of ""^ shame f^j»iior^^^ skirts of common whoredom than of spuntual and soul whoredom. in quiet and helpful cohabitation. righteous and faithful deaJing. Cotton being to receive a person to church fellowship. I repeat the former distinction of godly persons. who professedly renounce all known sin. Cott^". but Mr. orders. I great sins godly persons answer: first. but of negligence. against Isa. Moreover. against the [17. in. . customs. i.* false worship. thev . &c. provocation. ways of God's is fear. against the chastity of God's worship? And J^j^'^j'2?d'» And why . appearances. by observing what S? eJds ^''""''• S may possibly live and long continue notwithstanding . 16. as the patriarchs saw not the pollution of their polygamy ? The sins of Answ.. [9.] &c.

MR. had they seen this evil. that he ought to have many wives. This was an unclean thing indeed. and enjoy his worship. for. I ask. Cotton concludeth idols' this passage thus : of Corinth had such as partook with idolaters in their temple." saith he. from whence it they were to come. : ought to be rejected . any joining with a church. upon the same in hence a city iSoiitrous g™ii^<Jj if ^ greater company or church were obstinate ^^^ unclean touches. fathers' g^j^^j^ believe and maintain. Cotton receive such a godly person to church fellowship ? yea. of ^^^^^ godUness Mr. i i . practising would have been suffered amongst them ? lastly. as questionless the for what they had grounds satisfying their consciences did. Cotton hath had long persuasion. obstinate in these unclean touches. " touching of an unclean thing. whether Mr. ministry. any person. would have received such a proselyte from the Gen-. government? " The church &c. with glorious promises of receiving conviction any them and Mr. worship. what was this personal sin of these godly persons? "Was false any matter of God's worship. from which God calls his people in this place. ministry. said he. and so consequently in a rebellion Christian church to dMtroyed. ought every sound . and did this reject these members from church fellowship before conviction? and did their church estate for not casting out such it evacuate members ?" Answ. cotton's letter Secondly. whether the church of the Jews. government. Mr. i p i i estate. against Christ.410 The case of jjany wives fathers. that one obstinate person ought to be reiected out of church . did this sin reject these itiesseneth not a rebellion that it ia in a mul- members from church fellowship before conviction ? And upon the same ground. and accordingly would so practised:—I say. and was not this. whether any persons so But. I ask. before they could constitute his true church. Cotton confesseth that after member. I ask if ^odliness in the root. tiles? and when it was seen.

nor become a true constituted church of Jesus Christ. a church estate bemg a state of marriage saith. xi. 411 and every sound member to withdraw from clear. be a ground of rejection of a person in the church. /• • J'^°*" unto Jesus Christ . and so Paul professedly he had espoused them as a chaste virgin to Christ Jesus. Matt. as Mr. The greatest question here would be. [2. 18. Cotton proceeds to answer some other allegations which I produced from the confession of sin made by John's disciples." saith he. Acts xlx. Cotton neither doth • S^doiB'so * chaste nor can deny.] CHAP." . such persons as have the substance of true repentance may be a true churdh. and the proselyte Grentlles before they were admitted into church fellowship. And if obstinacy in the whole church after conviction be a groimd for such a church's rejection.. reject them. unto which he returneth a threefold answer: " The first is grounded upon his apparent mistake of my words in a grant of mine. that ' them. XVII. such a confession and if not absolutely necessary. 2 Cor. Mr. renunciation is viz. questionless it is mnionwlth church. Whence. Cotton confesseth 2"ep^"'t and practiseth. the substance of true repentance be discerned. And hence further It is if such unclean ^ ?''«'''«=? ^ that castetb touches obstinately maintained. whether Corinthians In their first the^jfg^^JJJ^ constitution were separate or this 1 no ?rae*Sch. 6. ili. " according to your own confession.EXAMINED AND ANSWERED. a ground of rejection when such jesus in his persons are to join unto the church. from such idol temples ? and Mr. questionless such a church or number of persons obstinate In such evils cannot congregate.

in which God's people have lived. ' every sipping of a is not sinful. and those famous bishops but that Christ in Queen Mary's days . &c.i •/ he. yea. as God's own who yet by such sipping have been so in- toxicated. worship. in submitting to false churches. as in comparison have but sipped.™"' I readily acknowledge the substance of repentance. and going publishing the burnt for German mass.412 The subtrue general MR.. although the confessing and renouncing of them be not so particularly expressed. . not that general grace of iw^in S>omiM°'' false worship. as Luther. all and of Mr. First he doth not rightly allege a ^ my words . repentance repentance which all ^udrm''^ repentance. miniatry. that anti- whore'scup." Answer. cotton's letter it is I answer^ "^ clear in the progress of the whole con- troversy. ministry. and whoredom ^^'^^ &c. for little . and bondage . Mr. that I ever intend by the substance of true to. church. and with such godly sorrow and indignation as some express. before he confesseth . ministry. as papists. and take it away with the other he denies necessary to the admission of members. as is to be confessed of drunk of the whore's cup. .' saith he. Cotton. substance of repentanoe for those false ways of worship. Cotton saith. or but sipped of In which words I plainly distinguished between such have drunk deeper of her cup. I " grant with for the one hand. Grod's people have. . and such. a monk. - and some DUE Sipped christian drunkenuess catei'™'" ^ ®^°^ ^ it. popish priests. as to practice spiritual whoredom against Christ. people. the graces of Christ in general. during which captivity Ku. profcssiug particular repentance for their Spiritual captivity also. that every one should be convinced of the sinfulness of every sipping of the whore's cup. whereas he saith every sipping of a drunkard's cup is not sinful : .. drunkard's cup Some have of the ' for.. In his second answer. and may well become : And indeed the whole scope of that caution was for Christian moderation and gentleness toward the several sorts of Notthesame de^eerof"'' Go^'s people. &c. my words to be. Secondly.

but every drunken sip.EXAMINED AND ANSWERED. and yet not the less sinful. drinking out of the cup which a drunkard useth to drink in. &c. Mr. that spiritual whoredom and drunkenness corporal." saith he. CHAP. questionless sinful. " Yea . and were added to his and oh ! that the least beams of light and sparkles of heat were in mine own. and others' souls. which is our question. but.g saw not all the leavenings of the Pharisees. : government. &c. and the bed of the most high God. but infinitely transcendent.^|J. ministry. yet they ^. and that upon this ground. Acts ii. it is is not so soon discerned as not indeed so easily discerned. I answer : 413 nor constant neither the least sipping. although they never saw of their murder- all the superstitious leavenings wherewith the Pharisees had bewitched them and so no doubt may godly persons now. the converted Jews. and so consequently to be avoided sober. although they J*°ij*. . as much as spiritual sobriety exceeds corporal. worship. in his worship. is sinful is ." [^Answer. Cotton. dust and ashes. ministry.^'.^^. and embraced him in his tiinB^™ 3 now. who are but Secondly. by the whether the cup of corporal or spiritual drunkenness. although they be not yet convinced of every passage of antichristian superstition. -'the three thousand ^^- C""™- Jews were admitted when they repented ing of Christ. mourned church for killing of Christ. which were kindled by the Holy Spirit of God in those famous converts The true Christ now at the preaching of Peter. and repent- . being discerned.0. XVIII.\ I answer. exceeds the beds of men. I answer.

