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Faculty of Science Mahasarakham University
Dr. Jolyon Dodgson
Introduction Chapter 1 1.1 1.2 1.3 1.4 1.5 1.6 1.7 1.8 1.9 1.10 Chapter 2 2.1 2.2 2.3 2.4 2.5 Chapter 3 3.1 3.2 3.3 3.3.1 3.3.2 3.3.3 3.3.4 3.3.5 Chapter 4 4.1 4.2 4.3 4.4 4.5 4.6 4.6.1 4.6.2 4.6.3 4.6.4 Chapter 5 5.1 5.2 Reading Skimming Scanning Skimming vs. scanning Detailed reading – Studying the text Critical reading - Including critical thinking Active reading Dictionaries and glossaries Reading scientific papers (journal articles) Practice reading English Ways to improve your English reading comprehension Paraphrasing and Summarizing Quotations Paraphrasing and summary Paraphrasing Paraphrase: Write it in your own words Summarizing Basic Grammar for English for science Adverbs Articles Verb tenses The present The past The present perfect What other tenses are used in scientific and technical writing? Points to check in your writing Basic Scientific writing Passive voice Prefixes Suffixes Cause and effect linking words Systems and processes Style Objectivity Clarity Formality Hedging Poster Presentations What is a scientific poster? How to make your poster
3 4 4 5 5 5 6 7 7 8 9 9 11 11 11 12 13 15 17 17 19 21 22 23 24 24 25 26 26 27 30 33 35 36 36 37 38 41 44 44 45 51 60 62 66 70 71 72
Appendix 1 – Newspaper passages Appendix 2 – Short comprehension passages Appendix 3 – Long comprehension passages Appendix 4 – Reading passages Appendix 5 – Standard reading exercise Appendix 6 – Paraphrasing passages Appendix 7 – Scientific articles
This book and the course book for the English for Science 2 course will cover the usage of English related to scientific work. The first semester will cover reading, writing summaries and poster presentations. This course book includes all the information that will be used in the PowerPoint presentations in each of the classes. You will need this guide in the classes as the lectures will use the examples in this book as starting points. You will also need the ‗English for Science 1 Exercise Book‘ as this contains all the exercises that you will do in the classes. You need to bring both books to all the classes. The most important sections will be explored in more detail in the lectures. This guide could be printed so that two pages are on each side of a piece of A4 paper. You should still be able to read it at that size and it will be cheaper to print. You will hopefully find this guide useful long after you have finished the English for Science course, as you can continue to use it as a reference. Remember that to get better at anything and especially learning a foreign language you need to practice, not just in class but every day. We hope that you will enjoy the class and wish you every success for completing it.
The English for Science Lectures
The information that you will be taught in your lectures and practical classes is only a small amount of the information that you will need to know if you are to be ‗good‘ at what you do when you leave university. The rest of the information you will need to find out for yourselves, most often from written sources, both while you are at university and in later life. The vast majority of information published is in English. So you will need to be able to, at the most basic level, identify what a piece of text is saying and ideally understand all the information contained within it. The strategies and techniques in this section will teach you how to obtain the most relevant information in the shortest time. They could also be used when you are reading information in Thai as well as in English. They are:
Knowing what you need to know, and reading appropriately. Knowing how deeply to read the document: skimming, scanning or studying. Using active reading techniques to pick out key points and keep your mind focused on the material. Critically read and think about everything you read (books, journal articles, magazines, lecture handouts) and decide if it is going to provide useful information. Using the table of contents for reading magazines and newspapers. Understanding how to extract information from different article types.
Before you start to read anything you need to know why you are reading it. If you are only reading something because your lecturer told you to, you will be wasting your time. Ask yourself – ‗why did my lecturer tell me to read this?‘ Once you have decided what you are meant to be learning from a piece of writing you will be much more effective at remembering the information.
Definition - Skimming is a reading technique that can help you to read more quickly, and then decide if the text is interesting and whether you should read it in more detail. Skimming is a fast reading technique. Use it to obtain the gist of a piece of text (i.e. to quickly identify the main ideas in the text). Explanation When skimming text:
do not read the whole text word-for-word. use as many clues as possible to give you some background information. For example there might be pictures or images related to the topic. let your eyes skim over the surface of the text and, whilst thinking about any clues you have found about the subject, look out for key words. read the title, subtitles and subheading to find out what the text is about. read the first and last sentence of each paragraph. continue to think about the meaning of the text.
use the 'header' words to help you scan. search for a plumber in your local telephone book. Scanning is also useful when studying or looking to find specific information from a book or article quickly as there is not always time to read every word. After you have skimmed a piece of text to decide whether the text is of interest. Sometimes you can use both reading methods. to help you. In detailed reading you will read most if not all of the words. Use skimming to get the gist of a page of a textbook to decide whether it is useful and should therefore be read more slowly and in more detail. o E. 5 . o E.1. These include everyday materials such as the phone book and indexes to books and catalogues. if you are reading for study.4 Detailed reading – Studying the text Definition – Detailed reading is slower reading than skimming or scanning but much more information will be obtained from the text. You can find these in bold type at the top of each page.Scanning is a fast reading technique. Use scanning to find a particular number in a telephone directory.3 Skimming vs. many texts use A-Z order. you may wish to use scanning techniques to locate specific information. Doing this can focus your mind and help you find the facts or information that you need more easily. Instead let your eyes move quickly across the page until you find what you are looking for.2 Scanning Definition . or scan web pages on the Internet to find specific information. scanning The term skimming is often confused with scanning. start by thinking up or writing down some questions that you want to answer. Try looking up a favourite recipe in the index of a cookbook. such as headings and titles.g. Remember: Skimming is used to obtain the gist (the overall sense) of a piece of text. in a dictionary or phone book. Scanning is used to obtain specific information from a piece of text. It is a way of reading to look for specific information in a text. 1. Explanation When scanning text: do not try to read every word. use clues on the page. there are many ways to practise scanning skills.g. 1.
appealing for sympathy or making a contrast to clarify a point. you identify if the text is offering examples. None of these goals actually refers to something on the page. one must think critically to actively recognize and analyze evidence upon the page. arguing. Recognizing bias involves classifying the nature of patterns of choice of content and language. Critical readers then infer what the text. Critical thinkers: are honest with themselves resist manipulation 6 . as a whole. Each requires inferences from evidence within the text: Recognizing purpose involves inferring a basis for choices of content and language. ‗means‘.5 Critical reading . you identify the author‘s point of view.Explanation Detailed reading: is a technique to use once you have decided if a text is useful. should use active reading techniques. based on the earlier analysis. When critically reading you should try to accomplish the following goals: to recognize an authors purpose. is a slower technique so should be used to obtain detailed information. 1. To read critically. Critical reading is not simply close and careful reading. Recognizing tone and persuasive elements involves classifying the nature of language choices. to recognize bias. you understand that one text will present only one portrayal of the information. Explanation When critically reading text: you are evaluating the text for reliability. to understand tone and persuasive elements.Including critical thinking Definition – Critical reading is a technique that identifies the reliability of a piece of text and the therefore the value that should be placed on the information it contains. should be used after you have skimmed and scanned a text. should also be critical reading.
keywords and ‗new‘ technical words. a good paper English-Thai is very important. Use a large dictionary which defines words rather than referring you to another similar word that might also be unfamiliar to you. Pay attention to the tables. ‗on the other hand‘.7 Dictionaries and glossaries A dictionary is a very important tool when reading any text. Write notes or questions next to the text in the margins. When your English skills become better try to use an English dictionary where the definitions are also in English. For example ‗most importantly‘. 1. Do not do this on borrowed books etc. Also avoid dictionaries that use complicated words to define other words as you will then have to look up a second word to understand the first. Make sure you understand these. Read the text critically. figures and photographs. For reading English or writing. This should take more thought than highlighting so you might remember the text better. Use ‗Post-it notes‘ if you do not want to write in the book. When you return to the text these will help you pick the important points quickly. These can be left sticking out of pages so you can find the section again quickly. Do not highlight too much as this will not help. ‗in contrast‘. no matter where the information came from base judgments on evidence look for connections between subjects are intellectually independent 1. 7 .6 Active reading Definition – Active reading is a technique where you are thinking about and analyzing the text as you are reading it. Look for ‗signpost‘ words that help you understand the text. You can create your own index of information so that you can find related passages quickly in the future. Have a set of questions you would like to have answered by the end of the text. Make notes in your own journal of the main headings. Test your self sometime after reading the text by writing down all that you can remember. overcome confusion ask questions. Explanation Active reading techniques are: Underline or highlight key words and phrases as you read. Do not do this on borrowed books etc.
referred. are not always true. use experimental data to prove the author‘s claims. A glossary is a list of terms in a particular area of knowledge with the definitions for those terms. especially if you are reading large amounts of difficult technical material. 1. Scientific papers follow set principles and are written in a specific way: Title and author‘s names Abstract Introduction – including a paragraph stating the aims Methods Results Discussion Conclusion – often included as the last paragraph of the discussion Acknowledgements References You do not need to read all of a paper to get useful information. in-depth information. are detailed. are written in formal English. are most often printed in English.8 Reading scientific papers (journal articles) Scientific papers: present original. A useful order in which to read a paper can be: Title – Form an initial guess about the article Keywords – Revise the initial guess Abstract – Compare the guess with the abstract Aim – In the last paragraph of the introduction usually Introduction – This should give useful background information Conclusion and discussion – Did the authors manage to achieve the aim of the paper? Figures and tables – Lists the data the conclusions are based on Methods and Results – These provide the specific information on how the experiment was carried out and will usually be the most technical 8 .If you do not have your dictionary with you write down any words you do not know and look them up later. You could compile your own glossary of technical terms that you come across and use it supplement your dictionary when reading text.
co.10 Ways to improve your English reading comprehension Improving your ability to read English quickly and accurately takes a great deal of practice. Take notes on subjects that interest you If you are reading a book on a topic that you enjoy. you may even want to dedicate your reading time to those sections of the news.gutenberg. you can select from a wide variety of reading materials. In most cases. there will be authors writing newsletters about it in English. If this is something that interests you. word searches and other similar games. It also has a section of children‘s books. You can download entire books from Project Gutenberg (http://www. because they provide you with fresh and contemporary reading materials on a topic that you already know something about. Play word games If you are looking for a way to improve your vocabulary and have fun at the same time. you can find some of their works for free online. 9 . Read news articles in English Unlike years ago. you can find free news resources on the internet (http://news. including different methods of presentation. You can get Dracula by Bram Stoker or the origin of Species by Charles Darwin. These may also be an excellent place for you to find the names of other websites that have additional information that you might be interested in. take some notes. These newsletters are ideal.uk/2/hi/asia-pacific/default. This will help you learn to discuss these topics in a way that sounds more natural. you might also consider Scrabble.1. There are other ways besides reading scientific literature which you can use to practice your English reading skills. crossword puzzles and other types of word game puzzles can be of immense help to you. These can be direct samples from the text or you can try putting sections in your own words.stm). 1. If you are interested in particular area of the world. Reading classic books online If you have never had a chance to read the works of Dickens. Poe. it should be fairly easy to locate websites that sponsor free newsletters.org/wiki/Main_Page).9 Practice reading English To improve your ability to read and understand English you need to practice reading. If you search the web. Once you know the basic elements of the English language. you can have access to news in English whenever you want. you will also have an opportunity to think about the sentence structures and see how ideas are conveyed. Subscribe to internet newsletters If there is a hobby you are interested in.bbc. or other classical English writers. As you write.
