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layout using standard taping techniques and off-curve EDM measurements. Apply knowledge of spreadsheet development learned in traverse laboratories to compute circular curve coordinate and layout data for field survey. Data PI Station = 32+ 30.30 with coordinates of 170.34E, 284.51N (your coordinate values and distances only need to be shown to the nearest 0.01 foot). Azimuth of BC to PI tangent = 30O 00 00 Delta = 36O 00 00 and the curve is to the right D = 8O 00 00 Computations required 1) Complete sufficient manual computations of the circular curve to identify the following: BC and EC stations around the curve, as well as the EC station coming along the tangent. Deflection angle from BC to station 34+00 Coordinates of Station 34+00 The answers are included in the following table, although the individual calculations to develop them are not included here In the hand computations they were only asked to complete a small portion of the table below. The BC and EC stations, the deflection angles and the Coordinates of Station 34 are shown in the table. The only element not shown there is the EC station coming along the tangent from the PI Station EC from PI = 32+30.30 + T = 32+30.30 + 2+32.71 = 34+63.01 In the table EC around the curve was found to be 34+ 47.49 .

Sheet3 Simple Circular curves revised 1/2/03 (Spiral length is 0 for simple circular curves) Given R, Delta, PI sta and coordinates, azimuth from PC to PI Place needed data in shaded cells Distances may be m or ft. deg 8 716.1975 Givens: spirallen= 0 PI Sta = 3230.30m X coord Y coord Delta = 36deg PI = 170.348 284.507 PC or TS 53.99 82.98 Azi PC to PI = 30deg PT or ST 382.94 379.16 Radius = 716.197m Radius pt. 164.47 -275.12of CC Curve to : mid pt cc 195.01 317.38 Right =+1 1 Back AZ= 210.00deg Left = -1 L of Cir C 450.00 Tangent = 232.71 L.C. of cc 442.63 mid ord = 35.05 Ext. = 36.86 Increment = 50 Partial Chords: Nominal length = true chord = mid ord =

arc dist defl angleDEFLECTION ANGLE STA Sta (m) from PC from PC degrees min BC or SC 2997.59 0 0 0.00 0.00 30 3000 2.41 0.096264 0.00 5.00 30.5 3050 52.41 2.096264 2.00 5.00 31 3100 102.41 4.096264 4.00 5.00 31.5 3150 152.41 6.096264 6.00 5.00 32 3200 202.41 8.096264 8.00 5.00 32.5 3250 252.41 10.09626 10.00 5.00 33 3300 302.41 12.09626 12.00 5.00 33.5 3350 352.41 14.09626 14.00 5.00 34 3400 402.41 16.09626 16.00 5.00 CS or EC 3447.59 450.00 18 18.00 0.00

chord from PC X Coord Y Coord 0 0.00 53.99 82.98 47 2.41 55.20 85.06 47 52.39 81.83 127.36 47 102.32 111.35 167.71 47 152.12 143.61 205.89 47 201.73 178.46 241.74 47 251.10 215.72 275.06 47 300.17 255.22 305.71 47 348.86 296.76 333.52 47 397.13 340.13 358.37 0 442.63 382.94 379.16

2) General spreadsheet A basic spreadsheet layout with initial computations will be provided by the instructor The results of the spreadsheet are included on the previous page 3) Angle and distance measurements for EDM The surveyor found a convenient location in the field to use to set out the curve from a single point that was not on the curve. The following measurements were made from this position to two control points A and B, with the instrument at I.

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Instrument at I. Distance IA = 477.86 feet, Distance IB = 499.26 feet. Points A and B were both west of the instrument. The angle AIB was 75O 59 00. a) In the office the coordinates of the control points were found to be: A: 398.44 E, 215.65 N B: 432.66 E, 877.13 N.

Calculate the position the surveyor plans to occupy by using two strategies: 1. Use the measured distance data in conjunction with the calculated AB distance 2. Use distance AI and the measured angle.

1) Find length and azimuth of A B using basic inversing equations learned in the traverse programming: Length = 662.36 Azimuth = 20 57 41 2) Strategy 1: Find coordinate of I using only the distances Cosine law can be applied to determine Angle I and the Sine law or Cosine Law can be used to determine the other two angles: The values are shown in Table 1 along with the solutions using the measured angle, the control line and one of the measured field distances.