If both these confessed their notorious sins. Cotton expresseth. Cotton. the the publicans but. the soldiers theirs. the disciples of John confessed their theirs. : and this is the sum and substance sins Concerning the confession of unto John. as their souls . the matters his worship are first God and and most tenderly handled. Cotton. . cotton's letter ance for persecuting and killing of him being expressed. he grants sins. as Mr." concerning the confession Acts xix. saith he. the body of the members do in general profess. that the reason of their coming over to us was that they might be freed from the . bondage of human inventions and ordinances.414 The power pentance for killing of ciirist. His third answer is " But to satisfy you more fuUy. CHAP. ministry. their idolatries. it is not expressed " that they confessed aU their Answer. and submission of our unto the true controversy. and worshipping the true this after a false manner and to prove were to bring forth a candle to the bright shining of the sun at noon day. XIX. there necessarilv follows a withdrawing from •' tlie church. superstitious worships. his people are ever described by the title title of his wor- shippers. people theirs "it appears not pollution. Mr. Mr. and worship of the false Christ. why not sins against as well their notorious God. MR. &c? of Surely throughout the whole scripture. . [19. and his enemies by the of worshippers of false gods.] he saith." that they confessed their pharisaical And deeds. and the Lord make you willing in true meekness of spirit to receive satisfaction. . 18.

and defiling themselves and holy things of God in former and yet no mention administrations and communions. what such ad" We rather how can a ministrations and communions were. And we can but wonder all how you can so boldly and resolutely renounce the churches of God. for neglect of that which you know not whether they have neglected or no." which oppose anti1 /I • christ.] constant practice speak. witness ceremonies and bishops but that yet they see not the they constitute let their evil of a national church. but we rather choose to do it than talk of it. I answer. Beside. we generally all of us bewail all our former pollutions wherewith we have defiled ourselves and the holy things of God. soul truly choose to do it. for which also they profess their hearty sorrow. can we not enjoy our ? liberties without inveighing against antichrist is. so far as through ignorance or infirmity they have been defiled. what such inventions and ordinances. and constant admonishing of them. and specially in the times of our solemn humiliations. viz. particular jj^ f.^^^^ unclean walking between church. 415 groaned under. notwithstanding only particular and independent [congregations." if it be found amongst Answer. us. and before you have admonished us of our sinfulness in such neglect. in our daily meetings. and faithful. in our former administrations and communions . and their persecuting of myself for my humble. &c." saith he. which they ^Su* . against I acknowledge their . in still joining with such churches and ministers in the ordinances of the word and prayer. " than to talk of it . with humble desires to the Father of lights for the true meekness and wisdom of his Spirit. tliat mind an expression of an eminent and 'worthy person amongst them in a solemn conference. of such a.EXAMINED AND ANSWERED.. call to makes me ™^j'^o Ss' {'loned?'"'^" What The need we speak of truth antichrist. here is mention of human inventions and ordinances.

and yet holding fellowship MR. and ordinances practised. an officer amongst them. which I produced was Haggai place might ii. and so. p. gy^ IjQ^ could I possibly be ignorant. ment amongst the barbarians? and yet. that oiFer is unclean ." CHAP. and at last suffered for such admouitions to them. the prophet there telling the church of the Jews. . "You / know not what we have done. every work of their hands and that which they inferred. » [" Our joining with the ministers then proceeds to deny that Mr. Cotton professcth to separate from. which Mr. XX." Mr. Cotton Cotton's Answer.9 ^ with it. and are profaned by and filthiness of them. 13.416 national church. communion. and that the Lord might please to hold the scales himself. charge me. Cotton. Williams was persecuted. saith he. cotton's letter oiily profess to be Christ'sj •* and a national [one]. His banishment was no persecution his statement of his opinions nition. Mr. desiring that the be thoroughly weighed. A 14. whence I even church covenants made. by persons polluted through spiritual deadness. 101. as he seemeth to state. much less with no admo- the national church. that if a person unclean by a dead body touch holy and so is things. such covenants and ordinances become unclean unto them.] . the misery of a winter's banish- pre'tendeui. doth not argue our monished them humbly and faithfully. neither have you admonished us of our sinfulness. those holy things become unclean unto them: saith he. had private irap^^bie an^ public agitations concerning ^it^ *^^ and condition Sorant of estate^M t** °^ ™o^* o^ their ministers. in this nation. church-communion with the parish churches in England. of their when being from their state first to last in fellowship with them. or that he ad- of England in hearing of the word and prayer. third scripture 15.

he acknowledgeth that God's people. and Mr. 2 Cor." 1 . Now from the ledgeth people. in which E E . consequent of this place in Haggai mine argument stands good. or dead world. or if they be so constituted they are not to be communicated with. Death and Accordingly in the particular Christian churches. 417 Mr. but separated from. place of Haggai. Christ Jesus cuts off by spiritual death. were defiled by worldliness. Babylonish lords and worships. " your purpose was to proTe that churches cannot be constituted by such persons as are unclean by antichristian pollutions . did. it. [18. he ac-to*«n»- knowledgeth to type out in the gospel the moral uncleanness either of dead works.. he the church into spiritual cl^uvityla "" captivity."^"™'^ ^^°^„'|J' or for want of due execution of justice sells by that ordinance in his kingdom. I acknowledge the true constitution of the church of the Jews. nor stirs up himThe church of the Jews » national church truly self or others to separate from them. Cotton. '^ Lev. But the prophet acknowledgeth the whole church of the Jews to be unclean. is said to be the casting of them out of God's 2 Kings xvii. ceremonial and typical. and Num. And ''""™" in this lar. which ceramoniai uncleannesa discourse of typical and ceremonial uncleanness. vi. rated from. which tion: is excommunica- J''.EXAMINED AND ANSWERED. Mr. vi. or dead persons. Hence Shalsight. Cotton here acknowthat holy things may be xvi^ all unclean to God's when they lie in their uncleanness. prince and people. . and yet neither denies them to be a church truly constituted. 11. Gal. as this people Those scriptures. Answer. xix. 14. tribes captive out of this land. Eph. Cotton answers. v.] which was their excommunication. . to confused. maneser's carrying the ten. excommunication was either putting to death or captivity out of that ceremonial Canaan. and lar! so drives them out of his sight. and affirm that this their true consti' tution was the reason why they were not to be separated JS°refo?emit from their : for being a national church. in. *pefiut delnnee"' in 14.