Read materials from many different authors Considering the number of people that have websites. This will help you to learn about the flexibility of the English language. once you know the basic elements of the English language. you can use that background to help you read websites in English that focus on similar concepts. It is important to spend time reading materials that interest you in as many forms as possible. Regardless of which subjects interest you the most. Over time you will see improvements in your comprehension of written English. practice and time will be your most valuable teachers. If you already know a great deal about a certain topic in your native language. By applying yourself to the ones that are more difficult. For example. it is time to start tackling a longer book or one on a more difficult topic.Select materials that will challenge you You need to constantly set new goals for yourself so that you continue to progress and improve. For the most part. 10 . if you‘re able to work your way through a 100 page children‘s book. as well as the means of expression that most people are comfortable with. you will be able to find some books that are harder to comprehend than others. it is easy to sample a wide range of English writing styles. you will improve your English.
paraphrases.1 Quotations There are several ways to integrate quotations into your text. and summaries serve many purposes. either for you own notes or as part of a lab report or essay you will need to research and incorporate the writing of others into your own texts. be sure that you have a good reason to include a direct quotation when you decide to do so.2 Paraphrasing and summary Whenever you are writing. Paraphrasing involves putting a passage from source material into your own words. 11 . and summaries? Quotations. paraphrases. Often. Summarizing involves putting the main idea(s) into your own words. Two unavoidable steps in that process are paraphrasing (changing the language into your own) and summarizing (getting rid of smaller details and leaving only the primary points). Remember that quoting should be done only sparingly. including only the main point(s). A paraphrase must also be attributed to the original source. Longer quotations can stand alone. Summaries are significantly shorter than the original and take a broad overview of the source material. They must match the source document word for word and must be attributed to the original author. sentence. 2. or passage by quoting the original Distance yourself from the original by quoting it in order to cue readers that the words are not your own Expand the breadth or depth of your writing 2. using a narrow segment of the source.2 Paraphrasing and summarizing These three ways of incorporating other writers' work into your own writing differ according to the closeness of your writing to the source writing. Once again. These steps are necessary for three reasons. You might use them to: Provide support for claims or add credibility to your writing Refer to work that leads up to the work you are now doing Give examples of several points of view on a subject Call attention to a position that you wish to agree or disagree with Highlight a particularly striking phrase. it is necessary to attribute summarized ideas to the original source. Why use quotations. taking a somewhat broader segment of the source and condensing it slightly. a short quotation works well when integrated into a sentence. Quotations must be identical to the original. Paraphrased material is usually shorter than the original passage.
and the order of the sentence remains essentially the same. Second. you can be accused of plagiarism. have generated a constitutional debate over popular music. For an individual 12 . but it is supposed to be about advocacy FOR violence. Summarizing and paraphrasing are frequently used together. what authors write is considered to be their property. When you are paraphrasing. you make a piece of information your own. while maintaining the logical connections among them. and you understand it better. by paraphrasing and summarizing. the meaning of the original is altered somewhat: it claims that the debate is about advocacy AND violence. Change the sentence structure and the order of major ideas. but not always. In the second attempt at paraphrasing. it limits your own learning. by copying it (without giving credit). Example The current constitutional debate over heavy metal rock and gangsta rap music is not just about the explicit language but also advocacy. there are a number of strategies you can apply: Locate the individual statements or major idea units in the original.3 Paraphrasing Paraphrasing is making different word choices and re-arranging words in such a way that maintains the same meaning. 2. For example. Explanation In the inadequate paraphrase. First. just like a coat or a car. Third. the original writers did not write for the audiences you are targeting. Adequate paraphrase Lyrics in some rap and heavy metal songs that appear to promote violence. an act of incitement to violence. but sounds different enough that readers will not be reminded of the original writer‘s words. along with concerns about obscenity. too few of the words have been changed. if the author you are paraphrasing presents a generalization and then backs it up with an example. try using the example as a lead-in to the generalization. Also. if you used the original writer‘s language without any changes. there are inevitably contents and language choices that will not necessarily work for your audience. Inadequate paraphrase Today‘s constitutional debate about gangsta rap and heavy metal rock is not just about obscene language but also advocacy and incitement of acts of violence. enough changes have been made so that readers would not feel that they are reading somebody else‘s words.
Reread the original passage until you understand its full meaning. Paraphrasing is a valuable skill because: It is better than quoting information from an undistinguished passage. Combine or divide sentences as necessary. try to relocate a phrase from the beginning of the sentence to a position near the end. and write your paraphrase on a note card. Substitute words in the original with synonyms. Document the paraphrase—give formal credit to the original writer(s). 6. Anytime you are taking information from a source that is not your own. A more detailed restatement than a summary.4 Paraphrase: Write it in your own words Paraphrasing is one way to use a text in your own writing without directly quoting source material. which focuses concisely on a single main idea. Add the paraphrase into your essay. Set the original aside. 2. or vice versa. sentence. making sure the language in your paraphrase is appropriate for your audience. 6 Steps to Effective Paraphrasing: 1. presented in a new form. 2. Check your rendition with the original to make sure that your version accurately expresses all the essential information in a new form. 4. limiting yourself to quotations of the most striking or interesting language. Record the source (including the page) on your note card so that you can credit it easily if you decide to incorporate the material into your paper. 13 . Use direct quotations from the original sporadically. 3. 5. Do not quote very plainly stated passages. Jot down a few words below your paraphrase to remind you later how you envision using this material. It helps you control the temptation to quote too much. Compare the paraphrase to the original to ensure that the rewording is sufficient and the meaning has been preserved. Use quotation marks to identify any unique term or phraseology you have borrowed exactly from the source. One legitimate way (when accompanied by accurate documentation) to borrow from a source. At the top of the note card. you need to specify where you got that information. The mental process required for successful paraphrasing helps you to grasp the full meaning of the original. A paraphrase is: Your own rendition of essential information and ideas expressed by someone else. write a key word or phrase to indicate the subject of your paraphrase.
Grammar the grammar of the original needs to be changed. (1976): 46-47. e. formulae for the rest of your text. names of countries and organisations). you should strive to limit the amount of exact transcribing of source materials while taking notes. numbers. Since the problem usually originates during note taking. so as to maintain a natural and logical flow? Are they all properly referenced? Examples to compare The original passage: Students frequently overuse direct quotation in taking notes. Probably only about 10% of your final manuscript should appear as directly quoted matter. neutron. Lester. Using your own words makes your paraphrase fit in with the style of the rest of your text. not too long) Have I added my own opinion to the paraphrases? If so.What language changes do I make when paraphrasing? Vocabulary keep the specialised terms that are related to the topic. Points to check in your own writing: Are all my paraphrases relevant? Have I paraphrased the points from my sources accurately? Are my paraphrases of the right length? (not too short. protein do not change proper nouns (e. This will require you to use a variety of subordinate clauses and adverbial or participle phrases. it is essential to minimize the material recorded verbatim (Lester 46-47). failing to keep quoted material down to a desirable level.g. James D. so that the points you are reporting on fit in with the grammatical flow of your text if your paraphrase is summarising and thus shortening the original. and as a result they overuse quotations in the final [research] paper. Therefore. have I made it clear what are the original writer's points and what are mine? Have I structured my paraphrases grammatically into my text. calcium. 14 . or those for which there are no synonyms. this will involve reducing perhaps 3 or 4 sentences (or more) down to one. especially simpler phrases and more common synonyms and expressions. A legitimate paraphrase: In research papers students often quote excessively. use different vocabulary whenever possible. 2nd ed.g. Writing Research Papers.
Read the whole of the original text quickly to gain an impression of its content and its relevance to your work 2. the first two quarters of 2008 have been profitable to the company. or about $5 million. well-connected sentences 7. So it is important to limit the amount of source material copied while taking notes. avoid cutting too much important information. When summarizing. some words have been changed to close synonyms. At such times. the basic order of the original text is maintained. 6. Make notes of your own on these points 4. write out your subsidiary or supporting points in coherent. However. Unlike paraphrasing. Re-read your work to check that you have included all the information that you need. resulting in too many of them in the final research paper. and sales from fifteen departments have risen five percent. or remove minor details. Nineteen of twenty departments report cutting costs at least twenty percent. probably only about 10% of the final copy should consist of directly quoted material. 2. most department heads believe that they will not be able to maintain these levels for the remainder of the year. you will not have to provide the level of detail that the original writer did. A plagiarized version: Students often use too many direct quotations when they take notes. 15 . Revision The first two quarters of 2008 have been profitable. but the rest of the year is not expected to be as good. Begin your summary with a statement of the main idea at the start. Don't forget to include referencing of your source.5 Summarizing In many situations. Here‘s an example: Example Overall. you should summarize. Using your notes. In fact.An acceptable summary: Students should take just a few notes in direct quotation from sources to help minimize the amount of quoted material in a research paper (Lester 46-47). Despite these positive developments. Put away the original and rewrite your notes in your own words in complete sentences 5. Highlight the main points as you read 3.say the same thing in fewer words 1. How to summarize .
damage stadiums. They sometimes challenge the rulings of the referee or linesmen in an offensive way which often deserves exemplary punishment or even sending off. No wonder spectators fight amongst themselves. They might try to take a throw-in or a free kick from an incorrect but more advantageous positions in defiance of the clearly stated rules of the game.‘ (100 words) Summary Unsportsmanlike behaviour by footballers may cause hooliganism among spectators. (9 words) 16 . or take the law into their own hands by invading the pitch in the hope of affecting the outcome of the match. is there a clear thesis statement (with the writer's main idea)? Does it give a reader who has not read the original a clear idea of what it said? Does it include the writer's other main supporting points? Have I cut out unnecessary detail and examples? Does the finished summary have the same balance of ideas as the original text? Is it written in simpler language than the original? Do the ideas in the summary flow logically and in grammatically well-linked sentences? Example Original text ‗At a typical football match we are likely to see players committing deliberate fouls.Points to check in your own writing: In my summary. often behind the referee‘s back.
