As an aspiring lawyer, one has to ask why, of all the jobs in the planet, the law?

It is a question that many of us who are taking the course here in the Philippines normally ask amongst us and yet finding ourselves on virtually a variety of stories and reasons behind the prestige of having this education. However, what is it in the Profession that is worth learning? Actually, the answer can be equated as a double-bladed sword which can be used as a means to uphold justice and the preservation and adherence to the basic humanitarian rights or as a means to unconscionable practice which makes the profession an enticing business rather than a calling and a vocation. In the Philippines, an aspiring lawyer will, basically, spend eight years in college before taking the Bar Examinations; four years of which will be the basic collegiate course and the remaining four will be for the degree of Bachelor of Laws. It is, indeed, a struggle because not only you will spend so much time and effort reading, understanding, and learning voluminous accounts of books and other reading materials but also you must be financially prepared especially here in the country where economic struggle is being experienced. However, despite these barriers or hindrances, a lot of us still appreciate the value and the character of being in the Legal Profession because many of us believe that justice, through the practice of law, is a means of exercising our freedom and our democracy and we are trying to be advocates of this especially to our fellow countrymen who have lesser in life. It is in this wise that all of us might somehow agree as a reason to take the road of the Legal Profession.

Legal education in the Philippines is developed and offered by Philippine law schools, supervised by the Legal Education Board, that has replaced the Commission on Higher Education in respect to legal education. The Supreme Court regulates admission to the Bar and administers the Bar Examinations. Furthermore, the minimum curricular requirements for membership in the Philippine Bar are set forth in the Rules of Court promulgated by the Supreme Court. Law degree programs are considered graduate programs in the Philippines. As such, admission to law schools requires the completion of abachelor's degree, with a sufficient number of credits or units in certain subject areas. Graduation from a Philippine law school constitutes the primary eligibility requirement for the Philippine Bar Examination, the national licensure examination for practicing lawyers in the country. The bar examination is administered by the Supreme Court during the month of September every year. Members of the bar in the Philippines are required to take mandatory continuing legal education in order to continue practicing their profession. Legal education in the Philippines normally proceeds along the following route:


Undergraduate education (usually 4 years) Law school (usually 4 years) Admission to the bar (usually by taking a Philippine bar exam) Legal practice and mandatory continuing legal education

The University of Santo Tomas established its Faculties of Canon Law and Civil Law in 1733. From 1734 to 1800, of only 3,360 students, only 29 graduated with the degree of Bachelor of Civil Law, 8 with the degree of Licentiate in Civil Law and 3 with the degree of Doctor of Civil Law in that university.[1] In 1899, after the Malolos Constitution was ratified, the Universidad Literia de Filipinas was established in Malolos, Bulacan. It offered Law as well as Medicine, Surgery and Notary Public. In 1899, Felipe Calderon founded the Escuela de Derecho de Manila and adopted the name Manila Law College in 1924. The University of the Philippines opened its College of Law in 1910. There were around 50 Filipino and American students.[1] Justice Sherman Moreland of the Supreme Court of the Philippines was named its first Dean, but after he ultimately declined the position, he was replaced by George A. Malcolm, who is recognized as the college's first permanent dean. [edit]Legal


The Philippine legal system is an amalgamation of the world's major systems. These systems include the Roman Civil Law which was inherited from Spain; the Anglo-American Common Law which were derived from the laws of the United States; and Islamic Law otherwise known as the Shariah Law of the Muslim world. [edit]Law

degree programs

Law degrees in the Philippines may be classified into three types²professional, graduate level, and honorary. [edit]Professional

law degrees

In order to be eligible to take the bar examinations, one must complete one of the two professional degrees: The Bachelor of Laws (Ll.B.) program or the Juris Doctor (J.D.) program. Advanced degrees are offered by some law schools, but are not requirements for admission to the practice of law in the Philippines.  Bachelor of Laws (Ll.B.) - The Ll.B. is the most common law degree offered and conferred by Philippine law schools. It is a standard four-year law program covering all bar exam subjects. Almost

all law schools follow a standard LL.B. curriculum, wherein students are exposed to the required bar subjects. Other schools, like the University of the Philippines College of Law, allow students to substitute electives for bar review subjects offered in the fourth year of study.[2]  Juris Doctor (J.D.) - The J.D. degree was developed and first conferred in the Philippines by the Ateneo Law School in 1991. The J.D. program is a four-year law program. Like the standard Ll.B. program, the J.D. curriculum covers the core subjects required for the bar examinations. Unlike the Ll.B., the Ateneo J.D. program requires students to finish the core bar subjects in 2½ years, take elective subjects, undergo an apprenticeship, and prepare and defend a thesis.
[4] [3]

Aside from the

Ateneo, other law schools offer the J.D.: the University of Batangas College of Law, recently, the University of the Philippines College of Law

and just

The change in degree title from Bachelor

of Laws (LL.B.) to Juris Doctor (J.D.) degree at the University of the Philippines was approved by its president, Dr. Emerlinda R. Roman, on July 31, 2007. In 2009, Pamantasan ng Lungsod ng Maynila College of Law and the Silliman University College of Law started its own J.D. curriculum.[5][6] The Central Philippine University in Iloilo City will start to offer this degree by second semester of 2010.[7] University of St. La Salle in Bacolod city is also offering a J.D. program.
needed] [citation 

Juris Doctor-Master of Business Administration, (J.D.-M.B.A.), - The J.D.-M.B.A. program is a double degree program in law and management offered at the graduate level. It was introduced and is so far offered only by the La Salle-FEU MBA-JD Program, a consortium of Far Eastern University Institute of Law and De La Salle Graduate School of Business. Under this program, the requirements of the J.D. and M.B.A. programs are satisfied by the taking of concurrent units of study, allowing students to complete the program in five instead of six years.[2]


law degrees

Beyond the J.D. or Ll.B., members of the Philippine bar have the option of pursuing graduate degrees in law.  Master of Laws (LL.M.) - The Ll.M. is a graduate law degree offered to holders of basic law degrees (LL.B. and J.D.). It is generally offered to law graduates and lawyers of any nationality. Six Philippine law schools so far conduct the program--the Ateneo Law School, which offers an International Master of Laws program; the University of Santo Tomas Faculty of Civil Law, which first offered the LLM;University of Manila College of Law; Manuel L. Quezon University College of Law; San Beda Graduate School of Law; and PLM Graduate School of Law of the Pamantasan ng Lungsod ng Maynila (University of the City of Manila). LL.M. programs were once offered by the Far Eastern University Institute of Law, the Escuela de Derecho de Manila (now Manila Law College Foundation),

and the University of the Philippines College of Law but were eventually phased out due to lack of enrollment and funding.[2]  Doctor of Civil Law (D.C.L.) - The D.C.L. program is a doctoral program in law offered to holders of the LL.M degree. Candidates who hold only LL.B. degrees may be admitted upon completion of prerequisite LL.M. subjects. The D.C.L. was pioneered by the University of Santo Tomas Faculty of Civil Law. Their program structure is highly similar to the D.C.L. offered in the Complutense University of Madrid. The PLM Graduate School of Law has already opened its own D.C.L. program.[9] Doctor of Jurisprudential Science (S.J.D. or J.S.D.) - The S.J.D. or J.S.D. program is currently offered only by the San Beda Graduate School of Law. While the candidate for the degree is required some academic units, the grant of the degree relies on the candidates research output as well as his or her participation in international symposia, seminars and programs as lecturer, panel presenter or paper presenter. The candidate presents a doctoral dissertation that is argued before a Panel of Oral Examiners and then delivers a 'lectio coram' -- a lecture in the presence of legal luminaries. The Graduate School of Law of San Beda College is currently the only graduate school of law in the country offering this degree. [edit]Honorary

law degrees

Some Philippine universities also confer the honorary Doctor of Laws (LL.D.) degree. It is given to famous individuals who, in the discretion of the awarding institution, were found to have made significant contributions to a certain field, or to the improvement of society or development of the conditions of mankind in general. Honorary law doctorates in the past include:    King Juan Carlos I of Spain (LL.D., honoris causa, University of Santo Tomas)[10] UNESCO Director General Koichiro Matsuura (LL.D., honoris causa, University of Santo Tomas)[10] former International Court of Justice Judge Cesar Bengzon (LL.D., honoris causa, Ateneo de Manila University and University of Santo Tomas) [10][11]  former United Nations General Assembly President Carlos P. Romulo (Ll.D., honoris causa, University of Santo Tomas and University of the East)[10][12]  former Philippine President Corazon Aquino (LL.D., honoris causa, University of the Philippines and University of Santo Tomas)    

former Philippine President Ferdinand Marcos (LL.D., honoris causa, University of the East)[12] former Philippine President Ramon Magsaysay (LL.D., honoris causa, University of the East)

former Philippine Chief Justice Artemio Panganiban (LL.D., honoris causa, University of Iloilo)[13] Canadian Chief Justice Beverly McLachlin, P.C. (LL.D., honoris causa, Ateneo de Manila University)

