53 views

Uploaded by SodaMoussez

Attribution Non-Commercial (BY-NC)

- Chemical Process Safety, Fundamentals With Applications,3rd Ed
- Evaluating Vapor Cloud Explosions Using a Flame Acceleration Method 7 42
- 38 Vapor Cloud Explosion GexCon
- Assessment of Vapour Cloud Explosion Risk
- 2006--Studies in Multiple Impeller Agitated Gas Liquid Cont Actors 2006
- Cosmetic Formulation of Skin Care Products
- Comparison of Blast Prediction Models of Vapor Cloud Explosions NRCnrcc44715
- PGS2-1997 Methods for the Calculation of Physical Effects Chapter 4 Vapour Cloud Dispersion
- Agitator Calc Data
- Intro to Plant Design-2012 Beginner
- INVESTIGATION TECHNIQUES USED TO DETERMINE THE MASSIVE VAPOR CLOUD EXPLOSION AT THE BUNCEFIELD FUEL DEPOT
- Quentin A. Baker et al- Update of “Guidelines to Vapor Cloud Explosion, Pressure Vessel Burst, BLEVE and Flash Fire Hazards”
- 1300 Math Formulas a Svirin
- Yield Stress Bentonite Kelessidis
- M.J. Tang and Q.A. Baker- A New Set of Blast Curves from Vapor Cloud Explosion
- TNO Yellow Book CPR 14E
- IAEA Technical Series 359
- Flow Diagram of Typical Refinery
- crystalliser design
- Processing Technologies for Poly(Lactic Acid)

You are on page 1of 8

Characteristic overpressureimpulsedistance curves for vapour cloud explosions using the TNO Multi-Energy model

Fernando Daz Alonso a, , Enrique Gonz lez Ferrad s a , Juan Francisco S nchez P rez a , a a a e a , Jos Ruiz Gimeno a , Jes s Martnez Alonso b Agustn Mi ana Aznar n e u

a

Grupo de Investigaci n Seguridad e Higiene en la Industria, Departamento de Ingeniera Qumica, Universidad de Murcia, Campus Universitario de o Espinardo, 30100 Murcia, Spain b Unidad de Protecci n Civil, Delegaci n del Gobierno en Madrid, C/Garca Paredes, 65. 28010 Madrid, Spain o o Received 20 February 2006; received in revised form 28 March 2006; accepted 1 April 2006 Available online 18 April 2006

Abstract A number of models have been proposed to calculate overpressure and impulse from accidental industrial explosions. When the blast is produced by ignition of a vapour cloud, the TNO Multi-Energy model is widely used. From the curves given by this model, data are tted to obtain equations showing the relationship between overpressure, impulse and distance. These equations, referred herein as characteristic curves, can be tted by means of power equations, which depend on explosion energy and charge strength. Characteristic curves allow the determination of overpressure and impulse at each distance. 2006 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

Keywords: Vapour cloud explosion; Overpressure; Impulse; TNO Multi-energy model; Industrial accident

1. Introduction Vapour cloud explosions (VCEs) are serious hazards in rening and petrochemical industries [1]. Since the 1970s, when several devastating vapour cloud explosions occurred, a considerable degree of attention and research effort has been focussed on this subject [2]. A number of examples of VCE accidents can be found in the literature [3,4], amongst them the Flixborough explosion of June 1, 1974, which was especially destructive. It was caused by the uncontrolled leakage of about 30 tons of cyclohexane at the Nypro plant in Flixborough, UK. A few minutes after the leakage started, the cyclohexane cloud ignited and a violent explosion occurred, causing the death of 28 men and severe damage to on-site infrastructure [5]. Another serious industrial accident occurred at Beek in The Netherlands on November 7, 1975, when a violent VCE occurred within a naphta-cracker installation. The explosion resulted in sev-

