TheInvisibleQ | Diagnostic And Statistical Manual Of Mental Disorders | Homosexuality

The InvIsIble Q? human rIghTs Issues and concerns of lgbTIQ persons In bosnIa and herzegovIna

organization Q Sarajevo, Bosnia and Herzegovina 2008 Svetlana The Invisible Q? : human rights issues and concerns of LGBTIQ persons in Bosnia and Herzegovina / [autorka Svetlana Đurković]. Sarajevo Copies: 100 Publication printed with assistance of: Astraea Lesbian Foundation for Justice CIP . 2008. : graf.Sarajevo : Organization Q for promotion and protection of culture. . www. Sarajevo 613 .96 str. prikazi . 24 cm Bibliografija i druge bilješke uz tekst COBISS. and human rights of queer persons. Identities.htm Author: Svetlana Đurković Copy editing: Senka Filipović Design: Alma Selimović and Svetlana Đurković Production: Ka-graf.Katalogizacija u publikaciji Nacionalna i univerzitetska biblioteka Bosne i Hercegovine. Sarajevo. and Human Rights of Queer Persons.BH-ID 16787206 .721] ĐURKOVIĆ. 885 : 341.Publisher: Organization Q for Promotion and Protection of Culture. .queer. BiH

.......................................... 7 Terminology......81 IV.............................................................................................................................................................. International and national legal framework......................................................................89 Annex 2 .............................34 1.................................................. Forbidden and invisible ..........................85 Annex 1 ........................................................................................................................ LGBTIQ in BiH ............................................ Right to Education ............................................................................................... LGBTIQ Population .....24 II.......................... Asking the right questions: Identity and non-identity..................................................................................22 4...................................95 ...........................................................................................................................................................................................................................77 2....... 9 I................................................................................... Survey about human rights of LGBTTIQ persons in BiH ..................... Principle of equality and non-discrimination....18 2..............40 3......................... Right to Health .................................................................................................................................................... Activism ...............Table of Content Introduction ................................ Identities and Non-identities ........................................................................................................................................................................................................12 1............................................. 5 Methodology ....................................................... Discrimination and Inequality...................................80 3..................42 III.... Conclusion..................................57 1............. Binary defined: Sex and gender ................................................................36 2....................................................................................................................................20 3........................


Finally. This report is based on the analysis of 210 questionnaires as well as secondary data and/or other similar reports and research. and to the Astraea Lesbian Foundation for Justice. This text will interchangeably use LGBTIQ and LGBTTIQ making transexual individuals and their specific human rights more visible in a given context. Svetlana Đurković President and Project Coordinator Organization Q 1| Lesbian. intersex and queer. Furthermore.position. inherent and chosen identity/ies as well as personal integrity albeit physical. Organization Q is grateful for the assistance and support of HIVOS and COC Netherlands for realization of this study. As one of the starting projects of the Organization Q. a project supported by the HIVOS / COC NL. Organization Q | 5 . and sections on identity and nonidentity. The third section explores the issue of discrimination. and we hope to keep going. their general state and attitude. sexual or otherwise. problems. this report includes some recommendations regarding the improvement of human rights adherence of the LGBTIQ population in BiH. The first section explores the short chronological time line and outline regarding BiH LGBTIQ1 activism and legislation. and sexual orientation. And finally. projects and development. our sincerest gratitude goes to LGBTIQ persons who participated in this study. social exclusion. The grounds of discrimination treated in this report are: sex. We have come a long way. and social self-inclusion in BiH society. gender expression. active citizenship. Organization Q is grateful to the project team and all those individuals who assisted in the realization of this project along the many challenges that this project faced throughout many of its phases. bisexual. discrimination and inequality. The second section explores the right to identity and non-identity raising the issue of terminology. Term transgender is an umbrella term which also includes transexuals. transgender. sexual identity. gender. and recommendations. Main themes featured here include a brief section on LGBTIQ activism and population in BiH. gay. There is also some information about the LGBTIQ population in general and in BiH.InTroducTIon This report is an outcome of the Feasibility study: LGBTIQ community in BiH . Feasibility Study had a goal to research the state of human rights of the LGBTIQ population in BiH. inequality and social exclusion and consequences of invisibility and lack of social acceptance regarding (self-)acceptance. including needs. gender identity.


impossible to code due to a humoristic undertone (1). 3| UDHR was adopted and proclaimed on December 10th. participation and inclusion. and in person as they were collected by 6 interviewers who also assisted with the completion process primarily by explaining the terminology and some questions to the respondents. According to the interviewers. there is a determined relationship between individuals and groups with claims (rights-holders). The latter was eliminated because the individual did not identify by his own sexual orientation or identity. many individuals were unfamiliar 2| UN Country Teams: Working Together on Human Rights. launched in 1997. 4| UN Country Teams: Working Together on Human Rights. based on principles of: universality and inalienability. as well as the national and international human rights documents. Although this survey is the first comprehensive survey created in order to asses the human rights situation of the BiH LGBTIQ population. what difficulties LGBTIQ persons have. interdependence and inter-relatedness. 2005. 1948. Human rights-based approach was adopted by the UN as an outcome of the UN Program for Reform.meThodology This report uses the human rights-based approach while the information treated in this report comes from the primary and secondary sources. guarantee the rights of all people. Four questionnaires were disqualified and are not included in the study. this questionnaire included certain risks and challenges. Attachment 1: The Human Rights Based Approach to Development Cooperation. The questionnaire was administered during the period of March-April. direct and indirect discrimination they are facing.3 as well as International Conventions. The aim of this approach is “to contribute directly to the realization of one or several human rights. Right-holders are entitled to certain rights and duty-bearers carry certain obligations. and filled out by an individual who identified as a “pedo” (pedophile) by sexual orientation and LGBTTIQ identity (1). indivisibility. October 2004.”2 The Universal Declaration of Human Rights (UDHR). and accountability and the rule of law. Attachment 1: The Human Rights Based Approach to Development Cooperation. their own attitude about human rights of LGBTIQ individuals. equality and non-discrimination. The human rights-based approach “works towards strengthening the capacities of rights-holders to make their claims. by the General Assembly of the United Nations.4 According to the human rights-based approach. and State and similar actors with correlative obligations (duty-bearers). but by the age of a sexual partner. and of duty-bearer to meet their obligations. Total of 214 questionnaires were collected. violence they have encountered. October 2004. as well as their needs and problems. Questionnaires which were disqualified were excluded from the analysis as they were: incomplete (2). This questionnaire included basic demographic questions as well as the ones pertaining to whether individuals are out. Organization Q | 7 . 5| Ibid. Questionnaire about human rights of LGBTTIQ persons in BiH was administered by internet. a questionnaire was designed in order to survey the LGBTIQ population living in Bosnia and Herzegovina (BiH) and abroad. email.”5 For the purposes of this report.

gender identity and gender expression. Furthermore. Given the circumstances. Some people feared they will expose and out themselves by filling out a questionnaire. many respondents tend to be from larger towns and younger in age. Subsequent to that. especially terms such as gender.with the terminology. sexual identity. the results of this survey are not representative of the entire LGBTIQ population in BiH. 8 | Organization Q . it seems that the examples of discrimination and violence are underrepresented due to the respondents’ discomfort with exploring and recording these particular subject matters. a population which is already socialized with other LGBTIQ individuals either via internet or in person. The data was analyzed quantitatively and qualitatively. and encourage them to fill out a questionnaire. SPSS was used for quantitative analysis while the open ended questions were analyzed in order to obtain highest instances of occurrences and not a numerical value. It proved extremely difficult to reach individuals who are older and from smaller towns. although the anonymity was guaranteed.

Each human being has sexual identity which does not only imply binary concept of male and female. Social discrimination – Unequal treatment of individuals or groups by institutions and/or other individuals. Social exclusion – Deliberate. Furthermore. norms and experiences throughout the process of life long socialization. that is. It is influenced by physical. institutionalized and/or social denial and exclusion of one group of people from enjoying their rights. Sexual identity – one’s own sexual/body self conception which might not be the same as the one determined at birth. therefore. been included in this section. economy.” Furthermore. This distances them from job. it has been recognized that nationality. among other things. income and education opportunities as well as social and community networks. norms and values. low education or inadequate life skills.They have little access to power and decision-making bodies and little chance of influencing decisions or policies that affect them. sexual orientation.TermInology Terminology used in this report as well as throughout the process of surveying is listed below. NHDR 2006. 1. values. Discrimination – Unequal/different treatment (unless there is reasonable justification. creates a construct of a “man” and a “woman. They have. behavior and emotions. which might not be the same as the one determined at birth (sex). ethnicity and gender play a major role especially in the post-conflict context. although those categories are challenged by the issue of intersexuality. it is important to define some other terms that will be used in this report and which are of main importance. and participating and benefiting in society. Organization Q | 9 . pursuing of ‘legitimate aim’ or existence of ‘reasonable relationship of proportionality between the means employed and the aim sought to be realized’). Gender identity – one’s own gender self conception. medical and legal classification of biological characteristics which separates persons into two categories based on their genitals and reproductive organs and functions (female and male). denies or transgresses socially constructed and formed sex and gender roles of “men” and “women” as well as the overall binary basis of “male” and “female. gender identity and expression. UNDP. it is also influenced by the own nature of each individual and acceptance or transgression of social construct of sexuality. desires and fantasies.Terms of reference. Each human being has gender identity which does not only imply binary concept of male and female.6 Sex – social. and little chance of bettering their standards of living. includes sexual identity. 6| The UNDP in BiH adopted the definition of social exclusion provided by the Irish Government’s Combat Poverty Agency. gender is a social construct based on sex which by definition defines social roles of “men” and “women”. Sex is a social construct and a basis of discrimination and inequality.the basis of each human being which. In addition. emotional and social life. According to it.” Sexuality . Gender – individual construct of one’s own identity and expression which affirms. and politics as do other groups of people/individuals.” Furthermore. social exclusion “is the process whereby certain groups are pushed to the margins of society and prevented from participating fully by virtue of their poverty.

Gender expression – Visual and external presentation of each person which is made apparent by clothes, hair, gestures, behavior and body language. (Inter)sexual characteristics – sexual diversification (of chromosomes, hormones, gonads and sexual organs) which by its own ambiguity does not fit within either standard of male or female set. Sexual orientation – emotional and/or physical attraction to persons based on their sex. Homosexuality - emotional and/or physical attraction to persons of the same sex as their own. Bisexuality - emotional and/or physical attraction to persons of the same and other sexes and/or genders. Heterosexuality - emotional and/or physical attraction to persons of sex other than one’s own. Transgender person – a person whose gender identity and/or gender presentation is not in line with traditional roles as determined by sex. An umbrella term for various ways of expression of gender identities which are different from the traditional roles and norms. Transexual person – a person who wants and intends to change one’s own sex; a person who has physically altered one’s own body in order to express their own sexual and gender identity (including hormonal therapy and/or surgery); a person who has changed his/her/zie sex in line with one’s own sexual identity, and lives in such a way. Intersexual person – a person born with ambiguous sexual and reproductive organs in comparison with male and female sex set. Intersex persons are often victims of surgical interventions, hormonal therapies and taboo filled life, starting from age ONE DAY OLD and up. In the past, intersex persons were referred to as hermaphrodites. Lesbians and gays – persons who have emotional and/or physical attraction toward persons of the same sex. Bisexual person – persons who have emotional and/or physical attraction toward persons of the same or some other sex. Coming out – Accepting one self in regards to identity, orientation and sexuality. Coming out includes personal stage, but also interpersonal, and public stages. Homophobia/biphobia – irrational fear, hate, prejudice or discrimination toward persons of homosexual or bisexual orientation (including persons perceived as such). Transphobia – stems from the lack of understanding and violation of person’s right to one’s own concept of sexual/gender identity and expression; fear, hate, disgust or discrimination toward persons whose real or perceived gender identity is not in line with socially prescribed sex prejudice and discrimination towards persons who challenge and transgress narrow social roles, norms and stereotypes based on sex and gender. Genderphobia – Discrimination on the grounds of gender (gender roles, expression,
10 | Organization Q

and norms) which stems from lack of acceptance and denial of the right of each individual to self-conception of gender identity and expression or when self identity does not correspond with the social one. Internalized homophobia, biphobia, transphobia, and genderphobia – Homophobia, biphobia, transphobia, and genderphobia that are internalized by LGBTIQ individuals and realized by the same kind of behavior and approach, directed toward other LGBTIQ persons as well as self. Queer – (across...strange...relational), includes the whole LGBTI community as well as heterosexual persons who live and challenge hetero-patriarchal norms and roles or norms/roles based on socially constructed definitions of sex and gender. Queer stands for theory, movement, selfhood, lifestyle, sexuality, orientation, identity.... lgbTIQ – Lesbian, Gay, Bisexual,Transgender, Intersex and Queer persons, community, movement, activism.

Organization Q | 11

I. LGBTIQ Population
No statistics exist as to how many individuals are LGBTIQ, nor how many individuals truly identify as heterosexual. Alfred Kinsey stated that it was impossible to determine the number of people who are homosexual or heterosexual. The only thing that could have been determined was behavior.7 In order to measure the behavior, Kinsey developed a seven-point scale, now known as the Kinsey scale.8 According to the analyzed data, Kinsey concluded that 37% of all males and 13% of all females from the sample had at least one same-sex experience.9 Furthermore, he estimated that “nearly 46% of the male population had engaged in both heterosexual and homosexual activities,” while this percent was lower for females.10 Estimated percentages for people who transgress social norms, be it relevant to sex, gender, sexual orientation, identity or sexuality, vary. This percentage is the same for BiH as for any other country. Levels of tolerance and social inclusion of LGBTIQ persons in any given society makes the LGBTIQ population more or less visible, but the percentage of actual people in regards to homosexuality, bisexuality, transgenderism or intersexuality probably remains the same. Throughout history of various cultures/communities, homosexuality, bisexuality, transgenderism, and intersexuality have been regarded as something natural and as an integral part of the community. In 1903, S.C. Simms, an anthropologist, reported that three intersex individuals within the Crow tribe in the US were regarded by other tribe member as “experts with the needle and the most efficient cooks in the tribe, and they are highly regarded for their many charitable acts.”11 Fluidity of sex and gender also existed in regard to sexual orientation, and was accepted in traditional cultures offering more choices than we have today.

7| Alfred Kinsey undertook extensive research resulting into two separate studies (with a sample of 5300 males and 5940 females) published into two of his famous books, Sexual Behavior in the Human Male (1948) and Sexual Behavior in the Human Female (1953). 8| Kinsey’s Heterosexual-Homosexual Rating Scale, 9| 10| 11| Leslie Feinberg, Transgender Warriors: Making History from Joan of Arc to Dennis Rodman, Boston, Beacon Press, 1996, page 26.

12 | Organization Q

Hermaphrodite. George Catlin Organization Q | 13 .n. 2nd century b.e. Paris Dance to the Berdache. Louvre.

perverted. not the viewed.” Edward I.The “male to female” and “female to male” expression was visible through clothes. “The Masculine Character of Hatshepsut. Hatshepsut. 14| In particular by anthropologist Hermann Baumann.12 Sound familiar? These words can be attributed to any homophobic or transphobic individual today. With the arrival of colonialists in North America. Words such as “sinful. Margetts. homophobia. was represented as god and king. and norms. biphobia. Dionysus (the transgendered God). nefarious.e.15 12| Ibid. and intersexuality were not regarded as sacred only in North America within the Native American communities. 14 | Organization Q . 1513 Homosexuality. gods.”13 Balboa killing the Berdache. page 559. and many sculptures and writings serve to prove that. Heracles. and wore the symbolic false beard. language. S/he described herself by male names. unnatural. transgenderism.14 Furthermore. “they most accurately describe the viewer. 1951. and as Leslie Feinberg stated. lewd” were used to describe individuals who transgressed norms and roles. and transphobia surfaced as well. Queen of Egypt. 13| Ibid. 15| Achilles. bare shoulders. in particular. Individuals who transgressed norms and their involvement in religious/spiritual communities. Panama. queen of Egypt in the 5th century b. and was usually devoid of breasts. and Athena were known to cross-dress and transgress the norms. disgusting. but they were actually uttered by colonialists in 16th century. heinous. acquired and performed roles. and mythological heroes were often the ones who transgressed norms regarding expression and roles. page 22.” Bulletin of the History of Medicine 25. abominable. have been documented all over the globe.n. “assumed masculine attire. In mural she was pictured with short hair. kings and queens. including the Balkans.

Egypt Although religion plays a major role in the general attitudes toward LGBTIQ individuals. are the very first religions that left written record in regard to a system of order and social law pertaining to (self)policing of sex and gender. 18| Leslie Feinberg. neither shall a man put on a woman’s garment: for all that do are abomination on the Lord thy God.17 As Leslie Feinberg noted. or hath his privy member cut off.” Deuteronomy. The transition to religious conservatism is strongly interconnected with the rise of modern civilizations as well as various systems of law. The Fifth Book of Moses – Deuteronomy – specifically condemns cross-dressing and forbids entry into the House of God to those who have been stoned or had their penis removed. But. different religions have historically held divergent views.” Deuteronomy. page 50. Christianity. Islam. 17| “The woman shall not wear that which pertaineth unto a man. power. inheritance. 1996. Abrahamic religions include mostly monotheistic religions such as Judaism. Religions of Abraham. and Bahá’í Faith. 23:1. Organization Q | 15 . Judaism was the only religion that was genderphobic/ transphobic as well as homophobic. and warfare. “He that is wounded in the stones. why did they consider cross-dressing and sex change such a threat?”18 Feinberg concludes that patriarchal rule was established due to the constant 16| Abrahamic religions are considered to be all of those which derived from the Semitic tradition and can be traced to Abraham.MaatKaRe Hatshepsut bringing offering to Amun. ownership. her father. 22: 5. primarily Judaism.Transgender Warriors. Boston. patriarch and prophet. shall not enter the congregation of the Lord.16 For a very long time. “the patriarchal fathers wouldn’t have felt the need to spell out these edicts if they weren’t common practice.