Finally. etc.10 and 11. ‗To what extent?‘. northwards 17 . when the second material is softer than the one containing the fracture. ‗How often?‘. A slightly non-planar crack is treated as being perturbed from perfectly planar reference crack. ‗Where?‘. The perturbation method we develop here applies to any crack geometries. Which other words can adverbs modify? They can modify: Verbs Magnesium is a metal which burns brightly. Independently. markedly. They do this by providing an answer to such questions as ‗How?‘. To what extent…? Where…? When…? In what manner…? Adjectives This results in very large systems of equations due to the need to extend the discretisation well away from the zone of interest. equally. sideways.3 Basic grammar for English for science 3. out. only. and ‗In what manner?‘. etc. the normalised dynamic stress intensity factors are presented in Figs. we apply a different linear combination of all the nuclei of strain at the object point of material 2. it attracts the fracture towards the interface in the same manner the stiffer material drove it away. ‗When?‘. therefore. finally. How are adverbs formed? We can distinguish three types of adverbs: Simple Compound Derived (mostly derived from adjectives with –ly) just. Other adverbs A whole sentence This results in very large systems of equations due to the need to extend the discretisation well away from the zone of interest. Conversely.1 Adverbs Adverbs are words that modify the meaning of another word or even a whole sentence. herewith. clockwise. back. well. using the same class as for material 1. hereby.
that combine to create a meaning different from the usual meanings of the individual words. Using phrasal verbs Phrasal verbs consist of a verb plus a preposition. Phrasal verbs are more suitable or appropriate for use in informal English. Using adverbs as sentence modifiers In academic writing. do away with. postpone. 18 . conduct cut down. Formal Informal reduce in amount. they can create special vocabulary problems for non-native writers. Adverb Platinum is exceptionally corrosionresistant. though some are quite acceptable in scientific report writing. Iron can easily be extracted from iron ores. but because they are idiomatic. adverbs and adverbial phrases are frequently used as sentence modifiers. they are normally separated from the rest of the sentence by a comma. Adjective Platinum has exceptional resistance to corrosion. When they are used in this way at the beginning of a sentence. calculate. abolish. but whereas you use an adverb to modify a verb or adjective. put off. adjectives can only be applied to nouns. Position of the adverb in the sentence Adverbs can be placed at the beginning. carry out cross out. or a short adverb acting like a preposition. It is easy to extract from iron ores. Iron is easy to extract from iron ores. They function like normal verbs.What are the problem areas when using adverbs? Confusing adjectives and adverbs Adjectives and adverbs can express the same idea. Most of the words that make up phrasal verbs are short and frequently used. remove. in the middle or at the end of a sentence. work out.
can be used o when the noun is singled out as unique or specific o when the reader already knows which particular person(s) or thing(s) etc you are talking about. They connected a phone line to a modem. can be used to talk about objects or ideas in general one particular person or thing. or when it does not matter which one. The indefinite articles. The definite article. A noun can have a definite article when: It is modified by a superlative or ordinal number the first experiment the last measurement the most significant results the only time The telephone can be used to transfer data. The coefficient of expansion of brass is 0. when it is mentioned for the first time. The importance of international co-operation is emphasised in the report. It refers to an entire type or species It refers to an item previously mentioned There is only one of something or it is fully specified by the context or background knowledge It is followed by of + noun phrase 19 .000026oC. The internet is now used by millions of people across the world. etc): Singular A microscope A scientist An experimental plan Plural Five microscopes A large number of scientists Several alternative experimental plans The definite article (the) is used with nouns referring to a unique specific item. or when the reader does not know which one is meant. ideas.3.2Articles Correctly using and choosing the proper article is one of the biggest problems in English grammar. people. the. a / an. The periodic table is often used in chemistry. The modem was connected to a computer in order for the computer to access the internet. What are the basic rules for using the articles? The indefinite article (a / an) is used with singular countable nouns referring to a nonunique item in general (separate objects.
Information. analysis. suggestion Uncountable nouns are things we cannot count. Some words which are basically uncountable nouns can also be used as countable nouns with a somewhat different meaning. fuel.e. music. I‘ve got work now. employer. a soft metal. metal. (The) Little-known sources of air pollution are misfires in a car's engine. they refer to something general. The use of articles with countable and uncountable nouns is as follows: Indefinite Countable – singular Countable – plural Uncountable I‘ve got a new job.. In these sentences. a velocity of 25 m. while some can be either. luggage. work. research. are correct.Note: Some generalisations may be needed in scientific use. and we can make them plural. teacher. job. Most nouns are either countable or uncountable. (The) Creation of the simulation model allows for a degree of optimisation of (the) engine performance. When you want to itemise these nouns. mass. They‘ve got new jobs. one or more of a set. Definite The job is interesting. in particular those including an of + noun phrase. science. advice. water. and this applies to many words in scientific and technical English. e. using the articles or omitting them. What is the difference between countable and uncountable nouns? The distinction between these two types of nouns is very important in English and understanding this will help you to use articles more accurately.. pressure. table. you have to add a phrase like a piece of. an analysis of this problem 20 . sound. i. Car.g. money. progress. material. complex. e. they refer to something more specific. travel. Countable nouns are things we can count. uncountable or plural noun phrases. a carbonated water. They include many abstract nouns that you may use frequently in scientific writing. As uncountable nouns. in which case 'the' is left out in long. temperature As countable nouns. The jobs are interesting.g. per second. We use them with the indefinite article a / an. laboratory. They have no plural form and cannot be used with the indefinite article a / an. velocity. power. The work is interesting.. depending on the meaning or the context. experiment. both options.
Note that the countable version of the noun is used when it is defined in some way. Enter noun phrase Uncountable Or Countable General Or Specific Use no article Use the Plural Or Singular General Or Specific Use a / an Use the 3. Countable The thermometer showed a temperature of over 50oC. How can I choose the correct article? Here is a flow chart which may aid you in correctly choosing the proper article. A water molecule is composed of two hydrogens and one oxygen. Cheaper mild steels are now being produced. This problem is beyond human understanding. Temperature is generally expressed in degrees.Example sentences .3 Verb tenses In scientific and technical writing the choice of verb tenses is quite limited. This factory produces steel. The most commonly used tenses are: the present the past the present perfect 21 . Uncountable A thermometer measures temperature. Water is composed of hydrogen and oxygen. The boy had a high temperature. A clear understanding of the practical implications lies at the heart of successful flow modelling. either by an adjective or an ‗of phrase‘.
22 . he. he. habitual. Here we investigate the properties of the above mentioned metals. She.3. K2 tends to increase the natural frequencies of the forward and backward waves but decrease the natural frequency of the reflected wave. or it lifts. The present tense of all verbs except be is the same as the base form of the verb. Plural You lift. In cases when the eigenvalue of interest is well separated from the others. How is the present tense used? It is used to state facts that are generally valid from the point of view of the writer. I am. or customary action or condition. To form the third-person singular of these verbs. When explaining your purpose. You are. which are the subject of the following chapter. They are. When presenting results. The perturbation method we develop here applies to any crack geometry as long as the crack-face weight function solutions are known for the corresponding reference crack. You are. Singular I lift. We are. Lasers are devices which amplify light and produce beams of light which are very intense. A constant action A condition that is generally true Not always but happening now The Volga River flows southward to the Caspian Sea. use it in the following situations: When writing about your topic or background. just opposite to the effect of M2. and pure in colour. They lift.3. repeated. add -s or -es to the base form. or it is. She. directional.1 The present The present tense expresses a constant. Therefore. It can also express a general truth or an action or condition that is happening right now. Mercury is the planet nearest the sun. We lift. if the findings are general facts. You lift. Little is known about HPS systems. Samantha feels happy.
is the modelling of contact problems involving anisotropic materials. The dogs chased the car until it turned the corner. You were. Most CAD systems use a pen plotter. The plotter makes hard copy of the product represented by digital information in the computer./20/. Except for be all regular and irregular verbs have one past-tense form. he. e. or presenting your results and conclusions from the particular piece of work. You drifted. Plural You drifted. /51/. in conclusions. There are differences in the way the passive and the active forms are used: The present simple passive is used when describing a process or procedure. Singular I drifted. Experimental results were obtained by the use of surface wave transducers. conducting experiments. and the hydrostatic stress-strain curve was calculated using Eq. The past-tense form of be may be either was or were.3. The author believes that one particular application. She. How is the past tense used? You use this when referring to specific tasks carried out. or it drifted.2 The past The past tense expresses an action or condition that was started and completed in the past. You were. The present simple active is preferred in physical descriptions. the deviatoric stress-strain curve was calculated using Eq.When making general statements. We drifted. In Fig. he. such as taking measurements. This observation indicates an obvious inconsistency that is avoided by the introduction of generalised principles. They were. 3. She./52/. which were placed on two perpendicularly intersecting faces of a polished aluminium block. such as describing a piece of apparatus or equipment. describing methods actually used.g. or it was. The past simple passive is mainly used when we report a particular procedure related to only one particular occasion in the past. The plotter represents another important output device. We were. where the results can be useful.4 the uniaxial curve was calculated using Eq. They drifted. I was. 23 .
was sponsored by the Natural Sciences and Engineering Research Council of Canada. I started my research at the beginning of this term.3.The past tense is also used in the introduction to give historical background or development in the field of interest. The past tense is commonly used in acknowledgements. Algebra and trigonometry were well understood and applied during those early years. which led to this paper. mainly in the introduction. use has or have with the past participle of a verb. To form the present perfect tense.3. 3. the development of new sophisticated applicationdesigned materials. I am studying for a Ph.3 The present perfect The present perfect tense expresses an action or condition that occurred at some indefinite time in the past. (past indefinite action) They have remained at the hospital for three days. This chapter has provided you with career information that will help you decide whether or not to pursue a technical degree. continues into present) How is the present perfect used? It is commonly used in the introduction. You use it when you want to stress that something is currently in progress or is only temporary. and especially the unique qualities of composite materials. (action began in past. have given a renewed interest in the problems arising when several different material phases interact with each other. She has heard this song.4 What other tenses are used in scientific and technical writing? Present Continuous This can be found in reports on studies or research. This tense also shows an action or condition that began in the past and continues into the present. 3. particularly when you want to recapitulate the state of the art and show what work has been done and is still in progress. The work. Construction of the pyramids of Egypt and of Central and South America required experience and the labour of many people. 24 . at Brno University of Technology. This financial support is greatly appreciated. I am doing research into the problems of industrial waste. Recent progress in materials science.D. Technologists and craftspeople of early civilisations built huge objects.