Corresponding author at: Departamento de Ingeniera Qumica, Facultad de Qumica, Universidad de Murcia, Campus Universitario de Espinardo, 30100 Murcia, Spain. Tel.: +34 968 36 39 37/34 968 36 39 36; fax: +34 968 36 41 48. E-mail address: ferdiaz@um.es (F.D. Alonso).

eral fatalities, destroyed the installation and resulted in severe damage to the immediate surroundings with window breakage up to 4.5 km from the source [6]. Apart from these two examples, many other VCEs have occurred and, unfortunately, these types of devastating accidents still happen. Regarding the magnitude of an explosion, the two most important and dangerous factors are overpressure and impulse (the latter depending on overpressure and positive phase time duration), which are chiey responsible for injury to humans, and structural and environmental damage. Table 1 shows some damages for different overpressures and impulses. To assess damage, models are necessary to calculate the magnitude of an explosion as a function of distance from the centre. Furthermore, with proper safety guidelines, appropriate structural design and safe distance considerations, blast hazards from VCEs could be reduced to acceptable levels [1]. For vapour cloud explosions, the TNO Multi-Energy model is often used to determine overpressure and positive phase duration time as a function of distance [7]. Lees [3] makes reference to this method in his textbook. The Multi-Energy concept is based on the observation that the explosive potential of a vapour cloud is primarily determined by the obstructed and/or partially conned parts of the cloud [8]. Some data have been obtained and

0304-3894/$ see front matter 2006 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved. doi:10.1016/j.jhazmat.2006.04.005

735

Nomenclature a b c c0 d Eexp i i K Ps P0 P R tp tp z parameter used in tted scaled overpressure equation Eq. (8) exponent of the tted scaled overpressure equation Eq. (8) parameter used in tted scaled impulse equation Eq. (9) sound velocity in air (340 m/s) exponent of the tted scaled impulse equation Eq. (9) explosion energy (J) impulse (Pa s) scaled impulse (dimensionless) constant overpressure value from Eq. (10) (Pa). side-on overpressure (Pa) atmospheric pressure (Pa) scaled overpressure (dimensionless) scaled distance (dimensionless) positive phase duration time (s) scaled positive phase duration time (dimensionless) distance to the explosions centre (m)

tp =

(3) (4)

i = 1/2 Ps tp

where P (dimensionless) is the scaled overpressure; Ps (Pa) is the side-on overpressure; P0 (101 000 Pa) is atmospheric pressure; R (dimensionless) is the scaled distance; z (m) is the distance from the explosion centre; c0 (340 m/s) is sound velocity in air; i (Pa s) is the waves impulse; tp (s) is the positive phase duration time; tp (dimensionless) is the scaled positive phase duration time and Eexp (J) is the explosion energy. The TNO Multi-Energy model does not solve the relationship between impulse and scaled distance. Since this relationship is necessary for the aim of this paper, Eqs. (1), (3) and (4) are combined to obtain:

1/3 i = 1/2(P0 Eexp /c0 )P tp 2/3

(5)

A new dimensionless parameter called scaled impulse is dened, as follows: i = P tp and from Eq. (5), the following is obtained i =2 c0 2/3 1/3 (P0 Eexp ) i (7) (6)

Greek symbols parameter used in characteristic equation Eq. (11) exponent of the characteristic equation Eq. (11)

showing the relationship between impulse (i) and scaled impulse (i ). From each R value (corresponding to each distance), the scaled impulse is calculated (Eq. (6)) using the TNO curves (Fig. 5.8A and C in [7]), and the curves in Fig. 1 are obtained. 2. Characteristic overpressureimpulsedistance curves for VCEs For every explosion, it is possible to obtain the overpressureimpulsedistance relationship, called here the characteristic curve. Fig. 2 shows, graphically, the characteristic curve, traced from the overpressuredistance and impulsedistance shock-wave proles (taken from Figs. 5.8A in [7] and 3, respectively). Distances to the explosion centre (z1 , z2 ,. . ., zn ) can also be included to display all the information within the same diagram.

