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Kamal u

Archimedes Principle

1. Theory We are aware that some objects oat on some uids, submerged to diering extents: ice cubes oat in water almost completely submerged, while corks oat almost completely on the surface. Even the objects that sink appear to weigh less when they are submerged in the uid than when they are not. These eects are due to the existence of an upward buoyant force that will act on the submerged object. This force is caused by the pressure in the uid being increased with depth below the surface, so that the pressure near the bottom of the object is greater than the pressure near the top. The dierence of these pressures results in the eective buoyant force, which is described by the Archimedes principle. According to this principle, the buoyant force FB on an object completely or partially submerged in a uid is equal to the weight of the uid that the (submerged part of the) object displaces: FB = mf g = f V g . (1) where f is the density of the uid, mf and V are respectively mass and the volume of the displaced uid (which is equal to the volume of the submerged part of the object) and g is the gravitational acceleration constant. 2. Experiment Object: Use Archimedes principle to measure the densities of a given solid and a provided liquid. Apparatus: Solid (metal) and liquid (oil) samples, beaker, thread, balance, weights, stand, micrometer, calipers, PASCO Science Workshop Interface, Force Sensors and a Macintosh Computer. Part a.: A solid object of volume V , heavier than water. When completely submerged in water, the buoyant force is FB = w V g , (2) where w is the density of water. The mass of the object, Ma , when weighed in air is given by (3) Ma = s V , where s is the density of the solid. The apparent weight of the object, Mw g, when immersed in water is the dierence between its weight in air and the buoyant force: Mw g = Ma g w V g . Therefore, Mw = Ma w V = Ma w s =

Archimedes Principle:

(4) Ma , s

(5) (6)

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M a w . (Ma Mw )

General Physics Lab Handbook by D.D.Venable, A.P.Batra, T.H bsch, D.Walton & M.Kamal u

The density of water w is taken as 1.0103 kg/m3 . Part b.: Now for a liquid of unknown density l : If instead of water, an unknown liquid is used and the mass of the object of density s completely submerged in the liquid is represented by Ml , then M a l s = . (7) (Ma Ml ) From Eqs. (6) and (7) we can obtain the density of the unknown liquid l = (Ma Ml )w . (Ma Mw ) (8)

Procedure: 1. Take a solid sample and measure its dimensions and then calculate the volume V . Mount the force sensor and plug it into the analog input of the Science Workshop Interface. Calibrate the force sensor using instructors help. Weigh the sample in air, with a balance, and determine mass Ma . 2. Suspend the same solid object from the force sensor, and weigh it when it is fully immersed in water. 3. Now weigh the same object when it is fully immersed in an unknown liquid. Calculation: Using the computer spreadsheet perform the following calculations. 1. Calculate the density of the solid from data from procedure (1) using s = Ma /V . 2. Use equation (6) and data from procedure (2) to compute the density of the solid object. Compare your answer with the result from task (1) and with standard values. 3. Use equation (7) to calculate the density l of the of the unknown liquid, and compare it with the value to be provided by your instructor. 4. Calculate the percent of error for each of your measurement.

Archimedes Principle:

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