When all verbs describe a sequence of actions or states. The purpose of the work presented here was to examine interfacial crack initiation over a wide range of mode mixes. The authors would like to acknowledge the support of the National Science Foundation through Grant number CDR 589712. Conditional In technical and scientific writing.3. indicates the aim of the paper (future tense). In the petroleum industry. I should like to thank just some of the many people who have influenced this book. Item number I 'concrete' will be examined to clarify further the spreadsheet results. The method involves packing off a section of a borehole in the "pay zone" and hydraulically pressurizing it until the formation fractures. Both professionally and personally. The analysis and development of a suitable specimen and biaxial device have already been described. give examples or describe visuals. the conditional is mainly used in acknowledgements: The epoxy. Use it when explaining how you intend to present information. It also indicates future events or parts of your work that come later. states the current state of development in the area of interest (present perfect).Past Perfect This is not commonly used in technical/scientific writing. it is not usual to shift tenses unless there is a good reason to do so. it is the tense you would use if you want to indicate that one action preceded another action in the past.5 Points to check in your writing Within one paragraph. However. 25 . This is often the case in describing an experiment. The fracture is then propagated by keeping the borehole pressurized. was cast directly to the glass and cured at room temperature for at least a week. typically by controlling the flow rate at the surface. and reports the results performed by the authors (past tense). one of the most widely used methods for enhancing production is the hydraulic fracturing process. This paper will present the results and analysis of a series of experiments that were conducted with various combinations of tensile and positive or negative shear loads. a modified bisphenol that had been mixed with an amido-amine hardener. 3. their tenses should be the same. We will consider here the operating environment. The example below is the final paragraph of the introduction to a scientific paper. Future tense with will This is not so frequently used as the present and past tenses. This paragraph: summarises the purpose of the paper (in the past tense). The following examples of converting English units will employ a technique known as multiplying by the unit ratio.
See section 2. Forms of “to be” (different tenses) Tense Present simple Present continuous Past simple Past continuous Past perfect Present perfect Future (will) Future (going to) Future perfect Form of ‗to be‘ It is It is being It was It was being It had been It has been It will be It is going to be It will have been 26 .1 Passive voice Definition – The passive voice is a form in which the subject of a verb is the receiver of the action rather than the doer of the action being the subject.4 Scientific writing 4. Example Active Passive When did somebody invent television? When was television invented? Explanation The passive voice is used in scientific writing as the processes. subject + ‗to be‘ (depending on tense) + past participle. reactions and mechanisms being reported are what the readers are interested in and not the person that produced them.7 for more information on passives.g. The passive if formed by combining the verb ‗to be‘ and the past participle (-ed or irregular form) e.
The telephone WAS INVENTED by Alexander Graham Bell in 1876. reverse opposite feeling Examples antiglare. They* IMPORT rubber from India." so "unhappy" means "not happy") Explanation Prefixes: are added to the beginning of words. The first cars WERE DRIVEN by Gottleib Daimler and Karl Benz in 1893. *When 'they' is used in these examples it does not refer to any person or group of people in particular.Examples of active and passive forms Active They* MAKE paper from wood pulp. Albert Einstein DEVELOPED the "Theory of Relativity". The "Theory of Relativity" WAS DEVELOPED by Albert Einstein. Example Prefix "happy" becomes "unhappy" when you add the prefix "un" ("un-" means "not. 4. They* MAKE butter from milk. Butter IS MADE from milk. Alexander Graham Bell INVENTED the telephone in 1876. Prefixes are added to the beginning of a word. and adverbs.2 Prefixes Definition . antistatic demagnetize. Chart of common negative and positive prefixes Prefix Negative: antidedisMeaning against reduce. Passive Paper IS MADE from wood pulp. decode disagree 27 .Prefixes are small parts of words that are added to a word to change the meaning. adjectives. can be added to nouns. They* MAKE the 'fizz' in fizzy drinks with carbon dioxide. verbs. They* DROVE the first cars in Germany in 1885. The 'fizz' in fizzy drinks IS MADE using carbon dioxide. Rubber IS IMPORTED from India.
partly Examples equidistant macroeconomics megabyte microcomputer. wrong not connected with not too little too much do again disconnect illegal impossible incomplete irregular. irrelevant malfunction misdirect non-programmable unmagnetized underestimate overload reorganize Chart of common prefixes of size Prefix equimacromegamicrominisemiMeaning equal large. periscope 28 .disiliminirmalmisnonununderPositive: overre- opposite action not not not not bad. interactive midbrain peripheral. great very small small half. microscopic minicomputer semiconductor Chart of common prefixes of location Prefix exextrainfraintermidperiMeaning out beyond below between. among middle around Examples exclude. great large. wrong bad. extrinsic extraordinary infra-red interface.
subtraction supersonic transmit. preceding. primitive retrograde. precedent primary. multicoloured octal pentagon polysaccharide quadruple semicircle September triangle unicellular Chart of common prefixes of time and order Prefix antepostpreprimeretroMeaning before After before First backward Examples antecedent postdated.subsupertrans- under over across subschema. retroactive 29 . transfer Chart of common prefixes of number Prefix bicentdechexmonomultioctpentapolyquadsemisept(em)triuniMeaning two hundred ten six one many eight five many four half seven three one Examples binary centenarian decimal hexadecimal monochromatic multiplexor. post-natal prefix.
biographer 30 . hydrolytic automatic co-ordinate." so "painter" means "the person who paints") Explanation Suffixes: are added to the end of words. operator. procreation vitalise 4. Chart of noun-forming suffixes Suffix -ance -dom -ence -er. progress. superior programme. Suffixes are added to the end of a word. co-operate connect geology hypertension. and adverbs. can be added to nouns. adjectives.3 Suffixes Definition . abstinence aquatic.Suffixes are small parts of words that are added to a word to change the meaning. abaqua-.Chart of other prefixes Prefix a-. forward life Examples abiotic. hydroautococongeohyper-. -or Meaning state domain/condition quality of a person who Examples performance freedom independence programmer. superprovitaMeaning without. in advance. verbs. Example Suffix "paint" becomes "painter" when you add the suffix "-er" ("-er" means "person who does something. away water self together with together with earth exceeding before.
-yst -ity -ment -ness -ship -tion. automatically. comparably. -ation a thing which pertaining to activity action/state condition/state a person who state. action condition of condition/state the act of compiler. quality state. cleanliness. widen. processor. cellular. logical circular. happiness relationship. regular divisible 31 . -or -ian -ing -ion -ism -ist. calculate harden. requirement readiness. partnership compilation Chart of verb-forming suffixes Suffix -ate -en -ify -ize/-ise Chart of adverb-forming suffixes Suffix -ly Meaning in the manner of Examples electronically. shorten simplify computerize Chart of adjective-forming suffixes Suffix -able -al -ar -ble Meaning capable of being having the quality of having the quality of capable of being Examples comparable computational. rectangular. carefully Meaning to make Examples automate. slowly. typist electricity measurement. logically. calculator electrician multiplexing conversion magnetism analyst. lengthen. activate.-er. quickly.
automatic electrical yellowish interactive careless. destroy measure study of leaf to view to cut sound turn Examples neuralgia amylase bactericidal appendectomy diagnosis spirogram cardiograph appendicitis haemolysis lysosome thermometer biology chlorophyll microscope dissect supersonic reverse 32 . processed helpful. lyse-meter -ology -phyll -scope -sect -sonic -verse Meaning pain designating. meaningless dangerous. careful magnetic.-ed -ful -ic -ical -ish -ive -less -ous having the quality of characterized by having the quality of having the quality of like having the quality of without like. to know record to write inflammation dissolve. destroy dissolve. insidious. miraculous Chart of biological suffixes Suffix -algia -ase -cidal -ectomy -gnosis -gram -graph -itis -lysin. lytic -lysis. cut away knowledge. lyso-. full of computed. an enzyme killing excision. -lysis.
because it was raining It was raining. ‗as‘.7 for more information. The most important transitions are ‗therefore‘. I stayed at home.4.. The most important conjunctions are ‗because‘. See sections 1. The most important prepositions are ‗due to‘ and ‗because of‘. List of cause and effect linking words Meaning Basic form and formal More formal additionally besides further furthermore in addition last but not least next not only. therefore. third. Prepositions are used to introduce a cause in the form of a noun phrase. contrast ideas and introduce examples. Addition also first. ‗consequently‘ and ‗as a result‘ (which all introduce an effect). I stayed at home.4 Cause and effect linking words Definition – Linking words are used to join to two sentences together. etc. Example Conjunction Transitions Prepositions Explanation Conjunctions and transitions are used to join two complete sentences (or independent clauses) together. They are used in scientific writing to indicate cause and effect of actions or in experiments. equally important moreover similarly Cause-effect because since then therefore accordingly as a consequence consequently hence 33 .14 for more information. due to the rain. They can also be used to compare ideas. See section 1. but also too as a result for this reason thus Most formal I stayed at home. ‗since‘ (which are used to introduce a cause) and ‗so‘ (which introduces an effect).. second.16 and 7.
etc. third. nor by comparison in common with similarly in like manner conversely in contrast to in opposition to on the contrary otherwise still whereas although even though Contrast however but instead nevertheless on the other hand Time after a while after that also at last currently earlier eventually finally first. in the future in the past last next now for example afterward at the same time formerly immediately in the meantime later concurrently previously simultaneously subsequently Example for instance in other words as an example as an illustration to exemplify accordingly as a consequence in brief in closing in conclusion in short to sum up in summary to conclude to summarize Summaryconclusion finally therefore after all all in all at last briefly consequently last on the whole thus 34 . second..Comparison also like too as well as well as both. and compared to in the same way likewise neither....