Based on the diagnosis per the Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders (DSM). Thus. peoples and cultures started acquiring beliefs and systems which were opposite to their traditional convictions and life styles. 23| For a personal account and experience. invisible.22 medical treatment of transgender and/ or homosexual individuals did not only include medication. homosexuality was listed as a mental illness. with colonialism. DSM-II was published in 1968. Rumi.wikipedia. It appears that before religious and social laws were anti-gay.000 books of homoerotic poetry of 8th c. older versions of the Bible refer to the word “effeminate. Persian-Arab poet Abu Nuwas19 by the Egyptian Ministry of Culture in January 2001. Many Persian poets such as Attar. and controlling was established. That which was not invisible was rendered invisible. same-sex relations were not only widespread but public and accepted. and punishable. DSM-III was published in 1980 and DSM III-R in 1987 (with changed criteria). inheriting. In the modern version of the Bible. inheritance and general accumulation of wealth.Transexuality still remains in the DSM as a Disorder of Sexual Identity.”20 Even in the Bible. inquisition and/or any oppression/warfare. In the Middle East. they were first 21| Feinberg. Sa’di. DSM-IV was published in 1994 and DSM-IV-TR in 2000. homosexuality and transgenderism were accepted and visible identities until the introduction of Christianity and Islam. Homosexuality was removed from the list of mental disorders post factum. 20| http://en. However. DSM-V is scheduled to be published in the following few years. In many cultures around the world. to placate Islamic fundamentalists. Hinduism did not recognize any laws or stipulations forbidding homosexuality or transgenderism. and the people who differed from the ruling class/group/sex were subjected to losing freedom and other forms of discrimination and exclusion. First edition of DSM was published in 1952. and intersexuality were labeled and treated as illnesses and disorders by modern medicine. homosexuality continues to be criminalised and punishable by imprisonment or as severe as death by public stoning (Iran). thus creating classes dominated by men based on ownership.23 19| Abu-Nuwas al-Hasan ben Hani al-Hakami was born in today’s Iran.” and finally “homosexual perversion”21 in the recent history. However. when such identities became forbidden.” However. furthering the system of laws which were based on favoring the rulers and disfavoring everyone else. transgenderism. Hafez. property (including slaves). For example. Religious and legal cannons soon became medical and social cannons worldwide. DSM-I contained about 60 mental disorders.need to defend the conquered land. page 93. Most of non-Abrahamic religions did not consider homosexuality. A system of ruling. 22| DSM is published by the American Psychiatric Association and used to diagnose mental illnesses and disorders. mostly recognized for his wine-songs (khamriyyat) and poems of male love (mudhakkirat). In some parts of the world. imperialism. for example.” which in mid 1900s became “sexual perverts. by destructive means such as the “burning of 6. owning. and Jami wrote openly about homoerotic love or alluded to it. the words and meanings change from one translation to the next. Until 1973. as well as electroshock therapy. please see The Last Time I Wore a Dress: A Memoir by Daphne Scholinski 16 | Organization Q . as does Transvestite Fetishism. He was of Arab and Persian descent and known as the best classical poet. sodomy laws were introduced. Patriarchal class structure was installed. 1 Corinthians 6:9 refers to “homosexual perversion. transgenderism and intersexuality as negative or sinful. when India became part of the British Empire. homosexuality. but prolonged stays at mental health institutions.

In 1973. Feinberg. Its influence on policing and standardizing sex and gender through various guidebooks31 stretched from the time of Inquisition and witch trials. 25| American Psychological Association has issued Guidelines for Psychotherapy With Lesbian. 28| For APA’s archived list of policy statements. New Haven. and Bisexual Concerns at www. As a result. translated and quoted in Eva Cantarella. but attributed the act of laying the egg to a sorcerer masquerading as a cock. Psychiatrists and Counselors. charging the rooster “for having laid an egg. with the National Association of Social 26| Such is the case. Roman Emperor Constantine elevated Christianity to the status of a state religion in 342 n. Prior to 1970s.apa. The law asserted that. please see Archived Policy Statements on Lesbian. stability.e. for example.html 29| For a list of references.Yale University Press. Bisexuality in the Ancient World. 24| American Psychological Association.e. and up to today. The court found the cock innocent. a rooster was put on trial by the Church. identity. and Bisexual Client. to colonialism.apa. 1994. please visit http:// www. For a full copy in English. American Psychiatric Association removed homosexuality from its list of mental disorders stating that. further urging mental health professionals to help dispel the stigma of homosexuality as a mental illness and taking upon itself to provide practitioners with a frame of reference for the treatment of LGB clients by offering basic information and references in the areas of assessment.“homosexuality per se implies no impairment in judgment. and that he who basely abandons his own sex cannot aspire to that of another without undergoing the supreme punishment [death by fire].V. Organization Q | 17 . 32| In 15th century in Basil.27 research conducted in the US eventually resulted in various affirmative policies28 as well as hundreds of published books and studies. or general social or vocational capabilities. reliability.The rooster’s lawyer argued that the act was involuntary. and the education and training of psychologists. in which 16 guidelines/recommendations are outlined.29 LGBTIQ persons have faced violence and discrimination throughout a law was passed stating that male effeminacy can no longer be tolerated and that all those who have condemned their male body by transforming it into a feminine one.”30 Subsequently. the rooster and the egg in question were burned at the stake. American Psychological Association adopted the same position. 31| Such guidebooks forbid ritual cross-dressing and cross-gender behavior. 27| American Psychiatric Association was founded in 1844 while American Psychological Association was founded in 1892. similar practices and laws were adopted by the world’s biggest landowner. bearing practice reserved for the other sex. page 68. 1997. Gay.26 It is important to stress that decisions to remove homosexuality from the list of mental disorders are based on results of decades-long” in Harry Brierly. page 2..zenskasoba.”24 In 1975. interventions. see A Selected Bibliography of Lesbian.32 World War II. will be punished by death. 1980. In Europe. New York. For a full copy in Croatian.html. USA. and that animals were not capable of making pacts with the devil. 1991. please visit www. Pergamon Press. Oxford. Gay. 1979. Gay. with Jane Meredith Adams. and Bisexual Concerns in Psychology: An Affirmative Perspective at www. writing their own resolutions and policies as they relate to these issues within their respective professions. relationships. 4. Riverhead Books. In 390 n.html 30| Romanarum et Mosaicarum Legum Collatio. the Church. “the house of the manly soul must be sacrosanct to all.25 Other professional and academic associations followed suit.Transvestism: A Handbook with Case Studies for page 177. Please see Annex 2.

36| More about virdžina or tobelija at http://www. http://a-trans. lgbTIQ in bih Specific form of gender diversity was recorded in the Balkans in early 19th century. From the total of all committed anti-LGB violent acts. www. and 1% against bisexual persons. “Sworn in virgin” or “virgina/ virdž 35| Serena Nandi.36 33| http://www. carried arms and were treated in male custom. Herzegovina and south Serbia. and Pink Panthers –Combat Front Against Homophobia.blogspot. 18 | Organization Q .Waveland Press. gender expression. The last recorded case within the LGBTIQ activist circles is of a transexual immigrant from Brazil who resided in Portugal. 14% against lesbians. self-expression (language). on the bottom of a 10 meter pit. This social/ cultural creation continues to persist in some areas. and social roles. Gisberta was found dead on February 22nd. Such gender diversity was either initiated by the parents or by the person itself. Montenegro. the Federal Bureau of Investigation (FBI) hate crime statistics for 2004 indicated that hate crimes based on perceived sexual orientation are at 15.34 34| Association for the study and defense to the right to Gender Identity. 61% was against gay men.In the United States.php In 1991. page 92. Post mortem examination determined that Gisberta was severely assaulted and molested.planetaclix. 2000.6%. Virginas inherited land and property. including sexual harassment. 2006. a film Virdžina was directed by Srđan Karanović. Gender Diversity: Crosscultural Variations. Kosova/ primarily in Albania. Prospect Heights.”35 These individuals were born in families with no sons to carry on the patrilineage and by being socialized as featuring a story of a virdžina from Herzegovina.” is “an institutionalized form of gender crossing (…) in which female sworn virgins assumed a male social identity with the tacit approval of their families and the larger community. took on male gender identity.fbi.33 Violence committed against transgender individuals (or the ones perceived as such) most commonly remains unpunished.anarheologija.

and Slobodanka Dekić. and portray LGBTIQ issues as a matter of sexual some of which are and mostly pertain to homosexuality: homosexuality as a personal choice. Taida Horozović.” one can often hear from an average person on the street or from a high government official. Analysis of Terminology in Relation to LGBTIQ population in Written Media in Bosnia and Herzegovina. homosexuality as a phenomenon. Sarajevo. and uniform and recognizable gender expression of LGBTIQ individuals. deepen the stereotypes and prejudice. One of the conclusions of the media analysis published by the Organization 37| Researching Public Opinion about Homosexuality and Prostitution. 76. 82.8% believe that they would feel very uncomfortable in the company of a homosexual person.8% believe that homosexuality is a chosen lifestyle. out of 1550 surveyed individuals. perversion. it is no surprise that the general population mostly has negative attitude toward LGBTIQ persons.38 The media mostly writes about homosexuality and male homosexuals.anarheologija.As a result of such thinking. “We do not have that here. source: http://www. May 2005. 2005. Svetlana Đurković. in May 2005.php Nowadays. 46. Prism Research. using only male gendered language.37 The media is quick to use derogatory language. the belief that LGBTIQ persons simply do not exist in BiH remains fairly common. 38| Ten standard stereotypes have been identified through media writing. Organization Q | 19 .7% believe that accepting homosexuality in our society is detrimental for BiH. Organization Q. flamboyant gay prides.Virdžina from Albania.30% have negative opinion about homosexuals (both male and female). etc. Sarajevo. and 70. According to the research conducted by the Prism Research in BiH. homosexual marriage as a threat.

provided the necessary platform and leverage for the commencement of organized activism in BiH. regardless of (…) incidents. 20 | Organization Q . and perversion. Croats. transgenderism. each entity and the Brčko District maintain separate constitutions/statute. psychiatry. abnormality. this is a very disturbing fact. FBiH is further divided into ten Cantons whereas the RS remains centralized. page 28. 1995.Q refers to the lack of continuity and analytical approach regarding the texts about human rights of LGBTIQ persons. the health profession itself participates in labeling the above as an illness. and Serbs. 40| General Framework Agreement for Peace in Bosnia and Herzegovina or the Dayton Peace Agreement was signed on 14th of December. Many individuals have reported to the Organization Q that their psychologists have advised them that homosexuality is an illness. While BiH has its Constitution. Although such divisions have created a very costly and cumbersome bureaucracy. A more extreme example is demonstrated by cantonal oversight of education-based laws which has resulted in the creation of 14 ministries of education on the territory of BiH. 2. “most of these texts are ‘reactions to incidents’ (…) offering no space to introduce a question about the status of LGBTIQ population or problems which the population is facing. Even the word gender (rod). and Serbia.Those questions and problems are constantly present in BiH society. a lesbian and gay activism/movement did not exist in BiH prior to the war of 1992-1995. BiH is a party to 39| Ibid. International and national legal framework As a sovereign state. and intersexuality. It is stated in the study that. resolutions and recommendations of both American Psychiatric Association and American Psychological Association are known and accepted throughout the world. Croatia. Similar cases of duplication can be found in other areas such as the criminal law. Unable to provide proper scientific and official position regarding homosexuality. Bosnia and Herzegovina is comprised of two entities and one district: Federation of Bosnia and Herzegovina (FBiH). one important aspect of BiH as a State is that the human rights standards are written into the Dayton Peace Agreement as well as all three Constitutions and the Statute of Brčko District. Republika Srpska (RS) and the Brčko District (BD). equally important are non-existent positions and resolutions within the field of psychology. with a meaning which surpasses language context. Compared to Slovenia. is of a newer date. BiH is also a State of three constitutive nations/peoples including Bosniaks.”39 Although standards. The implementation of the Dayton Peace Agreement in 1995. Only recently such expressions have started to be used in the media as well as in overall public discourse. thus depriving their patients of relevant and adequate health assistance. giving them special rights over other nations in terms of elections and governmental positions. Terms such as “sexual and gender minorities” or “LGBTIQ” have gradually emerged in Bosnia and Herzegovina. bringing the 1992-95 war to an end and setting out a framework for administrative and constitutional existence of BiH.40 which included various international conventions and protections of human rights. and health care providers in BiH.

1999).41 BiH is a party State to 15 International Conventions. UK. Dudgeon v.. was in 1981.Convention on the Rights of the Child (1989) 14. BiH inherited laws from before the 1990s war.ilga-europe. 1977. Criminal Code FBiH. Convention on the Nationality of Married Women (1957) 6. and V. 2005. guaranteed in the addendum of the Annex 6 of the Constitution. v. 2003). 2003. The first ever case related to the right of same-sex partner that the Court agreed to consider is Karner v Austria (2003). L. Geneva Conventions I-IV on the Protection of the Victims of War. International Convention on the Elimination of All Forms of Racial Discrimination (1965) 8. and Cyprus (1993). Portugal. Criminal Law of BiH. v. The Court found that the total ban on same-sex sexual acts between consenting adult men in Northern Ireland was a violation of the Convention. European Convention on the Prevention of Torture and Inhuman or Degrading Treatment or Punishment (1987) 13. 43| The law does not connect age of consent explicitly with sexual relations. 1999). and S. This was the first time that the European Court of Human Rights ruled that different treatment of unmarried heterosexual and homosexual partners is a discrimination based on sexual orientation and is contrary to the Convention. In the case of Goodwin v. and the 1977 Geneva Protocols I-II thereto (1949) 3.42 The law was applicable on the whole territory of BiH until FBiH and RS adopted its own criminal codes ending the full ban on homosexuality in council_of_europe/relevance_to_lgbt_rights Organization Q | 21 . Additionally.43 Decriminalization of homosexuality is attributed to general reforms in legislation as well as Council of Europe (CoE) membership. Social and Cultural Rights (1966) 10. Other cases included issues such as age of consent (Sutherland v. Similar cases followed in Ireland (1988).45 41| 1. ensuring the highest level of internationally recognized human rights protection mechanisms and instruments. Protocol 12 of the EC was signed and ratified reaffirming the principles of non-discrimination. On April 1st. sexual relations with a person below the age of 14 is prohibited and regarded as rape regardless of the adolescent’s consent and sexual orientation. However. Article 224.16 international conventions. 2. Convention on the Reduction of Statelessness (1961) 7. that is. 44| BiH became a member of CoE in 2002. International Covenant on Economic. European Charter for Regional or Minority Languages (1992) 16. European Convention for the Protection of Human Rights and Fundamental Freedoms (EC) is placed above all laws of BiH. United Kingdom. Similar to many other post-YU States in the region. and Article 91. UK (2002) a transsexual woman successfully argued that her convention rights were breached by the UK government’s failure to provide legal recognition of her change of sex. Criminal Code RS. Austria. 1997. lesbians and gays in the armed forces (Lustig-Prean & Beckett v. U. Inhuman or Degrading Treatment or Punishment (1984) 12. Convention on the Elimination of All Forms of Discrimination against Women (1979) 11. Convention on the Prevention and Punishment of the Crime of Genocide (1948) 2. International Covenant on Civil and Political Rights and the 1966 and 1989 Optional Protocols thereto (1966) 9. European Convention for the Protection of Human Rights and Fundamental Freedoms and its Protocols (ECHR) (1950) and Protocol 12 4.44 The European Convention on Human Rights has been of great significance in promoting LGBT rights for the last 20 years. Convention relating to the Status of Refugees and the 1967 Protocol thereto (1951) 5. general prohibition of discrimination.K. International Convention on the Protection of the Rights of All Migrant Workers and Members of Their Families (1990) 15. Austria.L. Such was the case with the Criminal Law of BiH from 1977 which penalized male homosexual conduct with up to a maximum of one year of imprisonment. Convention against Torture and Other Cruel. http://www. UK. custody (Salgueiro Da Silva Mouta v. New criminal codes do not criminalise homosexual conduct nor do they make a differentiation between the age of consent between heterosexual and homosexual individuals. 45| The first successful case. and Smith & Grady v. Framework Convention for the Protection of National Minorities (1994) 42| Article 93.

the closure of a cafe known to be a gathering place for lesbigays. At that time. artificial insemination. economy. marriage. and for all terms to be defined whereby the definition would also include the following grounds: sexual identity. BiH Gay-Lesbian Association obtained signatures of 20 individuals. this law will prohibit discrimination of LGBTI persons. bisexuals and gays: “For lesbigays 1997-1998 has seen the collapse of their social movement. same-sex partnerships. sexual orientation and/or intersexual characteristics in relations to family. and sexual orientation. this initiative was significant as it was the first attempt to organize LGBT individuals around the common issues and human rights in BiH. gender. made an official proposal for the Law to include the following grounds: sex. gender expression. BiH Gay-Lesbian Association. Regular meetings and “counseling” were visited 46| Organization Q. naming communism. but this story was never confirmed.”48 never registered as an NGO or a legal entity. gender expression and intersexual characteristics. 47| Declaration of BiH Gay-Lesbian Association. no other law has attempted to provide protection or to extend the same rights to individuals who are LGBTI. etc. however. During the same period. Draft of the Antidiscrimination law of BiH is currently being finalized. Nevertheless.Also. Finally. expulsion of an openly gay man from the army. Criminal Law of FBiH. as an organization with an aim of working on the “equality of lesbians.46 3. thus failing to register its status. gender identity. other laws such the Criminal Law of BiH. a gay bar was opened in Sarajevo in 2001. If adopted. news leaked that the Federal Prosecutor’s Office had a list of 200 gay individuals. hate speech. political parties and the government to be barriers and restraints in the organizing of lesbians. 22 | Organization Q . as one of the NGOs involved in the work done on the draft of the Antidiscrimination Law. Criminal Law of BD. and unreasonable controls placed by the government on organizing. sexual identity. Sarajevo.”47 Unfortunately. August. hate crimes. 48| Ibid. This declaration offered a historical glimpse. gay men. Additionally. it was closed a few weeks later due to the publishing of a newspaper article which revealed the information about the bar and the identity of its owner. unrelated to any queer activism is the Law on Gender Equality BiH which was adopted in early 2003. bisexuals and transgendered people and their liberation from all forms of discrimination. a group of enthusiastic individuals in Sarajevo drafted a Declaration of BiH Gay-Lesbian Association with an intention to form an organization. 2001. post-war pro-Islamic authoritarian government. child adoption. war. an informal “meeting” group was initiated by an American ex-pat working and living in Sarajevo. Activism In 2001. and numerous scandals involving the police. Criminal Law of RS. the protocol for an organization to register required ID documents and signatures of 30 individuals. and the Law on Work of the Brčko District have included sexual orientation in its antidiscrimination clause. nationalism. This is the first law specifically prohibiting discrimination based on gender and sexual orientation. Since then. gender identity. nor on the basis of their gender. However.