analysed from explosion experiments [9,10] and several authors have proposed methodologies to select the appropriate charge strength [1114]. The Multi-Energy model is widely used for consequence analysis [1519], also for domino hazards [20]. This model uses the following parameters: P = R = Ps P0 z (Eexp /P0 )1/3 (1)

(2)

Table 1 Damages on humans and buildings produced by different overpressures and impulses [3] Effect Humans Eardrum rupture Lung damage Lethality (lung haemorrhage) Threshold 50% Threshold Severe Threshold 50% 100% 80% 25% 10% Ps (Pa) 34500 103000138000 83000103000 255000 255000359000 359000497000 497000690000 35000 28000 12000 i (Pa s) 1660021000 51000 5100072000 7200099000 99000138000 13000 11000 6000

Buildings

736

Fig. 1. Scaled impulse versus scaled distance for the Multi-Energy method.

However, it is not necessary to draw overpressure and impulse proles to obtain the characteristic curves, as they can also be obtained analytically. To perform this operation, the relationships P versus R and i versus R (from Fig.5.8A [7] and Fig. 1, respectively) are tted using power equations. To obtain good

Fig. 3. Characteristic curves and iso-distance lines of VCEs with different energies and a charge strength of 1. Obtained using the TNO Multi-Energy model.

correlations, each curve is divided into several intervals, that are selected to optimize the R-squared values (which are considered by the authors to be good enough when they are higher than 0.98). It means that each curve is successively divided into 1, 2, 3,. . ., n intervals until all their R-squared values are higher than 0.98. These equations have the following general form: For scaled overpressure : For scaled impulse : P = aR

d b

(8) (9)

i = cR

where a, b, c and d depend on charge strength and the selected interval. Tables 2 and 3 show the tted equations for scaled overpressure scaled impulse, respectively. 3. Results and discussions Depending on the interval and using Eqs. (1) and (7), the characteristic equations are obtained from the corresponding overpressure and impulse equations. They have the following general form: for the rst interval of every charge strength (except strength 10) :

Fig. 2. Characteristic curve of an explosion: obtained from overpressure and impulse proles.

Ps = K

(10)

F.D. Alonso et al. / Journal of Hazardous Materials A137 (2006) 734741 Table 2 Fitted equations for scaled overpressure from Fig. 5.8A of [7] Explosion level 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 Interval for R 0.23 R < 0.6 0.23 R < 0.7 0.23 R < 0.6 0.23 R < 0.5 0.23 R < 0.6 0.23 R < 0.6 0.23 R < 0.5 0.23 R < 0.5 1R <2 0.23 R < 0.35 1R <2 0.23 R < 1 2 R 100 a 102 2 102 5 102 101 2 101 5 101 1 2 4.67 101 5 4.67 101 4.41 101 3.18 101 b 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 1.58 0 1.58 2.39 1.13 Interval for R 0.6 R 7 0.7 R 12 0.6 R 30 0.5 R 70 0.6 R 90 0.6 R 100 0.5 R 100 0.5 R < 1 2 R 100 0.35 R < 1 2 R 100 1R <2 a 1.32 102 6.05 102 6.44 102 1.17 101 3.01 101 4.06 101 4.76 101 3.18 101 4.87 101 3.18 101 4.67 101 6.40 103 b