B..The University of Santo Tomas Faculty of Canon Law runs the oldest academic programs of this kind. (LL. J. honoris causa. honoris causa.D..B.C. honoris causa.D. and second. curriculum introduced by the Ateneo de Manila Law School (the J.D. University of the Philippines). Ateneo de Manila University)[11] former Philippine Commission on Elections Chairman Christian Monsod (LL. (LL.. series of 1989). the basic law degree (LL.B.M.. Programs of the FEU-La Salle consortium and the University of Batangas Law School are of this mold).[3] [edit]Admission to the practice of law .[18] Degrees in canon law. honoris causa. programs through adopting a model substantially similar to the J.C. honoris causa. the conversion of Ll. Silliman University)[16] [edit]Practicality While advanced law degrees (LL. 27. strictly speaking. University of San Carlos)[11]  founder of Chronicle Broadcasting Network Don Eugenio Lopez.D.´ to ³J. ItsLicentiate of Canon Law (J.D. [edit]Developments There is a move among members of the Philippine Association of Law Schools (PALS) to convert their Ll.). Sr.D.) programs are open to priests.´ while essentially retaining the same course offerings as those in the DECS Model Law Curriculum (DECS Order No.D. are not considered law degrees in the Philippines. Jr.) may elevate a lawyer's standing in academic settings.e. honoris causa.L.. nuns.[3]There are currently two possible directions for the change: First. simply changing the name of the degree conferred from ³Ll.C. University of Santo Tomas)[10] former Philippine First Lady Imelda Marcos (LL. law deans. trial court judges. Ateneo de Manila University)[11]      former Philippine Supreme Court Chief Justice and currently a Truth Commissioner Hilario Davide. and even to lay people (i.D.. S.) and Doctor of Canon Law (J.. an ecclesiastical program that is not required in the Philippine Bar Examinations.J. LL.D.[12] Philippine Senator Miriam Defensor Santiago (LL.B.D..L.) remains the most important academic qualification to be admitted to the practice of law in the Philippines.D. Judges of the Roman Catholic Marriage Tribunal typically hold academic degrees in the field..D.. family lawyers etc. former Philippine First Lady Aurora Aragon Quezon (LL. honoris causa.D.D.D.. Centro Escolar University and Xavier University)[14][15] former Philippine Senator Raul Manglapus (LL. D. theologians. programs into J.[17] [edit]Ecclesiastical law degrees A few Roman Catholic seminaries and graduate schools offer degree programs in Canon Law.. curricula.

take the Attorney's Oath. and holder of a bachelor's degree and a law degree obtained from a government recognized law school in the Philippines.[21]It is also reputedly one of the hardest bar examinations in the world. It is arguably the hardest and the most media-covered of all government licensure examinations in the country. an ad hoc academic group tasked to formulate questions. Court of Appeals.. take and pass the Philippine Bar Examinations. Regular members of the Board include a representative from each of the following: . Graduates of law schools from other countries must obtain a law degree from the Philippines to qualify for the Philippine Bar. Sandiganbayan. a candidate must be a Filipino citizen.). etc.´ [edit]Philippine Bar Examinations The Philippine Bar Examinations is the national licensure exam for admission to the practice of law.The 1987 Constitution of the Philippines has given the Supreme Court the sole power to admit individuals to the practice of law in thePhilippines. The Supreme Court Bar Office conducts the exam while the Office of Muslim Affairs determines the qualification and eligibility of candidates to the exams.[23] [edit]Attorneys-at-law To be a full-fledged lawyer in the Philippines and be eligible to use the title Attorney. grade examinations. and sign his name in the Rolls of Attorneys of the Supreme Court.e. [26] Supreme Court. [edit]Legal [25] Education Board The Legal Education Board supervises all law schools and continuing legal education providers in the Philippines. a candidate must graduate from a Philippine law school. and release the results of the Philippine Bar Examination. Court of Tax Appeals. (b) recognition or accreditation of the law school by the proper authority. [19] This power is exercised through a Bar Examination Committee. and in a similar list included in a Supreme Court publication entitled Law List.[22] For candidates intending to practice Islamic law in the Philippines. [26] The Board is headed by a Chairman who is a retired justice of a collegiate court (i. [20] In March 2010 the Supreme court issued Bar matter 1153 allowing Filipino who are foreign law graduates to take the Bar exam provided that applicant complies with the following conditions: a) completion of all courses leading to the degree of Bachelor of Laws or its equivalent degree. and (c) completion of all fourth year subjects in the Bachelor of Laws academic program in a law school duly recognized by the Philippine Government d) must have completed a separate bachelors degree. It is conducted during the four Sundays of September of every year. administer proceedings. To be eligible to take the national bar exam. [24] The full names of lawyers are found in the Rolls of Attorneys of the Supreme Court. rank candidates. at least twenty-one years of age. the Special Bar Exams for Shari¶a Court Lawyers is given every two years.

Jaime Gonzales Jr. and the requirement of attendance to continuing legal education seminars for practicing attorneys. Jayson Del Rosario 5. 2. provisions for legal apprenticeship of law students. every three years.[28] The Mandatory Continuing Legal Education Office. Grino-Aquino. 3. Felicisma Bet Perea 11. is the official government agency tasked to implement compliance with the MCLE requirement.[28] The MCLE Office is headed by former Supreme Court Justice Carolina C. at least thirty-six hours of continuing legal education seminars approved by the Mandatory Continuing Legal Education Committee (MCLE). established by the Supreme Court. Sherwin Peter Seriosa 9. Amor Tuazon-Del Rosario 10. [edit]Mandatory [26] Continuing Legal Education Lawyers with names appearing in the Rolls of Attorneys of the Supreme Court. Micheal Cawa 14. These include independent law schools. widow of former Supreme Court Chief Justice Ramon Aquino. and shall be listed as a delinquent member. Sunie De Leon 7. Bong Mesina 8. Sheryl Atienza 13.[27] However. and affiliated units of much larger private and . Its office is located at the fourth floor of the IBP Building in Ortigas Center.     Integrated Bar of the Philippines (IBP) Philippine Association of Law Schools (PALS) Philippine Association of Law Professors (PALP) active law practitioners bonafide law students The Board has made legal reforms which include²the stricter selection of law students and law professors. Liza Sevilla 15. Some of the most notable MCLEO staff are as follows: 1. are all members of the Integrated Bar of the Philippines (IBP). to be IBP members of good standing. resident colleges. improvements in quality of instruction and facilities of law schools. Edison Discimulacion 6. lawyers are required to complete. Minerva Sancho 12. Members who fail to comply shall pay a non-compliance fee. Joel Pastor 4. Leny Dela Cruz [edit]Philippine law schools [29][30] There are one-hundred-five (105) law schools public universities:[31] legitimately operating throughout the Philippines. Crisanto Carrillo Jr. unless disbarred.

. Kalibo. Cabanatuan City Arellano University Law Foundation Taft... Dipolog City Aquinas University College of Law 2-S King's Building. Pasay City Ateneo de Davao College of Law Jacinto St. Bulacan Cagayan Colleges-Tuguegarao Cagayan . Ave. Manila Aklan Catholic College College of Law Arch. Makati City Ateneo de Zamboanga University College of Law La Purisima Street. Menlo St.. JAA Penaranda St.Name Location Adamson University College of Law 900 San Marcelino St. City of Malolos.. Davao City Ateneo de Manila Law School 20 Rockwell Drive. Legazpi City Araullo University College of Law Bitas. Bukidnon Bulacan State University College of Law MacArthur Highway. Albay Bukidnon State University Malabalay. Basilan Bicol Colleges Daraga.Reyes St. Aklan Andres Bonifacio College College Park. cor. Zamboanga City Proposed 2011 Basilan State University College of Law Isabela City. Rockwell Center.

Ayala Ave. Leyte East Central Colleges San Fernando City. Talisay. Manila Don Mariano Marcos Memorial State University College of Law San Fernando.. La Trinidad.C.. Vicente Orestes Romualdez Education Foundation. Roxas City Cor Jesu College Digos. Manila (The La Salle-FEU MBA-JD Program is offered at De La Salle Professional Schools. Inc. St. Makati City Christ the King College Calbayog City Colegio dela Purisima Concepcion IBP Office. Sampaloc. Malate. RCBC Plaza.. Butuan City . Cagayan Camarines Norte School of Law Itomang. It is offered in consortium with the De La Salle Graduate School of Business. Camarines Norte Central Philippine University College of Jaro. Iloilo City Law Centro Escolar University Gil Puyat St. Davao del Sur Cordillera College Bugayan. cor. Makati City. Tacloban City. La Union Dr..Cagayan State University Tuguegarao. Aquino Ave. Saturnino Urios University San Francisco St. J. Benguet De La Salle University College of Law 2401 Taft Avenue. Pampanga Far Eastern University Institute of Law Nicanor Reyes Sr.) Fr. Hall of Justice.

. Pangasinan Manila Law College Foundation (formerly Escuela de Derecho de Manila) Sales St.. Bulacan Foundation University Dr.Fernandez College of Arts & Technology Gil Carlos St. Pampanga Holy Name University College of Law Tagbilaran City. Cruz. Miciano St. Carmen. Baliuag. Quiapo. Pelaez Blvd... Quezon University College of Law R. Manila . Sta.. Bohol Jose Rizal University College of Law 82 Shaw Blvd. Oriental Mindoro Luzon Colleges Dagupan City. Pangasinan Lyceum of the Philippines UniversityCollege of Law L. Manila Manuel L. Tacloban City Liceo de Cagayan University College of Rodolfo N. Mandaluyong City Leyte Colleges Zamora St... Leviste St.. Dumaguete City Harvardian Colleges San Fernando. Makati City Lyceum-Northwestern University College of Law Dagupan City. Cagayan de Oro Law Luna Goco Colleges Calapan.P. Hidalgo St.

.. Manila Philippine Advent College Sindangan. Lucena City Masbate Colleges Masbate. Monica. Palawan Pamantasan ng Lungsod ng Maynila College of Law Intramuros. Zamboanga del Norte .Manuel S. Cotabato City Pagadian College of Criminology & Sciences Pagadian City Palawan State University College of Law Sta. Joseph St. Masbate Medina Colleges Ozamiz City Mindanao State University College of Law Marawi City Misamis University College of Law Bonifacio St.. New Era. Isabela Northwester University College of Law Laoag City Notre Dame University College of Law Notre Dame Ave. Milton Hills Subd.. Enverga University Foundation College of Law Foundation St. Brgy. Quezon City Negros Oriental State University Dumaguete City Northeastern College Santiago City.. Puerto Princesa. Ozamiz City New Era University College of Law St.