and • right to human rights and dimensions of equality and non-discrimination. including human rights-based approach which takes into consideration respect of human rights. maltreatment and torture of any kind. as well as to the local and international gay men. International Initiative for Visibility of Queer Muslims was registered in Sarajevo at the end of 2005. it remained difficult to make them sustainable and visible. sex. development and public visibility of queer identity and culture. and contacts within BiH as well as regional LGBT organizations. Deciding to operate on its own. as well) including a right to gender ambiguity and contradiction. discrimination. This organization was re-registered in early 2006 under the name Organization Q | 23 . and queer individuals. The organization’s platform is based on the standards and principles of human rights (Universal Declaration of Human Rights and 16 Conventions which are a part of the BiH State legislation). bisexual. meetings. sexual identity. • right to an expression of gender and sexual/gender identity (through language. gays. a small LGBTIQ community emerged. health. Organization Q is dedicated to protection of human rights of lesbians. • right to a sexual orientation. Bratić and Svetlana Đurković formed an organization-in-formation under the name of an existing organization Bosnia 14th of September. and inequality based on sex. as well as the following: • right to one’s own body. gender identity. • right to self-definition and self-conception of sexual and/or gender identity and modification of the same. becoming the first official LGBTIQ organization in BiH. under the name of Organization Q. 2002. and (inter)sexual characteristics. Istok N. gender expression. goals and objectives regarding the human rights of LGBTTIQ population in Bosnia and Herzegovina. Organization Q embarked on researching the aspects of visibility and invisibility. however. human rights protection. leading to the elimination and suppression of human rights violations. post-feminist and global LGBTIQ movements. and education. • right to a life without sexual violence. this group disbursed after the organizer returned to the US. media. After extended research. and the principles of peace. • right to self-identification. Unlike the most organizations in the region at that time. transexual. and individual characteristics of LGBTIQ individuals. In September. In line with its agenda. They established a platform. Promotion of human rights of LGBTIQ persons includes rights guaranteed within the international conventions. planned activities. a new initiative emerged. appeals for funding. Although (L)GB issues were starting to take hold. transgender. needs. bodily integrity. the organization-in-formation was formally registered on February 26th. sexual orientation. intersexual. In such a way. becoming formed as inclusive of the whole LGBTIQ population and their human rights. and one’s own sexuality and dignity. choice. gender expression. gender and (inter)sexual characteristics. and discrimination of queer population as witnessed through the laws. 2004. Organization Q took on a wholesome approach. gender.

thus continuing the social cycle of stereotypes. The media in BiH began to utilize politically correct terminology. activities and parties became a reality. The Netherlands. public and not so public meetings.Although not a representative sample. Issues regarding sex. and who consider various forms of spirituality. It has been specifically noted that. including grounds of sexual orientation and health status (including HIV/AIDS and mental health). and their health and development are put at greater risk.”53 49| http://www. For more details. Their human rights are additionally addressed in the International Convention on the Right of Child which addresses the right to nondiscrimination.52 This sample includes at minimum 3 individuals and perhaps even more who by international human rights standards are considered to be children. and the United Kingdom. “adolescents who are subject to discrimination are more vulnerable to abuse. among the individuals who do not conform with. Serbia and Montenegro. this data is the first pillar of information gathered thus far regarding the LGBTIQ population and its general status in BiH society.9%).”49 Since the late Canada. paragraph 6. prejudice and stigmatization.7%). gaybosnia.queer. and/or diverge from the patriarchal normative system. Location . sick. Annex 1. the LGBTIQ population began communicating and socializing primarily over the regional internet 53| Committee on Rights of Child. followed by the local web sites such as www. Survey about human rights of LGBTTIQ persons in BiH Organization Q conducted a survey in which over 210 individuals participated. gatherings. Italy. perverted. individuals currently living abroad (6. Spain. while some continue to inform the public that homosexuality and primarily male homosexuals are sinful. Mostar (7. Organization Logos “gathers the persons whose primary goal is to promote dialogue and understanding. 51| For detailed information. Slovenia. 24 | Organization Q . gender. In addition.Most of the surveyed individuals are from Sarajevo (51. faith and inter-faith dialogue important for their life and the identities.50 and Tuzla ( and www.html 50| Respondents who live abroad live in USA. 4. workshops.51 Age .Respondents were divided into 6 age groups. as well as capacity building.Organization Logos. Croatia.9%). formal and informal. please see Annex 1. followed by Banja Luka (11%). Annex 1. please see Table 4.6%). other types of violence and exploitation. Germany. Austria. Below is a demographic profile of surveyed population. Sweden. seminars. 52| Please see Table 1. with the largest representing individuals between 20-25 years of age (41%). and identities such as national/ethnic background and religion will be discussed in greater detail later in the report. General Comment 4. They are therefore entitled to special attention and protection from all segments of society.

3%). citizenship. Other. Also. European. Given that respondents did not identify only as female or male.6% did not identify by sexual orientation. and Dutch. while 20% identified as BiH (10. Turkish. and as gay men by LGBTTIQ identity. Organization Q | 25 . but rather territory. Persons who identified as female by sex and/ or gender range around roughly 30%. and overall state identity.Graph 1. while 27. Serbian. Muslim. identity .8% identified as homosexual (by sexual orientation).5%). majority of respondents in our sample chose not to identify by nationality (34. Age groups Sex. Serbian-Croatian-Bosnian.1%). and non-homosexual SM.5%) or Bosnian (9.6% of respondents identified as bisexual while there were also individuals who identified as heterosexual. Bosnian/ Bosniak.Majority of respondents identified as male by sex and gender. Croatian. Other identities listed were: Bosniak. which tend to push for the identification based on three constitutive nations/people.This sample did not have a single individual identify as intersex. 63. agender/omnigenderasexual/omnisexual. 27. gender. Canadian. or in a connected line of the same choice/category for both sex and gender. identities which are not formally accepted by the State as they are not based on ethnic origin. Slovenian. Ethnic identity / religion – Unlike the national identity politics in BiH. it is interesting to note the percent of people who did not identify by gender at all (8.

Graph 2. Ethnic identity

26 | Organization Q

In regard to religion, 47.6% of respondents stated that they are religious, while 30.5% identified as atheists and 9% as agnostics.54 However, similar to national identity, 49% of respondents chose not to identify by faith or religion, while the rest of respondents identified as Muslim (24.8%), Christian Orthodox (9.5%), and Roman Catholic (9%).The remaining 12 individuals (5.7%) identified as Christian, Monotheist, Protestant, Liberal Catholic, etc. Education – The majority of the respondents are currently enrolled in school and studying (38.1%). 26.2% have university degrees and/or postgraduate degrees (17 individuals have masters degrees), while 25.2% have completed high school education only. Social / financial status – The majority of respondents are employed as permanent or temporary workers (54.7%), while some are working and studying at the same time. 46.6% are currently studying, including those who are also working or looking for a job. 7.6% are currently job seekers, while 1.4% are retired. Regardless of the working status, only 41% are financially independent, while additional 31.4% are partially independent. Partner/relationship status - Majority of the surveyed sample are currently not in a relationship (48.1%). 28.1% stated that they are currently in same-sex relationships; while 18 individuals (8.6%) are in relationships with more than one partner. 8 individuals are in heterosexual relationships, while 5 individuals are married or in a registered partnership/union.

Knowledge, attitude, opinions, problems and needs as presented by the respondents
Organization Q started operating in September 2002, prompting the formal promotion of human rights of LGBTIQ persons at that time. Organization Q feels very passionate about issues such as deconstruction of sex and gender, transgenderism and intersexuality, striving to make these issues more visible and less marginalized even within the LGBTIQ community itself. However, as it turned out, the biggest issue of concern to the media and general population still present homosexuality and homosexuals (m.).55 In order to promote visibility, Organization Q introduced its own terminology which some may find confusing or unordinary given that the basic definitions of sex and gender are quite different from those usually used, acquired, or copied. Generally, people are not familiar with many of the addressed terms and definitions. Within the respondent population, 49% stated that they are partially familiar with the terminology, needs, and problems of the LGBTIQ community, while 16.7% were not informed about it at all.

54| Category Others includes: unique, pagan, spiritual, belief in good, etc. 55| m. refers to male. Organization Q | 27

Table 1. Enough information about terminology, needs and problems of the LGBTTIQ community
Frequency Partially Yes No I do not know No answer Mostly Wrong answer Total 103 59 35 9 2 1 1 210 Percent 49.0 28.1 16.7 4.3 1.0 .5 .5 100.0

It is interesting to note that 2/3 of persons living abroad stated that they were informed enough about terminology, needs and problems of the LGBTTIQ community, while 1/3 of them stated that they are partially informed. LGBTTIQ issues and communities are more visible in states such as the US, UK, Spain, Germany, and Canada, so it is no wonder that persons who are living there are more familiar with terminology given that they are exposed more to the issues of importance to the LGBTTIQ community itself. When asked about what topics they would like to obtain more information on, the respondents expressed interest in learning about the laws in BiH and the human rights of LGBTIQ persons, as well as how to improve the protection of human rights. Subsequent areas of interest included learning more about the community itself, meeting people, etc. In addition, other areas of focus consisted of health, queer culture, transgenderism, transexuality, queer movement and activism, and intersexuality.

28 | Organization Q

4 100.3%) gave an affirmative response.5 2.5 7. studies.7 0.0 4.1 7. Topics of interest Frequency Laws in BiH and human rights of LGBTTIQ persons Improvement of the status and human rights of LGBTTIQ persons in BIH and how to work on the protection of LGBTIQ persons in BiH About LGBTIQ community in BiH (organization. activities and goals of the Organization Q Intersexuality Terminology Protection I do not know Self-acceptance and self-assistance Laws in States where the issues regarding LGBTTIQ persons are positively addressed / positive praxis About organizations and institutions in BiH working on LGBTTIQ issues and questions Gender (gender identity.7 0. clubs.1 2.0 Knowing about LGBTTIQ issues.9 9.7 6. needs and problems is not the same as knowing laws and conventions protecting human rights of LGBTTIQ persons. meetings. manifestations.4 0. HIV/AIDS. queer culture. 40. films. problems.7 0.Table 2.5% were partially knowledgeable about the subject.1 2. gay pride) Transgenderism and Transexuality Queer (movement. Organization Q | 29 . activism.2 8.1 1.3 3.7 5.4 1.1 5.5 3. studies) About projects.9%) did not know their rights and laws/conventions that protect them as human beings. Majority of respondents (42. psychological assistance) Culture (music.8 2. needs) Everything Nothing Health (sexual and reproductive.7 5.4 1.8 2. while only 28 individuals (13. gender expression) Governments’ position and public position toward LGBTTIQ persons in BiH Centers for help / Counselling Sexual orientation Transfeminism Assylum Identities Religion Other Total 14 13 12 10 10 8 8 7 6 6 5 5 4 4 3 3 3 2 2 2 1 1 1 1 1 9 141 Percent 9. gay culture. magazines. meeting people.3 4.7 0.

Again. biphobic. and transphobic treatment. is seen as playing a role in general attitude regarding the LGBTIQ population. and transphobia among them. 30 | Organization Q . Social discrimination and exclusion are exacerbated by The State’s informal and formal support of such views. and a lack of acceptance by the general public due to deficiency of information and education. as well as the internalized homophobia. Knowledge about rights in BiH and which laws and conventions offer protection It has been noticed that the level of education does not necessarily have a positive impact on the above average knowledge regarding terminology or human rights. Based on these findings. Educational system in BiH.Graph 3. does not include LGBTIQ issues and it does not make them visible except in a derogatory way. at all levels. biphobia. diversity and human rights. and behavior which furthers discrimination and stigmatization of the LGBTIQ persons. it is apparent that being more educated does not necessarily mean being more knowledgeable about LGBTTIQ issues or human rights in general. Social discrimination and social exclusion are identified by the respondents as the greatest problem facing the LGBTTIQ community. attitudes. This includes homophobic. BiH was characterized by the respondents as a non-democratic State which does not have adequate laws and human rights protection. which is void of adequate information with a focus on tolerance. The respondents further expressed concern regarding the lack of knowledge and organization within the LGBTIQ population. it appears that the educational system.

etc. obtain a job Leave BiH Tolerance within LGBTTIQ community 70 50 39 33 17 7 5 4 3 3 2 1 Organization Q | 31 . understanding and acceptance.. sin. security. Biggest problem of the LGBTTIQ community in BiH Number Lack of acceptance on the part of public Primitive. identity. security) To be understood and accepted To live a normal life and be out To meet someone (find a partner) De-stigmatization through and within education and health Support Healthy sexual life To be financially independent. the respondents of the survey identified the two primary needs to be equality and non-discrimination.) Freedom (expression. same human rights as for everyone else (including rights to marry. opinion. Biggest needs of LGBTTIQ person in BiH Number Equality and non discrimination.. homophobic. law regulations and human rights protection Uninformed and uneducated public in BIH Uninformed and unorganized LGBTTIQ persons Internalized homophobia. biphobia. family. perversion. better organized activities for LGBTTIQ persons (education. prejudice and patriarchal society Fear Invisibility of LGBTIQ issues and persons Stigmatization of LGBTIQ issues and population (illness. clubs. etc. information. socialization.) Clubs. information. and transphobia Discrimination Stereotypes. magazines.Table 3. and the ability to live a normal life.) Economic situation 36 33 30 27 24 18 16 15 10 10 6 4 On behalf of the LGBTIQ persons in BiH. The respondents also addressed the issues of freedom. etc. private life. They further expressed the necessity for greater visibility within the LGBTIQ population through activities. work. Table 4. conservative environment Non democratic State and lack of laws. magazines.

economic and social right as everyone else. security.9% 1 0. private and family life.9% 2 1% 1 0.4% 7 3.5% 16 7.4% 1 0.2% 1 0. cultural.5% 1 0. Yes. A detailed analysis of the opinions regarding specific rights. economic and social rights Total 3 1. education. but Yes.3% 210 100% 1260 100% 32 | Organization Q . including the right to life. It same but not until a already Other problem for the too exists hetero much for a child Yes No Total Same legal 202 2 rights as other 96. A full child adoption is available to married couples and non-married heterosexual couples. cultural. non-discrimination. Rights for LGBTTIQ persons No Maybe answer Yes. as well as single individuals for limited adoption.7% 1 0. resulted in lower percentages. the respondents appeared to differentiate between some specific rights while reaching an overall agreement (97.3% 22 1.5% 2 1% 2 1% 210 100% 210 100% 210 100% 210 100% 1 0. equality.4% 29 2.3% of respondents answered in favor of same-sex unions/partnerships.2% are in favor of same-sex marriage.5% 165 38 4 78.2% 9% Right to a same-sex union 196 7 (such is the 93. Only 69% of respondents are least in favor of having the right to adopt a child.1% 1 0. freedom.8% 8.9% 6 2. 93.Respect and non-discrimination regarding political. For example.3% heterosexual civil union) Special laws protecting LGBTTIQ persons Same political.2% 1% persons Right to adopt a 145 40 child 69% 19% 181 19 Right to marry 86.3% 3. health.1% 1 0. etc.6% 18.5% 4 0.6%) that LGBTIQ persons should have the same political. social and economic rights implies that all people have the same rights. Table 5. work.1% 2 0. while only 86.6% 3 1. cultural. same-sex couples are unable to legally adopt a child.4% 3 1. Given that same-sex marriage and partnership are not legally available.6% 1094 106 86.3% 6 2.1% 1. However.5% 210 100% 205 97. such as right to marry and right to adopt a child.

5%). This gayphobia. the table below represents respondents’ assessment of personal participation and support regarding specific LGBTIQ activities. as opposed to lesbophobia. may have a significant influence on the similar pattern existing among LGBTIQ individuals who have internalized homophobia to the point of also having strong opinions against adoption of children. Promotion of homophobia in a society primarily stigmatizes male homosexuals. The least favorable activities were Pride parades (40%). this pattern seems to exist by far among gay men and male identified bisexuals. in reality. lobbying for law change (65. Out of those individuals. street actions (36. support. As it can be seen. Rights for LGBTTIQ persons Persons who responded that they are against one of the above offered choices/rights (106 responses). while 35. excluding age groups between 13-16 and 20-22 years of age. and other public activities (29.5%). in particular.4%). 59. largely identified as male by sex (90. In addition.56% .2%). one third of the remaining participants responded against all mentioned rights. and cultural performances (61. Organization Q | 33 .Graph 4. and participation.4% (34 individuals) identified as bisexual (most of them identified as male by sex).2%).4% (57 individuals) identified as gay men. The most favored activities which respondents would support and participate in are: LGBTIQ organization and its activities (69. especially regarding rights to marry and adopt children. anything which would require physical presence.96 individuals). While the above graph presents respondents’ opinion and attitude regarding human rights and equality.

Identities and Non-identities Why is it that certain characteristics have the status of an identity while some other do not? If sex and gender are something so inherent and natural and an unchangeable and obvious fact.3% 6 2.4% 93 44. as this sample does not include individuals who identify as intersex and it includes a very low number of persons who identify as trans.8% 2 100% 1 100% 643 50.7% No 15 7.Table 6.2% 73 34. However.3% 298 23.9% 9 4.2% 54 25. this report is limited in the way it addresses human rights pertaining to sexual identity. gender expression and most importantly.1% Maybe 43 20.9% 7 3.9% 34 16.3% Wrong answer 1 0.3% 137 65. tribunes) Lobbying for law change Street actions Media campaign Other Total 146 69.6% 37 2.5% If I am able and if safe 1 0. Correlation between the general homophobia and internalized homophobia is very clear to the effect of impacting personal attitude and support in regard to equality and non-discrimination.9% 2 0.5% 1 0.3% 4 1.9% 7 3. II. why do we have to learn what we are and what we are not.2% No answer 4 1. gender identity.7% 47 22.5% Total 210 100% 210 100% 210 100% 210 100% 210 100% 210 100% 2 100% 1 100% 1263 100% This sample is not fully representative of the whole LGBTIQ population in BiH.5% 62 29.2% 1 0.5% 129 61.4% 48 22.7% 76 36. but the issues raised above seem to be extremely significant. intersexual characteristics. and how we must and must not behave? Is it possible to be recognized by the society and others as a certain someone and a certain something while all along we recognize and feel ourselves as something entirely different? Which one is more important? 34 | Organization Q .9% 282 22. Barriers that the LGBTIQ population is facing are not only external but internal as well.5% 54 25. Personal support/participation in the LGBTTIQ activities in BiH Yes LGBTTIQ organization and its activities Pride Cultural performances Public Activities (sessions.3% 62 29.5% 33 15.1% 84 40% 30 14.

a sin. They have so permeated each being that they are everywhere. 58| Article 18 (1). which are markers of ethnic background. better yet. However. Cultural identity and culture are defined in the Universal Declaration on Cultural Diversity and they pertain mostly to a society or social group(s). religion. One cannot chose what skin color they have or. can one identify and be allowed to identify with all of them? What happens if one lives in a State that recognizes different national backgrounds but not their intermixing? Some kind of choice must be exercised on the part of the person. 56| Adopted at the General Conference of the UN Educational.Each human being has a network of multiple identities.57 Identities.56 Identity is also addressed in the Convention on the Rights of the Child. triethnic. Convention on the Rights of the Child. International Covenant on Civil and Political Rights. This raises the question of a right to non-identity as well as the right to identity. observance. then sometimes that choice is already made by others. to manifest his religion or belief in worship. as addressed by the international conventions. November 2nd. last name. and language in regards to identity. International human rights instruments and conventions address race. if there are other indicators such as first name. either individual or in community with others and in public or private. In addition. practice and teaching. State of BiH by its Constitution recognizes three constitutive nations: Bosniaks. a disease or a perversion.The State does not by its Constitution or any other law recognize the status of a person whose ethnic background is biethnic. the way we teach our children. parents or a system in which individuals have a right to a name. religion as an identity has a component of choice. It recognizes the three nations and the category of ‘others’. implications and identities which are socially desirable and preferable. A member of the Presidency of BiH can only be a person who belongs to one of the three nations. Race and national/ethnic origin might be regarded as inherent characteristics. there are more and less desirable identities.”58 And. and freedom. 57| Articles 7 and 8. Individuals employed at governmental institutions have a quota to fill based on the ethnic background of the individuals. again based on these three nations. Within each identity there is a hierarchical scale. Organization Q | 35 . the line of ancestry in regards to national/ethnic background. are not even accepted as an identity but rather seen as a bias of nature. even if one can not change their line of ancestry. seem to recognize the inherent identity as well as the chosen one. to acquire a nationality/citizenship. where identity means registered legal identity and connections to the State. as is the case in the Balkans. descent or national/ethnic background. Scientific and Cultural Organizations at its 31st Session. while not desirable. 2001. in the language we speak. Croats and Serbs. or relate and communicate with others and everything around us. the clothes we wear. However. or multi-ethnic. Right to a religion is defined by the International Covenant on Civil and Political Rights as the right which “shall include freedom to have or to adopt a religion or belief of his choice. and to be cared for by parents. Some identities are constructed by the society and on daily basis go unchallenged and unobstructed. Within the whole network. Choice becomes an issue when a person comes from more than one ethnic background. Not all identities are reconcilable with each other and some. human beings are born into the already existent networks of social meanings.

