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Word Order in Questions

In questions, the word order subject-verbs-object is the same as in affirmative sentences. The only thing thats different is that you usually have to put the auxiliary verb (or the main verb be) before the subject. Interrogatives are put at the beginning of the sentences:

Exercise on Questions 1. Arrange the words below to make questions. 1. she / to collect / stickers 2. they / to play / a game 3. the cat / to sleep / in the cat's bed 4. she / often / to dream 5. he / to play / streetball 6. you / to be / from Paris 7. the pupils / to wear / school uniforms 8. you / to go / to the cinema 9. she / to have / friends 10. he / to read / books 2. Ask for the bold part of the sentence. 1. Julia likes pop-music. 2. Maria comes from Spain. 3. They play in the garden. 4. Rick rides his bike. 5. I go to the cinema on Saturdays. 6. We go to Mallorca because it is warm there.. 7. Joe repairs his bike. 8. Robin drives his car carefully. 9. Peter runs with his dog every day. 10. Eric goes to Italy for a holiday.

3. Write questions with the words below. 1. 2. 3. 4. 5. 6. Peter / to go / to the cinema they / to play / a game she / to listen /to the radio I / to dream they / to pack / their bags you / to do / the washing-up

7. we / to talk / too fast 8. they / to clean / the windows 9. she / to watch / the news 10. you / to pull / my leg 4. Ask for the information in the bold part of the sentence. 1. Ashley is going to a restaurant. 2. Gareth is reading the paper. 3. Stacey is playing in the garden. 4. She is wearing a red dress. 5. Britney is doing her homework. 6. Mandy is leaving at nine. 7. Joe is repairing his bike. 8. Amanda is going out with Dan. 9. They are meeting at two o'clock. 10. Sandy is looking for Phil. 5. Arrange the words to make questions. 1. do / a dog / you / have 2. you / coffee / do / like 3. speak/ she / English / does 4. he / can / dance 5. play / at / you / the weekends / do / tennis 6. go / last night / out / you / did 7. the train / when / leave / does 8. him / she / did / the truth / tell / why 9. on / they / holiday / are 10. she / Australia / from / is 6. Ask for the subject (in bold print). Use 'who' (for people) or 'what' (for everything else). 1. Gareth speaks English 2. Mandy plays the guitar 3. John is from Australia 4. Our room is on the second floor 5. You will meet them next week 6. My bike is blue. 7. The show started early 8. My computer doesn't work. 9. Her brother went to Canada last year. 10. Your friends don't like pizza.

Simple Present
FORM

[VERB] + s/es in third person Examples:


y You speak English. y Do you speak English? y You do not speak English.

USE 1 Repeated Actions

Use the Simple Present to express the idea that an action is repeated or usual. The action can be a habit, a hobby, a daily event, a scheduled event or something that often happens. It can also be something a person often forgets or usually does not do. Examples:
y I play tennis. y She does not play tennis. y Does he play tennis? y The train leaves every morning at 8 AM. y The train does not leave at 9 AM. y When does the train usually leave? y She always forgets her purse. y He never forgets his wallet. y Every twelve months, the Earth circles the Sun. y Does the Sun circle the Earth?

USE 2 Facts or Generalizations

The Simple Present can also indicate the speaker believes that a fact was true before, is true now, and will be true in the future. It is not important if the speaker is correct about the fact. It is also used to make generalizations about people or things. Examples:
y Cats like milk. y Birds do not like milk. y Do pigs like milk?

y California is in America. y California is not in the United Kingdom. y Windows are made of glass. y Windows are not made of wood. y New York is a small city. IT IS NOT IMPORTANT THAT THIS FACT IS UNTRUE.

USE 3 Scheduled Events in the Near Future

Speakers occasionally use Simple Present to talk about scheduled events in the near future. This is most commonly done when talking about public transportation, but it can be used with other scheduled events as well. Examples:
y The train leaves tonight at 6 PM. y The bus does not arrive at 11 AM, it arrives at 11 PM. y When do we board the plane? y The party starts at 8 o'clock. y When does class begin tomorrow?

USE 4 Now (Non-Continuous Verbs)

Speakers sometimes use the Simple Present to express the idea that an action is happening or is not happening now. This can only be done with Non-Continuous Verbs and certain Mixed Verbs. Examples:
y I am here now. y She is not here now. y He needs help right now. y He does not need help now. y He has his passport in his hand. y Do you have your passport with you?

ADVERB PLACEMENT

The examples below show the placement for grammar adverbs such as: always, only, never, ever, still, just, etc. Examples:
y You only speak English. y Do you only speak English?

ACTIVE / PASSIVE

Examples:
y Once a week, Tom cleans the car. ACTIVE y Once a week, the car is cleaned by Tom. PASSIVE

Present Continuous
FORM

[am/is/are + present participle] Examples:


y You are watching TV. y Are you watching TV? y You are not watching TV.