" And. p. saith he. "the such . therefore the church cannot be constituted of be constitute of such. ^^^'' sight. though otherwise godly and Christian. their oblations." Answ. justify "• . cannot be constituted of such godly persons. Therefore saith he afterward: "In the church godly Christians themselves. persons. the church consisting of such worldly persons. that in these his purpose . the church of Christ. and found neither acceptance nor bless- ing from the Lord. it and that I which he draws from Answer. and have neither acceptance nor blessing from him. the true the text will meaning of nothing more reach to .the sight of God. while they attend to the world more than to the things of God. Thirdly. when defiled with such worldliness. and so bring in ?" his words I express not mine own reasoning or meaning. and worldliness. else they and their duties will [still] be unclean in the sight of God. Cotton s ia such a condition of unclean- own ness con- their oiFerings. Cotton's own express words which [" seeth not. that godly persons may become and un- clean by hypocrisy and all worldliness. lastly.418 MR. were all unclean. are unclean in the sight of God. COTTONS LETTER condition. First. notwithstanding their church estate. he saith. while they Mr. or if it church of Christ and members thereof must separate themselves from their hypocrisy. notwithstanding their church estate. the people of God must separate from them. but they and their duties are unclean in his "h J'lfevir' sons'. Fourthly. the people of God must separate from them. Cotton him- self hath uttered in this his explication this scripture ? and application of defiled As. are unclean in o ' X 'I™™"™. Inferences Thesc . their bodily labours. but hia. reason in form of an enthymeme. lie Secondly. labours. What have I more spoken than Mr.] Cotton's expressly say. 106. are from Master Cotton's grant.pi Who Mr.

in reproaching yourself at Thirdly. between Secondly. Fourthly. defiled by immoderate love of much less can it be constituted of godly persons with the dead inventions. Thirdly. and communions with dead works. the church cannot be constituted of such godly persons as are defiled the world. false bed of CHAP. ministry. First. communions of unregenerate and ungodly persons. that myself have conceived and spoken.EXAMINED AND ANSWERED. that separation a way that God hath not prospered. James [4. they justify my assertion of a necessity of cleansing from anti-christian filthiness. dead persons in God's worship. personal respect. Secondly. worldliness be adultery against God. dead worships. in practising separation here. or immoderate love of it. is that you have taken at the way of these you conceive us to walk between Christ First. defile. 419 my former distinction of godly persons in their God and themselves. in particular. is Salem. XXI. and in not repenting of our preaching and printing against it own country. do so if. if the touches of the dead world. as he saith. Cotton here affirmeth. and yet becoming ungodly in their outward defilements.J yet not comparable to spiritual adultery of a worship. if so constituted. Cotton prooeedeth : " The second stumbling block or offence which churches. &c. Mr. yet. and our anti-christ. the truth of the church's way depends £ E 2 not upon the coun- tenance of men." . because though iv. he justifies a separation from such churches. worships. and others for separation. say you. as Mr. or so constituting. or upon outward peace and liberty.

to ponder how he can ' r SSanceof^^y hc walks with an even foot between two extremes. but walk in the midst of two extremes. " that they halt not . 108. are false and to : and yet he will not have the parish church to bc Separated from for the remnant of pollution. he practiseth constituted only of godly no church estate. he cpnfesseth a church of Christ cannot be constituted of such godly persons who are in bondage to the inordinate love of the world.] ." p. SV°™ a™m" anr^t po u ions. but I lieve that all am slow to be- sum of his words.420 MR.] Answer. 108. With the Lord's gracious we shall prove this middle walking to be no less than halting. of them are regenerate. Acts First. God's people ought to separate Mr. and aU that ' fear which he parish churches. Cotton extenuates from them.^ Thirdly. the one of being defiled with the pollution of other churches. professeth he sees no cause to repent of. as being [" These are palpable mistakes of those words of mine. Cottou. p. Fourthly. Him a Prince and a Saviour to give repentance unto his Israel. J (jQjjggjyg jjg ' meaneth ceremonies and bishops. beseeching v. Cotton's which he through haste conceived to or truly godly.'' lb. are true churches. provincial. Mr. which I expressed as the federally holy. the other of renouncing the churches for the remnant of pollutions. wherein some truly godly are not. yea. a church constituted of godly per- ethtobeuoregenerate. whcu. nor admitteth any unregenerate or ungodly person. diocesan. Cotton himself confesseth. of nSiona^ andminoeth the root. with ingenuous moderation. notwith' as [" Sure I am. be mine. that no national. cotton's letter this Unto he answers. Answ. but such as is persons. or parish church. national churches. &c. assistance. 31. we look at infants members of our church." This moderation he. Mr. for which we that is shall show cause of repentance. I earnestly beseech God. ^ ^^ separated from ' SOUS givcn to inordinate love of the world. Secondly. if a church consist of such.' Upon these his own confessions. according to his own confession.

knowing that myself am by nature a child of wrath. when as the substance of is a continual sorrow of heart.. and to sit-down with the saints at the Lord's table. lying.\<" in loving faithfulness to my countrymen's souls. drunkenness. thrust themselves into the fellowship of the churches. What are two or three or more of regenerate and godly persons in such communions." yet BO much of those notorious evils Cotton's Answer.* for which he * [" We wholly avoid national. and [in] Siic^ered"^ Searcher of all The hearts defence of truth. and communion with open scandalous persons in any church order. we avoid their prescript liturgies. and mourning of our souls that there is the true estate of churches abideth in their congregational assemblies. dares not separate." with a whole bushel of leaven or a little precious gold confounded and mingled with a whole heap of dross? knows I write not this to Lreproach any. I remember worthy adversary of that state and condition from which his confessions say he must separate. swearing. theft. scoffing. 421 standing that he also acknowledgeth that the generality of every parish in England consisteth of unregenerate persons. and yet he professeth there are but my "° some remnants of pollution amongst them. superstition. . but as two or three roses or hlies in a a few grains of ° good corn in a heap of chaff? ° _ a few sheep among herds of wolves or swine.^* civil) flocks of goats ? a little good dough swallowed up ? °"„f^jj.] . p. but for the name of Christ Jesus. which he nameth . his practice in gathering of churches seems to say he doth separate . it But yet 1 count all these but remnants of pollution. or (if more wilderness ? -"^ _ ise estate of the godly "'^f'. whoredom. not only to worldlibut also ignorance. sufFered to and diocesan govenunent of the churches by episcopal authorprovincial. . and that the Father of mercies shows mercy to whom and when he will. . ^'^^ '^^. ity. nessj cursiog.. and of thousands inbondaged.EXAMINED AND ANSWERED. 108.

" Answ. *-• which I yet"' ahiBt to himsclf to reconcile with his former profession First. Williams their teacher. but the sword of the Spirit ." Salem saith he. The church of Salem was known to profess separation.ve Mr. Mr. while to the refusal to ["Mr. not with reproaches. and so offered contempt to the magistrates.] But according to Winthrop. Cottou here confesseth these two ^^^ clsewherc agaiust separation. Williams probably refers by the General Court listen to a petition from Salem relato a piece he stood under question was of authority. I think it a sin meet to be censured. COTTON S LETTER CHAP.* Mr. if any do reproach them for it. and was generally and publicly reproached." &c. Knowles. j^g^g any reproach them censured. Cotton. 70. for separation it is a sin meet in to be Secondly. believe that they do separate howsoever. their petition tive of land which was claimed as belonging to that town. XXII. Cotton seems to bo * l63. In these latter passages he seems. the failings of the It churches are not forthwith to be healed by separation. but on the other side. things. or to separate from that they do tolerate their less reproachings. for and I could mention a case wherein she was punished it implicitly. is not chirurgery but butchery to heal every sore in a member with no other but abscission from the body. the them before it do appear members in such their cause- We confess the errors of men are to be contended against. refused. the churches "themselves their may be such separated from. who tolerate members causeless reproachings. " Secondly. p. if eeparation. but not all with so deep a censure as to excommunicate churches. ' because .422 MR. . " I know no man nor do I that reproacheth for their separation. as in other his confessions ' and practices mentioned to be they had chosen Mr. saith he.