be it socially. appearance. each identity. As stated above. 1. inhabitants of BiH identified ethnically/nationally as members of one of the 25 ethnic groups/categories. language or a behavior. Regardless of a person’s true sense of self and (non)identification.60 In regard to religion.fzs.A couple of years later.htm 36 | Organization Q . The vast majority of people who identified as Muslim by nationality in 1971 actually identified as Yugoslav (or something else) in 1961. http://www. Right to an identity does not only imply recognition of self within one self or a group – regardless if its basis is inherent.htm 60| In the 1991 census. already belongs to the social bank of identities and can easily be identified by other members of the society. By the time 1971 census was administered.Each Demographic picture of identity changed drastically once a choice paralleling the actual perceived self-sense of identity was made available. One of the categories referred to Muslim as an ethnicity but not as a nation. bodily characteristics. But what happens when people’s belonging and identities are not assumed. bodily characteristics. There is a certain problem in embracing some identities to the point of making them constitutive as they by default tend to exclude other identities. President Josip Broz Tito granted the status of a nation to the Muslim ethnicity. constructed or chosen – but. members of the society usually pin one or more identities to a person simply by recognizing the assigned stereotyped characteristics and demarcations. language or a behavior. appearance.3% did not identify by nationality. However.3% stated that they do not identify by nationality. as long as visibly demarcated through a name. 59| http://www. an option that did not exist in 1961. This kind of hierarchical making implies power that only some have because of their belonging. people were able to identify as members of the Muslim nation. this suggestion mirrored the fact that only three ethnic groups in BiH are constitutive. Names usually serve as a visible mark of ethnic and/or religious identity/belonging. also a right not to identify (or be identified) with identities which are affiliated to us through the eyes of others and society in general. This proposal was made in order to increase the number of women in elections and political life. after a conference concerning women’s rights in Bosnia and 49% stated that they do not identify by religion. as long as visibly demarcated through a name. Asking the right questions: Identity and non-identity Recently. and when we ask them to identify? What happens when people have choices? During the 1961 census. already belongs to the social bank of identities and can easily be identified by other members of the society. Identity as such becomes a commodity which can and is policed. Out of 210 surveyed individuals. several NGOs recommended to propose a constitutional amendment which would make the two sexes constitutive. 34.fzs. only 0. culturally or in any other way. The LGBTIQ questionnaire included a few similar identity questions.

all individuals were placed in two sex categories.9 1.htm Organization Q | 37 .3 17.3% of people who do not identify by ethnicity/nationality and 49% of those who do not identify by religion.5 9. male and female. According to the data obtained from the 1971.5 9.9 100.0 1. would the demographic results be different as was the case with the ethnic/national identity? 61| http://www.0 3. Faith / denomination / religion Frequency I do not identify by faith or religion Muslim/Islam Christian Orthodox Roman Catholic Other Christian No answer Total 103 52 20 19 8 4 4 210 Percent 49. 1981.61 Interestingly.0 This means that 34.0 2.5 9. and 1991 BiH censuses.0 10.1 11.8 1.8 9.9 1.0 Table 8.Table 7. are identified and treated as such by others.0 100. due to their names and/or other characteristics.0 24. Nationality / Ethnic identity Frequency I do not identify by nationality Bosniak Serbian BiH/BH Bosnian Croatian Bosnian/Bosniak Other Slovenian Muslim No answer Total 72 36 23 22 20 19 6 6 2 2 2 210 Percent 34. If other choices were given. there is no other category offered except the two existing ones.fzs.9 2.

gender. only 57 identified as female by gender. The other 13 individuals identified as male. while 12 persons (5. One person does not identify by sex.Unlike the census data. In other words. 17 individuals (8.1%) do not identify by gender. Furthermore. out of 70 individuals who identified as female by sex. and socially. transgender. Graph 5. this survey revealed more than two self-identified categories. However. or chose not to identify by gender at all. 38 | Organization Q . When identifying by gender. and sexual orientation. some people who completed the LGBTIQ questionnaire stated that they do not identify by one or more of the following grounds: sex. F and M. according to the result of this survey. besides F and M categories.7%) do not identify by sexual orientation. Exercising right to not identify and to identify Medically. only two sexes and two genders are assumed. legally. some people identified as transgender or both F and M. 28 individuals chose a gender category which is different from their category of sex. although majority of people identifies by sex and gender by using the same category for both.

however. until 2002 when it was first introduced and utilized by Organization Q. Not a single person identified as Intersex.0 100. even among the LGBTI population.0 The word “queer” was not publicly used in BiH. Organization Q | 39 . LGBTTIQ Identities Frequency Gay man Bisexual Lesbian Queer Other Lesbian/Gay and Queer Gay/Bisexual and Transgender Transexual Transgender No answer Wrong answer Total 83 53 39 20 4 3 2 2 1 1 2 210 Percent 39. Although 13 individuals identified by gender as transgender or identified in the F/M sex/gender “opposing” binary. As it was mentioned above. Sex / Gender Gender Transgender I do not identify I do not F and M person by gender know 2 6 1 1 1 8 1 1 2 61 123 6 2 17 2 1 1 Total F F Sex M I do not identify by sex I feel as a man No answer Total 57 4 M 3 120 70 134 1 1 4 210 Identifying by sex and/or gender in a particular way does not mean that the person assumes such identity and/or only that identity.5 0. nor referred to as an identity with a positive connotation.4 1.9 1. two also identified as Gay/Bisexual. some persons have more than one identity.5 25.Table 9. but most individuals have a multiplicity of identities.6 9.2 18. there is a hierarchical scheme of identities. It is possible to see that even within the LGBTIQ identities. some of which are connected.5 1.0 0.0 1. Out of those five.5 1. it is interesting to note that almost 10% of surveyed population identifies as queer. This word is still unknown to many. only 5 individuals actually claimed a Transgender or Transexual identity. Table 10.

ever since 1976. 2007 (pending). These two categories constitute the only legal options when it comes to an ID number. sex and/or gender are matter of choice as much as ethnicity. a birth certificate. health documents. Lack of respect. sex and gender based identities. this connection is actually created by internalizing and thus reproducing the social capital of the cultures we are born into. leads to discrimination and violation of a wide array of human rights. especially because the concept of sex and/ or gender as recognized by others might not coincide with the notion of sex and/or gender as recognized and felt by the self. It may appear obvious what those words mean. if not synchronized with the medically. Binary defined: Sex and gender Sex as a basis of discrimination is included in all anti-discriminatory clauses. and so on. Why is that so? What would happen if that were not the case and if people identified and prescribed their own sex and gender? Why does self expression have to be connected to genitals? Sex and gender are at times recognized as a singular identity.”64 It is exactly sex and gender which are the core of the human rights of LGBTIQ persons.Women’s Room. Besides raising the question of a right to an identity and non-identity. gender communicates a lot more besides the reproductive profile of a person. Identities 62| Inheriting the system of identification of Ex-Yugoslavia. The last number is the control number (C). inherent at its best. legally and socially prescribed identity. or some other sex. religion. This number is composed out of 13 digits (DDMMYYYRRSSSC). There is no option for intersex.”63 While sex is a constructed matrix. religion and/ or language require further exploration. In addition. gender is a language. like ethnicity. Jelena Poštić and Svetlana Đurković. Sex is made visible and apparent by gender. The two are usually recognized as fixed integrity which is even beyond the identity discourse as much as it is at its very core. and gender become an issue of disorder and abnormality. driver’s license.wikipedia. there is also a question of a right of each person to be/feel complete. family and culture within which one person is born. please see http://en. BiH uses a system of civilian unique birth numbers (JMBG – jedinstveni matični broj građana). sex. 2. recognition and understanding of identity. being and human rights as such. Instead. However. 64| Ibid. Although in a social or other setting it may appear that there is an inherent link between sex and gender. First seven numbers specify the date of birth (DDMMYYY).” but often those are not defined either. neither one is recognized or considered as an identity which includes an individual deciding about ones own body and integrity. and languages are. male or female.The subsequent three numbers specify the assigned sex in the combination with the entry number in the Book of Births (numbers 000-499 are for male sex and numbers 500-599 are for female sex) (SSS). no sex.Very rarely does law define the meaning of the word “sex”. however.their own personal network. 40 | Organization Q . religion and language are inherent to the historical tradition. org/wiki/Jmbg 63| Human Rights of LGBTIQ population in the context of mental health in Croatia. “Sex is inherent to the body as much as ethnicity. On the other hand. For more information. although very often it provides only two options.62 Most often words such as “man” or “woman” are used as substitute for the word “sex. passport. Gender is the language by which sex is communicated. while the following two specify the geographic region (in the case of BiH those numbers are 11-19) (RR). “given that human rights are not a culturally relative concept nor a concept of any particular culture.

the term gender is confusingly defined. choice is usually made for them).”67 In BiH. does this mean that sex can only be attributed to men and women? Does intersexuality violate people’s understanding of the world to the point that there is no place for intersex individuals? Intersex individuals are often made to chose one or the other sex/gender (better yet. Usually. but it offers a definition in an indirect way. Centar za istraživački. As Feinberg noted. and unchangeable attribute. appearance. Defining a term by using the same word or a synonym in the actual definition is not a definition. Even in the case of an intersex baby. Words such as girl-boy. 67| Law on Gender Equality BiH. but a social description. Despite an existing gray area. and rarely is it seen as an identification separate from the male-female dichotomy. and diversity into zeros and ones. Perhaps the problem is that “the definition of ‘gender’ is not something that grew out of local and cultural context of BiH or issues and problems at stake. 68| “Evolving Gender Norms and Perspectives in BiH: From Social to Individual”. male or female sexual identity is something that is striven for. ed. somewhere along the lines the relational politics turn the multitude into binary.”68 A binary system implies only two values. but rather that the definition (as well as the approach) was simply acquired. and potential of any given person. and should not people. “sex and gender are a lot more complicated than woman and man. 2006. Law on Gender Equality BiH. Furthermore. 66| Feinberg. the law does not use word gender. man-woman fall within the same category of relational 65| Article 4. be enabled to make decisions regarding their own bodies and lives? Should the oppression of matching self expression and gender expression to the genitals be stopped or at least placed in the hands of the individuals? In the Law on Gender Equality of BiH.Tuzla. page 153. stvaralački i građanski angažman “Grad”Tuzla and Asocijacija Bosna i Hercegovina 2005. In such a way. shows meaning which is within society given to biological attributes of sex. usually opposites of the same spectrum. Gender is defined as the social sex. Svetlana Đurković. 2003. inherent. pink and blue”66. therefore. in the spirit of this law. Jasmina Husanović.based on sex and/or gender are invisible because the whole matrix of identification and recognition in turn is also invisible and not a segment of the cultural and social matrix. The Law on Gender Equality BiH states that sex implies biological attributes (of women and men). which it actually is not. carrying on the tautological circle of only male/female non-definitions. Sex is usually defined as the biological characteristics implying sexual and reproductive functions. Article 4 states the following: “sex: socially determined roles of women and men in public and private life which is different from the same term which implies biological attributes. in Na tragu novih politika: Kultura i obrazovanje u Bosni i Hercegovini. and therefore created out of the intersex characteristics. awareness and consciousness. sex is placed as off limits for further deconstruction as it is portrayed as an innate. Organization Q | 41 . page 103. Term sex. sex implies only two categories. a priori dividing people only by women and men. gender always seems to imply equality between men and women. 2003. which are usually relational and relative.65 This definition is a bit of a tautological circle given that it uses the synonyms such as women and men. those of male and female. In essence.

thick-thin. it also implies something that is not tangible in the society. the visibility is limited. Houghton Mifflin Company. There does not appear to be a middle ground and therefore. or extent. 3. 42 | Organization Q .”73 Female means “of. magnitude. and in turn. 70| Ibid. 74| Ibid. 71| Ibid. Although queer implies relational relationship to the norm. Often in such instances there is no need for a relational binary system since the applied word would be something of its own. 72| Ibid. outside of the binary and at least in Bosnia and Herzegovina.definition making.”71 while short means “having little length. up-down. What is the word used for something which is neither tall nor short. large.”69 while big means “of considerable size. Negating and transgressing the social norm implies that social rules have been violated. However. Even when the invisible becomes visible. and high-low. non-acceptance and discrimination. such as small-big. number. stigmatized and marginalized. Boston. thus making it more invisible. individuals are included in the society. empty of language and given meanings which are socially understood and accepted. 1991. or designating the sex that produces ova or bears young … characteristic of or appropriate to the female sex. not tall. quantity. narrow-wide. or young nor old? What is the word signifying that something is just right? There are no words similar to those that are relational. tall-short. pertaining to. not long …having little height. Furthermore. escaping the relational binary system and perhaps entering one of a different kind. Forbidden and invisible Having an invisible identity may or may not have serious consequences. What are the possible consequences of having an invisible identity which cannot be expressed? Most of the LGBTIQ population in BiH is not “out. the society labels the invisible in a certain way. pertaining to.”70 Tall means “having greater than ordinary height. All of these terms are relational and fairly relative as they do not define anything concrete. Male is defined as “of. 73| Ibid. denial is usually an unspoken space. or with an accepted norm or standard. and friends. or designating the sex that has organs to produce spermatozoa for fertilizing ova … of or characteristic of the male sex. Again.”74 A man is an adult male human being and a woman is an adult female human being. young-old.” Very few people who are out actually find total acceptance and support. 69| The American Heritage Dictionary. Small is “characterized by relatively little size or slight dimensions. Terms man and woman also tend to be described in relation to each other. family members. by repeating and reproducing norms connected to what is considered to be social norms and knowledge. both terms are relational and somewhat tautological. and usually something to be ashamed of and hidden from other people such as neighbors. not a single free-standing word for it.”72 All of these terms imply relativity and relational relationship of one object to another. Negation or denial of such norms usually implies social exclusion.

sinful. ill. abnormal. abnormal. sinful. and roles. gender identity. social norms. and insane. having grandchildren They think it will pass. unnatural. they do not see a point They are tolerant and love me They are scared for my safety 15 12 9 8 6 4 3 3 2 2 4 1 Why is it difficult to accept one’s own queer sexual/gender identity and/or sexual orientation? Most respondents stated that the lack of acceptance within the LGBTIQ community is a result of the harsh treatment and non-acceptance in the general society. disease Stereotypes and prejudice Society and social pressure. Organization Q | 43 . Some individuals accepted themselves simply because they do not see themselves as abnormal. Such views lead to labelling of identities as strange. but not any more. most accompanied with some level of higher or lower discomfort and difficulties. Reasons why others have difficulties in accepting LGBTTIQ persons Frequency Lack of information/education and understanding Seeing it as strange. Those who had no difficulties were characterized as tolerant and loving.Why is it difficult for people to accept someone’s sexual identity. Self-acceptance tends to be an ongoing process. closed mentality Does not fit the norm It is ok. Table 11. Other individuals admit having self-acceptance difficulties in the past. but not in BiH and not if one lives one’s identity/orientation Taboo and shame They are outed simply by being in relations with me and hence having difficulties Issue of children. taking a person through many continuous phases. and/ or sexual orientation when those transgress the norms? Most respondents attributed this lack of acceptance and understanding to a shortage of information and education. and as a disease because they transgress the norm of sexual behavior. unnatural.

gender expression is often associated with individuals who are transgender and gender queer. the number of people who are not out increases. Why LGBTTIQ persons have difficulties in self-accepting Number I have no difficulties as I have accepted myself and consider myself normal I have difficulties because of the society/environment and the fact that I/we are not accepted I had difficulties. This can be seen from the tables below. 44 | Organization Q . however. that is. but not any more It is very difficult for me still / I am not out and I lie/pretend I am different / a minority I had difficulties. Of course. is not visible. If the invisible were visible and included in the society. tend to face more violence and double discrimination. one aspect of identity is more visible than others and this is demonstrated in this study regardless of the sample. Sexual orientation. but is usually associated with gender expression which leads to a social misconception that all individuals who transgress gender are in fact gay. However. or bisexual. as well as LGB. discrimination. Given that in general some gender expressions transgress prescribed sex. intersexuality and queer identities were openly accepted in the society. on the other hand. people would not have to suffer emotional and psychological pain of rejection. The added component. Most respondents did not identify as transgender nor transgressed the norms and role of sex and gender (sexual and gender identities). gestures. and now less so I am unsure in my identity I do not feel that I am what I am categorized to be (categories of male/female) I have no support It would be far easier if I were not gay Other 48 33 22 6 3 2 2 2 1 1 15 The knowledge of the negative views and treatment of the LGBTIQ population in BiH serves as deterrent to self-acceptance and leads to reluctance to inform others of own identity. transgenderism. transexuality. there would be no need to treat the issues as taboo. the statistics would be considerably different.Table 12. Possibility of LGB individuals being trans is the same as for heterosexual persons. The less one’s identity or orientation fits the accepted and supported norms. Gender expression implies visual and external presentation of each person which is made apparent by clothes. behavior and body language. lesbian. the greater is a problem of accepting oneself and letting others know about it. they identified as homosexual or bisexual. is that persons who are transgender. As questions changed from sexual to gender identity and then to sexual orientation. If our sample included more individuals who identify as trans*. hair. social exclusion and inequality. bisexuality. The majority of individuals who completed the questionnaire were actually transgressing the norm of sexual orientation. if homosexuality.