USE 1 Now

Use the Present Continuous with Normal Verbs to express the idea that something is happening now, at this very moment. It can also be used to show that something is not happening now. Examples:
y You are learning English now. y You are not swimming now. y Are you sleeping? y I am sitting. y I am not standing. y Is he sitting or standing? y They are reading their books. y They are not watching television. y What are you doing? y Why aren't you doing your homework?

USE 2 Longer Actions in Progress Now

In English, "now" can mean: this second, today, this month, this year, this century, and so on. Sometimes, we use the Present Continuous to say that we are in the process of doing a longer action which is in progress; however, we might not be doing it at this exact second. Examples: (All of these sentences can be said while eating dinner in a restaurant.)
y I am studying to become a doctor. y I am not studying to become a dentist. y I am reading the book Tom Sawyer. y I am not reading any books right now. y Are you working on any special projects at work? y Aren't you teaching at the university now?

USE 3 Near Future

Sometimes, speakers use the Present Continuous to indicate that something will or will not happen in the near future. Examples:
y I am meeting some friends after work. y I am not going to the party tonight. y Is he visiting his parents next weekend? y Isn't he coming with us tonight?

USE 4 Repetition and Irritation with "Always"

The Present Continuous with words such as "always" or "constantly" expresses the idea that something irritating or shocking often happens. Notice that the meaning is like Simple Present, but with negative emotion. Remember to put the words "always" or "constantly" between "be" and "verb+ing." Examples:
y She is always coming to class late. y He is constantly talking. I wish he would shut up. y I don't like them because they are always complaining.

REMEMBER Non-Continuous Verbs/ Mixed Verbs

It is important to remember that Non-Continuous Verbs cannot be used in any continuous tenses. Also, certain non-continuous meanings for Mixed Verbs cannot

be used in continuous tenses. Instead of using Present Continuous with these verbs, you must use Simple Present. Examples:
y She is loving this chocolate ice cream. Not Correct y She loves this chocolate ice cream. Correct

ADVERB PLACEMENT

The examples below show the placement for grammar adverbs such as: always, only, never, ever, still, just, etc. Examples:
y You are still watching TV. y Are you still watching TV?

ACTIVE / PASSIVE

Examples:
y Right now, Tom is writing the letter. ACTIVE y Right now, the letter is being written by Tom. PASSIVE

RELATIVE CLAUSES DEFINING RELATIVE CLAUSES As the name suggests, these clauses give essential information to define or identify the person or thing we are talking about. Obviously, this is only necessary if there is more than one person or thing involved. Example: Elephants who marry mice are very unusual. In this sentence we understand that there are many elephants, but it is clear that we are only talking the ones who marry mice. Punctuation Commas are not used in defining relative clauses. Relative pronouns The following relative pronouns are used in defining relative clauses:

Person Subject Object Possessive Notes: who/that who/whom/that/ whose

Thing which/that which/that/ whose

Place where

Time when

Reason why

1. The relative pronoun stands in place of a noun. This noun usually appears earlier in the sentence: The woman Noun, subject of main clause who/that relative pronoun referring to 'the woman', subject of 'spoke' spoke at the meeting verb + rest of relative clause was very knowledgeable. verb + rest of main clause

2. Who, whom and which can be replaced by that. This is very common in spoken English. 3. The relative pronoun can be omitted () when it is the object of the clause: The mouse that the elephant loved was very beautiful. OR The mouse the elephant loved was very beautiful. Both of these sentences are correct, though the second one is more common in spoken English. The mouse Noun, subject of main clause that/ relative pronoun, referring to 'the mouse, object of 'loved' the elephant loved was very beautiful.

verb + rest of relative verb + rest of main clause. clause

(You can usually decide whether a relative pronoun is an object because it is normally followed by another subject + verb.) 4. Whose is used for things as well as for people. Examples: The man whose car was stolen. A tree whose leaves have fallen. 5. Whom is very formal and is only used in written English. You can use who/that, or omit the pronoun completely : The doctor whom/who/that/ I was hoping to see wasn't on duty. 6. That normally follows words like something, anything, everything, nothing, all, and superlatives. Examples:

y y

There's something that you should know. It was the best film that I've ever seen.

Examples:

y y y y y y y y

A clown is someone who makes you laugh. An elephant is an animal that lives in hot countries. The plums that were in the fridge were delicious. I have eaten them. Where are the plums (that) I put in the fridge? Has anyone seen the book I was reading? Nothing that anyone does can replace my lost bag. Let's go to a country where the sun always shines. They live in the house whose roof is full of holes.

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Past Simple of regular verbs


You use the past simple when you want to talk about something at a definite time in the past (for example yesterday, last night, in 1993 etc) most verbs are regular and show this regularity by having -ed on the end.
A) Positive form: I lived in Greece when I was a child...But now I live in Italy

He answered the question first. It played the violin last night.....