Dumaguete City. Sambag District. Santa Mesa. Baguio CitySchool of Law Bonifacio St. Pasay City Polytechnic University of the Philippines College of Law Mabini Campus.B. Muntinlupa City San Pablo Colleges San Pablo City San Sebastian College RecoletosCollege of Law Claro M.. Manila Samar College Catbalogan City. Nueva Vizcaya Silliman University College of Law Hibbard Ave. Cebu City Tabaco Colleges Tabaco.. Recto Ave.Philippine Law School F. La Union Saint Louis University. Manila Saint Louis College San Fernando City. Negros Oriental Southwestern University College of Law Urgillo St. San Miguel... Samar San Beda College of Law Mendiola St. Mary's University College of Law Bayombong. Manila San Beda College of Law-Alabang Don Manolo Boulevard. Albay University of Batangas College of Law Batangas City .. Alabang Hills Village. Baguio City St. Harrison St..

Northern Samar University of Iloilo College of Law Iloilo City University of Manila College of Law Mv.. Manila University of Mindanao College of Law Bolton St. Davao City University of Negros OccidentalRecoletos School of Law Libertad. Laguna University of San Agustin College of Law Gen..University of Bohol College of Law Tagbilaran City University of the Cordilleras (formerly the Baguio Colleges Foundation) College of Law Harrison Rd. Baguio City University of the East College of Law Claro M. delos Santos. Recto Ave. Luna St. Iloilo City University of San Carlos College of Law P. Bacolod City. Camarines Sur Law University of Perpetual Help-Rizal College of Law Las Piñas City University of Perpetual Help System College of Law Biñan. Manila University of Eastern Philippines College of Law Catarman.. Cebu City .. Negros Occidental University of Nueva Caceres College of Naga City. Del Rosario St..

Olongapo City Virgen Milagrosa University Foundation College of Law Martin P. Quezon City Law University of Visayas College of Law Cebu City Virgen de los Remedios College 10 Fontaine St. Posadas Avenue. out of 3.. Zamboanga City law schools law schools The fifteen oldest law schools are as follows:[1]  University of Santo Tomas Faculty of Civil Law. Baliwasan. España Blvd.P. From 1734 to 1800 (66 years). 8 in Licentiate in Civil Law. Campus. Diliman Campus. . the University of Santo Tomas opened a Faculty of Civil Law and a Faculty of Canon Law. only 40 students graduated from various law programs: 29 in Bachelor of Civil Law. East Bajac-bajac. Bacolod City University of Santo Tomas Faculty of Civil Law Main Building.360 students. Manila University of Southern Philippines Foundation College of Law Cebu City University of the Philippines College of Malcolm Hall.S.University of San JoseRecoletos College of Law Cebu City University of St. is the oldest law school in the Philippines.Ateneo de Cagayan Corales Ave. established in 1734. Sampaloc. In 1734. U. San Carlos City.T. U.. La Salle College of Law La Salle Avenue. and 3 in Doctor of Law. Pangasinan Xavier University . Cagayan de Oro City College of Law Western Mindanao State University [edit]Notable [edit]Oldest Normal Road..

author of the 1899 Malolos Constitution. the school was renamed the Manila Law School. . Cecilia Muñoz Palma. Felix Gaudiel. the first permanent dean of the College. former Philippine Court of Appeals Presiding Justices Oscar Herrera and Salome A. he was replaced by George A.  Philippine Law School was established in 1915. In 1924.  Far Eastern University Institute of Law. three Vice Presidents.[32][33][34]  Southern College of Law was established in 1935. established in 1934. earned her Master of Laws from this institution. a long serving dean of the college was a member of the 1973 Constitutional Convention. Justice Sherman Moreland of the Philippine Supreme Court was named as the first dean. and six Chief Justices of the Philippine Supreme Court. The school has produced four Philippine Presidents. Garcia. The school later moved to Tarlac. and Sandiganbayan senior associate justice Edilberto Sandoval.  Silliman University College of Law was established in 1935 with a class of 22 freshmen. Garcia attended the school. Former Presidents Diosdado Macapagal and Carlos P.  Universidad Literia Filipinas. 4th President of the Republic of the Philippines took law subjects in the school before finally proceeding to the Philippine Law School. established in 1898. In 1910. It was further renamed Manila Law College Foundation.  University of Manila College of Law was established in 1918. founded the school. is the flagship law school of state colleges and universities in the Philippines.reflecting the rigid training in these courses. Atty. It is no longer operating. was the second oldest law school in the country. Bulacan and offered progams in law and notary public. established in 1910. The university was established in Malolos. the first woman to be appointed Associate Justice of the Philippine Supreme Court and the President of the 1986 Constitutional Commission. Don Felipe Calderon. is the alma mater of former Supreme Court Chief Justice Artemio Panganiban. the College of Law of the University of the Philippines opened with fifty (50) Filipino and American students. Montoya. former Philippine President Corazon Aquino. Carlos P. The school has dominated past and present memberships in thePhilippine Supreme Court and other collegiate courts. Malcolm. It is no longer operating. but after he ultimately declined the post.  University of the Philippines College of Law.  Escuela de Derecho de Manila (now Manila Law College Foundation) was established in 1899.

Joaquin Bernas. [36] Law schools with the highest average bar passing rates from 1996 to 2005 include: Schools with more than 30 examinees: . was established in 1938. It is now defunct. San Beda College of Law. and former Philippine Vice President Teofisto Guingona. 1986 Constitutional Commissioner Fr. Francisco Law School was established in 1940. and has gone from an all-time high of 75. Manuel L. and former Supreme Court Associate Justice Florenz D. established in 1936. formerly as the Arellano Law College and officially as Arellano Law Foundation.  University of San Carlos College of Law in Cebu City.[35]  The Arellano University School of Law. is the alma mater of former Chief Justice Claudio Teehankee. Quezon University was established in 1947. former Senator Francisco Sumulong.     University of San Agustin School of Law was established in 1939.17% in 1954 to an all-time low of 16. Regalado who holds the highest bar exam grade in the history of the Philippine Bar Examinations. Likewise. [edit]Bar Performance [edit]Bar passing rate The bar passing rate is the proportion of successful bar exam passers in relation to the total number of bar exam takers coming from a particular law school. It formed the early beginnings of Arellano University. The national bar passing rate (proportion of all bar exam passers in relation to all bar exam takers) changes every year. Popular broadcaster and former Leyte Representative Ted Failon. was founded in 1948. Ateneo de Manila Law School. was established in 1937. and former Congressman Jose Zafra attended the school. former Court of Appeals Presiding Justice Manuel Gaviola. former Senator Rene Saguisag.J. it is the first law school outside Manila to be accredited by the Supreme Court to conduct Mandatory Continuing Legal Education (MCLE) seminar for lawyers.. S. whereby its senior students are allowed to handle actual cases in the court with the assistance and under the guidance of a licensed member of the Bar.. Famous alumni include former Senator and Education Secretary Raul Roco. It is the only law school in the Visayas and Mindanao to be granted license by the Supreme Court to have a Clinical Legal Education Program (CLEP).59% in 1999.

The list contains the names of bar examinees who obtained the ten highest grades. Every year.25% Schools with 30 or less examinees:        [38] Ateneo de Davao University College of Law .27% University of the Philippines College of Law . giving the school a 100% passing rate.38%[37] In the 2006 bar examinations.Ateneo de Cagayan (7) bar topnotchers Philippine Law School .41.57% University of San Carlos .19% University of Santo Tomas Faculty of Civil Law .45% Arellano University .[40] Schools which have produced bar topnotchers (1st placers)[41] include:         University of the Philippines College of Law . the Supreme Court releases the bar top ten list.65.[39] [edit]Bar topnotchers Bar topnotchers are bar examinees who garnered the highest bar exam grades in a particular year. Basilan State University's lone bar candidate passed.46.three (3) bar topnotchers University of the Cordilleras (formerly Baguio Colleges Foundation) College of Law .19% San Beda College of Law .45% Lyceum of the Philippines University .six (6) bar topnotchers Far Eastern University Institute of Law .18% Pamantasan ng Lungsod ng Maynila College of Law .26% Xavier University .nineteen (19) bar topnotchers San Beda College of Law .31.32.three (3) bar topnotchers University of Santo Tomas Faculty of Civil Law .seven (7) bar topnotchers University of Manila . It is possible for more than ten examinees to place in the top ten because numerical ties in the computation of grades usually occur.two (2) bar topnotchers .40% St.70% Far Eastern University Institute of Law .forty-nine (49) bar topnotchers Ateneo de Manila Law School .     Ateneo de Manila Law School . Louis University .

influence.former Secretary of Justice Merceditas Gutierrez .Senator of the Philippines Ignacio Bunye . Joaquin G.Associate Justice of the Philippine Supreme Court Renato Corona .one (1) bar topnotcher University of the East College of Law . necessarily excluding non-law graduates and foreign law graduates from taking part in the exercise.Chief Presidential Legal Counsel Ernesto Maceda .     Manila Law College Foundation (formerly Escuela de Derecho de Manila) . 1950 bar exams In the past.former Secretary of Labor and Employment. Quezon University College of Law . former Secretary of Justice .Chief Justice of the Philippine Supreme Court Jose Miguel Arroyo . [edit]Law schools with prestigious alumni The quality of law schools is often measured by the prestige. non-law school graduates were allowed to take the bar.Member of the 1986 Constitutional Commission Alan Peter Cayetano . However. Griño-Aquino . 1st placer. Brion . . 1945 bar exams Carolina C. Associate Justice of the Supreme Court      Rolando Andaya Jr.former Chief Justice of the Philippine Supreme Court Adolfo Azcuna .one (1) bar topnotcher San Sebastian College Institute of Law .former Associate Justice of the Supreme Court. Bernas.former Senator of the (1) bar topnotcher Divine Word College . .First Gentleman of the Philippines Fr.[21] Some of the law schools and their famous alumni include:  Ateneo de Manila Law School alumni:[42]          Teofisto Guingona .former Vice President of the Philippines Claudio Teehankee . or wealth of famous law alumni.former Senate President Hernando Perez .one (1) bar topnotcher Manuel L.J. S.Philippine Ombudsman. 1st placer. the Revised Rules of Court and Supreme Court Circulars allow only Philippine law graduates to take the bar.former Secretary of Budget and Management Sergio Apostol .Presidential Spokesman Arturo (1) bar topnotcher Two bar examinees topped the bar exams without graduating from any Philippine law school:   Jose Diokno .