737

0.97 0.98 0.99 0.99 0.99 1.11 1.20 2.08 1.13 2.03 1.13 1.58

Table 3 Fitted equations for scaled impulse from Fig. 1 Explosion level 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 Interval for R 0.23 R < 0.6 0.23 R < 0.7 0.23 R < 0.6 0.23 R < 0.5 0.23 R < 0.6 0.23 R < 0.8 0.23 R < 0.6 0.23 R < 0.6 0.23 R < 0.3 0.4 R < 0.8 0.23 R < 0.3 0.4 R < 0.5 c 5.22 102 8.74 102 1.4 101 1.25 101 1.28 101 1.98 101 1.66 101 1.11 8.08 102 10.82 1.30 103 4.41 102 d 0.20 0.27 0.20 0 0.26 0.45 0.49 0.90 0.89 2.26 1.14 7.52 Interval for R 0.6 R 0.7 R 0.6 R 0.5 R 0.6 R 0.8 R 0.6 R 0.6 R 0.3 R 0.8 R 0.3 R 0.5 R 7 12 30 70 90 100 100 100 < 0.4 100 < 0.4 100 c 4.03 102 6.05 102 6.77 102 8.46 102 1.14 101 1.14 101 1.14 101 3.08 101 1.14 101 3.15 101 1.14 101 2.96 102 d 0.94 1.05 0.99 0.97 1.00 1.03 1. 03 1. 03 1.08 1.03 1.79 1.03

1/3 i = Eexp Ps

(11)

where and depend on the selected interval and charge strength. Table 4 shows the constant K values from Eq. (10), while and values (from Eq. (11)) are shown in Table 5. It can be deduced from Eq. (11) that, for each interval, the relationship between overpressure and impulse depends only on released energy Eexp and charge strength. The greater the

explosion energy for the same charge strength, the higher the impulse for the same overpressure. It can also be deduced from the characteristic equations that parameter , which is the slope of the characteristic curve in a loglog diagram, is constant for each interval. This means that characteristic curves are parallel lines whose position depends on explosion energy. If the points corresponding to the same distance on different characteristic curves are joined, iso-distance lines are obtained. To obtain the equations of these iso-distance lines for each interval, the tted overpressure equation for that interval is taken (Eq. (8)). From Eqs. (1) and (2), we have: Ps = a P0 z b (Eexp /P0 )1/3

1/3

Table 4 K-values for Eq. (10) Explosion level 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 Interval for R 0.23 R 0.23 R 0.23 R 0.23 R 0.23 R 0.23 R 0.23 R 0.23 R 0.23 R < 0.6 < 0.7 < 0.6 < 0.5 < 0.6 < 0.6 < 0.5 < 0.5 < 0.35 K (Pa) 1013 2030 5070 10130 20260 50650 101300 202600 506500

(12)

Finding Eexp from Eq. (12) and substituting it into the corresponding characteristic equation, we have: i = P0

1/3

a P0 Ps

1/b

z Ps

(13)

If the distance z is set at a constant value, the relationship between overpressure and impulse for that distance

738 Table 5 - and -values for Eq. (11) Explosion level 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 Interval for R

5.76 105 5.24 105 3.96 105 2.07 105 1.14 101 8.24 103 4.60 103 3.26 104 3.13 103 1.51 103 2.83 105 5.71 103 9.70 1018 3.26 104 1.76 104

0.97 1.07 1.02 0.98 1.01 1.03 0.41 0.43 0.65 0.53 0.51 0.91 0.48 3.15 0.65

10

0.6 R 7 0.7 R 12 0.6 R 30 0.5 R 70 0.6 R 90 0.6 R < 0.8 0.5 R < 0.6 0.5 R < 0.6 1R <2 0.35 R < 0.4 0.8 R < 1 2 R 100 0.23 R < 0.3 0.4 R < 0.5 1R <2

Interval for R 0.8 R 100 0.6 R 100 0.6 R < 1 2 R 100 0.4 R < 0.8 1R <2 0.3 R < 0.4 0.5 R < 1 2 R < 100

2.51 105 3.99 105 1.59 103 2.83 105 1.54 106 3.26 104 3.31 104 3.61 103 2.83 105

is obtained, which is the iso-distance equation. Introducing the constant values (a, b, and ) for each interval, plotting the characteristic curves for different Eexp values (black lines) in the same diagram and tracing the lines that join the same distances (iso-distances, represented by

grey lines), the curves in Figs. 312 are obtained (one for each charge strength). These plots allow a quick and simple determination of overpressure and impulse at each distance for an explosion whose energy and charge strength are known.