when they tolerate their *™"y^^J members is in such their causeless reproachings. who opposition against the patent. for immoderate worldliness: and again here he confesseth Not for ° sore of in* they may. ^ 1.. for mem- against him or his for his own refusal deferring to give present of any worship. them and theirs. for it. from K"™™ thrchmcS any civil being in their territories . that even churches of godly persons must be separated from. shall it be called by the second Adam. were their their consciences dare not because bow down to any worship but what they believe the Lord Jesus appointed. . to heal every sore with no other medicine but with abscission from the body: yet himself confesseth before.„ butchery.^ . what Jesus.Mr. it obsKy"' son not every sore of infirmity or ignorance. and had refused motion of p. who ^ves names to ^^fn^'jia cut off persons. the whole world. commumon •* oi a !• cnurcn or society. confesseth there is a lawful separation fromSmS! " churches that do but tolerate their members in causeless reproaches. I confess also that it is not chirurgery but butchery. he also wrote letters of admonition to all the churches .. 423 sensible of shame. conscientiously and peaceably to . yet himself." Cotton's Answe the people. the Lord to all creatures and all actions. yet ." • [" His banishment proceeded not whereof the magistrates were bers. but for seditious answer to a petition of Salem. son ought to be cut if ofi^ which I maintained that a per- or a church separated from. within aS^ent" few lines. But -J. and consequently from territories so large. be separated from.] to hearken to a lawful against the oath of fidelity offered to theirs. 113. . J^epfyguuty he call that separate from a spiritual . cotton's o o own conwith to be healed by separation. and being also otherwise subject to the civil state and laws thereof.EXAMINED AND ANSWERED. it. but an ulcer or for tote" gangrene of obstinacy. Beside. or reproach to be cast on I grant with him the failings of churches are not forth. botTaga^nst consciences and bodies in ^6rB6" eating of them. branch and root. disgrace.

] ' is way of nonconformity ceremonies .." ton's '° Elizabeth in the learned languages. Suffolk. ""' them suffered unto death for the to ceremonics. book against Diocesan Church Government and yet for writing a little Cot- Answer. shall be hunted out with diligence. 226.* separate assemblies from the common. that either of both have been so pursued and persecuted. Mr. London. 319. Mr. Cotton says. Neal.*° Mr.424 MR. discovered by a false brother to Cotton's Answer. [Mr. that God had not prospered the ceives that I understood affirms the puritans to way of separation.] he bled [Udall had been a tutor to Queen though cold before. Thirdly. Penry. ceedmgly rare book library.'^ so have not any of Mr. Udall. as they all them. Northampton- Essex. may be known to the officers in court and when the conventicles of the puritans. the prison when the prison. that Penry and would have been executed but for the queen's feelings of respect to confessed that he deserved death for having seduced many to separation her aged tutor. 116. p." Answer. viz. and thus writes: the separatists "The meeting of winked call at.gg^^ with tMs land. Barrow. Green-: [" It seemeth he never read the in Mr. I believe they are Christ.] Ceremonies he was condemned to die. and God's controversy for persecution. &c. Doubtless the controversy of God hath been "^ gj. Offer's story of the classes in shire. coroner's jury Doctor Bancroft.9 but Mr. whereas I urged a speech of his own. Indeed the worthy witness Mr. pursued with more violence than any law can justify. and conhim of outward prosperity: he have been worse used in England than the separatist. i. violently both the witnesses of several truths of Jesus against an impenitent and unchristian profession of the name The suffer- of the Lord Jesus. 339. Mr' Grf wood. Cam- [" He : died by the annoyance of bridge. A copy of this ex- from hearing the word in the parish . puritans have not md"u'ritins comparably as but seldom congregating in comp^ed. as a testimony against the murderous illegal proceedings of the state against him. XXIII. freshly^ p.. 116. as the ingg of the Now for their sufferings: ° suffered." " came Udall to survey the dead in body of Mr. Neal's Puritans.. Penry. udaii. cotton's letter CHAP.. i.^ ^^^ ^^^ ' vLnto death for his witness against bishops and .

Canne hath imanswerably proved. out of sight of the ignorance.^ the grounds and and ceremonies. their courts and .'Alns- That worthy instrument of Christ's praise. durmg some time. separation many more have been condemned to banished and choaked in prisons. pastor of the 4to. oflScers. worships. lived upon ninepence per week. Ancient ] p.uld be the reason. unbelief.] from the Church of England proved by Nonconformist Principles.EXAMINED AND ANSWERED. But what sho. were obloquy and discredit on these two witnesses to unjustly. Ains. in the way of die. pp. •""'" upon Again. Intro. most of God's servants who. ? more Most of the separation "'rt'oV'"'" favour than the puritan or nonconformist Doubtless the reasons are evident . I could produce occasion.1 . I believe that there hardly hath ever been a pbw con. 117. as Mr. worth. with churches. and profaneness of the body of the national church. Cotton endeavours to throw no . Mr. Hanbury. Mr. &e. note e. Memorials. and worshippers. since the separatist witnesseth against the root of the church constitution itself. 36. most of them have been poor and low. .] we judge from the i. xxxviii. By John Canne. to seek out the true "™- way of God's worship according to Christ Jesus. first. as who was 1 not n first . that yet he should find. Mr. * See Banbury's 79. little English Church at Amsterdam. 62. Hist. if truly followed. if This can scarcely be correct general tenor Answer p. The poverty of Mr. and some time oi his great . have''°" separated and durst not have longer fellowship with it : I say. 634. and not such gainful customers to the bishops. 264. [In " A Necessitie of Separation of Penry's character. and the necessity of Christ's flock and discipline. . The noncon- lead on to and enforce a separation from ' grounds enforce eepua- such ways. 425 on their wood followed shoulders. labours in Holland. .. "^^^ principles of the puritans against bishops and profeneness of people professing Christ. the truth . [See Broadmead Records. p. but most 117. conscientious separatist. worth. i. . the Lord Jesus with : their gibbets and were hanged with him and ' for him. a puntan: for. must necessarily. Cotton saith. ' Ibid. so that their souls justly required at his hand. sclentious sep»ra«8i«.