former President of the Philippines Artemio Panganiban .former Senator.former Presiding Justice of the Philippine Court of Appeals Eliezer R. Elbinias .Member of the 1986 Constitutional Commission.former Justice of the Philippine Supreme Court. Regalado .Associate Justice of the Philippine Supreme Court .former Senator of the Philippines Wenceslao Lagumbay . Delegate of the 1971 Constitutional Convention       Salome Montoya . . Secretary of Justice.former Solicitor General.Associate Justice of the Sandiganbayan (Philippine Anti-Graft Court) Manuel Collantes . De los Santos . former SolicitorGeneral   Jose Catral Mendoza . Mitra .Acting Secretary of Justice.Associate Justice of the Philippine Court of Appeals Juan Q. obtained the highest rating in entire history of the Philippine Bar Examinations    Raul Roco . former Governor of Antique [43] Far Eastern University Institute of Law alumni:     Corazon Aquino .former Speaker of the House of Representatives and 1992 presidential Candidate  Antonio Eduardo Nachura . and Chairman of the Commission on Human Rights    Edgar Ilarde .former Senator of the Philippines Neptali Gonzales Jr. 1998 & 2004 presidential candidate Rene Saguisag . Enriquez Jr.Associate Justice of the Philippine Court of Appeals Evelio Javier.former Mayor of Mandaluyong City and Majority Floor Leader of the Philippine House of Representatives  San Beda College of Law alumni:[44]  Florenz D.Associate Justice of the Philippine Court of Appeals Edilberto Sandoval . Agnes Devanadera . Education Secretary.former Secretary of Foreign Affairs and Ambassador to the United Nations Sedfrey Ordonez . former Solicitor-General. Jr.Associate Justice of the Philippine Supreme Court Justo P. former Government Corporate Counsel    Michael P. Torres.former Senator and Human Rights Lawyer Ramon V.former Chief Justice of the Philippine Supreme Court Court of Appeals Presiding Justice and Remedial Law expert Oscar Herrera Jose Nolledo . . Ambassador to the United Nations. .Associate Justice of the Philippine Supreme Court.

Sr. Davao City and former Congressman.former President of the Philippines Sergio Osmeña .former President of the Philippines Emmanuel Pelaez .Associate Justice of the Philippine Supreme Court Gregory S.Associate Justice of the Sandiganbayan (Philippine Anti-Graft Court) Raul Gonzalez . Jr.Associate Justice of the Philippine Court of Appeals Eloy Bello.Associate Justice of the Philippine Court of Appeals Bienvenido Reyes .Associate Justice of the Philippine Court of Appeals Francisco Acosta .President.Associate Justice of the Philippine Court of Appeals Mario Lopez .Associate Justice of the Philippine Court of Appeals Antonio Eugenio. Laurel . . Philippine Judges Association Sixto Brillantes.former Vice President of the Philippines Arturo Tolentino .former Chief Justice of the Philippine Supreme Court Roberto Concepcion . . Sr.former Chief Justice of the Philippine Supreme Court and Chairman.Associate Justice of the anti-graft court Sandiganbayan Rodolfo Ponferrada.Associate Justice of the Philippine Supreme Court Romeo Callejo. . .former Vice President of the Philippines Fernando Lopez .Associate Justice of the Philippine Court of Appeals Monina Arevalo Zenarosa .              Antonio Martinez .Election law expert Rodrigo Duterte .Mayor. Ong .Associate Justice of the Philippine Supreme Court Rosalinda Asuncion Vicente . Jr.Secretary of Justice and former Tanodbayan (Special Prosecutor) .Chairperson of the Commission on Human Rights University of Santo Tomas Faculty of Civil Law alumni:[45]              Manuel L.former Chief Justice of the Philippine Supreme Court Ramon Avanceña .former President of the Philippines Diosdado Macapagal . Jr. Quezon .Associate Justice of the anti-graft court Sandiganbayan Eugenio Labitoria .Associate Justice of the Philippine Court of Appeals Diosdado Peralta.former President of the Philippines Jose P.former Vice President of the Philippines Cayetano Arellano . Preparatory Commission for Constitutional Reform      Angelina Sandoval-Gutierrez.former Chief Justice of the Philippine Supreme Court Victorino Mapa .former Chief Justice of the Philippine Supreme Court Manuel Araullo . . Davao City Leila De Lima .former Chief Justice of the Philippine Supreme Court Andres Narvasa .

former Chief Justice of the Philippines Enrique Fernando . An indication of the low quality of pre-law education in the . . Solicitor General.former Associate Justice of the Philippine Supreme Court and Presiding Justice of the Philippine Court of Appeals  Bernardo Pardo .former Associate Justice of the Philippine Supreme Court and Commission on Elections Chairman  Alfredo Benipayo .former Chief Justice of the Philippines Marcelo Fernan .former Chief Justice of the Philippines Ramon Aquino .former Chief Justice of the Philippines Cesar Bengzon .former Chief Justice of the Philippines Ricardo Paras . Laurel .former President of the Philippines Pia Cayetano . see List of University of the Philippines College of Law alumni):[46]                   Jose P.Senator of the Philippines Jose Yulo . Arturo Buena .former Chief Justice of the Philippines Querube Makalintal .former President of the Philippines Elpidio Quirino . and Supreme Court Administrator  University of the Philippines College of Law alumni (Associate Justices not included.former Chief Justice of the Philippines Felix Makasiar .former President of the Philippines Ferdinand Marcos . Legal Education of the Filipino Lawyer 1. For a more comprehensive list.former Chief Justice of the Philippines Pedro Yap .former Chief Justice of the Philippines Fred Ruiz Castro .former Chief Justice of the Philippine Supreme Court Reynato Puno .former Commission on Elections Chairman.current Chief Justice of the Philippine Supreme Court Cecilia Muñoz Palma .former Chief Justice of the Philippines Hilario Davide Jr.President of the Philippine Constitutional Commission of 1986 and first woman Associate Justice of the Philippine Supreme Court E.former President of the Philippines Manuel Roxas . Poor Pre-Law Education Assailed It appears that there is so much to be desired in the quality of the high school and collegiate prelaw education of the Filipino lawyer.

In some instances. when the University of Santo Tomas opened its Faculty of Civil Law and a Faculty of Canon Law. 1938. In a recent editorial. Bulacan which offered courses in law and notary public. or 266 years ago. inspired the ilustrados to join them in the intellectual enlightenment of the natives.Philippines is the fact that the annual passing average in Philippine Bar Examinations is roughly 20 percent only (compared to about 70 percent in the USA). Philippine Daily Inquirer. 1940. imbued with the so-called "divine mission" to enlighten the "uneducated" Filipinos on the concepts of democracy and modern civilization. Malcolm.[4] Other law schools followed: Philippine Law School. 1935.But colleges and universities are hobbled by the uneven and even sub-par quality of graduates of basic education. page A8).. which in 1924 was renamed the Manila Law School. thePhilippine Daily Inquirer commented on the poor state of high school and college education in the Philippines as follows: A. History of Philippine Legal Education Since the introduction by Spain of legal education in the Philippines in 1733. the "Indios" of the ilustrado class. questions and changes.[5] . 2. and Francisco Law School.[1] the professional education of the Filipino lawyer has faced many challenges.. Southern College of Law. 1915.@. University of Manila College of Law. the introduction of a pre-baccalaureate program either in high school or college that will winnow graduating high school students and sort them out either for full college program or a vocational-technical course. The problem has given rise to understandable calls for the restoration of Grade 7 and short of that. Filled with the nationalistic confidence that the Filipinos themselves were prepared to educate their own future lawyers. effectively adding another year to the regular fouryear college program. (Editorial ..[2] In 1899 Don Felipe Calderon (author of the 1899 Malolos Constitution) founded the Escuela de Derecho de Manila.. 2002. Thus. Far Eastern University Institute of Law. The first dean was Justice Sherman Moreland of the Philippine Supreme Court. in 1910 the College of Law of the University of the Philippines opened with 50 Filipino and American students. He was replaced by George A. 1934. June 18. establishing in 1898 the Universidad Literia Filipinas in Malolos.AFatal Truancy@. Arellano Law College. who later became a Justice of the Philippine Supreme Court. the failure of the education department to come up with reforms to decisively address the problem of quality has given rise to calls in higher education to increase the number of educational units required for graduation. aspired to compete with the "Peninsulares" and the clergy from Spain.[3] The Americans who replaced the Spaniards in 1899.