Fig. 4. Characteristic curves and iso-distance lines of VCEs with different energies and a charge strength of 2. Obtained using the TNO Multi-Energy model.

Fig. 5. Characteristic curves and iso-distance lines of VCEs with different energies and a charge strength of 3. Obtained using the TNO Multi-Energy model.

739

Fig. 6. Characteristic curves and iso-distance lines of VCEs with different energies and a charge strength of 4. Obtained using the TNO Multi-Energy model.

Fig. 8. Characteristic curves and iso-distance lines of VCEs with different energies and a charge strength of 6. Obtained using the TNO Multi-Energy model.

Fig. 7. Characteristic curves and iso-distance lines of VCEs with different energies and a charge strength of 5. Obtained using the TNO Multi-Energy model.

Fig. 9. Characteristic curves and iso-distance lines of VCEs with different energies and a charge strength of 7. Obtained using the TNO Multi-Energy model.

740

Fig. 10. Characteristic curves and iso-distance lines of VCEs with different energies and a charge strength of 8. Obtained using the TNO Multi-Energy model. Fig. 12. Characteristic curves and iso-distance lines of VCEs with different energies and a charge strength of 10. Obtained using the TNO Multi-Energy model.

4. Conclusions In an industrial accident caused by ignition of a vapour cloud, the TNO Multi-Energy model is often used to calculate overpressure and positive phase duration time from the released energy, and setting the explosion strength depending on the fuel involved and surrounding characteristics. From the model, the relationships between overpressure and impulse are obtained, depending on the explosion energy. Here, they are referred to as characteristic curves and, if represented in the same diagram, allow the determination of overpressure and impulse at each distance. Using characteristic curves simplies the approach, as both overpressure and impulse can be determined in one step, avoiding any calculation of scaled magnitudes. This model, based on characteristic curves, allows an overview of the evolution and relationship of all variables involved in vapour cloud explosions. In summary, using this new methodology, simulation of explosions is simpler and faster. References

Fig. 11. Characteristic curves and iso-distance lines of VCEs with different energies and a charge strength of 9. Obtained using the TNO Multi-Energy model. [1] M.J. Tang, Q.A. Baker, A new set of blast curves from vapour cloud explosion, Process Safety Prog. 18 (3) (1999) 235240. [2] I. Chem. E (Institution of Chemical Engineers), Explosions in the Process Industries, Major Hazards Monograph. IChemE, UK, 1994.

F.D. Alonso et al. / Journal of Hazardous Materials A137 (2006) 734741 [3] F.P. Lees, Loss prevention in the process industries, 2nd ed., ButterworthHeinemann, London, 1996. [4] S. Contini, G.F. Francocci, Rassegna di modelli per la valutazione degli effetti delle esplosioni negli impianti industriali. Centro Comune di Ricerca, Ispra, Italia. ISEI/IE 2397/93, 1993. [5] S. Hoiset, B.H. Hjertager, T. Solberg, K.A. Malo, Flixborough revisited an explosion simulation approach, J. Hazard. Mater. A77 (2000) 19. [6] K. van Windergen, H.C. Salvesen, R. Perbal, Simulation of an accidental vapour cloud explosion, Process Safety Prog. 14 (3) (1995) 173181. [7] W.P.M. Mercx, A.C. van den Berg, Methods for the Calculation of Physical Effects (The Yellow book), TNO, The Netherlands, 1997. [8] W.P.M. Mercx, A.C. van den Berg, C.J. Hayhurst, N.J. Robertson, K.C. Moran, Developments in vapour cloud explosion blast modelling, J. Hazard. Mater. 71 (2000) 301319. [9] R.P. Cleaver, C.G. Robinson, An analysis of the mechanisms of overpressure generation in vapour cloud explosions, J. Hazard. Mater. 45 (1996) 2744. [10] R.P. Cleaver, C.E. Humphreys, J.D. Morgan, C.G. Robinson, Development of a model to predict the effects of explosions in compact congested regions, J. Hazard. Mater. 53 (1997) 3555. [11] K.G. Kinsella, A rapid assesment methodology for the prediction of vapour cloud explosion overpressure, in: Proceedings of the International Conference and Exhibition on Safety, Health and Loss Prevention in the Oil, Chemical and Process Industries, Singapore, 1993. [12] Q.A. Baker, M.J. Tang, E.A. Scheier, G.J. Silva, Vapour cloud explosion analysis, Process Safety Prog. 15 (2) (1996) 106109.