none daring. to Annotations on that way who refused communion Solomon's Song. ^^^ custom. * God's servants as have been nonconformists have had gg^g^^gg^ b 6 Bn gTc at persons. like greedy wolves. churlfh may the Smith's °' and cutler's shop. grovrth of their godliness to p. the xviii. been professed ene- encmv. his by a friend of best esteem. and growth of grace. such of fair booty IS ops. do not appear in the least to invalidate the statement with hearing in England. their common prayer and worships : and as the bishops have well known. 122. their their officers. of Williams. Ainsworth'a name of from the preface. to enjoy a quiet calm and civil present greater pcaceablc tranquillity. or differ from the common road antichristian ttantrt"" sponse of Jesus. am no widow. The remarks of Mr. [7. Williams refers. Galatia. Secondly. have The separa- made the more desirable prey. before a s: pretended j ^^'^^ Such as have separated x theirs. as S'e'puritana been lookcd at by the bishops and known courts. .] / sit is as a queen." tion with peace The want of peace may befal the truest churches of the Lord Jesus [as] at Antioch. in Ainsworth. &c. Secondly. And if hia people suffered him to live on nineboiled. cotton's letter boiled. to qucstiou. yet. in In the earlier part pence a week." Cotton's Answer. who were exercised with great distractions. and it may be to that period that Mr. church. Mr. see no ' [« Mr. Thus sings that great whore. with roots common straits with Johnson surelyeither the people were grown to and the other exposed to great separatists. object. whereas the puritans professed mends and the bishops. Corinth. and have submitted to the bishops. Ecv. of theirs. have had rich which the bishops and livings and benefices. See Hanbury. " God hath not prospered the way of separaamongst themselves. of his exile. He salth. with no greater affection than the Israelites bore their Egyptian cruel taskmasters. with the quotation he produces . 433. for fear of punish- mcut. it is a common character of a false church.] buiy.426 iSm?8°s°°°' J^oots fair MR.^ "Wliereas on the other side. thingTpro- and professed enemies: subjcction. without all exception. was grown a very low ebb. it is a principle in nature to prefer a professed friend. or else the and difficulties. Han- i. he was a very extreme low estate. Cotton. maintained by Answer.

EXAMINED AND ANSWERED. and would not have exchanged of their hoiy ° " communion. Lam. the breach of all Uzzah .^j^™ '^^ companied with great rejoicing and triumphing. cannot but confess ^ongst txoti 8 peo-' ^ yet Many less grace- Judases that multitudes of God's witnesses. and spies. have kept them- selves from the error of the wicked. and Judases. direct. but desire ""o"- . and a teaching monument of Perez Uzzah. breaches and divisions. and en- courage his servants in his appointment. so have they as mkilnail all due order. : so in like - manner .J Thirdly. and made a breach. . and grow in grace and knowledge of the Lord Jesus. make which yet I have known. And ark yet. and betraying his witnesses Satan himself. although for the present ac. New peaw "n England. met with. have sometimes long enjoyed sweet St? sweetpeace and soul contentment in England. to all those celebrations of the spiritual ark or ordinances. the accuser of the saints. endeavouring cleanse themselves from • to Multitudes all iSlthiness • spint. the on shoulders of the oxen. and still must. ^ p«o-. and in sincerity seeking after the Lord Jesus. reproached with the p'°- names of Brownists. '' and must be among "od'^ pie. and other places. i will P8™ons ^ ^ both of flesh and anffiy"" that have profesaed sepa- not make odious and envious comparisons. i. until God smote Uzzah for his error and disBreaches order. sorrow: while Christ's dearest complains she sits is 427 forsaken. yet they have not been after the due order. dishonouring the : name of Christ Jesus. Holland. a day of such an holy and peaceable harmony for thousands in the courts of princes. that as David with the carrying princes. I and the thousand Israelites. a Perez Uzzah. own due holy order and And for growth in grace. humbly thirty conceive. God's people in that way. and anabaptists. until the Lord Jesus discover. [l. all notwithstanding that amongst sorts of God's witnesses some false brethren creep in as cheaters. seeing no other. leaped and danced with great rejoicing. X ' n 1 1 f and to fimsh holiness IP j?/^iT-ii m the tear or u-od. °"/jj^?|°" weeping as a widow.

cotton's letter. whose hands these may come. Lastly he addeth."* also to discern their lawful liberty in the hearing of the word from English FoOTBortfl siideil far Answer." Cotton's grew to acknowledge. defend. Cotton. First. Thirdly. God. bave backslidden I shall report. others backsliding have lost the beauty and shining of a tender conscience toward ' [" This I ofotiiere. others have laid the reins upon the necks of their consciences. Mr. that name the name of the Lord Jesus may depart wholly and for ever from iniquity. from who have _ separation ' from growth in graco. CHAP. Robinson and who the word from the godly preachers of the parishes in England. former looseness and profaneness of and and have been so far from growing in grace. have grown preachers. question the uprightness of some truths of . XXIV.and in a judicious and godly discoiuse to approve and Answer. to be like Antipas. I will not . to any of the truths of the Lord Jesus. which he shall ple'ase to betrust them with Some backto'famiiism.428 that all MR. that they have turned the grace of Some to God into wantonness. the lawful liberty of hearing Mr.] a faithful witness to the death.-123. I havc known no small number of such turn to absolutc Familism. for a warning to all into ii. or seeking after the pure ordinances and appointments of the Lord Jesus. Eev. and like the dog licked up lip their vomit of life . p. havc proicssed ^l^\^Q pi back from many mme own goiic : God which n n they yet experience oi tour sorts . and of a speak with respect to to his church. and under their pretences of great raptures of love deny all obedience to.] . have grown in grace. Some to ' Secondly. [13. " That such as erring through simplicity and tenderness.

1639. who have differed in conscience from them. Yea . becoming most fierce persecutors of their own formerly fellow-witnesses. in soul or body. nor is there need. It English Church of was entitled. . others although preserved from familism. and wish they were at liberty in little their former freedom. lawful liberty.EXAMINED AND ANSWERED. and some have gone with peace.^^. " they have grown to discern their m. to Mr. their sin. yet the leaf of their ani'^e^. Lastly. f"™'. Here I might engage myself in a controversy. confessing to myself and others. but. to return to the hearing of the word from English preachers. " Of the Lawfulness God in Leyden. Anno 1634.'' 4to. tending to prove such a lawful liberty. truth. Robinson's name. Learned and Reverend Divine. that God never prospered them. this treatise will permit. and they have confessed and their bondage. which neither j. do. Robinson's book was John Robinson. their weakness. make a large and faithful reply to a book. Christian course hath withered. and Printed late pastor to the published nine years after his death. XXV. it since they sold away his which once they had bought sell it." Mr..^ canne-a since it hath pleased the Father of lights to stir spirit up the M^RoWnorheaiing/ of a faithful witness of his truth in this particular." • ° [Mr. Canne. Mr. pro- and persecuting of others." Answer. saith he. of Hearing of the Ministers in the penned by that Church of England : Canne's work in reply was entitled "A Stay against Stiaymg. and of any other faneness. and made profession of never to CHAP. cotton. but sorrow to their graves. the latter beauty and*"" savour of their holiness hath not been like their former. printed in Mr. 429 merciful compassion toward men.