. Next.such as... so that. After that.can divided into 3 types/categories . You need to describe the systems and processed that you used to obtain your results. Having (previously) been.5 Systems and processes Definition ...... At the same time..... Explanation When describing systems and processes you might have to explain: Sequences Purpose (why to do something) Classification Examples Instructions General truths (an action will give such a result) Warnings List of words for describing sequences Sequencers First (ly).4...... Then ..... Second (ly).. because 35 ... in order to... After that you have to load your work.. in order that.. Example You have to turn the computer on.In scientific writing you often have to describe how something works or how to perform an experiment... ... Finally..comes into the first category Giving examples For example Take.... Simultaneously Lastly.... Before you can continue your work.. to... Before… Explaining Purpose Classifying There are two types/kinds/sorts of..for instance .
. Information and facts are more important than personal opinions or attitudes. Thus it is your task. use of precise and well-established technical terms may add to effective writing and help to produce explicitness of standard academic description. general truths and warnings Instructions Use modal verbs You have to… (it's necessary to) You mustn't… (it's wrong to) You needn't… (it isn't necessary to) You don't have to… (it isn't necessary to) IF you press this key. General truths ACTION..6. …… DO (present simple) BE CAREFUL!! FIRST Conditional Tense: IF + DOES (present simple). the computer prints out the reading IF you open the door. …… WILL DO (future) Warnings 4. In writing technical and scientific papers in particular. keeping your personal feelings out of your writing... the power is automatically cut off IF you press this key by mistake. Using the passive voice in impersonal writing Scientific writing is usually done in an impersonal style. you WILL lose all the data IF you don't wear goggles. objectivity and a neutral approach (impersonal style) may be achieved by using the passive voice and by avoiding ambiguous statements.RESULT ZERO Conditional Tense: IF + DOES (present simple). From a language point of view.6 Style When publishing in English you need to take account of the general rules which have become accepted as the norm in academic communication. In addition. though the need to establish rapport with your audience and to make your writing reader-friendly has an influence on determining your selection of formal or informal language phrases. objective and responsible manner. 36 . clarity and precision. This style is also used to put a certain distance between the writer and the arguments proposed and thus makes them more objective. arrange and present their findings.1 Objectivity Objectivity is generally governed by the research topic although obviously it is individuals who actually have to select. Avoidance of confusing metaphoric elements..Examples of sentences for giving instructions. you should aim to achieve objectivity. chemical drops MIGHT get in your eyes during the experiment. there are conventions governing the use of formal patterns. to deal with your topic in a fair. as the writer.. 4.
Personal/informal We can distinguish limits to other technical systems by In the present article I want to… We tested thirteen SGS models… …and as a result we selected the superior variants… I assume that… The authors consider these results to be… Because we want to evaluate…
Impersonal/formal Limits to other technical systems can be distinguished by… The present article is intended to contribute… Thirteen SGS models were tested… …and as a result, the superior variants were selected… It is assumed that… These results are considered to be… In order to evaluate…
Simplicity of text and of text composition are important prerequisites to readability. You should always try to write in a plain, clear and straightforward manner. Overlong sentences or lengthy chains of clauses and groups of words can easily prevent your reader from understanding what you want to say. As a rule, you should not add more than 2 to 3 clauses of any sort to form one sentence. Repeating words, signposting and using linking devices which help the reader to connect and relate information are useful ways of achieving clarity and readability. Example paragraphs 1) The following overlong sentence is almost unintelligible: Axis-boundary conditions for the SGS stresses in case of scale similarity and mixed-type models are specified in terms of GS velocities at the axis so as to be compatible in the statistical mean with expressions for the axis values of...following from the kinematics of homogeneous axis symmetric turbulences as well as from the statistically averaged dynamic equations for the GS velocity field taking into account statistically steady and homogeneous flow conditions. This can be re-written, as below, in order to make the meaning clearer. The text is divided into three shorter sentences and linking words and phrases added. Axis-boundary conditions for the SGS stresses in case of scale similarity and mixed-type models are specified in terms of GS velocities at the axis. This is done so that they are compatible in the statistical means...for the GS velocity field. Statistically steady and homogeneous flow conditions are also taken into account.
2) In the following paragraph, notice the use of the linking phrases, or semantic markers (in bold), which have been used in order to shorten sentences and make them understood more easily, thus improving readability: In the first of this two-paper sequence, a highly automated method for generating reduced-order dynamic macro models for electrostatically MEMS devices was presented. The approach was to use selected linear elastic modes of the device as basic functions, and to express the kinetic and potential energy in terms of basis-function amplitudes and their time derivatives. It was demonstrated that this procedure could, indeed, be executed nearly automatically, requiring only a few inputs from the designer to select parameters for the macro model. However, while the procedure works well for nonlinearities produced outside the electric body, such as the non-linear electrostatic force between the plates of a parallel-plate capacitor with one plate being flexible, it fails to capture the correct mechanical structural stiffness when the deflections become comparable to a typical thickness. This effect is generally referred to as... Expressing your ideas concisely Being concise in your writing means expressing your ideas in as few words as possible. This involves not repeating what you say, cutting out irrelevant details and avoiding redundancy, that is, the use of unnecessary words. If your sentences are too 'wordy', they are difficult for the reader to understand. ‗Wordy‘ sentences We continued our activities in the development of new protocols for group communication. The different materials that contribute to an environmental impact have quantitatively different potential environmental effects. More concise sentences We have developed new protocols for group communications. Different materials have different environmental impacts.
Academic writing follows certain rules of formality which non-native writers should not violate without very good reasons. Colloquial words and expressions Colloquial words and expressions are language items that are used in spoken and informal English. They might have different meanings when used by different groups of people or might be local/regional words that would not be understood by the majority of English speakers. They should not be used in scientific writing. They would include words such as: stuff, a lot of, thing, sort of
Contracted verb forms These are the representations in writing of verb forms normal in speech; a letter in the verb has been omitted, as indicated by an apostrophe. These contractions should be avoided in academic writing. Wrong Correct This is a problem of linear algebra which won`t be discussed here. This is a problem of linear algebra which will not be discussed here.
It is true that nowadays contracted verb forms can be found in scientific publications as they are increasingly regarded as a way of producing informality, thus creating communication with the audience. However, as a general principle, contractions are still not acceptable in technical-scientific papers and should be written out in full. Use of the first person pronoun It is normal practice to avoid using the personal pronoun "I" in scientific articles. Instead, "we" or "the team" are preferred. Some kind of switching between the different forms may nevertheless be appropriate in order to make the reader more involved in the argumentation. The switch from "we" or impersonal forms to "I" may help to establish the sometimes more desirable informal relationship with the reader. Examples of formal and informal words It is often the case that formal words are longer than informal words, formal words are single words not multi-words and formal words are of French/Latin origin rather than their informal equivalents which are of Anglo-Saxon origin. For example: "depart" is from French/Latin but "go" is Anglo-Saxon.
Formal amiable appear ascend assist cease commence complete comprehension consume decrease deficiency demonstrate depart desire energetic enquire finally finish fortunate immature immediately incorrect indistinct inexpensive inferior inform
Informal friendly seem climb help stop begin whole understanding use shorten lack show go want lively ask in the end end lucky childish at once wrong dim cheap worse tell
Formal initially insane intermittently obtain opportunity perspiration preserve principally reject relaxed release repair repeatedly require reside residence responsible retain subsequently sufficient superior therefore transparent vacant vision
Informal at first mad on and off get chance sweat keep mainly say no laid back free mend again and again need live house in charge keep next enough better so clear empty sight
They also want to avoid showing their personal attitude to their subject or an over-strong commitment to a particular conclusion.6. absolute or categorical statements. it means avoiding over. These hedging devices are found quite frequently in introductions and conclusions. since normally these pronouns would only be used by famous and important researchers or representatives of schools. In general. so hedging what they say is a way of accomplishing this. Thus if you want to state whether you are able to present positive. there are a number of hedging phrases and other techniques that can be used to help establish better communication and rapport with the reader. Too direct and straightforward argumentation may give the impression of overconfidence and this could puzzle some readers. What techniques can I use for hedging? In order to avoid over generalising (especially in experimental descriptions) or to avoid being too critical or direct. It thus involves not expressing the truth of a claim too strongly. structures with we / us / our are preferred.4.. particularly British or Asian ones who may consider it offensive. This also has a rhetorical function: it implies the inclusion of the author as a co-member of a group.generalisations. it means toning down the positiveness of your statements to allow for others to disagree with them. successful results or not.4 Hedging What is hedging? Hedging means not making blunt. Using tentative verb forms Statements that are too direct or over-positive can be softened as in these examples: Over-positive statement The investigations of the present work contribute to the model and filter components of LES… We propose a methodological approach… The use of equivalence factors for ecotoxic effect should be rejected… Hedged statement The investigations of the present work are intended as a contribution to the model and filter components of LES… We would therefore propose… It is better for the use of equivalence factors for ecotoxic effect to be avoided 41 . Use of first person pronouns It is best for writers to avoid describing their findings in the first person I / me / my.. Why is hedging important in scientific writing? Authors of scientific articles generally write in an impersonal style in order to sound more objective and convincing. you can say: We do not yet know.
circumventing giving exact numerical data (when necessary) or avoiding making a claim for absolute truth. They are especially useful when making generalisations. Hedged sentence It might be of interest to compose These findings would / might / could suggest the following interpretation X might / could be due to Y Our data would be expected to show From these results we may conclude This assumption may also help to explain why The present model should be particularly useful As a final step. Direct sentence It will be of interest to compose These findings suggest the following interpretation X is due to Y Our data are expected to show From these results we conclude This assumption also explains why The present model is particularly useful ..Different variants of the disposal structures must be transferred in computer-aided modes… It is recommended that different variants of the disposal structures be transferred in computer-aided modes. as in these phrases: Our data seem / appear to demonstrate that indicate that suggest that … imply that Our data do not appear to confirm that Our data tend to support the hypothesis that … Using modal verbs Many modal verbs indicate tentativeness or a lack of certainty and can therefore be used to soften what you want to say. 42 . Using adverbs Using certain adverbs of degree and attitudinal adverbs can be used to soften what you say... Finally. Particularly useful verbs for hedging are seem to. Particularly useful modal verbs for this are can / could / may / might / would. the insecurities of the evaluation will need to be discussed. the insecurities of the evaluation have to be discussed.. appear to. tend to.
quite. about 43 . rather. almost. approximately. we found a long list but certainly there are more examples… Other modifying expressions: a little.Looking for oval pieces from the past. somewhat. nearly.