741

[13] J.B.M.M. Eggen, GAME: Development of Guidance for the Application of the Multi-energy Method, TNO Prins Maurits Laboratory, Rijswijk, The Netherlands, 1998. [14] W.P.M. Mercx, A.C. van den Berg, D. van Leeuwen, Application of correlations to quantify the source strength of vapour cloud explosions in realistic situations. Final report for the project: GAMES, TNO Prins Maurits Laboratory, Rijswijk, The Netherlands. [15] J. Lobato, P. Ca izares, M. Rodrigo, C. S ez, J. Linares, A comparison of n a hydrogen cloud explosion models and the study of the vulnerability of the damage caused by an explosion of H2 , Int. J. Hydrogen Energy 31 (2006) 17801790. [16] J. Lobato, P. Ca izares, M. Rodrigo, C. S ez, J. Linares, Study of the effects n a of an explosion of hydrogen in a lab, in: 2nd European Hydrogen Energy Conference, Zaragoza, November 2005, 2005, p. 646. [17] F. Rigas, S. Sklavounos, Major hazards analysis for populations adjacent to chemical storage facilities, Process Safety Environ. Prot. 82 (B4) (2004) 111. [18] M. Maremonti, G. Russo, E. Salzano, V. Tufano, Post-accident analysis of vapour cloud explosions in fuel storage areas, Process Safety Environ. Prot. 77 (B6) (1999) 360365. [19] F. Rigas, S. Sklavounos, Risk and consequence analyses of hazardous chemicals in marshalling yards and warehouses at Ikonio/Piraeus harbour, Greece, J. Loss Prevention Process Ind 15 (2002) 531544. [20] E. Salzano, V. Cozzani, The analysis of domino accidents triggered by vapor cloud explosions, Reliability Eng. System Safety 90 (2005) 271284.

- Chemical Process Safety, Fundamentals With Applications,3rd EdUploaded byNigel Kow
- Evaluating Vapor Cloud Explosions Using a Flame Acceleration Method 7 42Uploaded byralph1949
- 38 Vapor Cloud Explosion GexConUploaded byNoah Ryder
- Assessment of Vapour Cloud Explosion RiskUploaded bythawdar
- 2006--Studies in Multiple Impeller Agitated Gas Liquid Cont Actors 2006Uploaded bysatish_shewale
- Cosmetic Formulation of Skin Care ProductsUploaded byFarhana Shermeen
- Comparison of Blast Prediction Models of Vapor Cloud Explosions NRCnrcc44715Uploaded byNabil Al-Khirdaji
- PGS2-1997 Methods for the Calculation of Physical Effects Chapter 4 Vapour Cloud DispersionUploaded byBroncoUSA
- Agitator Calc DataUploaded byFatah Soomro
- Intro to Plant Design-2012 BeginnerUploaded byAllan David
- INVESTIGATION TECHNIQUES USED TO DETERMINE THE MASSIVE VAPOR CLOUD EXPLOSION AT THE BUNCEFIELD FUEL DEPOTUploaded byEli
- Quentin A. Baker et al- Update of “Guidelines to Vapor Cloud Explosion, Pressure Vessel Burst, BLEVE and Flash Fire Hazards”Uploaded bySodaMoussez
- 1300 Math Formulas a SvirinUploaded byIon Logofătu Albert
- Yield Stress Bentonite KelessidisUploaded byVassilios Kelessidis
- M.J. Tang and Q.A. Baker- A New Set of Blast Curves from Vapor Cloud ExplosionUploaded bySodaMoussez
- TNO Yellow Book CPR 14EUploaded byarunmurthy
- IAEA Technical Series 359Uploaded byAzam Islam
- Flow Diagram of Typical RefineryUploaded byFahad Bin Samad
- crystalliser designUploaded byaeddison
- Processing Technologies for Poly(Lactic Acid)Uploaded byAero Fortia Natura
- Mixers and Impellers_vortexUploaded byManish Sharma
- Slurry HDPE Process TechnologyUploaded byGenilson E Neliane Silva
- Leaching EquipmentsUploaded byArun Kumar
- Final+ +Oleochemicals+ManufacturingUploaded byNimrod_Tahir_S_5134
- biodieselUploaded byRavi Kumar
- Agitator and Tank GeometryUploaded byAhmed_Vawda_1542
- Flow Induced Vibration by Robert D. Blevins - 2nd EdUploaded bydemonlist
- NATO Manual on Storage of AmmoUploaded bycasanova385
- Analysis of Blast Loading Effect on High Rise BuildingsUploaded byAlexander Decker
- Blast Resistant Design of Rc StructuresUploaded byJC