English preachers. holy. he acknowledgeth. preachers. apostles. and the prophet's prophecying in the is convinced.430 MR COTTON S LETTER excellent For such Mr. trumpeters... that to convert. Cotton himself professeth in three particulars First. and gather churches. with proclamation from the King of kings. the lawful calling of such to the ministry or service. bishops. Now man that professeth himself a minister. that the ordinary ministers of the gospel are pastors. I acknowlcdge mysclf unworthy to hold the candle to them: yet I shall humbly present what Mr. unconverted. concerning this title. men fession. elders. beget. and godly people. into a flock or church estate and not properly preachers which the apostles and then. go''^®'^ and that their proper work is to feed and ^'aftiT^ini. ambassadors. pastor's. or shepherd's I readily confess that at the church. unbelieving.. English preachers are not pastors. Lord Jesus. subdue. make disciples."' ^ truly converted. gathered . ^ his proper . bishops. teachers. according to Christ Jesus. to convert. Cotton here Intends by the name of English preachers. sent to convert. Cotton's concerning '•^y- and wortHy persons whom Mr. teachers. : falls on his and acknowledgeth God to be there yet this is acci- . overseers. For the minEws i„. Cotton's conflock or church with the ordinances of he must needs acknowledge that . evangelists professedly were. but preachers of glad news. So that. elders. which is most preposterous amongst a converted Christian people. hearing the word from such English Thirdly. evangelists. an unbeliever coming in face feeding of his flock. and professeth to feed a Preachers and pastors far different word and prayer. unchristian souls to the obedience and subjection of the Conversion accidental.<TKmo\ first. according to Mr. work is not to preach for couversion. bring in rebellious. Secondly. fed up with ordinances in church estate.

3. though sometimes few. it Qg^. unto whom they also administer the holy things of God. l"^^^^' Rome. and the and souls of men. This passage I present for two reasons so . ministry but by such as have owned them. constant officers and rainisters to particular parishes orchrutfa congregations.22. for converting and gathering of convert. Scotland. Italy. &c. wherein pleaseth God to shake foimdations civil spiritual. true penitents to the fellowship of the Son of God. yea. not for unbelievers. [28. . priests. and sometimes none regenerate or new born have been found amongst them the . Ireland. that it hath pleased God to Personal re- work a personal repentance Crermany. and comfort the church. I also readily acknowledge./ pmpIi '» whom a man t^^'^'J^*^' people of England to be in a natural and unregenerate estate . and famous holy men remaining and burning Lord Bishops. the ° body of the . France. England. in the hearts of thousands in wrought in thousands ''Jrf°^'''i„ Low Countries. 1 Cor. as conceiving. For all this hath also Sogland hitherto as been under the notion of ministers feeding their flocks. First because for to preach ronversion many excellent and worthy persons mainly preach . exhort. and who knows but in the constituted Spain. suchX^rT* a ministry of Christ Jesus proper work is may be sought after whose ^nt b7 preaching.^^^g !„ Secondly. and yet account they themselves fixed and l^p^mi disorder. that in these great earthquakes.] and prophecy to edify. decline the name of of deacons./ conversion. not only by such men who bishops. . dental that any unbeliever should pastor's 431 in. xiv.. which is a matter of high concernment touching name of the Lord Jesus Christ. and that truly. but for them that believe.EXAMINED AND ANSWERED. Acts xx. Luther remaining a monk. come and the work is is to feed his flock. not of preachers sent to convert the unconverted and unbelieving.

] church-estate. Cant. I shall never it. All which overthrows that doctrine of a lawful participation of the word and prayer in a church estate. 8: Christ's kissing of his gpousc. breaking of bread. Cant. Cotton himself hath pro- fessed concerning EngKsh preachers is. where is it not lawful to communicate in the breaking of bread or seals. :" spouse in the marriage bed. i. and the word conceives. Cotton himself maintaineth. community. XXVI. in which the church continued. and first prayer. Cotton. with them.^ ' ["If this be all the conclusion only in hearing and prayer. or wifc. a But he this is that a. The second thing which Mr." The communion or fellowship of the Auswer. 46. man to participate in nor in the seals of the covenant. p. he gospel. is to he preached to rightly. all. Mr. 5. Mr.432 MR. that "the i • word Soh"* estate. that "although the word. is Christ s." saith he. i. yet not the seals hecause. &c. embracing of his Christ's nursing iv. dispensing of the word in a church estate. before he striveth for. of his 16: children at his wife's breast. and joineth not with him about I deny. neither in their covenant. ' r o feeding of his flock. Cant. Cant. Acts ii. "there may he is received from them he no communion in hearing. contend and after sermon . 129. apostles' confesseth. cotton's letter CHAP. i. a fellowship or communion in the doctrine. ." and that "are profaned in being dis- pensed to the ungodly. where partaketh .' Cotton's Answer. hut the seals. and is there no communion between the shepherd and child at the breast ? his sheep ? ? the husband and his wife in chaste kisses and embraces and the mother and her Besides. is that that fellowship in the PhU. i i • /~n • i 2 : Christ's i.

and others most eminent m New • TWT England. and therefore consequently. private Christians. Thirdly. that 1 l^l^f^^ ^^ christians En^iIJId. yea. Secondly." Cotton's Answer.^ none of As first. [That is. Thirdly.EXAMINED AND ANSWERED. nave freely confest. that eminent gifts and abilities are but qualifications fitting and preparing for a call or office. or a " fraudulent expression of our minds. Lastly. and here. as Mr. notwithstanding their former profession of ministry in Old England. 132. ^ missions for theministiy. until call is any church the more glory shall we give unto Lord Jesus. and yet all usurping power of the prelacy. • Mr. and dismissed. concerning the lawful commission or calling Eminent a^^in'ed in OldEngland. a calling or commission received from the ^ False eailings or com- blshopS. ' it.' in New England. 1 of English preachers. that Christ Jesus hath appointed no other calling to the ministry. the more plainly and exactly are carried church-actions on by our not congregations. that all other which not from a particular congregation of godly persons. and procure the to cur consciences one or other church might imto office. 131. p. from a parish of natural and unregenerate persons." us more peace to and Any other sense either our churches." Answer p. we looked at according to the letter of the rule. Christ's. yet remaining in church fellowship after the parish way. though against their wills.] purity and power to all our adminis- trations. the ourselves as private officers to members. and reserve more a mistake. . Cotton explains " [" We are not so masterly and because "being cast out by the peremptory in our apprehensions. 433 CHAP. that they were but Secondly. XXVII. Cotton 1-1 1 himself. but such as they practise in New is England is . from some few godly persons. until they received a calling from a particular church.

to withdraw people from the parishes where they have found more presence of Christ. Mr. because we come not forth to help Jehovah against the mighty: we them. because they cannot pray in faith for a blessing upon their separation and that it is little comfort to hear of separated churches. considered. yea. the curse of the angel to Meroz will fall upon us. ever delivered That they fear not the angel's curse. the London and elsewhere. Jesus shall be revealed in flaming fire. it is apostles after him. that Mr. according to 1 Tim.434 MR. which he repeateth in an objection thus : " But you fear is to separate jealous churches in condemn the witnesses of Jesus. as being the inventions of men. and that fear God. we come not at we reproach and To which he answer eth. and of that . "that that way. may try what will when the Lord &c. The this closc of his letter is an answer to a passage of mine. but for their sakes at the ordinances of the Lord: because they separate not only from the parishes. and blames them. they stumble not only at the inventions of men. XXVIII. nor prophets before him. All which premises duly humbly all desire of the Father of lights. CHAP. than in separated churches: that they pray not for them. and evidence of his Spirit. cotton's letter iii. I Tit. Cotton. (but at parishes censure them. frequently) . because not to help Jehovah but Satan. i. but from the church at Plymouth." neither Christ nor his pray not for them. Cotton. and our God will visit us for such arrearages: yea. that being desirous of reformation. abide the fiery trial in this particular.