2% 1 0.0 6.9% 8 3.3% 438 26.5% With dad only 2 1% Total 210 100% 210 100% 210 100% 210 100% 210 100% 210 100% 210 100% 210 100% 1680 100% 2 1% 4 1.5% 2 1% 1 .2% 7 3.9% 6 2. With whom are you out regarding your sexual identity? Sexual identity Yes Parents/ care takers Nuclear family Extended family Friends At work At school/ university Acquaintances LGBTTIQ persons Total 57 27.9% 12 5.1% 144 68.7% 11 5.7% 52 24.5% 4 0.4 10. Individuals who are not out tend to be the least out with their parents/care takers and family.2% 50 23. or that it is not.8% 38 2.1% With some No 13 6.1% 55 26.8% 56 26.7% 4 1.2% 12 5.2% 137 65.8% 144 68.2% 1122 66.8% 53 25.3% 1 .2% 63 30.2 100.4% No answer 137 65.2% 13 6.1% 2 0. but it is made known to someone. With whom are you out regarding your sexual identity? Frequency Out with everyone I am not out Out with some No answer Total 171 5 21 13 210 Percent 81.7% 2 1% 4 1.1% 136 64.Being “out” in terms of sexual identity implies that the socially constructed sexual identity is the same as the personally constructed identity.9% 12 5. and then at work and in school.4 2.2% 138 65.3% 2 1% 74 4.1% 1 0.7% 143 68.1% Organization Q | 45 . Table 13.5% 1 .0 Table 13a.8% Wrong answer I do not know With mom only 1 .6% 143 68.8% 52 24.

3 15. the LGBTIQ persons tend to be the least out at work and in school/universities. the same pattern exists regarding gender identity. According to the first table. Table 14. 83. Interestingly. Moving onto sexual orientation.7 100.4 83. statistics change drastically.2 12 210 5.0 In regard to parents/care takers.8 4. Table 15. Those individuals who are not out tend to be the least out with their parents/care takers and family. The majority. the percent of people who are out to their closer and extended family is much lower than is the case with parents.3 11.0 Being out in regard to gender identity implies that the socially assumed gender identity is the same as the personal notion.As we can see from tables below. 46. with a slight increase in the number of people who are not out.7% stated that they are not out with their parents.4% are out with their parents/caretakers while additional 7. With whom are you out regarding your sexual orientation? Frequency Out with everyone I am not out Out with some No answer Wrong answer Total 8 3 175 23 1 210 Percent 3.1% are out only to their mothers. only 8 individuals are fully out while only 3 are not out at all. but also that both are synchronized with the socially perceived sexual identity. and then at work and school.5 100. These family members tend to be carefully chosen and not everyone in the family is told directly. Besides the family members. The group of people to which the population is the most out is the LGBTTIQ population itself and then friends. With whom are you out regarding your gender identity? Frequency Out with everyone I am not out Only with some No answer Total 157 9 32 Percent 74.8 1. 46 | Organization Q .3% are out with some people. Being out further means that those individuals who transgress gender and gender identity (as socially defined and prescribed) have communicated this to someone around them in some kind of way and live their lives openly in such a way. 22.0 .

6% 3 1.5% 7 3.3% Friends 48 22.3% Extended family 39 18.5% 3 1.7% 65 3.7% LGBTTIQ persons 55 26.5% 1 .2% 147 70% 1 .1% 4 0.4% 145 69% 143 68.8% 10 4.2% 10 4.5% 145 69% 1 .8% At school/ University 38 18.5% 2 1% 2 1% 145 69% 1 .9% 15 7.2% 6 2.6% 12 5.2% 4 0.8% Table 14a.1% 8 3.Gender Identity No 16 7.7% 16 7.5% 145 69% 1 . With whom are you out regarding your gender identity? Acquaintances 39 18.5% 2 1% 2 0.9% Total 348 20.5% 2 .4% 13 6.2% 145 69% 1 0.9% Organization Q | 47 .1% 152 72.8% 2 1% 84 5% 1167 69.1% At work 42 20% 8 3.6% 9 4.6% 14 6.5% 1 .1% 3 0.1% 1 .4% 210 100% 210 100% 210 100% 210 100% 210 100% 210 100% 210 100% 210 100% 1680 100% No answer Wrong answer I do not know Only with _____ Only with mom Not working/ attending school Not part of them Total Yes With some Parents/care takers 44 21% Nuclear family 43 20.

9% 1 0.5% 35 16.4% 41 19.5% 48 | Organization Q With some No Other Total With sister With brother Only with mom 15 7.5% 38 2 18% 1% 64 30.2% 336 20% .8% 79 37.3% 1.1% 113 53.4% 22 1.Yes 1 .4% 42 1 20% .8% 0.7% 545 32.4% 72 34.4% 28 13.5% 55 3 26.6% 24 11.3% 4 1.5% 12 5.2% 1.2% 53 25.3% 62 29.5% 72 3 34.8% 21 10% 87 41.1% 29 13.4% 63 1 30% .6% 31 14.8% 107 51% 330 19.1% Sexual orientation Wrong No answer answer 48 1 22.9% 98 46.4% 3 1.6% 36 17.8% 4 1.3% 3 0.9% 18% 8.9% 70 33.4% 3 1.1% 5 2.5% 74 35.4% 10 4.2% 15 0. With whom are you out regarding your sexual orientation? Total 47 22.7% 210 100% 210 100% 210 100% 210 100% 210 100% 210 100% 210 100% 210 100% 1680 100% Parents/care Takers Nuclear family Extended family Friends At work At school/ University Acquaintances LGBTTIQ Persons Table 15a.9% .7% 417 11 24.3% 25 11.7% 80 38.

4 7. most individuals stated that the greatest difficulty in accepting themselves is due to sexual orientation.0 Table 17. gender identity. or sexual orientation.9 3.4 2. It is interesting to note.8 1. Table 16. Difficulties in accepting oneself due to sexual identity Frequency Very much A lot I do not know A little None No answer Wrong answer Total 3 5 4 12 178 7 1 210 Percent 1. Difficulties in accepting oneself due to gender identity Frequency Very much A lot I do not know A little None No answer Wrong answer Total 4 8 5 15 166 10 2 210 Percent 1.LGBTIQ individuals usually exhibit higher than average level of having difficulties accepting oneself in terms of sexual identity.5 100.0 100. that although this sample included a much lower number of people identifying as trans. However. This percentage was lower (60%) in relation to sexual orientation.0 4. due to the nature of our sample.0 Organization Q | 49 .3 .4 1.8% stated that they have no difficulties due to sexual identity.9 5.1 79.8 2. This process usually starts with low acceptance and then progresses to higher acceptance. while 79% stated that they have no difficulties accepting themselves due to gender identity.7 84. 84.8 3.

8 21.8% 21.4% 60% 19 72 470 3% 11.2% 26 4.5 100. while accepting one’s identity as indicated in the previous table.6% stated having no difficulties in regard to sexual identity.8% 7 3.2 4.4% Difficulties in accepting one self I do not A little None know 4 12 178 1.6% Total 210 100% 210 100% 210 100% 630 100% A lot 5 2.1% 79% 10 45 126 4.4% 7.3% in regard to gender identity.5% 4 0.9% 5. This implies that there is no direct communication about these issues or that some other kind of uncertainty exists. almost 18% stated that they faced some to a lot of difficulties. Difficulties in accepting oneself Very much 3 1.0 In total.Table 18. Also. while more people report not having knowledge of how difficult it is for others. while 74.3% 10 4. 50 | Organization Q .7% 84.4% 4 1. Table 19.3% 24 3.9% 8 3.8 6.1% Sexual identity Gender identity Sexual orientation Total Considering the difficulty others have in accepting LGBTIQ individuals on the basis of sexual identity.8% 15 2.8% 5 15 166 2.4% 74. and 11.8% 13 6.4% 8 3. Difficulties in accepting oneself due to sexual orientation Frequency Very much A lot I do not know A little None No answer Wrong answer Total 8 13 10 45 126 7 1 210 Percent 3.4 60.6% No answer 7 3.0 3. it must be noted that the numbers tend to be lower overall. gender identity. and/or sexual orientation. gender identity or sexual orientation.5% 2 1% 1 . 4. people reported not being out (almost 3% in regard to sexual identity.3 .8% Wrong answer 1 .4% in regard to sexual orientation).

7 . Difficulties others have in accepting you due to your sexual identity Frequency Very much Much I do not know A little None I am not out No answer Wrong answer Total 3 3 18 3 164 6 12 1 210 Percent 1.4 11.0 Organization Q | 51 .9 4.3 7.1 18.5 100. Difficulties others have in accepting you due to your gender identity Frequency Very much Much I do not know A little None I am not out No answer Wrong answer Total 2 7 15 10 151 9 15 1 210 Percent 1.4 78.Table 20.4 1.4 1.8 71.1 18.6 32.1 4.9 5.0 Table 22.0 1.1 .1 2.4 8.3 8.0 Table 21.5 100.3 7.9 100.0 1.0 3. Difficulties others have in accepting you due to your sexual orientation Frequency Very much Much I do not know A little None I am not out No answer Wrong answer Other Total 7 17 38 39 68 24 2 2 4 210 Percent 3.6 1.

9% 3 1.7% 10 151 9 15 4.5% 1 .8% 6.1% 27 4.9% 4. LGBTIQ population tends to experience higher levels of societal non-acceptance than it reflects internally.3% 60. Difficulties other have in accepting Other Much Sexual identity Gender identity Sexual orientation 52 | Organization Q Total Very much 3 1.2% 6% Wrong answer 1 . However.6%).8% percent of people have no difficulties in accepting LGBTIQ individuals with whom they have contact or a developed relationship.6% 210 100% 210 100% 210 100% 630 100% Total .6% 15 7.4% 2 1% 7 3.4% 7 3. a percentage which is relatively high. Table 23.5% 2 1% 4 .1% 2.1% 39 68 24 11 18.3% 12 1.Overall.3% 17 8.2% 52 383 39 38 8.3% Difficulties others have in accepting you I am No A little None not out answer 3 164 6 12 1.1% 38 18.9% 5.8% 71. it appears that only 60.3% 7.6% 32. 25% of the population continues to have difficulties in accepting who they are.4% 78.6% 4 1. Thus. while this percentage is higher for the LGBTIQ population itself (74.1% 71 11.3% I do not know 18 8.9% 4 .4% 11.4% 5.

the percentage grew as the issue changed from sexual identity and gender identity to sexual orientation. Out of the total number of responses.8 1.9 1.1 .4 4.0 Pertaining to sexual identity.4 . being out to family members. Difficulties others would have if you would be publicly out Frequency No answer Very much so Much A little None I do not know I do not want to know Wrong answer Total 173 10 4 3 1 17 1 1 210 Percent 82. Organization Q | 53 . almost 60% respondents indicated that there would be no difficulties of any kind. Again.As most individuals are not out in their surroundings.5 100.5 . there was certain curiosity in determining whether LGBTIQ persons have a perception that they would not be accepted in case they were publicly “out.” Also. These conditions only strengthen the passivity and stigma.5 8. it appears that the surveyed individuals believe that their family members would have the most difficulties. especially parents. Table 24. and discourage LGBTIQ persons from being who they are and fighting for their own rights. is usually followed by conditions that families place on their child regarding being out to other people and dressing and behaving a certain way.

5% 12 5. it became apparent that more people.4% 126 60% 57 27.4% 123 58.8% 3 1.7% 3 1.5% 69 5.4% 130 61.5% 210 100% Colleagues 3 1.4% 210 100% Other Total 36 2. 54 | Organization Q .5 210 100% Acquaintances 2 1% 2 1% 19 9% 5 2.4% 1 0.8% 19 1.6% 56 26.7% 6 2.4% Friends 2 1% 1 0.4% 1 0.3% 7 3.1% 4 1.7% 5 2.9% 338 26.7% 3 1.7% 3 1.9% 126 60% 56 26.3% 1 .2% 1263 100% 3 100% 3 100% As the question changed to gender identity.5% 14 6.7% 3 1.5% 126 60% 57 27.9% 56 26.4% 1 0.3% 3 1.5% 23 1. Only about 49% of total number of responses represents a population which would have no difficulties of any kind.2% 4 1.8% 7 3.9% 19 1. would have difficulties if their family member or a friend/colleague would be out in terms of their gender identity. Difficulties others would have if you would be publicly out in regard to your sexual identity Parents Very much so Much I do not know A little None No answer Wrong answer Depends Total 210 100% 210 100% 210 100% 10 4.8% 757 59.Table 25. mostly family members.4% 123 58.1% 3 1.9% 10 4.8% 4 1.4% Nuclear family 8 3.9% Extended family 11 5.6% 56 26.9% 7 3.5% 2 0.

5% 57 27.2% 96 45.1% 9 4.2% 56 26.9% 1 0.7% 119 9.7% 210 100% 210 100% 210 100% 3 100% Finally.5% 210 100% 2 1% 5 2.3% 2 66. their parents would have no difficulties or problems with that reality.7% 57 27.5% 9 4.7% 4 1.6%.4% Friends 3 1.1% 7 3.3% 2 . Only 4.8% 56 26.9% 104 49. About 63% stated that their parents would have considerable or serious difficulties. Difficulties others would have if you would be publicly out in regard to your gender identity Parents Very much so Much I do not know A little None No answer Wrong answer Depends I do not care Total 22 10.5% 6 2.2% 101 48.4% 2 1% 22 10.1% 34 2.7% 4 1.4% 54 4.4% 9 4.2% 11 5.4% 2 1% 210 100% Other Total 65 5.8% 29 2.Table 26.4% 26 12.9% Extended family 15 7.9% 1 0.3% 8 3.3% Nuclear family 19 9% 9 4.9% 3 1.1% 56 26.4% 33 15.3% 113 53.8% 11 5.2% 2 .2% 1263 100% 1 33. the number of individuals who would have no difficulties dropped drastically to 11. the numbers drastically changed as questions addresses sexual orientation.3% 97 46.9% 11 5.3% 620 49. Organization Q | 55 .8% stated that if they were publicly out about their sexual orientation.7% 5 2. Overall.7% 4 1.3% 107 51% 56 26.1% 3 1.1% 338 26.7% 6 2.3% 19 9% 9 4.5% 210 100% ColAcquainleagues tances 4 1.

8% 61 29% 9 4. *** 56 | Organization Q . and true needs of the population/group have to be taken into account and be addressed. and identities.6% 49 23. needs.2% 92 43.5% 23 11% 14 6. explain. and identities tend to occupy very little space in comparison with society’s definitions and meanings of identities within the matrix of social identities made visible and socially accepted.75 75| Interviewers’ notes. Transphobia and genderphobia is very present within the LGBTIQ community itself.9% 2 1% 4 1.9% 3 1.This also means that the target population/group has a right to define.4% 146 11.8% 22 10.2% 13 6.4% 210 100% Colleagues 38 18. and further stigmatization and invisibility. as well. Currently.4% 2 1% 2 1% 210 100% Friends 27 12.8% 18 8.3% 40 19% 58 27.1% 15 7.9% 210 100% Other 1 33.2% 13 1% 6 0. Personal definitions.3% 3 100% The human rights-based approach has two important dimensions: individual characteristics of the population/group in question have to be recognized and taken into consideration.9% 1 0. render their identities and themselves invisible.5% 210 100% Nuclear family 85 40. situation. such rejection can be witnessed by social discrimination and exclusion which in turn is internalized to the point that individuals exhibit high levels of self-rejection.2% 4 1.3% 15 7. and “femininity.3% 1 33.7% 3 1.3% 2 1% 14 6.5% 146 11.6% 88 7% 28 2. LGBTIQ individuals.3% 28 13.3% 18 8.4% 2 1% 210 100% Extended family 86 41% 31 14.6% 32 15.6% 332 26.7% 6 2.6% 6 2.2% 28 13.3% 38 18. identifications.Table 27. it is precisely this perspective that is lacking from the discourse on sex and gender politics. and describe its own position.5% 42 20% 30 14.7% 72 34.6% 14 6.3% 133 10.4% 210 100% Acquaintances 34 16.7% 14 6.3% Total 371 29.6% 13 6. Once an identity is not socially acceptable and visible.7% 5 2.” “masculinity.5% 1263 100% 1 33.1% 4 1.1% 12 5.” referring to trans individuals as “those who make themselves and others visible” and portray issues in the “wrong” way.9% 3 1. Difficulties others would have if you would be publicly out in regard to your sexual orientation Parents Very much so Much I do not know A little None No answer Wrong answer Depends I do not care Total 100 47. people are quick to judge others in regard to their gender expression.1% 10 4.9% 16 7.

following issues must be made visible and properly addressed: • • • • • medical. Discrimination can be applied by authorities and institutions. norms.” “woman.” “male. name. Keeping this in mind. following rights have to be adequately addressed by the State and institutions. Sex and gender remain silenced topics as long as these concepts belong to others (the society) and remain under their control. they offer a rich and meaningful insight into the core of our identities. • a right to their own sex and gender. Discrimination and Inequality Discrimination and inequality imply a treatment of individuals/groups which are either more or less preferred in comparison to other groups. sex and gender cannot be controlled by society nor solely defined by it. do not have a wholesome sense of belonging. and identities as suited. or simply by other individuals and groups. legal. the highest percentage of positive and supportive treatment was attributed to friends (40. promotion. Due to this. LGBTIQ individuals.). media. and at the same time promoted and protected: • a right (and a choice) to define the most basic core of ones own identity. and other professions. contributing. norms. and participating as active citizens. including “man. As a result. • respect. directly excludes its LGBTIQ component. • right to multiple identities as well as a right to a non-identity.Social network of identities through the system of education. and fulfillment of human rights in regard to identity/ies. • obligation to respect a right to identity and non-identity of each person. and • obligation not to identify individuals in their name and through traditional measurements (visual. LGBTIQ persons are treated in a discriminatory way due to the fact that they are viewed as abnormal. Although. According to the LGBTIQ survey. and roles. perverted. and active citizenship. III. and social construct of sex and gender. society has no right over persons’ identities and bodily integrity.” “female” definitions. although part of the general society. In addition. Instead. Such identities are not a segment of social and cultural capital. they must belong to each individual in their numerous potentials and ways. sick.4% were supported by Organization Q | 57 . and evil for transgressing social laws.4% were accepted by friends. including other identities of their sexuality and social life. etc. sex and gender remain the least discussed and addressed topics of the core of each individual. responsibility of respecting human rights. and 35. and by default being able to create other definitions. today’s societies are not open and accepting of LGBTIQ persons. health.

. blackmailing.. however.7% respectively. Bodily injury and compromise of person’s bodily integrity does constitute a criminal offense. respondents identified various forms of acceptance and non-acceptance.. Some indicated that they are physically abused. Brčko District explicitly mentions sexual orientation as the grounds for non-discrimination. family violence is regulated by the Criminal laws. it appears that LGBTIQ individuals face multiple levels of rejection and maltreatment from various groups. right to security. No major conclusion could be made analyzing rejection. and right to health. Laws on Work in BIH address a right to non-discrimination. In addition. abuse.7% and 3. or to reprimand behavior which seems to violate the right to equality and non-discrimination via specific policies and mechanisms. threatened. except that psychological abuse seems to be quite evident within the nuclear family. and psychologically abused.friends). while others revealed that they have been blackmailed. but nothing which could be officially categorized due to low response of surveyed individuals on this particular question. threatening. As visible from the table below. 58 | Organization Q . right to freedom. Although these laws do not stipulate inter-collegial relations. it appears important for an employer to take direct actions in promoting equality and non-discrimination. stipulating that the compromising bodily integrity or health of a family member is a criminal offense. Nuclear family (parents and siblings) polled at 5. Furthermore. In addition. primarily at home and work. it is also addressed by the Law on Family Violence FBiH. Rights that seem to be affected by this are right to equality and nondiscrimination.