- BLEVE ModelsUploaded byCarlos Rocha
- D. Vallauri, I.C. Atıas Adran and A. Chrysanthou- TiC–TiB2 composites: A review of phase relationships, processing and propertiesUploaded bySodaMoussez
- N.N. Thadhani, R. Russell and K. Vandersall- Time Resolved Pressure Measurement Instrumentation for High-Strain-Rate MaterialsUploaded bySodaMoussez
- M. U. Anderson, Ii- A. Graham and G. T. Holman- Time-Resolved Shock Compression of Porous Rutile: Wave Dispersion in Porous SolidsUploaded bySodaMoussez
- G.T. Holman, Jr., R.A. Graham and M.U. Anderson- Shock Response of Porous 2Al+Fe2O3 Powder MixturesUploaded bySodaMoussez
- Stephen J. Lane et al- Experimental observations of pressure oscillations and flow regimes in an analogue volcanic systemUploaded bySodaMoussez
- Mikhail Klassen- The physics of nuclear weapons: A delicate balanceUploaded bySodaMoussez
- C.J. Lea and H.S. Ledin- A Review of the State-of-the-Art in Gas Explosion ModellingUploaded bySodaMoussez
- Sergey B. Dorofeev- A Flame Speed Correlation for Unconfined Gaseous ExplosionsUploaded bySodaMoussez
- Øystein Larsen and Rolf K. Eckhoff- Critical dimensions of holes and slots for transmission of gas explosions: Some preliminary results for propane/air and cylindrical holesUploaded bySodaMoussez
- A. Beccantini, A. Malczynski and E. Studer- Comparison OF TNT-Equivalency Approach, TNO Multi-Energy Approach and a CFD Approach in Investigating Hemispheric Hydrogen-Air Vapor Cloud ExplosionsUploaded bySodaMoussez
- Weimin Ma et al- In-vessel Coolability and Steam Explosion in Nordic BWRsUploaded bySodaMoussez
- Kees van Wingerden, Olav Roald Hansen and Pierre Foisselon- Predicting Blast Overpressures Caused by Vapor Cloud Explosions in the Vicinity of Control RoomsUploaded bySodaMoussez
- M.J. Tang and Q.A. Baker- A New Set of Blast Curves from Vapor Cloud ExplosionUploaded bySodaMoussez
- Timothy A. Melton and Jeffrey D. Marx- Estimating Flame Speeds for Use with the BST Blast CurvesUploaded bySodaMoussez
- A. Beccantini, A. Malczynski and E. Studer- Comparison of TNT-Equivalence Approach, TNO Multi-Energy Approach and a CFD Approach in Investigating Hemispheric Hydrogen-Air Vapor Cloud ExplosionsUploaded bySodaMoussez
- Daejun Chang- Fire and Explosion: Basic PhenomenaUploaded bySodaMoussez
- Quentin A. Baker et al- Update of “Guidelines to Vapor Cloud Explosion, Pressure Vessel Burst, BLEVE and Flash Fire Hazards”Uploaded bySodaMoussez
- Mouna El Mekki et al- Lifetime of superheated water in a micrometric synthetic fluid inclusionUploaded bySodaMoussez
- K.I. Shmulovich and L. Mercury- Geochemical Phenomena at Negative PressuresUploaded bySodaMoussez
- Kirill I. Shmulovich et al- Experimental superheating of water and aqueous solutionsUploaded bySodaMoussez
- Srikanth Sastry et al- Free volume in the hard sphere liquidUploaded bySodaMoussez
- E. La Nave et al- Instantaneous Normal Mode Analysis of Supercooled WaterUploaded bySodaMoussez
- Srikanth Sastry et al- Statistical geometry of particle packings. II. ‘‘Weak spots’’ in liquidsUploaded bySodaMoussez
- Srikanth Sastry et al- Statistical geometry of particle packings. I. Algorithm for exact determination of connectivity, volume, and surface areas of void space in monodisperse and polydisperse sphere packingsUploaded bySodaMoussez
- Benjamin Vekhter et al- Vibrational relaxation of clusters: Relation to potential surface topographyUploaded bySodaMoussez
- D. S. Corti et al- Constraints, metastability, and inherent structures in liquidsUploaded bySodaMoussez
- V.E. Vinogradov and P.A. Pavlov- Limiting Superheat of Aqueous Solutions at Negative PressuresUploaded bySodaMoussez
- V. G. Baidakov- Experimental investigations of superheated and supercooled waterUploaded bySodaMoussez