Note: All persons in the past have the same form:


I you he she it we they

played-visited

etc

B) Negative form:

You have to use didnt + the infinitive of the verb (without to) for all persons Examples:. I didn`t visit Paris when I was in France last year...A pity! You didn`t study maths last week. So you failed your exam He didnt relax last Monday. He worked a lot. Now he is tired indeed.

Irregular verbs are not that simple. We sometimes need a dictionary to help us write the different forms of irregular verbs. Examples using the verb see: Past Tense: We saw the secret maps. Past Participle: We have seen the secret maps. Look up the word see in the dictionary. Notice that the different forms of the word are given. Look up walk. Notice that the dictionary doesnt bother to give the different forms of regular verbs.

Past Continuous
FORM

[was/were + present participle] Examples:


y You were studying when she called. y Were you studying when she called? y You were not studying when she called.

USE 1 Interrupted Action in the Past

Use the Past Continuous to indicate that a longer action in the past was interrupted. The interruption is usually a shorter action in the Simple Past. Remember this can be a real interruption or just an interruption in time. Examples:
y I was watching TV when she called. y When the phone rang, she was writing a letter. y While we were having the picnic, it started to rain. y What were you doing when the earthquake started? y I was listening to my iPod, so I didn't hear the fire alarm. y You were not listening to me when I told you to turn the oven off. y While John was sleeping last night, someone stole his car. y Sammy was waiting for us when we got off the plane. y While I was writing the email, the computer suddenly went off. y A: What were you doing when you broke your leg?

B: I was snowboarding. USE 2 Specific Time as an Interruption

In USE 1, described above, the Past Continuous is interrupted by a shorter action in the Simple Past. However, you can also use a specific time as an interruption. Examples:
y Last night at 6 PM, I was eating dinner. y At midnight, we were still driving through the desert. y Yesterday at this time, I was sitting at my desk at work.

IMPORTANT

In the Simple Past, a specific time is used to show when an action began or finished. In the Past Continuous, a specific time only interrupts the action. Examples:
y Last night at 6 PM, I ate dinner. I STARTED EATING AT 6 PM. y Last night at 6 PM, I was eating dinner. I STARTED EARLIER; AND AT 6 PM, I WAS IN THE PROCESS OF EATING DINNER.

USE 3 Parallel Actions

When you use the Past Continuous with two actions in the same sentence, it expresses the idea that both actions were happening at the same time. The actions are parallel. Examples:
y I was studying while he was making dinner. y While Ellen was reading, Tim was watching television. y Were you listening while he was talking? y I wasn't paying attention while I was writing the letter, so I made several

mistakes. y What were you doing while you were waiting?


y Thomas wasn't working, and I wasn't working either. y They were eating dinner, discussing their plans, and having a good time.

USE 4 Atmosphere

In English, we often use a series of parallel actions to describe the atmosphere at a particular time in the past. Example:
y When I walked into the office, several people were busily typing, some were

talking on the phones, the boss was yelling directions, and customers were waiting to be helped. One customer was yelling at a secretary and waving his hands. Others were complaining to each other about the bad service. USE 5 Repetition and Irritation with "Always"

The Past Continuous with words such as "always" or "constantly" expresses the idea that something irritating or shocking often happened in the past. The concept is very similar to the expression "used to" but with negative emotion. Remember to put the words "always" or "constantly" between "be" and "verb+ing."

Examples:
y She was always coming to class late. y He was constantly talking. He annoyed everyone. y I didn't like them because they were always complaining.

While vs. When

Clauses are groups of words which have meaning, but are often not complete sentences. Some clauses begin with the word "when" such as "when she called" or "when it bit me." Other clauses begin with "while" such as "while she was sleeping" and "while he was surfing." When you talk about things in the past, "when" is most often followed by the verb tenseSimple Past, whereas "while" is usually followed by Past Continuous. "While" expresses the idea of "during that time." Study the examples below. They have similar meanings, but they emphasize different parts of the sentence. Examples:
y I was studying when she called. y While I was studying, she called.

REMEMBER Non-Continuous Verbs / Mixed Verbs

It is important to remember that Non-Continuous Verbs cannot be used in any continuous tenses. Also, certain non-continuous meanings for Mixed Verbs cannot be used in continuous tenses. Instead of using Past Continuous with these verbs, you must use Simple Past. Examples:
y Jane was being at my house when you arrived. Not Correct y Jane was at my house when you arrived. Correct

ADVERB PLACEMENT

The examples below show the placement for grammar adverbs such as: always, only, never, ever, still, just, etc. Examples:
y You were just studying when she called. y Were you just studying when she called?

ACTIVE / PASSIVE

Examples:

y The salesman was helping the customer when the thief came into the store. ACTIVE y The customer was being helped by the salesman when the thief came into the store. PASSIVE

QUESTIONS WITH OR WITHOUT AUXILIARIES OBJECT AND SUBJECT QUESTION Guardado en dcts Gaby