6. at the University of the Philippines. tax law.[7] After World War II.[11] In the 1960s to the 1980s the 4-year law course (Ll. political law. Later the pre-law requirement was raised to two years of college work (associate in arts degree) in addition to a high school degree. laws were passed requiring the inspection of private schools. Act No. Sources of Philippine Legal Education .[13] 4. and practice court. it dropped to 28 in 1960. which created the Department of Public Instruction. R. inter alia. 180 was passed which created the Office of Private Schools (later called the Bureau of Private Schools). No. No. Act No.B. e. Sec. legal medicine. legal ethics and legal forms. 2706. C.Under the First Philippine Commission (1899) and the Second Philippine Commission (1900). or the Corporation Law. Legal Education Requirements In 1911 the only educational requirements to be a lawyer were a high school degree (as pre-law degree) and a 3-year law course. created the Board of Legal Education (BLE). trial techniques.[9] In 1960.A.A.g. Rule 138 of the Rules of Court: civil law. 6 of Rule 138 of the Rules of Court was amended by the Supreme Court increasing the pre-law requirement to a 4-year bachelor's degree (Bachelor of Arts or Bachelor of Science) and increasing the law course to 4 years (Bachelor of Laws). Act No.) was made up of 122 units which emphasized the bar subjects listed in Sec. thesis and legal research. 7662. This resulted in a dramatic decrease in law enrollment in 1960.[8] Under the present dispensation. the latest law on legal education is R.. and international law. statutory construction. 74 was passed providing additional budget for the supervision of private schools. also known as the "Legal Education Reform Act of 1993". labor law. No. criminal law. remedial law. 459.A. from an enrollment of 196 students in 1959. commercial law. legal bibliography. 74.[12] The course included non-bar subjects: legal history.[6] Under the Commonwealth Government. For instance.[10] The University of the Philippines started the law aptitude test and interview by a screening committee as requirements for entry into its College of Law. public corporation and public officers. jurisprudence. 3075. which. 3. Act No.

legal ethics.[16] It offered more subjects on the legal profession. No.A. and the law curriculum[26]. which gave it the Roman civil law and the canon law. with Bachelor of Laws degree as his highest degree. selection of law students[25]. ethics and nobility of the legal profession. Culture and Sports adopted a revised model law curriculum for the 4-year Bachelor of Laws degree composed of 51 subjects (124 units) which took effect in 1990. and social commitment. the law faculty. .[20] In the same year.[21] The law schools accreditation system proposed by the Standing Committee on Legal Education and Bar Administration of the Integrated Bar of the Philippines (IBP) is still pending with the Supreme Court for final action. decision making. married. male. (b) the United States.The sources of Philippine legal education are (a) Spain. 7.[14] In 1988 the University of the Philippines launched a "core-elective curriculum" which allowed law students to enroll up to 20 percent of elective subjects. In 1989 the Department of Education. has been teaching for less than 10 years. there were 3 state-supported law schools: University of the Philippines College of Law. The Crucial Role of the Law Teacher The average law teacher is 51-55 years of age. 3870 created the University of the Philippines Law Center to conduct continuing legal education programs and legal research and publications. counseling.[22] In 1964 R. Legal Education Reform Act of 1993 Under R. 35 new law schools were opened. which gave it the Islamic law. No. 35 percent of which were located in Metro Manila. 7662 (Legal Education Reform Act of 1993).[19] In 1982 the number decreased to 45 law schools. legal counseling.[17] 5. and Don Mariano Marcos University College of Law. quality of law schools.A. and (c) Indonesia (thru the Majapahit Empire and the Shri Visaya Empire). problem solving. Mindanao State University. and continuing legal education[28]. bench-bar partnership. Law Schools in the Philippines From 1950 to 1960. the focus of legal education are[24]: advocacy. mandatory legal apprenticeship[27].[23] 6.[18] In 1972. which gave it the English common law. there were 80 law schools in the country. has a load of 10 to 12 hours a week. legal research and legal writing.[15] It hoped to lead to specialization in legal education.

(b) "fulfilled certain conditions of fitness and respectability". Through critical study. The required legal education for a solicitor is as follows: (a) "to serve a period under articles of clerkship (or apprenticeship) with a solicitor engaged in the active practice of law" (the term is normally five years but is reduced to three years for university graduates. only 16. teaches in a private law school.teaches Civil Law. (e) as to citizenship. "A person who embraces teaching as a career takes the vow of poverty". (d) "pass a qualifying examination of a largely theoretical nature" ("the examination approximates to those for a university law degree. a barrister "may be of any nationality" while a solicitor "must be a British subject". which now involves nothing more than dining in hall on a number of days in each term.[34] The clerk pays his principal a fee for clerkship. the requisites for admission to the English Bar are as follows: (a) "a test of general education (of approximately the same standard as that required for entry into a university)". organized in 1823 by Royal Charter. he plays a noble and important role in the training of future lawyers. And he has fundamental professional and ethical duties to fulfill: "xxx The law teachers to be effective must endeavor for deeper understanding of the law. Lund. whether in law or arts). obligations and duties with respect to the legal profession.[32] The official association of the solicitors is "The Law Society". Law teachers must principally assume the critical and predictive functions in the legal profession xxx."[31] 8. which in 1952 was 300 pounds. (c) "keep a certain number of terms (generally twelve.000 were members thereof.[29] More than 80 percent of the law faculty is made up of part-time law teachers. an intermediate and a final examination in law and an examination in bookkeeping and trust accounts". Thomas G. They are underpaid even in a highly subsidized state university such as the University of the Philippines. out of 22. (c) before he can "enter into articles he must obtain the consent of the Law Society and must satisfy the Society of his character. and Bar students frequently keep their terms while at the university"). and has not published. they also identify emerging trends and areas for reform and contribute towards making law an instrument of social development. In 1951. thru research and reflection.[30] Despite the financial constraints that the law teacher faces.000 solicitors. derives less than 5 percent of his income from law teaching. suitability and fitness to do so". (b) "to pass a preliminary examination on general knowledge.[33] The society has been entrusted by the Parliament with many powers. according to Prof. British Legal Education In the case of United Kingdom.[35] . Membership in the society is voluntary. 4 terms in a year".

.(Coquia.196. 2. 231-232). either part-time at the approved law schools or full-time at the Law Society's School of Law. the figures on . 1978. "the articled clerk must have attended a course of legal education at a school of law provided or approved by the Law Society". 81-82.[42] From 1946 to 1953. The Legal Profession. with a term of office of one year. 19.455. and the Lord Chief Justice". 000.55%. 28. pp.) in a law school recognized by the Department of Education. The bar examinee must be at least 21 years of age. 17.[39] A sample of the passing percentage is as follows: 1946. 1962. of good moral character.[37] The license of the solicitor is renewed yearly by the Law Society.51%. 21.B. 1984.39%. A Philippine jurist.000 Filipino lawyers. 3. 35.631.85%. 19. Ernani Cruz Pano. 19. 49. 1. the passing percentage of most law schools was below the 50% level of the national passing percentage. 2. and 1991.[36] Before taking the final examination. 22. And it appears that the passing rate of a great majority of law schools in the Philippines is below 50 percent of the total number of their respective student-examinees. Culture and Sports (now by the Commission on Higher Education and the Board of Legal Education). Performance in the Bar Exams Generally.The management and control of examinations for solicitors were placed by the Parliament in the hands of the Law Society which was "empowered to make regulations governing the syllabus. 1993. Manila: Rex Book Store. has completed the required 4-year law course (Ll. 1983. 1.[44] It seems that the 1960 rule imposed by the Supreme Court which required a 4-year pre-law AB or BS degree as a prerequisite for enrolling in the degree of Bachelor of Laws (Ll. the Lord Chancellor. 1988.[43] The Philippine annual bar exams are administered every September by a committee created by the Supreme Court composed of one justice as chair and 8 lawyers.02%. and in 1992.[41] In 1954. 3. Jose R. 1979.39%. 13). the average passing rate has ranged from 20 to 30 percent. has commented that Aalthough the bar examination is far from being a precise and accurate gauge of the effectiveness of legal education. and 1991. p.922. however.00%.85%.26%.[38] 9. For many decades up to the present. 1989. B. in 1977.824. between 20 to 25 percent of bar examinees pass the bar exams annually. and other kindred matters. must be approved by the Master of the Rolls.890. 1974. 28. The required course of legal education is of one year's duration. a Filipino citizen and a resident of the Philippines. These regulations. 34. the appointments of examiners. 1957. 1969. (id.[40] The number of bar examinees has been increasing: 1973.) did not have a dramatic effect in increasing the passing rate of the annual bar examinations. there were 14.

.63 percent to 28 percent. xxxx. 60 law schools sent 2. 112). the fixing of a limit on the number of candidates that a law school should send to the bar exams. He proposes a consideration of the idea of establishing a quota system in the law profession. He recommends the appointment of bar examiners for a longer term. the bar examination provides stimulus to these schools to do their best in legal education. to allow for much preparation. It would then be useless to argue that legal education should not be >bar oriented=. The rest of the successful candidates were from 41 other law schools whose passing rate ranged from 2. In 31 bar examinations. 491 passed the bar exam (18.600 candidates. One may then view the bar examination either as a necessary evil or an inevitable compromise.). Of the 42 bar examinations conducted by the Supreme Court from 1946 to 1986. Of this number.8 percent (1986) to 26. He proposes the exclusion of taxation law and labor law from the exams and the increase of the number of units allotted for these subjects in the law curriculum. p. Sixteen of the law schools failed to have any of their candidates pass the bar exam. (id. 111). the mortality rate was Amore than 50 percent@.8 percent national passing rate). From 1982 to 1986 the passing rate ranged from 18. University of the Philippines. (id. proportionate to the number of successful examinees graduating from these schools. It is for the moment the only means by which the Supreme Court may check on the performance of these law schools. that is. and San Beda College of Law. Ait was only in eleven bar examinations that more than one-half of the candidates passed@.69 percent (1985). The law student must be able to pass the scrutiny of the examiner appointed by the Supreme Court to test the proficiency and capacity of the law student aspiring for admission to the bar. .600 candidates. Pano recommends a review of the contents and coverage of the bar exams. It is noteworthy to quote the comments of Justice Pano on the what the real purpose of the bar exams should be: AThere are sectors which doubt any connection between the results of bar examinations and the level of formal education. But everyone agrees that until a more effective method of law school supervision is devised. rather than the present ad hoc arrangement. 1995.Judiciary and the Bar. In the 1986 bar examination.. 118).bar examination results suggest an urgent need for reforms in legal education@. Manila: Rex Book Store. p. (id. 41 percent were from Ateneo de Manila University. (Ernani Cruz Pano. Of the 2. p. but it is here definitely to stay for a while. they question the effectiveness of bar examinations as an instrument to test professional competence and success in law practice.