- Sulphur[1]Uploaded byKarthick Deivasagayam
- Diesel EnginesUploaded bySoeAye
- ERA 00 PaperUploaded byJohn simpson
- Tales of Demons and Gods - Chapter 151-200Uploaded bySamuelAraujo
- Occupational Safety and HealthUploaded byEliza_Sinta_2891
- SAP WhitePaper Substance Volume Tracking EhP3 EnUploaded bychaitu2403
- 6Uploaded byRavi Krishnan
- Explosives and Dangerous GoodsUploaded byZuhal Zaeem
- Praxair_Report.pdfUploaded byBharat Vaaj
- 01 Hb of ExcipientUploaded byMonicha Cicilia
- Boiler EmergenciesUploaded byAnonymous QY7Iu8fB
- Carrier, Ammunition, Tracked m992a2Uploaded byarmy3005
- Wih a Insulated CatalogUploaded byRoClerk
- Michael Neff and Eugene Fiume- A Visual Model For BlastWaves and FractureUploaded byGhoree23456
- Storage of Cryogenic Air Gases at Users' PremisesUploaded byKarthick Venkatesh
- TOC - FEFAUploaded byZamri Sidik
- Guide to ATEX 137Uploaded byEkambaram Anandan
- Msds CitricUploaded byRamani Elampooranan K E
- Dynamic PiperackUploaded byAnonymous xcFcOgMi
- 095 Potassium DichromateUploaded byeng20072007
- A Review on Blast Analysis of Reinforced Concrete Viaduct Pier StructuresUploaded byIRJET Journal
- P4 Firework PoemsUploaded bynuala_mcelroy
- Process Safety - Is Safety Common SenseUploaded bysl1828
- CementUploaded bydurok
- Study of Interaction of Entrained Coal Dust Particles in Lean Methane–AirUploaded bySinan Demir
- msdsUploaded byfrespinosag
- Pennzoil refUploaded byasadashfaqlodhi
- ExplosionUploaded byXozan
- Evaluation of various theoretical models of underwater explosionsUploaded byManeesh Jey
- Fernando Dıaz Alonso et al- Characteristic overpressure–impulse–distance curves for vapour cloud explosions using the TNO Multi-Energy modelUploaded bySodaMoussez