Once readers recognize what the work is. Nor are they mounted sets of presentation visuals. to. another characteristic of an effective poster is that specific sections are easy to locate. make sure that the type is large enough to be read and that enough contrast exists between the colour of the type and poster's background. when effectively designed. but that is standing. an. Given these different approaches to reading posters. universities. thus allowing for passers-by to engage in one-on-one discussions with the presenter. will try to read the poster from beginning to end. While phrase titles are most common. and corporations. the. Do not typeset the title in all capital letters (such text is difficult to read). the poster should quickly orient the audience to the subject and purpose. In poster presentations at conferences. are something in between. they are not simply journal papers pasted onto boards. and then the final results.1 What is a scientific poster? Posters are a special type of presentation. For instance. Also. The purpose of scientific posters is to present work to an audience who is walking through a hallway or exhibit. the title of an effective poster should quickly orient the audience. Second. 44 . Others. When well designed. One good test is whether the audience recognizes the subject and purpose within 20 seconds of seeing the poster. from. Rather. a. with.5 Poster presentations 5. Use small words such as of. the objectives (or goals) of the work. and and to separate details in the title. they decide how much energy to invest into the poster. who have a deep interest in the topic. a poster accomplishes this goal with a wellcrafted title and with supporting images. posters. posters are stand-alone presentations for passers-by. Often the audience has distractions of noise and movement from other people. some scientists and engineers effectively use sentence titles for posters that present one main result. the poster first has to orient an audience that is not seated. the presenter usually stands next to the poster. First. Here are some guidelines for poster titles: Make the title the most prominent block of text on the poster. many will read only the motivation for the work. In other situations such as the hallways of laboratories. the specific sections such as the results should be easy to locate on the poster. Third. For a poster to communicate the work. Usually.
you should design the individual sections of a poster so that they can be quickly read. Arrange the contents in a series of columns. A good way to start: Sketch it out! Make a sketch of the poster. Determine the size of the poster. If possible. it will take longer. Allocate your time wisely. the sections should rely on images: photographs. If you have little experience making posters.Fourth. 45 . Neither should the poster contain long sentences. The poster should not contain large blocks of text. Preparing a poster will take as much time as you let it.2 How to make your poster General format Determine the one essential concept you would like to get across to the audience. 5. and graphs. drawings.
if necessary. Conclusions. use first names for authors to facilitate interactions. Introduction. Think BIG! The title should be readable from 15 . If space permits. (Avoid using too many citations. 1993. You may wish to use numbers to help sequence sections of the poster. B.. 46 . e. If only a few are used. The poster should not rely upon your verbal explanation to link together the various portions.g.). cite as follows in the text: Clinton. and tables to tell the story of the study. & the institutional affiliations. Discussion. present the information in a sequence that is easy to follow: Determine a logical sequence for the material you will be presenting. A brief introduction will appear at the upper left. Auk 107:234-246. &.20 feet away. Use abbreviations where possible. Methods. the authors‘ names. For clarity. The conclusions will appear at the lower right. Literature Cited. Organize that material into sections. The Title This part of the poster includes the title of the work. Sequencing contents A poster should use photos. figures. Arrange the material into columns. Instead. Results. a literature cited section is unnecessary. Methods and Results will fill the remaining space.Place the elements of the poster in position: The title will appear across the top.
47 .Edit Ruthlessly! .There is almost always too much text in a poster.
3. 40-45% graphics and 30-40% empty space. an abstract is likely redundant. so excessive detail about methods. Look critically at the layout. If you've kept the amount of text on your poster to a minimum.1. Some poster 'experts' suggest that if there is about 2025% text. Posters primarily are visual presentations. or vast tables of data are not necessary. The poster is not a publication of record. 2. you are doing well. Such material can be discussed with interested persons individually during or after the session. 48 . An abstract may not be necessary. or presented in a handout. the text should support the graphics. 4. Delete all redundant references and filler phrases.
Use empty space between poster elements to differentiate and accentuate these elements.Illustrations The success of a poster directly relates to the clarity of the illustrations and tables. Restrained use of 2 . The text should be large enough to be read easily from at least 6 feet away. text with even left sides and jagged right sides is easiest to read. using left-justification. A minimal amount of text should supplement the graphic materials. Remove all non-essential information from graphs and tables. Show no mercy when editing visual materials! Use short sentences. Self-explanatory graphics should dominate the poster. Lines in illustrations should be larger than normal.3 colours for emphasis is valuable. Use contrast and colours for emphasis. and bullets to illustrate discrete points. 49 . overuse is not. Poster text Double-space all text. Graphic materials should be visible easily from a minimum distance of 6 feet. Avoid using patterns or open bars in histograms. simple words. Use colours to distinguish different data groups in graphs.
or colour. Introduction). use bold.Title Next largest font size .Details Keep in mind that san serif fonts are easiest to read. For supporting text (e. underlining.g. use font sizes of about 24-28 (bold.. Add emphasis by using bold. italics are difficult to read. text within each section & figure captions)..Section headings Medium font size .g. use font sizes proportional to importance: Largest font size. maybe a font size of about 36-42. . Choose one font and then use it throughout the poster. In general. 50 .Supporting material Smallest font size .For section headings (e. if appropriate).
arrows. Have an acknowledgments section. and other strategies to direct the visual attention of the viewer.. State the question clearly in the poster. be available for discussion! 51 .e. Vary the size and spacing of the poster sections to add visual interest. Design the poster to address one central question. However. softer colours (pastels & greys) may work best as a background . but do so in moderation. where you acknowledge contributors and funding organizations.use schematic diagrams.The Poster's Background The choice of a background colour is up to you.they are easiest to view for hours at a time. and in user-friendly language. try to find ways to show what was done . and offer the best contrast for text. Miscellaneous comments Because a poster is a visual presentation. Provide an explicit take-home message. rather than explaining it all using text alone (i. then use your discussion time with individuals to expand or expound upon issues surrounding that central theme. in smaller font size (maybe 14 . and photographic elements.18 point). Summarize implications and conclusions briefly. graphic. like the poster with way too much text below). Do not wander too far away from your poster during the session. Give credit where it is due.
Similarly. have made widespread use of anaerobic digesters. will declare anaerobic digesters the solution to organic waste.73 million tonnes of sewage sludge annually. such as the water industry. 2009 Plans to build more than 1. to make anaerobic digestion ―a major source of renewable energy‖. At present there are estimated to be about 20. enough energy would be generated to provide two million homes with heat and electricity. She will also launch a task group with instructions to identify how many should be installed by other sectors. 52 . while a further 12 to 20 million tonnes of wasted food and food scraps go into landfill after being thrown away by households. Anaerobic digesters break down organic waste naturally into a solid that can be used as fertiliser and a gas that can be burnt to generate heat and electricity. restaurants and hotels. the Environment Minister. including manure and slurry. ministers will expect businesses and local authorities to increase the quantity of food waste that goes into them. notably Germany. is also likely to find a use for digesters. Any excess could be passed on to the national grid.000 anaerobic digesters to turn unwanted food and farm waste into energy and fertiliser will be unveiled today.000 anaerobic digesters by 2020. The digesters are expected to make many farms self-sufficient in electricity. Other countries. Ms Kennedy will point out that if all the organic waste in Britain were recycled in this way. Jane Kennedy. Ms Kennedy hopes that an agreement with the National Farmers‘ Union and other representatives of the agriculture sector will lead to the use of 1. Farms produce 90 million tonnes of waste. and ministers are anxious to increase the number in Britain to reduce pressure on landfill sites and to cut greenhouse gas emissions.Appendix 1 – Newspaper passages Newspaper passage 1 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 13 14 15 16 17 18 19 20 21 22 23 24 25 26 27 28 29 30 31 32 33 Food scraps and farm waste to be chewed up to create energy Adapted from Lewis Smith environment reporter – The Times – February 17. businesses. which has to deal with 1. The water industry.
Tea has several other advantages because it has no side effects. A major study carried out by scientists at the University of California in Los Angeles found that tea could well be a powerful weapon in the fight against strokes. Medical Research Liaison Officer for The Stroke Association. not herbs. Sadat Shamim. 2009 At least three cups of Indian or Chinese tea reduces the risk of a stroke by more than a fifth. is inexpensive and is easily available. added: "We're getting more hard proof that this does change things. the single biggest risk factor for stroke. according to researchers. Therefore we recommend moderate consumption of tea as part of a health balance diet to help reduce the risk of stroke. a neurologist at Baylor University Medical Centre in Dallas." Dr Shamim said. Researchers speculate that the antioxidant epigallocatechin gallate or the amino acid Theatine in teas may be what helps. More research is needed to determine exactly how tea affects the body. Joanne Murphy. and it does reduce the risk. Prof Arab said the effect was found in tea made from the plant Camellia sinensis." said Dr Lenore Arab. scientists claim. "Right now. Adapted from Richard Alleyne science correspondent – The Daily Telegraph – February 25." Researchers say it appears black tea and green tea have similar beneficial effects and are effective because they contain cell protecting anti-oxidants. which are usually associated with fruit and vegetables and red wine. we believe that it's the antioxidants that are in the tea. said: "We have known for sometime that antioxidants found in certain food and drink can help in the prevention of stroke and this research certainly furthers this thought. Dr. "However. but Dr Shamim said doctors believe the compounds in tea may reduce damage to blood vessels. professor of medicine at the David Geffen School of Medicine. excess caffeine intake is believed to contribute to high blood pressure.Newspaper passage 2 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 13 14 15 16 17 18 19 20 21 22 23 24 25 26 27 28 29 30 31 32 33 34 35 36 37 38 39 40 41 Drinking tea reduces risk of stroke Drinking three or more cups of tea a day may significantly reduce the chances of having a stroke. "By drinking three cups of tea a day." 53 . the risk of a stroke was reduced 21 per cent..