First. pastor. and that that shall be saved out of the world are to be transplanted out of the wilderness of the world. God hath ever broke removed the candlestick. abundantly proving. j garden a wilderness. though zealous souls. as at if And that therefore he will ever please to restore his garden and paradise again. xii. However Mr. or when f^°^°'^'tf'^ wall of separation. as taken for civil government more ways than one. that is. extant to the world. down and made his ^^wauf God hu garden wilderness. shall perish in their way. will not hear and embrace the words of his mouth. the faithful labours of many witnesses of Jesus iho garden °' Christ. and the government thereof in Cotton's frame and constitution. the wall itself. against the mighty ordinances of the Lord." Answer. and the church of the Christians under the New Testa. Lathrop was only refuse the all 435 salth. between the garden of the church and the wilderness of the world.' ' [See Broadmead Records. but choose to serve Lord in his own ordinances. 135. as he Only. because whosoever will not kiss the Son. 2. into F F 2 . &c. and added unto his church or garden. were both separate from the world ration from and that when they have opened a gap in the hedge. pp. church of the Jews under the Old Testament in the type. that the ?^^™^J| Te*t^^^„t. which whosoever stumble at shall be broken. Cotton believes and writes of this point. Intro.] church-bodies according to the plat- form of the Roman monarchy. yet hath he not duly considered these following particulars. Ixxix.] ^ cesan bodies. as when the the Romans. oecumenical. it must of necessity be walled all in peculiarly unto himself from the world. provincial. and so is separaapostle exhorteth . is Rom.InlX^o^ .136. this day." Answer.EXAMINED AND ANSWERED. ment in the antitype.^ who. From the [" The world taken in scripture world. he pro- fesseth his inward sorrow that myself help erring. dio- p. lastly. not the inventions of men. national. not to conform their tion of it. we are to separate our church- bodies. whereof Mr.

prostitution B^Son of tho church o£ the ordinances of Christ to the ungodly.436 formra™"™" MceL^ariiy MR. &c. &c. in imprisonments. Canne hath fully proved. and cause to profession of their make a public confession of and knowledge and grace in Christ ?^ Nay ' [" Our not receiving all comers other duties. and that to frame any other building upon such grounds and foundations. Christ. disputing. who The great this cause. but a way o Of what matter do they profess to con' . it argueth indeed that unto the communion of the Lord's table. is no other than to raise the form of a square house upon the keel of a ship./ stitute their churches. what and others zeaiouspiaotice of Bepa- huudrcds fcarinff o New°Eng- °^ Separation? is that which Mr. cotton's letter all Secondly. n y^i • . Cotton and so many God in New England walk in. i -1 and Mr. whom they carefully sin. godly from ungodly. . and in suffering loss of goods and friends. since Queen Mary's days have witnessed truth by writing. but by a voluntary uniting. do necessarily.i s own ordinances. ccremonies. death. the unavoidable conclusions of the nonconformists' principles. true practice of Christ as before I intimated. such persons either thmk themselves unfit materials for church fellowship. banishments. according to the Thirdly. in not only witnessing to those grounds of the nonconformists. fess —I con- the nonconformists have suffered also this cause. but to those truths also. the multitudes of holy and faithful men and this women. penitent from impenitent. Cotton's Fourthly. or adding of such godly persons. common t prayer. that the grounds and principles leading to opposc bishops. and to the from the unclean' and holy things. but they that have suffered for have far exceeded. Mr. which will never prove a soul saving true ark or church of Jesus pattern. examine. but of true godly persons ? In what form do they cast this matter. and other parts of church fel- lowshipj saving only unto the public or else that we conceive them to he hearing of the word and presence at as stones standing in need of a little . _ conclude a separation of holy from unholy. .

whom they account godly to if ministers and people. an was done by com- pulsion.EXAMINED AND ANSWERED. I never heard of yet he adds. which parishes themselves per. 233. what should he the reason why themselves so practising. and the souls Mr. p. Mr. cotton "berty to frequent of others seriously ponder in the fear of God. yet they separate a great mystery in from the sacraments . what mystery should be in this. they set up any other church and worship than what themselves practise ?^ Let their own souls. note 8. have they not professedly and lately answered many worthy persons. " I hold that the receiving all the inhabitants in the parish into the full fellowship of the church. such a thing here to this day. but by rational conviction.] ' Cotton's Answer. p.* however they would have liberty to frequent the worship of the word. and will not permit them to breathe in the common air amongst them. I do not forcible the liberty of all the ordinances. there is as true communion in"''""'^'- the ministration of the word in a church estate as in the . ." Answer. 437 when other English have attempted to set up a congrega- tion after the parishional way. and ' yet. which Mr. have they not been sup- pressed? Yea. that they could not permit them live in the same commonwealth together with them. ["Our practice in suppressing * [Mr.„ cute others for not leaving open a gap of liberty to escape persecution and the cross of Christ. 139. as before. according to o J ^ Mr.] See before. unless we attribute ignorance to the Lord's house. . and so if he will. ra the parishes. Cotton's the escaping of the cross own seals principles. Cotton. Cotton holds but Fifthly.] Cotton's Answer. should perse- **" j^g. the inventions of men. Cotton calls this an untruth. And if g. p. parishes in Slfdf "wLuh by frequenting the wmaeiTperOld England.ny such thing were done before and the adpiitting of them all unto is my coming into think it the country. 140." p. but that here also more hewing and squaring before they be laid as living stones in the walls of cult to reconcile this disclaimer with facts. 139." It is diffi- human corruption. an human invention.New Engsecute in New England. such as have attempted to set up a parishional way.

they could not meet without persecution.-^ n T their great rejoicings and boastmgs of their own separa: . Cotton. • bepura*" firat tlons in New England. which in New England they persecute — the parishes. and every soul to this whom thesc liucs controvcrsy. had been accounted as great here- in those reforming times. which therefore they avoid by frequenting the in Old England way of church worship. if the may come. . insomuch that some of the most esta- eminent amongst them have affirmed that even the apostleB" churches Were not so pure ? the apostfes. especially considering that themselves.. SO invcighcd against bishops. Sixth's days. shall perish in their way. saith. 12. How can I better end than Mr. ii. these considerations. had they silTh'sVays. or any desirous to practise . And X desire Mr. Cotton. cotton's letter the cross or gibbet of Christ may be avoided in a great measure. how can Mr. ing. Yea . great oppression and tyranny to persecute their consciences. Lastly. if persons come to church. reformation. Ps. however. and stUl will it be for them to persecute the consciences of others in Old or New England. that hear and embrace the words of Persecution is unjust oppresBion oppreBsioi whercsoever. and since hath been. &c. should Mr. Surely if the same New English churches were in Old England._^^-_ seriously to consider in Lord Jesus were himself in person in . as it any now can be it in these yet would have been then. common prayer. that all that will not kiss the Son.438 MR. whv . as in the parishes what should be the reason of . by warnis. in Ed? ward the tics. his mouth. and evidence of his Spirit in such The New English churches churchcs. Cotton be offended that I should help (as he calls them) any zealous not against the mighty ordinances of the Lord Jesus. Cotton doth. but to seek after the The refermationdehad'been' h°ere8?in* Lord Jesus without halting? . he he hath not found such presence of Christ. kindle a fire of persecution against such zealo^^^ souls. . Upon souls.. &c.