(Id. the rest have failed miserably in developing among its students the needed orientation. . . . . xxx. The relevant provisions of Rule 138 of the Revised Rules of Court on bar examinations and admission to the Bar are reproduced below: ASec. . Sec. . Is this task being performed by our law schools? Judging on the results of the bar examinations. involving moral turpitude. to analyze accurately the problems presented to him and to exhibit a thorough knowledge of the fundamental principles of law and their application. . 2. C Every applicant for admission as a member of the bar must be a citizen of the Philippines. . memory or experience. . language capacity. . . be allowed to continue such practice after taking the following oath of office: I . false or unlawful suit. upon satisfactory proof of those facts before the Supreme Court. .Legal educators agree that the bar examinations should not merely be conducted for the purpose of testing information. 112-114). nor consent to the doing of any in court. . the bar examination should test the candidate=s ability to reason logically. having been permitted to continue in the practice of law in the Philippines. in active practice in the courts of the Philippines and in good and regular standing as such may. The law student is also without any experience to be tested. . . I will not wittingly or willingly promote or sue any groundless. Requirements for all applicants for admission to the bar. C Citizens of the United States of America who. So help me God. at least twenty-one years of age. I will support its Constitution and obey the laws as well as the legal orders of the duly constituted authorities therein. do solemnly swear that I recognize the supreme authority of the Republic of the Philippines. .. .. . 3. . . nor give aid nor consent to the same. and I impose upon myself this voluntary obligation without any mental reservation or purpose of evasion. Rather. . . before July 4. were duly licensed members of the Philippine Bar. have been filed or are pending in any court in the Philippines. it would appear that except for perhaps three or even five law schools. and resident of the Philippines. . 1946. I will delay no man for money or malice. and must produce before the Supreme Court satisfactory evidence of good moral character. The computer would be better lawyers if the gauge of admission would be the capacity to store information and the possession of a photographic memory. . pp. and will conduct myself as a lawyer according to the best of may knowledge and discretion with all good fidelity as well as to the courts as to my clients. I will do no falsehood. . . of good moral character. analytical proficiency and the capacity to pass judgments which would enable the students to pass the bar examination and be professionally competent in law practice@. . Requirements for lawyers who are citizens of the United States of America. and that no charges against him.

medical jurisprudence. English and Spanish. 7. before being admitted to the examination. criminal law. 8. Requirements for applicants from other jurisdictions. and who can show by satisfactory certificates that they have practiced at least five years in any of said courts. Applicants shall also file at the same time their own affidavits as to their age. that such practice began before July 4. Sec. If not embraced within section 3 and 4 of this rule they shall also file within the same period the affidavit and certificate required by section 5. for at least ten (10) days before the beginning of the examination. Sec. C Notice of applications for admission shall be published by the clerk of the Supreme Court in newspapers published in Pilipino. Notice of Applications. in a law school or university. Additional requirements for other applicants. Pre-Law. 1946. before he began the study of law. political law. he had pursued and satisfactorily completed in an authorized and recognized university or college. and if embraced within sections 3 and 4 they shall exhibit a license evidencing the fact of their admission to practice. C No applicant for admission to the bar examination shall be admitted unless he presents a certificate that he has satisfied the Secretary of Education that. and certificates as to their professional standing. remedial law. C All applicants for admission shall file with the clerk of the Supreme Court the evidence required by section 2 of this rule at least fifteen (15) days before the beginning of the examination. logic. labor and social legislation. No applicant shall be admitted to the bar examinations unless he has satisfactorily completed the following courses in a law school or university duly recognized by the government: civil law. public and private international law. C All applicants for admission other than those referred to in the two preceding section shall. spanish. being Filipino citizens. 4. may. english. Sec. 5. in the discretion of the Court. commercial law. history and economics. Time for filing proof of qualifications. shall be filed as evidence of such facts. or in the highest court of any State or Territory of the United States. are enrolled attorneys in good standing in the Supreme Court of the United States or in any circuit court of appeals or district court therein. requiring for admission thereto the completion of a four-year high school course. and successfully completed all prescribed courses. officially approved and recognized by the Secretary of Education. The affidavit of the candidate. and citizenship. and that they have never been suspended or disbarred. . residence. satisfactorily show that they have regularly studied law for four years. satisfactory evidence that the same has not been revoked. taxation and legal ethics. the course of study prescribed therein for a bachelor's degree in arts or sciences with any of the following subjects as major or field of concentration: political science. 6.Sec. accompanied by a certificate from the university or school of law. Sec. C Applicants for admission who. and further evidence may be required by the court. be admitted without examination.

shall be subjected to examinations in the following subjects: Civil Law. Second day: Civil Law (morning) and Taxation (afternoon). No oral examination shall be given. and who shall be designated by the court to serve for one year. C Examinations shall be conducted by a committee of bar examiners to be appointed by the Supreme Court.Sec. The committee of bar examiner shall take such precautions as are necessary to prevent the substitution of papers or commission of other frauds. Remedial Law (Civil Procedure. Public Corporations. They shall be held in four days to be disignated by the chairman of the committee on bar examiners. The questions shall be the same for all examinees and a copy thereof. and in writing. Criminal Procedure. Sec. Labor and Social Legislation. Committee of examiners. The names of the members of this committee shall be published in each volume of the official reports. books or notes into the examination rooms. in English or Spanish. and Public Officers). The subjects shall be distributed as follows: First day: Political and International Law (morning) and Labor and Social Legislation (afternoon). International Law (Private and Public).. Taxation. C No candidate shall endeavor to influence any member of the committee. 10. C Applicants. C Examinations for admission to the bar of the Philippines shall take place annually in the City of Manila. who shall hold office for a period of one year. who shall act as chairman. Political Law (Constitutional Law. by questions and answers. and Evidence). Examination. Examinees shall answer the questions personally without help from anyone. subjects. 13. Annual examination. Disciplinary measures. 9. the Supreme Court may allow such examinee to use a typewriter in answering the questions. C Persons taking the examination shall not bring papers. Sec. Sec. Only noiseless typewriters shall be allowed to be used. 12. and during examination the candidates shall not communicate with each other nor shall they give or receive any assistance. This committee shall be composed of a Justice of the Supreme Court. Fourth day: Remedial Law (morning) and legal Ethics and Practical Exercises (afternoon). Upon verified application made by an examinee stating that his penmanship is so poor that it will be difficult to read his answers without much loss of time. or any other . Third day: Mercantile Law (morning) and Criminal Law (afternoon). Legal Ethics and Practical Exercises (in Pleadings and Conveyancing). and eight members of the bar of the Philippines. Bar examination. Sec. The candidate who violates this provisions. Examinees shall not place their names on the examination papers. 11. shall be given to each examinee. Criminal Law. not otherwise provided for in sections 3 and 4 of this rule. Mercantile Law.

Report of the committee. The survey had influenced the adoption of the Legal Education Reform Act of 1993 (R. including permanent disqualification. or as soon thereafter as may be practicable. 14. 10 per cent: Political and International Law. (Rule 138.provision of this rule.@ It proposed future analytical study of the law students.). No. and 365 law graduates. Rules of Court). without falling below 50 per cent in any subjects. 10 per cent. after the court has approved the report. the law faculty. C In order that a candidate may be deemed to have passed his examinations successfully. the committee shall file its report on the result of such examination. 15 per cent. 15 per cent.State of Legal Education in the Philippines. the validity and reliability of the bar examinations. . (Bureau of Higher Education. the subjects in the examination shall be given the following relative weights: Civil Law. In determining the average. It concluded that Athe quality of instruction given by the law schools leaves much to be desired. C Not later than February 15th after the examination. Remedial Law. Labor and Social Legislation. shall be barred from the examination. 15. It was funded by the Asia Foundation. Sec. Sec. The professors of the individual review subjects attended by the candidates under this rule shall certify under oath that the candidates have regularly attended classes and passed the subjects under the same conditions as ordinary students and the ratings obtained by them in the particular subject@.A. 15 per cent. 16. 20 per cent. Manila: Department of Education. Passing average. 10.036 students. 111 pp. filing of examination papers. Sec. C Candidates who have failed the bar examinations for three times shall be disqualified from taking another examination unless they show the satisfaction of the court that they have enrolled in and passed regular fourth year review classes as well as attended a pre-bar review course in a recognized law school. Culture and Sports. 7662). 10 per cent. 360 law faculty members. 1989 Survey by the Bureau of Higher Education In 1988-1989 the Bureau of Higher Education (which was replaced by the Commission on Higher Education) conducted a survey of law schools in the Philippines to evaluate the quality and state of legal education in the country. Criminal Law. Failing candidates to take review course. Rev. he must have obtained a general average of 75 per cent in all subjects. and a comparative study of law schools. and the same to count as a failure against him. 5 per cent. 1989. 3. The respondents included 57 law deans. Legal Ethics and Practical Exercises. and further disciplinary action. The examination papers and notes of the committee shall be filed with the clerk and may there be examined by the parties in interest. Mercantile Law. Taxation. may be taken in the discretion of the court.