3% 4 1.4% 282 100.0% 33 1.2% 213 100.9% 2 .5% 1 .5% 3 1.4% 1344 66% 2036 100.0% 173 81.4% 1 .5% 1 .0% Total 114 40.6% In school 15 7.7% 2 .5% 2 .9% 6 2.6% 3 1.0% 189 90.7% 13 .7% 4 1.8% 6 2.5% 5 2.7% 5 1.0% 1 .8% 212 100.5% 171 80.2% 4 .1% 1 .5% 4 1.1% 2 .0% 5 2.5% 17 8.5% 13 6.9% 12 5.8% 1 .7% 268 100.9% Neighbors Friends 1 .6% 1 .5% 1 .5% 184 86.0% 55 2.5% 166 77.0% 95 35.4% 16 7.5% Partner 5 1.4% 209 100.6% 3 1.8% 10 .3% 3 1.5% 2 .0% .4% 6 2.2% 9 .Treatment by others Reject me Blackmail me Threaten me Psychologically Physically abuse me abuse me Are support.2% 66 3.0% 1 .0% 182 85.9% 2 .4% 2 .5% Society/environment Nobody/No such persons/I do not know 1 .9% 1 .9% 2 .8% 6 2.0% 214 100.8% 35 12.0% 5 .9% 2 .5% Wrong answer 2 .9% 31 11.1% 224 11.9% 213 100.6% 41 2.9% 2 .4% 17 .8% 1 .5% 15 7. the following individuals treat you in the following way Organization Q | 59 175 82.6% 69 3.4% 4 1.0% 1 .8% 1 .5% Everyone who knows Family / part of family No answer Table 28.4% 30 11.9% 1 .5% 212 100.5% 3 1.5% 2 .5% 36 12.3% 213 100.8% 4 1.5% 1 .9% 1 .4% 9 3.4% 10 3.4% 12 4.5% 1 .5% Passer by 2 .Do not talk with me Accept me Ignore me ive of me anymore Ukupno Nuclear family 8 3.4% 2 .7% 15 5.7% 2 .4% 24 8.5% 3 1.9% Former friends LGBTIQ persons 28 9.0% 33 1.5% 3 1.7% 1 .9% 1 .2% 69 25.5% Extended family Some colleagues Acquaintances 16 5.9% 15 7.9% 1 .9% 2 .5% 1 .5% 3 .1% 1 .4% 109 5. Due to your sexual identity. gender identity and/or sexual orientation.4% 1 .9% 1 .4% 1 .7% 14 6.5% 1 .0% 2 .4% 1 .

8% 5. Only about 58% stated that lack of acceptance does not have any barring on their psychological health.6% in regard to gender identity.1% 15 7.9% 4.1% 9 4.5% Lack of acceptance 60 | Organization Q Very Much much so Sexual 4 10 identity 1.6% 34 60 Total 5. 8.2% 1 .To what extant does other people’s or our own lack of acceptance play a role in our own psychological well being? On average.6% 3 1. How much does your own/other people’s lack of acceptance in relation to your sexual identity. Table 29. while this number decreased to 67.4% 4 . and a low 34.5% 67 10.4% 9.8% in relation to sexual orientation.7% 12 5.5% 3 1.1% 15 7.6% 51 8.2% Sexual 20 39 orientation 9.1% of respondent did not know.5% 18. effect your psychological health 210 100% 210 100% 210 100% 630 100% 12 5.6% 73 34.4% 3 . which can be attributed to a very high level of self-acceptance minimizing the significance of social rejection. Out of this cumulative figure.1% 18 8.8% 366 58. and possible set backs.6% 17 8. Approximately 25% stated that their psychological health is impacted from low to high levels.7% 43 20.5% I do not know 16 7. gender identity and/or sexual orientation.3% 39 6.9% stated that lack of acceptance based on their sexual identity has no effect on their psychological health. 71.6% 151 71.8% Gender 10 11 identity 4.1% A little None No answer Wrong answer 2 1% 2 1% 2 1% 6 1% Other I am not out Total .9% 142 67.

gender identity. gender expression and/or sexual orientation Non-Acceptance Sometimes Sexual 2 5 20 identity 1% 2. in general). as well as regarding the very low level of quality of services.7% 22.7% 1 11 . Appearance or gender expression appeared to pose the greatest challenge in public (on the street).3% in response to gender expression.4% stated that they often or very often encounter non-acceptance (exclusion) due to their sexual identity. It is important to remember that the majority of respondents are not fully out and a vast number of them does not transgress the norms of sex and gender identities. gender expression ranks high on the list pertaining to non-acceptance.1% 39 18. and 28% due to their sexual orientation.It was examined in some detail what non-acceptance might include.5% 1 .5% Gender 7 16 32 identity 3.7% 88 41.8% 10. Despite this fact.2% Gender 10 22 41 expression 4. and assistance.4% 45 76 140 Total 5.9%). however. if health services are homo/bi/transphobic and are not in line with scientific standards of their profession.5% 4.4% 399 47.8% 2. the health is violated in terms of equality and non-discrimination. while the number is considerably lower regarding gender identity (55.5% 1% 5.4% 15. the percentage increased as the topic changed from sexual identity to sexual orientation. health sector is ill equipped to provide necessary assistance to LGBTIQ persons.5% Sexual 26 33 47 orientation 12. In terms of how often the respondents are exposed to it.5% 5.7%) and gender expression (41.5% 19. 15. However. 70% stated that they have never encountered any form of non-acceptance due to their sexual identity. in addition to the known Organization Q | 61 .4% never encountered any form of non-acceptance due to their sexual orientation.8% Wrong answer 1 .2% 1 2 12 . such services may further exacerbate the situation and negatively affect mental health of LGBTIQ persons. Even within the LGBTIQ community.4% 9% 16.6% Total 210 100% 210 100% 210 100% 210 100% 840 100% As indicated earlier in the text. How often do you encounter non-acceptance due to your sexual identity. school. Most respondents felt that they were not accepted on the street (in public. Almost 11% similarly stated in regard to gender identity. 3. and then in school.4% 9. Table 30. institutions. Based on this analysis.5% 1 . people tend to interconnect gender expression with sexual orientation.5% 2 1% 5 0. Right to health seems to be extremely important due to visible influence that social exclusion and wider non-acceptance have on individuals’ mental health. again.5% I am not No out answer 1 2 11 .5% 36 17. and work.2% 2 8 6 1% 3.5% 1% 5.9% 4 13 40 . when in reality self expression and desire are not one and the same. Actually.6% 118 14% 147 70% 117 55.5% 1. Only 22.7% Very often Often Rarely Never Other 21 10% 22 10.6% 15.3% 7.9% 47 22. at home.

Total 119 11.8% 3 .8% 57 15.5% My attitude 75 20.0% 7 .8% 1 .0% 435 41.1% Table 31.8% 34 15.9% 1 .2% 208 100.0% 222 100.8% 2 .4% 2 .0% When donating blood (gay persons are not accepted) behavior.0% 14 6% 30 12. However.8% 1 .4% 1 .3% 63 16.4% Due to a feeling of guilt.3% 20 8.7% 26 11.2% 161 15.8% 2 .0% 1 .0% 3 1.0% At work Friends and society My appearance My behavior 15 7.3% 107 48.9% 16 7.0% 234 100.2% 39 18.1% .1% 1 100.0% 2 100.2% 21 9.7% 27 12.9% 157 67.4% 2 0.2% 1 .0% 1041 100. attitude seemed to play the biggest role in non-acceptance at home and in the working environment.2% 72 19.62 | Organization Q In public No EveryAt home In school where On street Total Generally No in society answer Wrong answer 1 . long time instilled in me 1 50.6% 166 16% 10 1.7% 8 .5% 131 12.7% 18 8.5% 2 0.0% 1 100. identity. Why and where do you feel not accepted? My identity/orientation is known 7 3.3% 3 1.4% 1 .4% 3 . and sexual orientation.4% 2 0.5% 1 .9% 113 54.1% 98 26.5% 374 100.5% 1 50.

5 5. Organization Q | 63 .3 0. mainly occurring in public spaces such as schools.3 100.7 13.0 Respondents experienced sexism primarily in schools/universities. Table 32. 26. Genderphobia was ranked to be the second most frequent type of discrimination confronted by the respondents.7% experienced some form of maltreatment (as specifically stated by respondents).6 0. What kind of discrimination LGBTTIQ persons faced due to own sex/gender Frequency Sexism Genderphobia Maltreatment No answer Nothing Physical attack Transphobia Loss of job Wrong answer Other Sexual harassment Verbal provocations / name calling on streets Total 82 67 51 44 30 21 19 6 2 1 1 1 325 Percent 25.8 0.4% is attributed to genderphobia and transphobia (as generally stated by respondents).5 9.6 15.5% have been victims of physical attack. institutions which represent public spaces (including place of employment).2 20.3 0.8 1.Discrimination or exclusion that respondents face due to their sex and/or gender primarily includes the basic form of sexism.2 6. and 15. while 6. this type of prejudice was also present in their homes and among family members.

4 100.4 100.9 0.5 3.5 3.3 6. when starting employment On street Where I live In some relations.9 0.2 4.4 0.4 0.1 9.1 1.6 3.6 9.4 0.2 0.7 8.3 0.8 6.5 3.4 0.4 0.4 0.8 1.0 3. What kind of sexism faced due to own sex/gender Frequency No answer In school/university At work / during employment Everywhere On the street In the family In the society Media In the company of my friends Wrong answer Within the community Toward my body In relationships Other Coming from acquaintances Total 138 22 20 15 8 7 4 3 2 2 1 1 1 1 1 226 Percent 61.0 Table 34. with company Among gay population In relationships In cafes On TV Never directly Wrong answer Total 64 | Organization Q 146 21 14 9 8 8 7 5 2 2 1 1 1 1 226 Percent 64.9 0.0 .4 0.Table 33.9 0. What kind of genderphobia faced due to own sex/gender Frequency No answer In school / at the university In family / at home Everywhere At work.1 2.

work. What kind of transphobia faced due to own sex/gender Frequency No answer On street Generally in the society.9 1. Physical attack faced due to sex/gender Frequency Light physical attack Grievous physical attack Wrong answer Grievous and light Physical attack No answer Attempt of sexual violence Total 12 3 1 1 1 191 1 210 Percent 5. everywhere Wrong answer In school At work At home In cafes Total 189 6 5 5 4 3 2 1 215 Percent 87.5 . approximately 21% experienced maltreatment due to their sex and/or gender.3 2.5 .Transphobia was also reported in school. Table 35.4 0.5 100. However.9 0.5 91.7 1.0 Approximately 9% reported some kind of physical attack due to their sex and/or gender.8 2.0 .9 2.4 . Table 36. Additionally.2%).0 Organization Q | 65 .3 1. primarily consisting of psychological maltreatment (18.5 100. and home. it appeared that most people encountered discrimination on the street and in public.

genderphobia.2 100.5 0. but in greater numbers. while 13 individuals were physically attacked because of who they are.0 0.Table 37.1 0.0 A similar pattern was evident regarding sexual orientation. Table 38.3 8.9 12.5 78.0 24.8 3.4 4. Maltreatment faced due to sex/gender Frequency Psychological maltreatment Physical maltreatment Wrong answer Maltreatment No answer Coming from parents Total 39 39 1 1 167 1 214 Percent 18. gender identity and/ or gender expression Frequency Verbal comments / blame / provocations Indirect discrimination (gender/transphobia) Maltreatment Loss of friends Physical attack Blackmailing Forbidden contact with children/family/society Loss of job Losing contact with family Sexism in student home No answer None Total 117 94 47 18 13 10 4 4 4 1 35 31 378 Percent 31.2 18.1 1. and how they identify or present themselves. 66 | Organization Q .5 100.3 9.0 Most people experienced verbal comments and provocations because of their sexual identity. gender identity. Almost 25% experienced indirect discrimination. more individuals were forbidden contact with family members.2 0.4 2. and the society in general due to their sexual orientation. In addition. children. What kind of discrimination faced due to sexual identity.6 1.1 1. and/or gender expression (31%). and transphobia.

1 4. gender identity.8% 60 5.2% 14 6.4% 5 2.1% 8 3.9% 26 2.4% 6 2.4 0.9 7. but did not want to report it in the questionnaire.0 5. Table 40. and sexual orientation.9% 14 6.0 Some interviewers reported in their notes that some respondents have been physically attacked due to their sex/gender and/or identity.0 10.6 9.1% No answer 11 5.2% 904 86.4% 5 2. According to analyzed data. sexual identity.4% 5 2.7% No 179 85. What kind of discrimination faced due to sexual orientation Frequency Verbal comments/blame/provocations Indirect discrimination (homophobic/biphobic behavior) Maltreatment Verbal threats Loss of friends None/no such experience/I am not out Physical attack Blackmailing Forbidden contact with children/family/society Loss of job Losing contact with family Sexual violence Wrong answer No answer Total 122 109 50 47 33 24 20 19 11 9 3 2 1 23 473 Percent 25.3 1.6 0.Table 39.7% 179 85.2 4. gender expression. 85% has not experienced physical attack due to their sex/gender and/or identity/orientation. on average 12 attacks were recorded per category of sex/gender.7% 16 7.2% 183 87. On average.7% 17 8. but the number of responses varied from question to question.2 4.1% 183 87. it is possible that physical violence has been under-reported.1% 60 5.6% 11 5.9 0.8% 6 2.9 100.2% 8 3. Physical violence was addressed several times throughout the questionnaire.1% 180 85.0 2. In general. Physical attacks faced by LGBTTIQ persons Yes 15 7.7% Wrong answer 5 2.5% Total 210 100% 210 100% 210 100% 210 100% 210 100% 1050 100% Sex/gender Sexual identity Gender identity Gender expression Sexual orientation Total Organization Q | 67 .8 23.

are indeed taking place.9% Total 210 100% 210 100% 210 100% 210 100% 210 100% 1050 100% People who were physically attacked tend to be individuals who are fully out or out to some people. The threat of violence is also one of the reasons why people are not out.1% 661 63% No answer 20 9.5% 15 7. The individuals are keenly aware that by being out they are exposing themselves to physical violence and violation of their physical. more individuals.4% 142 67. However.4% 2 1% 2 1% 13 1.4% 3 1. and psychological integrity and wellbeing.6% 101 48. emotional. and/or sexual orientation. gender expression. sexual identity. various police departments (MUPs) in BiH informed Organization Q that no such cases have been registered.4% 3 1.2% based on sexual orientation.5% 1 0. Respondents’ knowledge of physical attacks on other persons due to: Sex/gender Sexual identity Gender identity Gender expression Sexual orientation Total Yes 38 18. including those who are not out.2% 287 27.3% No 147 70% 150 71. more respondents knew of at least one person who has been physically attacked due to his/her/hir/zie/sie sex/gender. The percent of “yes” responses increased from 18. unless it is because of their gender expression and/or other characteristics.6% Wrong answer 3 1. including physical violence.1% 38 18.3% 97 46.6% 20 9.6% 121 57.1% 44 21% 70 33. However. and finally 46.4% 9 .3% 80 7. The evidence suggests that various forms of maltreatment.3% regarding gender expression.5% 2 1% 3 1. People who are not out have not experienced such kind of violence. Table 41. to 21% in regard to gender identity.2% Unsure 2 1% 1 0. gender identity. 33. but have shared this information with friends. 68 | Organization Q . Violation of bodily integrity is a criminal offense.1% regarding sex/gender and sexual identity.5% 18 8. In addition. most respondents do not have a habit of reporting violence which either happened to them or someone else.1% 7 3. Discrimination attributed to sex/gender and sexual orientation is strictly forbidden by the Law on Gender Equality BiH. Almost half as many people did not report a case of discrimination or violence. know of people who have been physically attacked due to their identity/orientation.As expected.

Furthermore. and the Police stations. approximately 16% of respondents stated that they are not out in these institutions and hence could not have personally faced discrimination and violation of their human rights.8 2. respondents reported cases of discrimination in all institutions except the Center for Human Rights.8 69. as well as the status of the forbidden and invisible.0 The failure to report cases of discrimination was attributed to the lack of confidence in the authorities and their response in such cases.6 13.9 1. Respondent also stated that these were not serious instances of discrimination or that they did not have enough information regarding specifications. Regardless of the frequency.0 Type and place of discrimination varies from person to person.0 1. on average. religious and media institutions. it comes as no surprise that active citizenship and claiming of rights is not exercised in BiH. place of employment (or the Bureau for Employment). Organization Q | 69 .6 100.2 12. Although the results are not conclusive because of a high no response rate.Table 42.1 100. Reported case of discrimination or violence to some institution? Frequency Yes I did not report it to the institutions but I told my friends No Wrong answer Other No answer Total 16 29 146 2 2 15 210 Percent 7. Combining this information with the lack of knowledge of laws and human rights.9 4.0 7. Table 43.4 4.0 Percent 36. Reasons why cases were not reported Frequency I was never in such situation I do not think that authorities would do anything about it These were not serious cases of discrimination Wrong answer I did not have enough information about those cases Other No answer Total 76 26 10 6 4 9 79 210.3 37.5 1. the rank list of institutions where LGBTIQ individuals personally faced discrimination and violation of their human rights primarily included schools (or some other educational institution).