Old or 439 New England." man's administra- not be so undeistood as did Cotton's Answer. bring slat/ For not rules of all the practices or them hither. CASTLX STBEET.] FINIS. what government he would set up. what churcli. J. but the laws of Christ. . and what persecution he would practise toward them that would not receive ' Him?^ is [" The answer near at hand . 27. PBINTKIl.EXAMINED AND ANSWERED. Those mine enemies which would not that own I should Luke reign over them. what ministry. 144. KINSBUBY. BAODOM. p. allow his vicegerents to practise all that himself would practise in his person. and face. xix. what worship. are the tions. . And them before my yet I would if Christ acts of Christ.

" 21. dele 8. for "to [all] men." read helieveth not shall he "He that damned.EERATiL Page 7. line 32. "men." read " all men." ." for''fle that believeth shall not be damned. line 4.


and resolved unanimously : " That the Gentlemen whose names follow be the Officers and Council for the year ensuing. seconded by Eev. J. Rev. B. Rev. Rev. Rev. BlKKELL. Esq. JONES.D. Mr. Steane. D. Thomas Thomas.. MoKEis. Esq. B. Thomas Price. J. Black." CHARLES JONES. Ph. Brook. Rey. Rev. Rev. George Offor. Tresirail. J. GoTCH. M. Cox. Rev. Thomas Fox NEvyrMAN. G. B. and resolved unanimously : " That the gratifying Eeport now read be approved. Joshua Russell. W. B. Rev. Rev. Owen.D. Evans. H. M. Rev. of Stepney. read the Annual Eeport. D. F. APRIL 58th. Eotheet.D. Godwin. D. Mr. W. T. W. PoTTENGER. Rev. F. C. Jabez Burns. printed. M. Kemp. Rev. Charles T. HiNToN. Esq. Esq. Rev. Jones. A. Robert Rofp. HoBY. J. Esq. J. Rev. Prayer by Mr. B." It was moved by Geoegb Offor. Sprigg.A. Chaeles Jones in the Chair. presented the Cash Accounts and Financial Statement. Rev. W. Crisp. Jones. Rev. J. E. Rev. Thomas Burdixt.A. seconded by Eev. J. Rev.D. GCounttl. of . Rev. M.. Honorarg E.D. F. 1848. Esq. ^Jtittartts. Rev. Rev. W. Undeehill. F. Angus. Rev. E. The Meeting was Park Street.. D. Caleb Evahs Birt. LL. UNDERBILL. Rev. C. Rev. J.D. D. Rev. Rev. AcwOBTH. Orchard. Rev. M. and Geokge Offoe. M. SiovEL.SECOND GENERAL MEETING. H. closed with. James Read. MURSELL. H.. Rev. E. P. W. Murch.A.A. of Manchester. Rev. Esq.D. D. Davies. G. D. D. Esq. It was moved by Dr.A. Gboser. prayer by Eev. H. W. Smith. Cox.R. George Lowe. Rev. and circulated among the Subscribers under the direction of the Council. F. Rev. Esq. S. Esq.D. T.S.

This very unique volume has met with the entire approbation of the Society. was that has been increased during the year to 1259. will of course be variable. exciting It is enough if its object be accomplished satisfactorily to the Subscribers. and supplies a desideratum in the literary world at critical large— and authentic edition of the great. has been placed in the hands of the Subscribers. . thi. deficiencies life. The labour involved in undertaking.s Dreamer's immortal work. The number up for moment The for the volumes 1847. and must continually occur from the various incidents of For the year 1847. not in tlie power of a literary Society such as this to lay before the Subscribers matters of interest. It is. and the condition of their funds allow its the progressive fulfilment of the purposes of formation. At 1044 . to the present . is 1007 but there remains a very considerable list amount of subscriptions unpaid. the last Annual Meeting the number of Sub- scribers to the first year's publications registered.EEPOET. the reprint of Bunyan's Pilgrim's Progress from the original editions.

The Council have sheets of it therefore substituted for it. and two in America. " The Bloudy Tenent first of Persecution Discussed. is many of the Sub- in course of translation by a gentleman who has already some years resided in Holland. in the hands of the Subscribers by The controversy which forms the is subject of this most valuable work. Esq. preparation for the press. at. The Council have the of first in preparation for the year 1848.4 the useful and interesting introduction accompanying it. they hope to place the end of July. the which are in the press. Black. It is being reprinted from the copy in the Bodleian library at Oxford. however. and a wanderer in the wilds of America to escape from the persecuting spirit of the Pilgrim Fathers. volume of the Dutch Martyrology. have been gratuitously afforded editor. H. an exile. and for The Book of Martyrs has been undertaken at the earnest request of scribers." by Roger and Williams. and the passage of the work through the press. has not permitted the editor. to the Society by its very able George Offer. three copies known to exist in country. WiUiams was the honoured founder of Rhode Island State. involved in its The very great labour. the of no less interest present time than when the author of it became an outcast. and a volume John Canne's works. the first of the United States in which entire and perfect liberty of conscience was permitted and enjoyed. the Rev. so that . He has made considerable progress in the work. The work now preparing only being is of extreme this rarity. to have in a sufficient state of forwardness for immediate pub- lication. it W. It was the wish of the Council to complete the year's issue with a reprint of Henry Danver's Treatise of Baptism. Mr.

The Council has had to regret the loss sustained by the departure from this country of the Rev. which has hitherto been confined to the minister. Davies. W. will probably this treasury of examples of Christian patience and endurance The portion of the work in hand form three volumes. and with various collections of faith of the early documents relating to the history and English Baptists. Canne is mostly known by his biblical labours but he was also remarkable for his clear insight into the nature of the constitution of Christ's church. Dr. and being matured for publication in future years. and also by the General Assembly of General Baptist Churches. Other works are also in hand. The name Mr. ojBBce M. Christopher Blackwood. the Rev. His successor at Stepney College. of . first The volume of his works will appear under the editorial supervision of the Rev. Benjamin Keach. Such are the writings of Kiffin. were passed in the early part of the year at the Western' and Gloucestershire Associations of Baptist Churches. .. has favoured the Society by undertaking the has been passed to grant the thus vacated. Charles Stovel. A. Resolutions commendatory of the Society. which he developed in a series of works both noble in sentiment. Jones. William others.the Council confidently anticipate the pleasure of laying open to the English public during the present year under persecution. resolution A same privileges to the Sunday School Library of any congre- gation. WiUiam DeU. whose advice and judgment were of the most valuable kind. and powerful in argumentation.

tbe ten being regarded as entitling the minister. removals. it is scribers should not only maintain their subscriptions. The Council have it in purpose to extend the useful- ness of the Society by additional lectures. so soon as arrangements can be made.A second list of ten subscribers will entitle the library first to a free copy. and the larger its the more these best strife will it accomplish in the reproduction of ~ memorials of the men who have preceded us in the is for the establishment of a kingdom which not of this world. to supply the who fail by death. They feel assured of the co-operation of their brethren in this matter. Although so far great encouragement and success have of importance that the Sub- attended their labours. . and which when established shall never pass away. but by personal recommendation endeavour places of those causes. or other its The efficiency of the Society depends on subscription list numbers.


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