There is nothing inevitable about this and no reason why we should simply accept biodiversity loss as an unfortunate price of 21st century life. On the only remaining area where the species survived on a Dorset heathland there were thought to be just 56 spiders left. Dr Helen Phillips. She said: "Heathland habitats have become increasingly fragmented and degraded in recent decades. has been saved from extinction following a successful conservation programme.Newspaper passage 3 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 13 14 15 16 17 18 19 20 21 22 23 24 25 26 27 28 29 30 31 Britain's rarest spider saved from the brink of extinction Ladybird spiders. Adapted from Louise Gray environment correspondent – The Daily Telegraph – February 13. the Government agency in charge of conservation. Natural England. including Ministry of Defence land. has soared twentyfold in just 15 years. The latest count has revealed that the Ladybird spiders. chief executive of Natural England." 54 . so named for the male's red hot markings during the mating season. A count last year in the areas where the animals were reintroduced reported 1. 2009 The tiny spider was once a common sight on British heathland but by the early 90s there were hardly any of the insects left because of loss of habitat to development. Britain's rarest and most colourful spider. placing the fate of many of our species in the balance. The success of the Ladybird spider recovery programme shows what can be done and we are delighted at the very hopeful signs that England's most elusive spider is on the road to recovery. said the successful programme gave hope to other species under threat in the UK.000 active animals. took action by breeding the spiders in captivity and releasing them onto heathland around the south of the country.
The spider is so called because during the breeding season the male‘s abdomen turns red with black spots. when a breeding and reintroduction programme began more than a decade ago. 55 . The number of ladybird spiders in the wild is now thought to be more than 1. There were only 56 of the spiders in Britain. chief executive of Natural England. Loss of heathland to agriculture and other developments is believed to be the prime cause of the spider‘s decline. 2009 The ladybird spider has been dragged back from the point of extinction in Britain. Habitat conservation played a major part in the reintroduction programme. naturalists claim.Newspaper passage 4 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 13 14 15 16 17 18 19 20 Ladybird spider creeps back from brink of extinction Adapted from Lewis Smith environment reporter . ―The success of this project marks a vital win for the biodiversity of our important heathland habitats.‖ she added.000 and Helen Phillips.The Times .February 16. said there were grounds for optimism that numbers would continue to increase. living on heathland in Dorset.
which would be highly toxic to normal life." Davies said. "I'm not talking about mysterious shadow beings that we can't see. "We must be open to the possibility that there's more than one tree of life." Microbes account for the vast majority of life on Earth and most have never been characterised or had their genetic make-up analysed. If life did emerge more than once on Earth.Newspaper passage 5 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 13 14 15 16 17 18 19 20 21 22 23 24 25 26 27 28 29 30 31 32 33 34 35 36 37 38 39 40 41 42 Did life begin on Earth more than once. because all of the techniques biologists use only work for life that uses the biochemistry we are already familiar with. It would at a stroke show we live in a universe that's intrinsically bio-friendly and one in which we are not alone. but it is possible that basic organisms emerged more than once. Unusual life forms could use arsenic the same way our own bodies and other organisms use the element phosphorus." Davies said. leading to multiple trees of life. Any that live outside the boundaries of "normal" life could have evolved independently. he said. the organisms might live in deep sea vents. The variety of life on Earth is widely considered to have evolved from a single common ancestor." Davies said. I think that would be the biggest discovery in biology since Darwin. 2009 Scientists have called for a "mission to Earth" to hunt for evidence of a second genesis that gave rise to life. 56 . Paul Davies at Arizona State University told the American Association for the Advancement of Science meeting in Chicago that scientists should explore unusual environmental nooks and crannies on the planet and look for micro-organisms that thrive there. but the microbial realm could contain denizens of second or subsequent genesis. but not as we know it. ask scientists Adapted from Ian Sample Science correspondent – The Guardian – February 15. But finding out if any of these may have emerged separately will be difficult. then we would have established this idea of a cosmic imperative that life will emerge wherever there are Earth-like conditions. "We could be surrounded by little microbes intermingled with known life and be completely unaware of the fact that these could be an alternative form of life. "If we could find an alternative form of life. and be sure it wasn't some bizarre new branch on the main tree of life. or in environments that are rich in arsenic.
The plates. and many thousands of vertebrate species living and dead. The brownsnout spookfish has been identified as the only backboned creature known to use mirrors rather than lenses to get images into focus. The mirror eyes are used to see bioluminescent light created by marine animals signalling to each other or trying to lure prey. Brownsnout spookfish were discovered 120 years ago but little was known about them until one was pulled up from 2. are arranged so that the light entering the eye is reflected to a focused point on the retina.000-2. giving it an early warning of predators. 2009 A bizarre ―four-eyed‖ fish has been found to use a unique system of mirrors to protect itself from being eaten in the dark depths of the sea. high-contrast image. ―It‘s an extraordinary animal. Dolichopteryx longipes. The brownsnout spookfish. With mirrors it can make a very bright. whereas lenses absorb small quantities as the light passes through them. ―In nearly 500 million years of vertebrate evolution. 57 .‖ The mirrors are thought to be more efficient in the dark because they reflect more of the available light into the retina. thought to be made of guanine crystals. has ordinary eyes with lenses pointing upwards. of the University of Bristol.Newspaper passage 6 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 13 14 15 16 17 18 19 20 21 22 23 24 25 26 27 28 29 30 31 32 33 34 35 36 37 38 39 40 Fish with four eyes can see through the deep sea gloom Adapted from Lewis Smith environment reporter – The Times – January 8. It was the first live specimen to be studied by researchers.‖ said Professor Julian Partridge. allowing the fish to see what lurks below it. The mirrors allow the fish to detect flashes of light made by creatures in the deep in more detail than would be achieved by eyes with lenses. this is the only one known to have solved the fundamental optical problem faced by all eyes — how to make an image — using a mirror. It is absolutely unique for a vertebrate. but alongside them are downward-looking eyes fitted with tiny mirrored plates.600ft (600-800m) during a scientific trawl in the Tonga Trench in the southern Pacific 18 months ago. Mirrors are better at providing focused images in the deep sea because they are more efficient in the low light levels and they avoid imperfections in images created by lenses.
How can we ensure GM foods are safe when some countries do not have sufficient procedures for testing and evaluating any health issues? How do you ensure that farmers in the developing world can plant higher-yielding GM crops without becoming dangerously reliant upon a company that has the power to hike prices or withdraw seeds without notice? Though GM crops are common in many parts of the world now. director of resource mobilisation at the International Maize and Wheat Improvement Centre in Mexico. he said. completed the panel. 58 . The crops are in trials at the moment and if they are a success. science correspondent – The Guardian – January 23. with the transparency and distribution of benefits that comes with it. similar strains of rice. The debate that followed covered some interesting ground. He began by explaining that today the amount of food available per capita has never been higher. is not one that GM crops will solve.Newspaper passage 7 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 13 14 15 16 17 18 19 20 21 22 23 24 25 26 27 28 29 30 31 32 33 34 35 36 37 38 39 40 41 42 43 44 45 46 Nearly a billion people go hungry every day – can GM crops help feed them? Adapted from Ian Sample. "GM is a totally oversold technique. of course quantity is still important. professor of food policy at City University in London. said last year that Africa's ills are largely down to Western do-gooders who oppose GM in favour of organic food. they are still absent from the UK." he said. Sir David King. It attempts to give a balanced view of the pros and cons of genetically modified crops. which currently stand at between 30 and 40%. Rodomiro Ortiz. the chief scientist at the Department for Environment. how costs are still low. He stressed the need for good roads to get crops to markets. environmental impact and nutritional content have to be considered now more than ever. The panel of experts included Bob Watson. the government's former chief scientist. said Watson. Food and Rural Affairs (Defra). He argued that organic food is a luxury Africa cannot afford and that modern agricultural technology is needed urgently. Bob Watson spoke last. He was joined by Tim Lang. The major problem. Yes. Rodomiro spoke next. 2009 The Science Museum in London is running an exhibition until the end of May called Future Foods. Tim Lang spoke first and stressed that our way of producing food has to change from the post-1940s push for quantity. He called for public ownership of GM technology. but water usage. Tim doesn't see GM as a technical fix that will put food in the mouths of the hungry. maize and barley could be next. and simple technologies that will help reduce post-harvest losses in Africa. and yet still around 900m people go to bed hungry every night. describing the work his organisation is doing to genetically modify wheat to grow under drought conditions.
said: 'It's a cautionary tale of what could happen with other GM plants that could be of greater concern. a team from the US Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) has found that GM pollen from the grass has contaminated a vast area around a test growing site in Oregon.09 August 2006 A genetically modified grass created in the USA for golf courses has 'escaped' into the wild. in theory. It has many relatives in the US with which it can cross-breed or hybridise. At least one of these was 2. potentially passing on the glyphosate-resistance gene to other species. in theory. threatening to create super-weeds. The grass has been altered in the laboratory to give it an immunity to spraying with the powerful weedkiller. The US Department of Agriculture (USDA) is so concerned it is running its first full environmental impact assessment of a GM plant. The team.' 59 . Bentgrass is a perennial so once in the wild it regrows year after year. It is one of a number of second-generation GM plants created by the powerful biotech industry to convince the public of the benefits of the controversial technology. The point of the modification is to allow golf clubs to spray their fairways and greens so that weeds are killed off but the grass remains green. Europe and many other parts of the world.Newspaper passage 8 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 13 14 15 16 17 18 19 20 21 22 23 24 25 26 27 28 29 30 31 32 33 34 35 36 37 38 39 40 41 42 43 44 Genetically modified grass 'escapes into the wild Adapted from SEAN POULTER – The Daily Mail . However. which is marketed under the name of Roundup. While it could. The plant called creeping bentgrass (Agrostis stolonifera) carries a bacterial gene protecting it from the weedkiller glyphosate.400 plants sampled within a three mile radius of the test site. Round-up. transfer its chemical resistance to wild cousins creating super-weeds that could dominate vast areas. 'I suspect more examples of this will show up. said: 'This is a perennial and has wild and weedy relatives and it's something we think we need to know the environmental impact of before it's deregulated. Dr Reichman. could see the creation of so-called super-weeds which cannot be killed with conventional weedkillers. there are concerns that the escape of this strain of grass into the wild will fundamentally effect the natural balance of the countryside. However.' While GM technology has been widely opposed in Britain. its introduction in the USA has been largely without controversy. it might be necessary to use highly toxic weedkillers to remove it. This. If it were to reach environmentally sensitive wildernesses or establishes itself by waterways. lead by Dr Jay Reichman. found nine GM plants among 20. It has been created by the Ohio-based firm Scotts in partnership with the US GM giant Monsanto.5 miles away.' A spokeswoman for the US Department of Agriculture's Biotechnology Regulatory Services. Dr Baack said: 'I don't think people will worry about lawns and golf courses if they've not shown any worries already about GM food. strong and perfectly manicured. whose study will appear in the October issue of Molecular Ecology.