6% Courtroom / Judicial 5 institution 2.Table 44.9% 36 17.8% 7 3.6% Hospital / Health institution Center for Social Assistance School or some other educational Institution No 89 42.6% 75 35.5% 2 1% 5 2.8% Work / Bureau for 18 employment 8.1% 79 37.2% 33 15.7% 34 16.7% 70 | Organization Q .8% 1 100% 1 100% 989 33.7% 34 16.7% 32 15.9% 87 41.6% 104 49.3% 5 2.5% 2 1% 65 31% 105 50% 58 27.9% No contact No answer 1 0.9% 7 3.1% 75 35.4% 58 27.2% Total 210 100% 210 100% 210 100% 210 100% 210 100% 210 100% 210 100% 210 100% 210 100% 210 100% 210 100% 210 100% 210 100% 210 100% 1 100% 1 100% 1 100% 1 100% 2944 100% 83 2.6% I am not out 33 15.3% 5 2.4% 4 1.3% 462 15.3% 4 1.4% International 3 organizations 1.5% 80 38.6% 78 37.9% 3 1.4% 23 Media institutions 11% Commission for Driving 1 (tests.3% 4 1.4% 1 .7% 7 3.7% 33 15.75 70 33. Personally faced discrimination and violation of human rights in the following institutions Yes 10 4.6% 82 39% 61 29% 66 31.7% 17 Police station 8.7% 90 42.8% 1215 41.2% 34 16.7% 33 15.4% 93 44.2% 34 16.9% 105 50% 111 52.8% 24 0.7% 33 15.7% 70 33.3% 79 37.5% 4 1.4% 5 2.1% 77 36.7% 32 15.9% 4 1.2% 31 14.4% 65 31% 57 27. IDs) 100% Organization Q Ministry of Defense Center for Youth Assistance Total 1 100% 171 5.1% 8 NGO 3.4% 35 Religious institution 16.3% Unsure 12 5.3% 60 28.9% 4 1.1% Center for Human Rights 2 Center for Legal Aid 1% 3 Municipality 1.9% 1 0.6% 82 39% 81 38.4% 9 4.2% 33 15.5% 2 1% 1 .45 8 3.8% 4 1.8% 33 15.4% 5 Museum/gallery/theatre 2.

verbally aggressive. ignoring. Other examples described attitudes of teachers (of Neuropsychiatry and Democracy and Human Rights) and their views that homosexuality is a disease. called on more..Below is the table with institutions categorized by the number of negative examples. maltreatment.. individuals were subjected to gender behavior which had to be in line with their prescribed sex. unnatural.) Health institution Number of examples 1 Examples provided in the questionnaire pertained to unequal treatment and then treatment which was demeaning. Examples Negative examples (inst). Also. name-calling by their peers as well as teachers. disciplinary regime). In the education sector. and based on name-calling. and abnormal. several examples described situations in which LGBTIQ individuals were treated unfavorably by their teachers given that they suspected or knew of their identity or based on gender expression (lower grades. Only one positive example was recorded and it pertained to an individual who is the director at the Koševo Hospital in Sarajevo. Such individuals faced verbal comments. Table 45. Schools Religious institutions Media Place of work Police Doctors/hospital International workers NGOs Undefined institutions (overall) Center for Social Work Judiciary institutions Post office Gallery Theatre Army Everywhere Number of examples 23 12 11 10 10 8 2 2 2 2 1 1 1 1 1 3 Positive example (inst. Organization Q | 71 . and were victims of ridicule and verbal ostracism. sexism.

presence of hate speech. One person noted that he was shunned by his colleagues only because he rejected to accept a sexual identity that is in essence a socially constructed gender identity. biphobic. One person noted that a publicly “out” young men from a town near Sarajevo was raped. However. thus limiting opportunities for the NGO for which she was working. Another person simply wrote that he can not go to the hospital in his town and seek medical assistance in relation to his sexual orientation or medical help in general because he lives in a small town. police (31%). education (45. mostly directed from their colleagues. Another individual noted that cooperation with a colleague was ruined after her sexual orientation was revealed. based on prejudice and verbal comments. The respondent completed the prayer. Considering the fact that the majority of respondents are not out and probably have not experienced direct discrimination and/or violation of their human rights. etc. employment (22. an issue of social exclusion was raised as witnessed primarily in public institutions through stereotypes.” 72 | Organization Q . and homo/bi/transphobic approach and/or services. which based on the available examples. One individual stated that she was fired after her employer found out about her sexual orientation. Besides these occurrences. Sectors which were identified by the respondents as the most discriminatory. respondents also reported experiencing demeaning and verbally abusive comments while at work.1%). In some examples. The incident was reported to the police department which failed to investigate the crime. respondents indicated that they were not allowed to practice religion in a holy place (church or mosque) in their usual manner. religion (57. Similar incidents occur in the place of work. seem to border on hate-speech. brochures. prejudice. In addition. but would have preferred to pray as a man given that he identifies as a man. a certain type of disease.7%). Another individual was thrown out of a church and called a sinner. other cited examples portrayed a negative picture.9%).3%).A majority of examples regarding religious and media institutions did not pertain to direct discrimination.” but is identified by the society as a “she. and so on. In terms of health services. health (24.1%). exclusive and homophobic. Other examples reflected doctors’ statements asserting that homosexuality is a disorder. Based on one respondent’s claim. public messages.Yet another individual was not hired because of her appearance/gender expression because she did not wear make-up and was not tall enough for a blonde. One respondent noted that he76 was forced to pray in a mosque with a veil. a single positive example was given about a doctor who negatively reacted toward parents who brought their child for a check up due to the non-heterosexual orientation. 76| This person refers to self as a “he. but instead to their promotional messages. and transphobic are: media (58.” Another person noted how his doctor often tries to convince him that he could change and how each serious illness actually stems from his sexual orientation. this reaction was expressed by a colleague who is a Psychologist by profession. an employee of a hospital stated that “they all have to be burned. exclusive. Examples pertaining to police authorities were mostly associated with the behavior and attitude of the police officers which were described as unfavorable.

4% 18 8.6% 62 29.3% 122 58.3% 118 56. Organization Q | 73 .4% 24 Judiciary 11.9% 29 Industry 13.3% Social 19 protection 9% 96 Education 45. Only one positive example was given.4% 39 Culture 18. These examples are similar to the ones previously mentioned.6% 32 15. religious institutions. hate speech in their work.2% 36 17.2% Wrong answer 1 .5% 93 44.1% 30 14.6% 15 7.2% Health No 54 25.7% 122 Media 58.9% 685 Total 27.Table 46.5% 1 .5% 1 0% Negative examples provided by the respondents were mostly associated with the media.2% 108 51.8% Depends Total 210 100% 210 100% 210 100% 210 100% 210 100% 210 100% 210 100% 210 100% 210 100% 210 100% 210 100% 210 100% 2520 100% 4 1.9% 1 .4% 18 8.6% 9 4.4% 126 60% 112 53.95 53 25.4% 212 8.5% 2 1% 2 1% 4 1. services.1% 13 6.3% 33 15.5% 20 9.7% 46 21.1% 26 12. prejudice.9% 1 .5% 18 8.5% 1 .3% 17 8.1% 24 11.4% No contact No answer 82 39% 120 57.5% 2 1% 1 .1% 69 32.5% Unsure 22 10.5% 1 .6% 120 Religion 57. and places of work.6% 39 18.6% 37 17.5% 2 1% 2 1% 2 1% 2 1% 2 1% 2 1% 19 0.1% 15 7. as well as the police and culture in general. public messages) in the following sectors Yes 51 24.9% 26 12.2% 15 7.8% Private 47 sector 22.9% 1 .9% 22 0.7% 416 16.1% 50 23. Discriminatory treatment of LGBTTIQ persons (stereotypes.8% 15 7.1% 1165 46.5% 3 1.5% 1 .1% 48 Employment 22.2% 100 47.4% 4 1. schools. brochures.1% 65 Police 31% 25 Prosecution 11.

who publicly teach that homosexuality is an illness and a deviant behavior. and retelling of homophobic jokes. Biology. and promotion of heterosexuality through textbooks. Examples Negative examples Media Schools Religious institutions Place of work Health Police Culture Judges Social institutions Prosecution Politicians Laws Gender Centers Family Positive example Health institution Number of examples 68 49 44 18 18 15 7 3 3 2 2 1 1 1 Number of examples 1 The most frequently mentioned examples pertained to schools and educational institutions. Schools which were specifically mentioned were high schools (including medical schools) and Gymnasiums in Sarajevo. a young student was mocked and called gay because he was quiet and an introvert. they also will become gay. In one school. were regarded as a part of the lecture. and Džemal Bijedić University 74 | Organization Q . and school staff. attitudes and behavior of teachers and professors (mostly in areas of Sociology. abnormal. and evil. their comments. and so on). teaching programs and methods designed to teach children to be girls and boys. Children who were ridiculed were not only those who are queer. Other students went as far as to joke that if someone sits on his chair. although portrayed as their opinions. Language. Psychology. Many of them have heard their teachers and professors make derogatory jokes about queer individuals. Gymnasium in Banja Luka. and use outdated definitions. and hetero-patriarchal (promotion of specific occupations as either male or female). teachers. Democracy and Human Rights. Some respondents mentioned learning in school that homosexuality is bad. either in general or about the actual people they know.These examples addressed textbooks which list homosexuality as a disease or a deviant behavior. discriminatory treatment of LGB persons who are out by their fellow students. but also those who appear as queer to the students/teachers. lectures.Table 47. Neuropsychiatry. Also.

Frequently mentioned example was the statement of reisu-l-ulema Mustafa ef. It seems that rights to security. The main problem with educational institutions is that they maintain certain authority and it becomes difficult to separate personal opinions and views from those which professors teach as part of their profession. but it also possesses certain authority in interpreting homosexuality and transgenderism. health. The media was listed as extremely homophobic in its presentation and writing. education. words such as “gay” are translated as “faggot. Given that social norms and values are also taught in schools. the most severe form of maltreatment potentially facing respondents based on their identity and/or orientation is in academic and work settings. Cerić who publicly stated that homosexuality is one of the evils and that homosexual will burn in hell. health representatives interpret homosexuality and transgenderism as abnormal or deviation. and subsequently by other students. and was unable to participate in religious ceremonies. Also. all foreign films are translated and subtitled. this is not the case. Discrimination and social exclusion which occurs in police departments and work offices is usually caused by employees and their personal attitudes and behavior which are discriminatory and derogatory in nature. In most cases. Examples regarding religious institutions mostly pertained to (public) statements by religious leaders or official attitude of the religious communities in BiH. American Psychiatric Association and American Psychological Association have not only adopted positive resolutions regarding homosexuality.” which includes sexual orientation (Article 2). personal homophobia is promoted through schools primarily by teachers and school staff. Also. Only one person stated that the media has improved compared to the reporting in the previous years. However. regardless of the fact that since 1974 homosexuality is not listed as a mental disorder.” which has an extremely derogatory and offensive context and meaning. The employment status is uncertain due to the possibility of termination. thus not providing a safe space for queer youth as well as others. Often. In other words. Most respondents did not mention school names they were referring to in their examples. these and other institutions do not have policies or a code of ethics which address and prohibit Mostar. freedom. and being demoted or not promoted because of the respondents’ Organization Q | 75 . not being offered a job. the health sector is not only similar in that regard. Law on Gender Equality BiH notes in Article 16 that the media are “obliged through program concepts to develop awareness about gender equality. are also lessons and values children acquire while in school. but have also published guidelines aiding psychologists and health care providers in de-stigmatizing homosexuality and properly assisting LGB individuals and their family members. In most cases. equality and non-discrimination. On the other hand. examples of social exclusion and discrimination are taking place in public institutions. regardless of how personal they might be and off the record. One respondent also stated that he is regarded as a “black sheep” and a second class citizen. general attitudes and behavior of teachers. According to the survey.The media has been seen as the primary public promoter of homophobia through the use of hate language. Additionally. and work have been violated.

torture. but 76 | Organization Q .9 0. LGBTIQ individuals do not feel safe in BiH. abuse. and public lynching.4 1. discrimination obstructed the usual progression of students.0 3. followed by the rights to non-discrimination and equality. In terms of education.3 0.6 0. and cope with severe violations of rights to freedom.7 10. followed by the lack of acceptance and ostracism by the family. including violation of bodily integrity and security. Some respondents living abroad recalled having similar feelings while living in BiH. the most serious form of maltreatment listed by the respondents was physical violence.4 1. physical violence against family and friends.0 11. friends. However.4 1. attack) Being ostracized / not accepted / disowned by family Institutional discrimination (work. the respondents particularly noted the acts of rape.3 0.3 4. work. police…) Blame / ostracism / intolerance / non-acceptance / refusal / isolation / marginalization / exclusion (social / public) Psychological (maltreatment.3 0.1 0. education. It is apparent that a queer person living in BiH will face physical and psychological violence. and/or sexual orientation Frequency Physical (maltreatment.3 4.1 12. abuse. Table 48. torture) Rape Being ostracized / not accepted by friends Murder Hiding my orientation Physical / verbal attack on my family.4 100.identity/orientation. violence. Worst form of violence expected to happen due to sexual identity. partner Forcefully outed Public lynch For my child to judge me.6 0. education. harassment. gender identity.3 1. health. Although a part of the physical violence category.3 0. to find out about me I am not afraid of anything Losing freedom Being ostracized by colleagues Diseases Loss of partner Prison Other Total 106 53 42 41 36 15 14 12 5 5 4 3 2 2 1 1 1 1 1 5 350 Percent 30. right to security. murder.3 15. 50% of the responses indicated a legitimate fear of severe physical violence. Based on the study results.0 Most respondents voiced their feelings of not being free and feeling insecure in BiH.

According to the report Youth in BiH 2003. while 13% was not interested in leaving. including those who are LGBTIQ. European Union adopted a resolution on fighting homophobia. General principle of non-discrimination and equality is a fundamental element of international human rights law. Non-discrimination and equality can be regarded as a principle pertaining to enjoyment of rights and freedoms. 2% wanted to leave in order to work. is not separately analyzed. Intersexual characteristics. gender identity.4 1. three European states have adopted laws about same-sex marriage. Recently.5 15.0 100. 6. sexual identity. it is far behind those states which openly and democratically promote human rights of all of its citizens. 47% of respondents stated that they would like to leave BiH. Out of the 47%.1% considered living outside of BiH only because of their identity and sexual orientation. Although BiH does have some legal protections. gender. and 21% wanted to leave in order to study abroad. According to our study. it is included under sexual identity. It is already known that young people in vast numbers want to leave BiH due to the lack of educational and economic opportunities in BiH.they currently do not contemplate issues such as their sexual orientation or identity.4 1. gender expression. live freely.1 20. Principle of equality and non-discrimination Grounds for discrimination analyzed in this report are: sex. as a basis for discrimination. given that they are accepted. I already live abroad because of that and/or other reasons I do not know I do not live in BiH No answer Wrong answer Total 99 43 32 14 12 5 3 2 210 Percent 47. Table 49. and sexual orientation.7 2. as well as an independent human right.0 1. Only 15. Organization Q | 77 .7 5. Consider living outside of BiH due to identity or sexual orientation Frequency Yes Maybe No Yes. Since 2001. 47. however. out of the total number of respondents.7% stated that they already live abroad because of this and/or other reasons.2 6. and are not facing any problems because of their identity and/or orientation.2% stated that they did not consider leaving BiH. 24% wanted to leave permanently. many other states have adopted laws about same-sex registered partnerships (14).

12 to the Convention for the Protection of Human Rights and Fundamental Freedoms. Council of Europe.”77 Bound by international and national legal framework. especially the rights of vulnerable groups. Explanatory Report on Protocol No.htm 78| Judgment of 21 December. Article 1. known as the Protocol No. Article 4. which reads as follows: 1. Portugal. etc. In early 2003. Principle of equality requires that “equal situations are treated equally and unequal situations differently. 78 | Organization Q .78 directly addressing sexual orientation as a basis for non-discrimination. religion. BiH is required to protect human rights of all its residents. property. http://conventions. Protocol 12. birth or other status. Criminal Code of BiH (Article 145). Reaffirming the principle of non-discrimination does not mean that a State cannot take measures to promote full and effective equality. 2. association with a national minority. paragraph 1). Sexual and gender identity. Objective and reasonable justification is supported by the fact that some groups and persons are disadvantaged or truly treated unequally. 12. Failure to do so will amount to discrimination unless an objective and reasonable justification exists. Article 1 of the Protocol contains a general prohibition of discrimination. Article 14 of the EC was applied in the case of Salgueiro de Silva Mouta v. paragraph 4).int/Treaty/en/Reports/Html/177. Criminal Code of RS (Article 162). 79| Recital 3 of the Preamble. it is not known to what extent sexual 77| Article 15. Article 4. given that gender and sexual orientation have not been adequately made visible or defined.coe. Although sexual orientation is not specifically mentioned in the EC or Protocol 12. race.80 Sexual orientation was not defined by this or any other law. Criminal Code of FBiH (Article 177).Principles of equality and non-discrimination are interconnected. 2005. BiH became a party to the new Protocol to the EC. national or social origin.The meaning of the word “sex” in this Law actually signifies gender. language. On April 1st. Criminal Code of Brčko District (Article 174). This Protocol extends the non-discrimination clause of Article 14 of the EC. requiring the state to enforce the legal requirements. “providing that there is an objective and reasonable justification for those measures. thus calling for measures to promote equality. it is considered to be grounds for non-discrimination. Homosexuality in BiH was fully decriminalized in 1998 through the reform and adoption of the new Criminal Laws. and Law on Work of the Brčko District (Article 4) have included sexual orientation as the grounds for non-discrimination. Convention on the Elimination of all Forms of Discrimination against Women (CEDAW. Since 2003. political or other opinion. 80| Article 2. and gender expression may also constitute additional ground for non-discrimination.”79 Such principle can also be found in the International Convention on the Elimination of all forms of Racial Discrimination (CERD. 1999. Law on Gender Equality was adopted on the level of BiH. stipulating that the discrimination based on gender and sexual orientation is prohibited and punishable. colour. No one shall be discriminated against by any public authority on any ground such as those mentioned in paragraph 1. The enjoyment of any right set forth by law shall be secured without discrimination on any ground such as sex. However.

“People who express their gender in different ways from what are believed to be appropriate gender norms for men and women are suffering from overt discrimination and hate crimes all over the world. Law on Gender Equality BiH also stipulates that all other laws must be harmonized within six months following its adoption. expression.The concept of gender equality should be understood to encompass gender identity and gender expression.ilga. participation. health. Furthermore.” as it is the case in international law. The new Family Law of FBiH (2005) does not include sexual orientation nor does it address the right to a family Sarajevo. speech given at the 60th session of the United Nations Commission on Human Rights. this requirement only applied to several laws and only related to the nondiscrimination clause. freedom. workplace and other institutions such as the police authorities. gender identity. Bosnia and Herzegovina does not promote equality based on sexual orientation. 81| More on rights and freedoms of LGBTIQ persons in BiH in Damir Banović and Svetlana Đurković. Rights and Freedoms of Sexual and Gender Minorities in Bosnia and Herzegovina: Analysis of Relevant Legal Acts. Protection based on gender and sexual orientation is incorporated in the law without a truly visible mechanism of its promotion or implementation. equality must be promoted to ensure comprehensive and effective equality and non-discrimination in real life (legislation. Geneva. Freedom of expression regarding gender expression and gender identity.81 As long as LGBTIQ persons and identities are rendered invisible. gender expression. Even the existing law on Gender Equality BiH is not being promoted in relations to LGBTIQ population outside of the Campaign for Promotion of Human Rights of Sexual and Gender Minorities coordinated by the Organization Q. LGBTIQ persons and identities will remain invisible and further stigmatized and marginalized. including adoption of children of persons who are same-sex oriented. The current effort to promote equality and non-discrimination is not sufficient given that the State has an obligation and authority to promote equality. that is. information. education. 82| Jelena Poštić. Organization Q. security.identity. it will be difficult to promote equality (of something that does not exist). life. Non-discrimination does not appear to be applied in praxis given that equality is not being promoted in any single way. and intersexual characteristics are viewed as derivatives of the term “sex.”82 All aspects of identity (including LGBTIQ) have to be made visible and defined through the human rights-based approach and in line with international human rights standards. As previously stated. a law without the means to be implemented. http://www. institutions and society). which implies nudum ius. In regard to promotion of equality. or transgender/transexual and intersexual. This report has offered evidence regarding the possible violations of rights to nonviolence. leading to the promotion and respect for human rights of all.asp?Language ID=1&FileCategory=1&ZoneID=7&FileID=60 Organization Q | 79 . 2006. As long as equality and non-discrimination are not promoted. privacy and family life within the family and public life as it mostly pertains to family.