that 62.15 percent. In all probability.67 percent of the faculty had four to six years of teaching experience. degree in private law schools. that 86. The survey established that from 1978 to 1987 the average passing rate in the bar examinations was 31.63 percent took their pre-law in private schools. that 49. 4. B.28 percent of the law faculty members were practicing lawyers. 4.000 law students. that the average passing rate of private law schools for the period was 27.73 percent in business. lack of pre-bar review materials. Bicol. West Visayas. Southern Mindanao. The survey commented on the law schools and the law faculty as follows: ALawyers are not professionally trained to be teachers and most likely.25 percent were working.32 percent. It discovered that 29. that 69. and the grading system of the bar exams.58 percent considered the pre-law grades of the students. followed by lecture method. The survey described the profile of a law student as follows: that 55.6 percent of law schools based their admission solely on interviews of the students and that 17.28 percent faculty was in the field of social sciences. that 40. that the number one teaching method used was the recitation method. inadequate pre-bar review. and that the pre-law degree of 65. that 50.72 percent did not give out written course syllabi to students. East Visayas.77 percent of law students were between the ages 25 and 29. that the national survival rate at law schools was 36 percent and 50. that 62. 16. are not imbued with the mission for teaching. poor preparation. that 51. that 59. 8. absenteeism of faculty. that 85 percent of the faculty were males. that 54. (at p. and that the common reasons given by respondents for failure in the bar examinations were English language deficiency.70 percent of law graduates were from Metro Manila.72 percent was between 45 to 49 years old. 4. Central Visayas.In 1989 there were almost 20. poor teaching methods. that 50 percent of the students were enrolled in Metro Manila.83 percent had no formal training in teaching methods. that 44.29 percent were single. There were 40 law schools distributed as follows: Metro Manila. extensive coverage of the bar exams.17 percent were not revising/updating their syllabi.05 percent owned textbooks in all subjects.56 percent finished a degree in social sciences and 30. that 89. 3). that the average passing rate of the University of the Philippines for the period was 77. that 94 percent of law students were enrolled in private law schools. that 43.82 percent in Metro Manila. they have diverse motivations for joining the ranks of .91 percent were male.13 percent. Almost one-half of all law schools were situated in Metro Manila and Cebu. The survey found that 70. 4.72 percent took their Ll. The survey studied the admission policies of law schools.

7 percent were employed in law firms. Law deans seem to have supervisory problems with faculty who regard teaching not as a mission but merely as a additional source of income.[46] It appears that only one out of every five Filipino lawyers is actively engaged in private law practice and that the rest are employed either in the government or in the private sector or an engaged in private business. It is a fact that almost all law schools are staffed by part-time faculty. In view of the part-time status of most law faculty. all in all. Continuing Legal Education 1. 78-79).. Contacts are few and often are confined to general faculty assemblies and big university functions which do not allow for close interaction@. Of those in private practice. law school deans are constrained from undertaking a program of faculty development. it was established that 55 percent of Filipino lawyers were employed with the government. who are either active in practicing the law profession or are employed on a full-time basis in private or government agencies. Few are Active Practitioners In a 1976 survey among lawyers conducted by the UP Law Center.teachers. F. the part-time faculty excuse themselves from faculty meetings and the usual assignments given to full-time faculty. 78 percent were based in Metro Manila.[45] In 1962. (id. 25 percent of lawyers were in active private practice. They cannot devote much time to their responsibilities as teachers.6 percent).2 percent) or private sector (38. as well as their apparent independence from certain administrative expectations and requirements. Because of their tight schedule. except in short in-service training programs to enhance their teaching competencies. In a 1982 survey conducted by the UP Law Center. pp. Due to time constraints. Most of the practitioners are located in the cities and are mostly solo practitioners or belong to small to medium law firms. 89 percent of lawyers were based in major cities throughout the Philippines. and 7 percent was employed in private . and other duties which they leave to the administration to handle. conferences with students having academic problems. and 18 percent of the respondents was made up of independent (solo) practitioners. Considering the type of law faculty and their heavy schedules in their regular jobs it does not seem possible to have law faculty participate in faculty development programs. such as syllabi preparation.4 percent were engaged in active private practice and that the rest were either employed in the government (32. ranging from the materialistic to the idealistic. it was discovered that only 23. administrators and law faculty do not have enough opportunities for developing ideal relationships between them.

they keep abreast with law and jurisprudence. 2000 and amended on October 2. But the subject of legal ethics occupied only the fifth rank among the various subjects that the respondents recommended for inclusion in the CLE programs. 850. endorsed by the Philippine Judicial Academy. 2. (id. Of the 36 hours: (a) At least six (6) hours shall be devoted to legal ethics equivalent to six (6) credit units. As of the end of 1970. (Id. pp.. there were 2. and 62 general orders.[47] As of the end of 1911. 2000.companies. supra. assisted by the IBP national office. (Manuel Bonifacio and Merlin M. (b) At least four (4) hours shall be devoted to trial and pretrial skills equivalent to four (4) credit units. Sec. . Sec. and business-related subjects. maintain the ethics of the profession and enhance the standards of the practice of law. and reviewed and passed upon by the Supreme Court Committee on Legal Education. Continuing legal education is now required of all Filipino lawyers (IBP members) to ensure that throughout their career. The rules were recommended by the IBP. 1. following its publication in two newspapers of general circulation. (Bar Matter No. Mandatory Continuing Legal Education Bar Matter No. Ninety-seven (97) percent recommended continuing legal education (CLE) for all law practitioners. trial-oriented. 2001. contains the Rules on the Mandatory Continuing Legal Education (MCLE) for members of the Integrated Bar of the Philippines (IBP). 1978). Rule 1).[48] The figures excluded local ordinances and administrative rules and regulations. 850. The top ranks for the CLE subjects the respondents recommended pertained to pragmatic. Under the martial law regime alone (1972-June 12. Sixty-eight (68) percent of the respondent-lawyers felt that their legal training in law school was Anot adequate@. there were 1. there were 10. The MCLE Committee of the Supreme Court. under the regime of the Philippine Commission. Commonwealth Acts [CAS]).[49] 3. 2. in Coquia. 308-353). "Survey Of the Legal Profession". promulgated by the Supreme Court on August 22. Law is Complex Law practice is complex and it requires specialization. Philippine Commission Acts [Acts]. Magallona. 708 letters of instructions. implements and evaluates this national activity.092 statutes. Rule 2). The rules took effect on September 15.473 presidential decrees.078 statutes (Republic Acts [RAs]. Members of the IBP not exempt under Rule 7 of the Rules shall complete every three (3) years at least thirty-six (36) hours or credit units of continuing legal education activities approved by the MCLE Committee.).

written materials published or accepted for publication. commentator. Rule 5).. Credit units are either participatory or non-participatory. for the list of the accredited MCLE service providers as of March 2002 (cf. Rule 3). Rule 5).(c) At least five (5) hours shall be devoted to alternative dispute resolution equivalent to five (5) credit units. in the form of an article. symposia. as an author or co-author. coordinator or facilitator in approved education activities. (b) Speaking or lecturing.www. conventions. 3. (c) Teaching in a law school or lecturing in a bar review class. Sec. or acting as assigned panelist. 1. Sec. and jurisprudence equivalent to nine (9) credit units. (d) At least nine (9) hours shall be devoted to updates on substantive and procedural laws. resource speaker.. Rule 5). e. . Sec. dialogues or round table discussion.. conferences. Please see Figure 2. Sec. Non-participatory credit units may be claimed per compliance period for: (a) Preparing.g. moderator. in-house education programs. Rule 2). or book review which contribute to the legal education of the author member. infra. (b) Editing a law book. (Id. website of the IBP national office). (Id.ibp. (e) At least four (4) hours shall be devoted to legal writing and oral advocacy equivalent to four (4) credit units. chapter. (Bar Matter No.. Participatory credit units may be claimed for: (a) Attending approved education activities like seminars. which were not prepared in the ordinary course of the member=s practice or employment. (Id. (f) At least two (2) hours shall be devoted to international law and international conventions equivalent to two (2) credit 2. book. Sec. 850. workshops. (g) The remaining six (6) hours shall be devoted to such subjects as may be prescribed by the MCLE Committee equivalent to six (6) credit units. (Id.. law journal or legal newsletter. Members may participate in any legal education activity wherever it may be available to earn credit unit toward compliance with the MCLE requirement. 2. reactor.

the Overall Deputy Ombudsman. Sec. bar reviewers and professors of law who have teaching experience for at least ten (10) years in accredited law schools. (h) The Ombudsman. the Deputy Ombudsman and the Special Prosecutor of the Office of the Ombudsman. Sec. The following Members of the Bar are likewise exempt: (a) Those who are not in law practice. (Id. (g) The Chairmen and Members of the Constitutional Commissions. (c) The Chief Justice and Associate Justices of the Supreme Court. (b) Senators and Members of the House of Representatives. Rule 7). incumbent and retired members of the judiciary. (k) The Chancellor. Chief State Prosecutor and Assistant Secretaries of the Department of Justice. incumbent members of the Judicial and Bar Council and incumbent court lawyers covered by the Philippine Judicial Academy program of continuing judicial education. (j) Incumbent deans. . and (l) Governors and Mayors. and the Secretaries and Undersecretaries of Executive Departments. 1. (f) The Government Corporate Counsel. (d) The Chief State Counsel. Deputy and Assistant Government Corporate Counsel. (i) Heads of government agencies exercising quasi-judicial functions. private or public. (Id. (e) The Solicitor General and the Assistant Solicitors General..The following members of the Bar are exempt from the MCLE requirement: (a) The President and the Vice President of the Philippines. (b) Those who have retired from law practice with the approval of the IBP Board of Governors. Rule 7). 2. Vice-Chancellor and members of the Corps of Professors and Professorial Lecturers of the Philippine Judicial Academy..