Strategy 2: Find coordinate of I using Angle AIB, and distances AB and AI Sine law can be used for all remaining unknowns. The results are shown in Table 1 and Table 2. Strategy 3: Although not required, the calculated coordinates using line IB, AB and angle AIB are also shown. (Note: the process of computing the coordinates of an occupied point using field measurements is referred to as resection. Many modern total stations have the software to do this for the user. Not all total stations in our laboratory have this capability). Strategy 1 requires application of the cosine law to find the first angle, then cosine law or sine law can be used The three angles should be: A = 48 d 44 11 B = 45d 58 48 I = 85d 19 01 The coordinates of I can be found by using the coordinates of A and the knowledge that the Azimuth to I must be 20 57 41 + 480 44 11 Strategy 2 can begin with the sine law to find Angle B (using angle I plus the distances IA and AB. All results are shown in Tables 1 and 2 below. Only Strategy 1 and 2 were asked for in the lab instructions. Table 1 Computed angles and sides for Instrument location Distance or Angle Strategy 1 Strategy 2 IA 477.86 (measured) 477.86 (measured) IB 499.26 (measured) 499.33 Angle A 480 41 56 480 41 28 Angle B 450 58 34 450 58 37 0 Angle I 85 19 30 850 8900(measrd) Table 2 Coordinates of Total Station (I) Strategy Easting Strategy 1 773.25 Strategy 2 773.29 Strategy 3 773.31 Average 773.28

Relying on distance measurements produced a calculated angle 30 seconds less than the measured angle. This difference would be considered very large for an instrument that apparently can measure to the nearest second. Of course, the angle may have been correct and the difference is due to errors in the distance measurements. Fortunately, because the triangle was a reasonably strong triangle, the coordinates were reasonably consistent. (Small angles, especially those less than 20 degrees when the sine of the angle is needed in computations, are undesirable). Even in our situation, the computed Northing differed by over 0.10 feet, dependent on the data used to compute the coordinate.

b) Using the coordinates from part a, establish a table to show the azimuth and distance from the instrument to points A and B and all the curve points including the PI, BC, EC, and every half station along the curve. If coordinates of I are taken to be 773.28E, 512.08N the Azimuth to point A (398.44 E, 215.65 N ) is Azi = 2700 Atan( (215.65-512.08)/(398.44- 773.28) = 2310 39 45 Dist = sqrt(deltax^2 + deltaY^2) = 477.89

All other distances and azimuths from I could be calculated in a similar manner. Since the students had already written a program to inverse coordinates to distances and azimuths, I would expect most of them to copy segments of that program to make a spreadsheet that would work here.

Table 3 Distance and Azimuth data for Circular curve from Total Station

dist to nex sta

Coordinates STATION INSTRUMENT Contrl point BC Sta. 30.00 30.50 31.00 31.50 32.00 32.50 33 33.5 34 EC PI

delta E E 773.28 398.44 53.99 55.19 81.83 111.35 143.61 178.45 215.72 255.21 296.75 340.12 382.93 170.34 N 512.08 215.65 82.98 85.06 127.37 167.71 205.90 241.74 275.06 305.71 333.52 358.37 379.16 284.51

delta N to next sta 374.840 719.293 718.087 691.454 661.935 629.673 594.827 557.565 518.069 476.532 433.156 390.352 602.940

Azimuth point

Azimuths (radians )

degrees

minutes

sec

296.430 429.100 427.018 384.713 344.369 306.183 270.340 237.016 206.371 178.557 153.708 132.920 227.570

477.89 837.56 835.46 791.27 746.16 700.17 653.38 605.85 557.66 508.89 459.62 412.36 644.46

4.043272 4.174505 4.175905 4.204658 4.232675 4.259796 4.285811 4.310441 4.333308 4.353881 4.371395 4.384191 4.351486

231 239 239 240 242 244 245 246 248 249 250 251 249

39 10 15 54 30 4 33 58 16 27 27 11 19

45 53 42 33 52 6 32 12 49 32 45 44 18

Summary The spreadsheet programs took time to develop, but the principles used were those learned from previous activity. Similar problems encountered in the future (class project and other) will be easily addressed. In reviewing the final layout problem, the surveyor may need to re-consider the setup location as several distances are long; sighting the point may be difficult unless the optics of the instrument are good. In any event, to verify the correctness of the layout the points will need to be checked from another location or by a different method.

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