”86 Indeed. which stipulates prohibition of discrimination on the grounds of sex and sexual orientation. protecting the environment. is one of the joys and rewards of human existence. safeguarding children from exploitative and hazardous labour and sexual exploitation. 1999. 84| CESCR. “education shall be directed to the full development of the human personality and to the strengthening of respect for human rights and fundamental freedoms. 86| CESCR. and European Convention on the Protection of Human Rights and Fundamental Freedoms. General Comment 13. But the importance of education is not just practical: a well-educated. accessibility includes dimensions of nondiscrimination. and • adaptability. according to the Article 26 of the Universal Declaration of Human Rights. General Comment 13. Social and Cultural Rights). Right to education is an “empowerment right … a primary vehicle by which economically and socially marginalized adults and children can lift themselves out of poverty and obtain the means to participate fully in their communities. and controlling population growth. able to wander freely and widely. It shall 83| CESCR. but also educational programs. In addition. International Covenant on Economic. parents. • acceptability.2. 2000.The right to the highest attainable standard of health (article 12 of the International Covenant on Economic. Right to Education Right to education includes four elements: • availability. in appropriate cases. promoting human rights and democracy. have to be acceptable (e. Convention on the Elimination of All Forms of Discrimination Against Women (CEDAW). Education has a vital role in empowering women. enlightened and active mind.”84 Adaptability means that education “has to be flexible so it can adapt to the needs of changing societies and communities and respond to the needs of students within their diverse social and cultural settings. General Comment 14. education is recognized as one of the best financial investments States can make. relevant. Increasingly. • accessibility. Availability and accessibility do not only refer to educational institutions/facilities. Social and Cultural Rights (ICESCR). culturally appropriate and of good quality) to students and. International Convention on the Elimination of All Forms of Racial Discrimination (ICERD).The right to education.”85 Right to education is specifically mentioned in the International Covenant on Civil and Political Rights (ICCPR). 80 | Organization Q . Right to education is extremely important given that it is also a means by which other human rights are realized. Convention on the Rights of the Child (CRC). paragraph 1. paragraph 6.g. including curricula and teaching methods.83 Acceptability means that “the form and substance of education. 85| Ibid.

Chemistry.”87 Why is it then that the vast majority of high school students across BiH do not know what the word “gender” means? Why does a majority of high school students report that their textbooks as well as professors’ personal attitudes portray a negative view of LGBTIQ individuals?88 In what way does then education promote understanding and tolerance. or degrading way in relation to gender (and sexual orientation).89 The law fails to specifically address the issue of sexual orientation. Organization Q | 81 . demonstrating a lack of high quality education and services. Furthermore. 2. particularly in education. March. 88| Preliminary results of a study conducted by the Organization Q regarding knowledge about sexuality among high school students. demeaning. sexual orientation should also be regarded as grounds for protection and promotion. Language. as well as the activities of the United Nations since the UN itself includes sexual orientation and gender/sexual identity under the definition of sex as grounds for anti-discrimination? Why is quality of education in BiH lagging behind in promoting scientific evidence from more than 30 years ago? And why is the State allowing sex education to be taught in school subjects such as Religious Instruction. 3. this Law also includes a section on the media. Furthermore. LGBTIQ individuals are presented in the media and publicly in general in an offensive. Furthermore. 2006. gender. and shall further the activities of the United Nations for the maintenance of peace. such as the right to be free from torture. non 87| UDHR. outdated scientific theories and religious models are being promoted through education. colleagues. and students. which leads to further stigmatization and promotion of intolerance and inequality. It does not appear that the educational sector is actively working on promoting equality for LGBTIQ individuals.promote understanding. Article 17 specifically prohibits any form of discrimination in private and public life in regard to gender. demeaning. “the right to control one’s health and body.Although not specifically mentioned. prejudice. customs and other practices based on the idea of inferiority or superiority of either gender. racial or religious groups. Social discrimination occurs in educational institutions and it is perpetrated by staff. tolerance and friendship among all nations. Freedoms include. including sexual and reproductive freedom. and the right to be free from interference. 89| Article 5. Article 26. Right to Health Right to health implies certain freedoms and entitlements. Article 16 specifically prohibits public showing and presentation of any person in an offensive. but only in relation to gender. and degrading manner in relation to sex. as well as stereotypes of roles of men and women needs to be eliminated. and sexual orientation. and others? Law on Gender Equality BiH mandates equality in the sector of education.

there are no institutions or committees which work on standardizing scientific resolutions and procedures in relation to BiH. especially the most vulnerable or marginalized sections of the population. regardless of their sex. paragraph 12.”92 Specifically. color. in 1973. sex. Whether homosexuality is considered a mental disorder or not is something that varies from one health care practitioner to the next. receive and impart information and ideas concerning health issues. they are not particularly known in BiH nor are they implemented and/or regulated in any way. Artificial insemination is made available in private clinics and only to heterosexual 90| Committee on Economic. American Psychological Association adopted the same position. American Psychiatric Association removed homosexuality from its list of mental disorders.”90 Entitlements include the “right to a system of health protection which provides equality of opportunity for people to enjoy the highest attainable level of health. sexual orientation. Although standards. the quality of health pertaining to LGBTI issues is insignificant and/or non-existent.12/2000/4. 94| Ibid. 93| Ibid. as well as to means and entitlements for their procurement. As mentioned earlier. Non-discrimination implies that health facilities.consensual medical treatment and experimentation. paragraph 18. colour. paragraph 12. • accessibility (including non-discrimination. General Comment 14. 92| Ibid. In 1975. Social and Cultural Rights. ICESC “proscribes any discrimination in access to health care and underlying determinants of health. property. • acceptability (in line with medical ethics and culturally appropriate). 95| Ibid. physical or mental disability. in fact the health sector is contributing to positioning LGBTI issues and persons within the realm of abnormality and disorder. political. goods and services “must be accessible to all. political or other opinion. sexual orientation and civil. in law and in fact. language. on the grounds of race. birth. and services. paragraph 8.”91 Right to health has four key elements: • availability. social or other status. which has the intention of effect of nullifying or impairing the equal enjoyment or exercise of the right to health. race … should be treated equally. economic accessibility or affordability. and information accessibility). However. national or social origin. goods. • and quality. physical accessibility. In BiH. resolutions and recommendations of both American Psychiatric Association and American Psychological Association are known and accepted throughout the world.93 Informational accessibility includes the right to seek. health status (including HIV/AIDS).”94 Quality implies scientific and medical appropriateness along with quality facilities. . religion.95 Equality and non-discrimination in relation to health implies that all persons. without discrimination on any of the prohibited grounds. 91| Ibid. E/C.

Two main areas of the right to health are of importance. In terms of intersexuality. in order to secure high quality treatment and health policies. The other is about quality of services.couples. Organization Q | 83 . Sex modification is not taking place in BiH. and information. institutions. One pertains to equality and non-discrimination. it is difficult to obtain information on what actually is the standard practice in BiH. that is. Modification of legal documents. active promotion of equality in regard to health. Transexual individuals are unable to obtain proper psychological and psychiatric assistance. although occurring. Donations of sperm and eggs are prohibited. is not stipulated by law or standardized procedure.


and fulfill human rights of all its residents based on national and international human rights standards. It impacts everybody. gender expression. not only LGBTIQ persons. One respondent summarized the problem of the LGBTIQ persons in BiH to simply being at the wrong place and wrong time. protect. media. promote. it is LGBTIQ persons who are excluded from fully participating in the social. freedom. Define terms such as sex. but labels them as sick and perverted. are not promoted and are being violated. and soul. among many. and health. gender. discrimination. The following recommendations are intended to encourage fulfillment of BiH’s obligations to respect. equality and non-discrimination. human rights to dignity. sexual orientation. dignity. makes all of us human. This report has provided examples and data regarding social exclusion as well as social and legislative discrimination against LGBTIQ persons and identities based on sex and gender. Social exclusion of LGBTIQ persons means exclusion of human diversity. fear. However. and sexual identity. and implement human rights in BiH. gender.IV. identification and identity regarding sex. and work. Prohibition of discrimination and protection of rights to education. etc. education. In such way. Derogatory language which borders on hate speech not only dehumanizes LGBTIQ persons. and intersexual characteristics 2. among other things. needs to include all grounds for non-discrimination Organization Q | 85 . Amend Law on Gender Equality so that it is human rights-based and inclusive human rIghTs-based defInITIons 1. employment. gender identity. Conclusion Invisibility of LGBTIQ persons and identities constitutes invisibility of a segment which. work. health. LGBTIQ respondents have given ample examples about exclusion. family life. mind. cultural. and political life of Bosnia and Herzegovina. Bosnia and Herzegovina is party to 16 international conventions binding the state to promote. health. Make clear distinctions between sex and gender prohIbITIon of dIscrImInaTIon 1. creativity. 1. security. albeit within sectors such as education. economic. non-acceptance. sexuality and human body. and violence they are facing.

Promote equality based on sex. Equip employees of implementing agencies to organize subsequent trainings harmonIze laW on gender eQualITy WITh oTher laWs 1. sexual identity. Eliminate stereotypes based on sex. gender. gender identity. Promote equality and non-discrimination creaTe an acTIon plan for promoTIon of eQualITy and non-dIscrImInaTIon 1. sexual identity. and identities stemming from them 3. AND seXualITy 1. GENDER. and intersexual characteristics 2. sexual orientation. Initiate action plan concerning formal education of BiH student population concerning sexuality.2. and intersexual characteristics 86 | Organization Q . gender. gender expression. identities. Lobby for amendments to current and new laws to extend non-discrimination clause to include sex. gender. sexual orientation. gender expression. health. Create mechanism and data collection to keep track of discrimination based on grounds listed above remove preJudIce and sTereoTypes from school TeXT BOOKS BASED ON SEX. and human rights 3. and identities stemming from them 2. Action plan should include grounds for discrimination such as: sex. Organized formal and informal workshops and training for employees of implementing agencies 2. Implement Law on Gender Equality TraIn employees of all ImplemenTIng agencIes 1. gender. gender identity. SEXUAL ORIENTATION. sexual orientation.

employment. health. gender identity. sexual orientation. Create mechanisms and safe spaces to encourage reporting of discrimination and unprofessional behavior within sectors of education. etc. and intersexual characteristics 2. Fulfill right to family by extending artificial insemination provisions as well as adoption of children to same-sex couples 3. their families and public at large Organization Q | 87 . Adopt measures to eliminate discrimination based on sex. gender. Eliminate hate-crimes committed against LGBTIQ individuals by adopting a law prohibiting violence based on hate 3. and intersexual characteristics harmonIze naTIonal legIslaTIon WITh The InTernaTIonal human rIghTs laW 1. Enable existence of information and its dissemination to LGBTIQ individuals. sexual orientation. sexual identity. etc. Eliminate discrimination based on sex. employment. and other sectors 4. gender identity.2. fulfIll proTecTIon of human rIghTs of lgbTIQ persons 1. law enforcement. Standardize procedures to enable transgender and transexual persons to modify their personal documents in a way to suit their identity 5. Promote non-discrimination in education. media. Fulfill right to family by initiating a form of union/marriage/civil partnership between same-sex couples 2. law enforcement. promoting equality and nondiscrimination 4. sexual identity. health. Provide LGBTIQ persons with health and social care insurance to fit their health care needs 6. gender. campaigns. workshops. Adopt a law enabling individuals to freely make decisions about their bodies and to modify them 4. Create addenda which would be disseminated to state-wide institutions in order to organize regular activities. Collect data on discrimination on all grounds stated above 3.

7. health care institutions and any other public institution 88 | Organization Q . and human rights of LGBTIQ persons 11. and which are not biased or based on prejudice and unsound theories 9. Create mechanisms regarding recording of discrimination in public institutions based on the above mentioned grounds 10. Enable existence of legal assistance to LGBTIQ individuals 8. Provide staff of public institutions with education (formal and informal) and training regarding sex. Enable creation of policies regarding non-discrimination at work. school. gender. sexuality and human rights. identities. Provide health care services which are based on the latest high quality standards and scientific evidence.

9 16.1 2.3 63.8 23.4 11.5 100.0 Organization Q | 89 .6 2.Annex 1 Basic demographic information 1.6 8.0 . Gender Frequency F M I do not identify by gender Transgender person I do not know F and M Total 61 123 17 6 2 1 210 Percent 29.2 24. Sex Frequency F M I do not identify by sex I feel as a man No answer Total 70 134 1 1 4 210 Percent 33.8 18.9 .8 .0 2.9 100.5 100.0 3.5 .5 1.9 1. Age Frequency 13-16 17-19 20-22 23-25 26-30 31-40 41-50 No answer Total 3 25 34 52 50 39 6 1 210 Percent 1.0 58.

5 0.5 0.9 2.9 1.5 0.5 0.4 1.7 2.5 0.4 1. SA Ex Yu region Travnik Cazin I.5 0.0 90 | Organization Q .5 0.0 1.5 0. Grad Hrasnica Modriča Blagaj Ukupno 109 23 16 14 6 6 3 3 3 2 2 2 2 2 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 210 Percent 51.5 0.4.5 0.5 0.0 1.5 100.0 1.5 0.0 1. Location Frequency Sarajevo Banja Luka Mostar Abroad Tuzla Zenica Bihać Hadžići.9 11.6 6.5 0.0 7.0 0.4 1.5 0.5 0. Sarajevo Kakanj BiH/ Abroad Velika Kladuša Derventa Srebrenik Trebinje Bugojno Prijedor Fojnica Sarajevo/Gradačac Foča Vareš Maglaj Ključ Visoko N.5 0.

0 2.0 1.8 1.8 100.5 9.5 19 13 2 1 1 10 210 9.0 6.5 20 19 6 6 2 2 2 210 9.9 1.9 2.6 30. Faith / denomination / religion Frequency I do not identify by faith or religion Muslim/Islam Christian Orthodox Roman Catholic Other Christian No answer Total 103 52 20 19 8 4 4 210 Percent 49.5 4.0 0.0 Organization Q | 91 .9 100.5.0 100. Religion Frequency Religious Atheist Agnostic Other I do not want to respond I do not know Wrong answer No answer Total 100 64 Percent 47.0 3. Nationality Frequency I do not identify by nationality Bosniak Serbian BiH/BH Bosnian Croatian Bosnian/Bosniak Other Slovenian Muslim No answer Total 72 Percent 34.0 1.0 10.9 1.0 6.5 0.5 9.0 24.3 36 23 22 17.2 1.0 7.1 11.8 9.

5 48. registered.4 0.5 1.4 25.8 8. Education Frequency Wrong answer Elementary school High school degree Higher school University degree Masters degree Currently studying No answer Total 1 3 53 17 38 17 80 1 210 Percent 0. relations but not a relationship Wrong answer I am not in a relationship No answer Total 16 59 8 18 5 1 1 101 1 210 Percent 7.0 9.1 3.2 8.6 28.1 0.5 100.5 100.0 92 | Organization Q .1 18. Current partner status Frequency In a relationship In a same sex relationship In a heterosexual relationship In relations/relationship with more than one partner In a partnership (marriage.6 2.1 8.5 0.8.1 38.1 0. civil) I do not know.

0 12.0 Organization Q | 93 .4 0.5 100.1 31.9 1.8 95.2 0.4 12.5 100.0 27.9 1.6 1. Social status Frequency Studying Studying and looking for a job Working Working (permanently) Working (temporarily) Looking for a job Retired Wrong answer Studying and working No answer Total 67 4 32 30 26 16 3 3 27 2 210 Percent 31.4 7. Financial independency Frequency Yes No Partially No answer Total 86 57 66 1 210 Percent 41.4 1.9 15.0 11.0 100.2 14. adopted No answer Total 8 200 1 1 210 Percent 3.10.5 0.3 12. Having children Frequency Yes No Yes.

2 18.0 14.4 1.0 0.0 1.5 100.13.7 1. LGBTTIQ Identities Frequency Gay man Bisexual Lesbian Queer Other Lesbian/Gay and Queer Gay/Bisexual and Transgender Transexual Transgender No answer Wrong answer Total 83 53 39 20 4 3 2 2 1 1 2 210 Percent 39.8 27.4 1.6 1.5 1.5 0.6 5.6 18.5 25.9 1.0 0. Sexual orientation Frequency Homosexual Bisexual I do not identify by orientation Other Heterosexual Wrong answer Total 134 58 12 3 2 1 210 Percent 63.0 100.0 94 | Organization Q .

values. discrimination. Gay. Psychologists recognize that the families of lesbian. gay.html Organization Q | 95 .e. gay. and violence) poses risks to the mental health and well-being of lesbian. and bisexual youth. and beliefs. gay. gay. Psychologists strive to understand the ways in which social stigmatization (i. and bisexual relationships. Relationships and Families • Guideline 5. • Guideline 8. • Guideline 4.apa. and bisexual clients. http://www. Psychologists strive to understand the particular circumstances and challenges facing lesbian. • Guideline 11. Psychologists strive to understand the special problems and risks that exist for lesbian. Psychologists strive to understand how inaccurate or prejudicial views of homosexuality or bisexuality may affect the client’s presentation in treatment and the therapeutic process. Psychologists strive to understand how a person’s homosexual or bisexual orientation may have an impact on his or her family of origin and the relationship to that family of origin.Annex 2 Guidelines for Psychotherapy with Lesbian. and bisexual members of racial and ethnic minorities that are related to multiple and often conflicting cultural norms. prejudice. gay. • Guideline 10. • Guideline 6. and bisexual people may include people who are not legally or biologically related. gay. and bisexual parents. Psychologists are encouraged to recognize the particular challenges experienced by bisexual individuals. gay. • Guideline 2. • Guideline 3. & Bisexual Clients96 American Psychological Association Washington. Issues of Diversity • Guideline Psychologists are encouraged to recognize how their attitudes and knowledge about lesbian. • Guideline 7. 96| American Psychological Association. Psychologists strive to be knowledgeable about and respect the importance of lesbian. DC Attitudes Toward Homosexuality and Bisexuality • Guideline 1.. and bisexual issues may be relevant to assessment and treatment and seek consultation or make appropriate referrals when indicated. Psychologists understand that homosexuality and bisexuality are not indicative of mental illness. Psychologists are encouraged to recognize the particular life issues or challenges experienced by lesbian.

educational.• Guideline 12. and bisexual older adults. Psychologists are encouraged to increase their knowledge and understanding of homosexuality and bisexuality through continuing education. Psychologists consider generational differences within lesbian. Education • Guideline 14. sensory. Psychologists make reasonable efforts to familiarize themselves with relevant mental health. and bisexual populations. • Guideline 16. and bisexual issues. 96 | Organization Q . Psychologists are encouraged to recognize the particular challenges experienced by lesbian. gay. and/or cognitive/emotional disabilities. gay. and the particular challenges that may be experienced by lesbian. gay. and community resources for lesbian. and bisexual people. and consultation. gay. Psychologists support the provision of professional education and training on lesbian. gay. supervision. training. • Guideline 13. and bisexual individuals with physical. • Guideline 15.

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