2. Accreditation of providers shall be done by the MCLE Committee. Rule 8). which may be renewed.A member may file a verified request setting forth good cause for exemption (such as physical disability. Such materials must be distributed at or before the time the activity is offered.. Sec. specifying the nature of the exemption. Rule 11). Each IBP member shall secure from the MCLE Committee a Compliance Card before the end of his compliance period. (Id. Sec. are eligible to be accredited providers. (Id. including cross profession activities (e. Sec. .. Subject to the implementing regulations that may be adopted by the MCLE Committee. All providers of continuing legal education activities. 1. (Id. All continuing legal education activities must meet the following standards: (a) The activity shall have significant current intellectual or practical content. Sec. (Id. He shall complete the card by attesting under oath that he has complied with the education requirement or that he is exempt.. 3. post graduate study abroad. Any person or group may be accredited as a provider for a term of two (2) years. Rule 8). 1.. (d) Where the activity is more than one (1) hour in length. Rule 9). illness. Rule 9). (e) In-house education activities must be scheduled at a time and location so as to be free from interruption like telephone calls and other distractions. Sec. substantive written materials must be distributed to all participants. (Id.g. (c) The activity shall be conducted by a provider with adequate professional experience.) from compliance with or modification of any of the requirements. as well as subjects in legal writing and oral advocacy. 1. Rule 7). and (2) the provider is specifically mandated by law to provide continuing legal education. continuing legal education program may be granted approval in either of two (2) ways: (1) the provider of the activity is an accredited provider and certifies that the activity meets the criteria of Section 2 of this Rule. accounting-tax or medical-legal) that enhance legal skills or the ability to practice law. proven expertise in law. (b) The activity shall constitute an organized program of learning related to legal subjects and the legal profession. upon written application. 2.. Sec. including an extension of time for compliance.. Such Compliance Card must be returned to the Committee not later than the day after the end of the member=s compliance period. etc. (Id. in accordance with a procedure to be established by the MCLE Committee.. including in-house providers.

(Id. Sec.. Such notice shall contain the following language near the beginning of the notice in capital letters: IF YOU FAIL TO PROVIDE ADEQUATE PROOF OF COMPLIANCE WITH THE MCLE REQUIREMENT BY (INSERT DATE 60 DAYS FROM DATE OF NOTICE). A record of non-participatory activity shall also be maintained by the member. copy furnished the MCLE Committee. Rule 13) . Sec. for whatever reason. (f) Any other act or omission analogous to any of the foregoing or intended to circumvent or evade compliance with the MCLE requirements. (Id. (Id. (Id. is in non-compliance at the end of the compliance period shall pay a non-compliance fee. Credit units earned during this period may only be counted toward compliance with the prior compliance period requirement unless units in excess of the requirement are earned. (c) Failure to provide satisfactory evidence of compliance (including evidence of exempt status) within the prescribed period.. Sec. The record required to be provided to the members by the provider pursuant to Section 38 of Rule 9 should be a sufficient record of attendance at a participatory activity.. 2. Members are given sixty (60) days to respond to a Non-Compliance Notice may use this period to attain the adequate number of credit units for compliance. YOU SHALL BE LISTED AS A DELINQUENT MEMBER AND SHALL NOT BE PERMITTED TO PRACTICE LAW UNTIL SUCH TIME AS ADEQUATE PROOF OF COMPLIANCE IS RECEIVED BY THE MCLE COMMITTEE. The following shall constitute non-compliance by the IBP members: (a) Failure to complete the education requirement within the compliance period. (d) Failure to satisfy the education requirement and furnish evidence of such compliance within sixty (60) days from receipt of non-compliance notice. (b) Failure to provide attestation of compliance or exemption. Rule 12).. in which case the excess may be counted toward meeting the current compliance period requirement. Members failing to comply will receive a Non-Compliance Notice stating the specific deficiency and will be given sixty (60) days from the date of notification to file a response clarifying the deficiency or otherwise showing compliance with the requirements. 1. as referred to in Section 3 of Rule 5.Each member shall maintain sufficient record of compliance or exemption. Rule 11). Sec. Rule 12) A member who. 1. (e) Failure to pay non-compliance fee within the prescribed period. 2.

Sec. Rule 14). including payment of non-compliance fee. (Id. Rule 13). it can look good on your CV ± both to US and foreign employers ± if you obtain a US legal qualification rather than just pursuing a degree. remember that. if you don't plan to live in the USA after the exam.A member who fails to comply with the requirements after the sixty (60) day period for compliance has expired. passing a state¶s bar exam will. with extremely limited exceptions. The investigation of a member for non-compliance shall be conducted by the IBP=s Commission on Bar Discipline as a fact-finding arm of the MCLE Committee.. 2. Finally. First. many choose to pursue an LL. subject to the individual attorney admission requirements of the state. New York is a very popular state for foreign lawyers seeking a US legal qualification (although the bar examination is by no means easy). by passing the bar. only you can decide whether taking a bar exam is right for you. 1. Membership fees shall continue to accrue at the active rate against a member during the period he/she is listed as a delinquent member. Of course. In what state should I take the exam? Like the decision to take any bar exam at all. Moreover.. Why should I take the bar exam in the United States? A lot of you probably already know the answer to this. On the other hand. The involuntary listing as a delinquent member shall be terminated when the member provides proof of compliance with the MCLE requirement. you will only be admitted to practice law in the state where you pass the examination. and can offer better job prospects than working as a law clerk or foreign legal consultant.M. Rule 13). But for lawyers studying in the USA for other reasons. you can demonstrate your understanding of US Law ± often a real challenge after just a year of study in the USA. Sec. Indeed. it might be a good idea to base the decision on where you would like to work or live rather than which state has the easiest admission requirements. This can be much more challenging. For instance. Therefore. in the United States precisely because they want to take a US bar exam. you might consider the simplicity of the state¶s requirements. These credit units may not be counted toward meeting the current compliance period requirement. there are many reasons to do it. A member may attain the necessary credit units to meet the requirement for the period of noncompliance during the period the member is on inactive status.(Id. (Id. the decision on which state¶s exam to take is a highly personal one. When deciding which state¶s bar exam to choose. 3. allow you to practice law in that state as a fully admitted lawyer. while . if you are planning to continue practicing in the USA after taking the examination. shall be listed as a delinquent member of the IBP upon the recommendation of the MCLE Committee. Credit units earned during the period of non-compliance in excess of the number needed to satisfy the prior compliance period requirement may be counted toward meeting the current compliance period requirement.. Sec.

but foreign law graduates may be exempt from this requirement. The program must involve a minimum of 20 semester hours of academic credit in order to qualify.M. Finally. am I eligible to take the bar exam? Many US states permit foreign law graduates to sit their bar examinations if they meet specific requirements. 22 NYCRR 520. As a foreign lawyer. A discussion of some of the requirements of two major states: New York: Section 520. or both.15 contains eligibility requirements for individuals who have a foreign legal education.6 of the New York Rules of the Courts of Appeals for the Admission of Attorneys and Counselors at Law. Another day would cover the law of the specific state administering the exam. In addition. some states such as California have a first-year law student examination.´ meaning that you must be matriculated at your chosen university rather than just taking a course or two. then you may still be eligible to take the bar after pursuing a course of study in the USA at a law school approved by the American Bar Association. and tests your knowledge of professional ethics. even in connection with additional study in the USA. or your country does not follow the English common law legal system. This could be a multiple-choice exam or an essay exam.California is considered one of the more difficult states in which to obtain a qualification.1-520. an individual with a foreign legal education can qualify for the bar examination if the legal education was: 1) successfully completed. designed to evaluate lawyering skills rather than substantive law. it must be an actual ³program of study. Most states dedicate one day to the Multistate Bar Examination.. or three years from a noncommon-law country. The study itself is also subject to different requirements. and Evidence. In addition. What can I expect generally from the exam? The examination is taken in several parts over two or more days. In other words. be acceptable. The program you choose must be successfully completed. Please note that under no circumstances would a course of study shorter than two years from a common-law country. 2) at least three years in duration. per semester. Property. even if that involves completing more than the 20 semester hours . First. but this is not required. Under this section. the exam may include the Multistate Performance Test. One possible course of study is an LL. which means that you would be required to complete 20 hours per week of study. a multiple-choice examination covering such topics as Contracts. If either 2) or 3) does not apply to you. Torts. which is administered on a separate occasion from the regular bar exam. and 3) taken in a country where the legal system is based on the English common law system. not specific to the law of any one state. you may be able to ³cure´ the problem by pursuing a course of study at a law school in the USA. Constitutional Law. you will most likely be required to pass the Multistate Professional Responsibility Exam. if you either do not have a three-year degree in law from your country.

visit the website of the State Bar of California.of credit. constitutional law (New York and federal). visit the websiteof the New York State Board of Law Examiners. wills and estates. . and may include reduced or different requirements for applicants who are already admitted to the bar of another US state or of their home country. these subjects are: business relationships. California: The requirements for taking the California bar exam are similar to those in New York. real property. 3 and 9. To learn more about the eligibility requirements for the New York Bar exam. family law.´ there appears to be conflicting information on whether foreign law students are required to pass it before becoming eligible to take the California bar. torts (including statutory no-fault provisions). On the subject of the ³first-year law students¶ examination. you may want to check with your university. Many of the requirements are extremely complex. rather than independent study or non-law subjects. criminal law and procedure. trusts. and Uniform Commercial Code articles 2. have them individually assess your eligibility. Foreign-admitted lawyers do not require any additional study. professional responsibility. It is strongly recommended that you contact the state where you seek to be admitted to learn their requirements and. conflict of laws. if possible. Under New York Board of Law Examiners rules. contracts. except that every foreign law graduate must complete an entire year of law study at an approved law school in the US except those who are admitted to the practice of law in their home country. To determine exactly which courses are acceptable. New York and federal civil jurisdiction and procedure. evidence. It is highly recommended that you contact the California Conference of Bar Examiners to obtain an individual evaluation of your eligibility. Other states: Each state has its own requirements. At least two courses must be in subjects that are tested on the New York bar exam (known under the New York Rules as ³basic courses in American law´). remedies. The courses must be in ³professional law´ subjects. To learn more about the eligibility requirements for the exam.

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