The Hudson Institute) In the UK and Europe.800 species of a microbe previously unknown to science. some 1. we can lose our memory of eating animals. It is part of what is known as industrial biotechnology. In the long run. The era of mass-produced animal flesh. (Ed Ayres. fertilisers and pesticides). and we will discover the intrinsic satisfactions of a diverse plant-based diet. This requires the end of subsidies that encourage high stocking densities and overproduction and their replacement with subsidies for environmentally friendly methods of farming. (Compassion in World Farming Trust) We can adapt by moving down the food chain: eating foods that use less water and land. without nutrients. Such newly discovered genes are the raw material for the new. (Dennis Avery. but rapidly developing field that makes useful chemicals via genetically modified organisms.Appendix 2 – Short comprehension passages 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 13 14 15 16 17 18 19 20 21 22 Genetically modified microbes will lead to a revolution in industrial biotechnology Adapted from The Economist. there can be few more satisfying ways of doing so than sampling genes in the Sargasso sea. But when Dr Ventner ran his sample through his newly developed method for sequencing the DNA of an entire environment. plants and bacteria are used to generate industrially useful products. produce enormous amounts of waste. for a geneticist whose passion is sailing. the man who led the privately funded project to sequence the human genome. An apparently empty sea was abounding with bacterial life. call ―high-yield conservation‖ – higher yield crops. where cells from animals. is someone who likes to mix business with pleasure.2 million new genes turned up from an estimated 1. The samples he took there were surprising. higher yield pigs. higher efficiency irrigation. requiring huge quantities of feed (grown on vast areas of land using massive inputs of water. and with little life apart from the Sargassum weed that gives the sea its name. outlined last week to the World Congress on Industrial Biotechnology and Bioprocessing. chickens and cattle. 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 13 14 15 16 17 18 19 20 21 22 23 Animal Farming and the Environment Large numbers of farm animals. the way forward must be to encourage extensive animal farming and mixed farming and to make environmental protection and animal welfare a priority. The sea had looked as though it was the oceanic equivalent of a desert. May 1st. by Dr Venter‘s colleague Karin Remington. and that cause far less pollution. . . at the Hudson Institute. and its unsustainable costs to human and environmental health should be over before the (21st) century is out. The Sargosso results. energy. and higher yield tree plantations. The Worldwatch Institute) 60 . Biotechnology seems to be the most promising way to ease land conflict between people and wildlife in the 21st century. suggest that there are a lot of useful raw materials to be found. A range of solutions are suggested: The most compassionate approach to agriculture may be what we. in Orlando Florida. And. causing serious pollution and environmental degradation. as millions of people already have. than meat production does. 2004 Craig Venter. near Bermuda.
coming on the same day that Thai authorities confirmed that two children had contracted the disease and a chicken butcher had died from pneumonia. and in the forseeable future. 34 percent of all countries exceed the 30% threshold of fat in the diet. Likewise. 36 percent of all countries in the world already have populations consuming above the recommended maximum level of 300 milligrams per person a day of cholesterol. Brussels fears that the disease could yet again devastate poultry farms in the Union. such as diabetes and coronary heart disease. Thaksin Shinawatra. 61 . which he expects to help the economy to grow 8 per cent this year. Diets today. 2004 The European Union yesterday banned chicken imports from Thailand.‖ he said. Many developing countries are currently facing this situation and the impact on their health situation could be dramatic. For example. better known as bird flu.The Financial Times. shrugged off the bans. who have over the past decade had to grapple with a string of food scares and animal health scandals. do not comply with dietary recommendations made by a consultation of health experts convened by FAO and the World Health Organization (WHO) last year. The speedy reaction.January 24/25. Though the highly contagious disease. leading to overnourishment in adult life when coupled with greater food availability and a more sedentary lifestyle. The study pulls together a growing body of empirical evidence that suggests that hunger during pregnancy. ―programmes‖ foetal tissues to get the most out of the food energy available. in later life. ―Gross domestic product will be hit by only 0. compared to 18% forty years ago. Hunger today and more food availability tomorrow will mean that many will shift from hunger to obesity and become vulnerable to one of the related non-communicable diseases (NCD‘s). according to a study released by the UN Food and Agriculture Organization (FAO). 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 13 14 15 16 17 18 19 20 21 22 23 Fighting hunger today could help prevent obesity tomorrow Reducing hunger and undernourishment in pregnant women and children could prevent them from becoming overweight and obese. more than twice the rate of the early 1960s.1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 13 14 15 16 17 18 19 20 21 22 EU puts ban on poultry imports from Thailand Adapted from Tobias Buck . In a desperate attempt to contain the disease. Thai prime minister.4 per cent. the study says. reflects the deep concerns of European consumers.1 per cent and exports will be hit by 0. as well as in parts of Germany and Belgium. saying they would have only a ―trivial‖ impact on exports. and reduce associated health costs. the Dutch at the time ordered the slaughter of more than 30m birds. in an attempt to stop the recent outbreak of avian influenza from spreading to Europe. equivalent to about one in three Dutch chickens. poses only a small risk to human health. Yesterday‘s EU decision also comes less than a year after the last European bird flu epidemic that mainly hit farms in the Netherlands.
but further research may be needed on that point. When the researchers put the food in the yellow bucket instead. So Avanzo and Morton put seven female sheep through a series of increasingly tricky challenges. the sheep passed the tests. it's one more step towards rehabilitating sheep's reputation. They can also discriminate breeds. but other large animals struggle with it – although researchers have persuaded mice and rats to do it. In one test the sheep walked into a pen that contained two buckets. Humans and other primates can do set-shifting. the sheep still had to choose a bucket based on colour. But sheep? Sheep are just thick. Many would even agree that there is a sort of intelligence governing the behaviour of social insects like ants. If the sheep passed. The hope is that the Huntington's sheep could be a testing ground for possible treatments. When we look for examples of intelligent animals. Over the past few decades. As well as being good news for the study of Huntington's disease. In intra-dimensional set-shifting. the sheep changed their behaviour accordingly. learning to attend either to different pairs of colours or to the objects' shapes as necessary. Avanzo and Morton note that their decision to do these tests "was driven more by curiosity than expectation". For that to work. one blue and the other yellow. 62 . and our close relatives the chimpanzees and other primates. Except that they aren't. Impressively. evidence has quietly built up that sheep are anything but stupid. In a touching piece of scientific understatement. the choice was purple and green. they reasoned. preferring to look at their own. but the set of colours was different: instead of blue and yellow.Appendix 3 – Long comprehension passages 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 13 14 15 16 17 18 19 20 21 22 23 24 25 26 27 28 29 30 31 32 33 34 35 36 37 38 39 40 41 42 43 44 45 46 47 48 49 50 51 52 Zoologger: The sharpest mind in the farmyard New Scientist – 09 February 2011 by Michael Marshall Species: Ovis aries Habitat: farms all around the world – a world that they secretly run. something that requires a high level of mental control. These animals carry a defective gene that in humans causes Huntington's disease. The task relies on the prefrontal cortex. They also mastered a subtler game in which the food was still in one of the buckets but the clue to its location was the colour of a cone placed nearby. Next Avanzo and Morton stepped up the intellectual pressure. It really is about time we stopped making fun of sheep. Over the course of a few trials they learned what was going on and always went to the blue bucket. especially sheep they are socially close to – they can remember significant others for at least two years. Laura Avanzo and Jennifer Morton of the University of Cambridge were interested in a new kind of genetically modified sheep. researchers will have to be able to track changes in the cognitive abilities of the Huntington's sheep. Ourselves of course. Dolphins and whales are pretty bright. as the sheep had to ignore the colour of the objects and instead focus on their shapes. certain species always leap to mind. These tested the animals' ability to shift their attention. They have sophisticated social lives too: rams become long-term buddies and stick up for each other in fights. there is evidence that they can group plants by family and memorise. There are even claims that sheep in the UK have learned to cross cattle grids by rolling across them. trying the sheep on intra-dimensional and extra-dimensional set-shifting. a part of the brain that is much bigger in humans than other animals. It now turns out that the humble domestic sheep can pass a psychological test that monkeys struggle with. They can not only recognise. and which is so sensitive it is used to look for neurological decline in human patients. that would mean that the Huntington's sheep could be seen losing the ability as their disease progressed – and maybe regaining it if any treatments worked. with some food in the blue one. an inherited disorder that leads to nerve damage and dementia. So they decided to find out whether normal sheep could pass some of the challenging tests given to people with Huntington's. not the colour of the bucket itself. Perhaps the cunning corvids – crows and scrub jays – with their prodigious memories and talent for deception. What's more. Extra-dimensional shifting is harder. Humans find this pretty easy.
What 5 Gyres researchers are currently investigating. Different kinds of plastic may be suspended at different depths – a dreadful rainbow of rubbish spanning the ocean from top to bottom – but no one has done the research to find out. Every flake of plastic cup or shard of toothbrush handle is a sponge for persistent organic pollutants (POPs) – potentially hazardous compounds that do not degrade easily and cling to any hard surface they find. Preliminary results show that the fish which ate plastic endured significant weight loss and liver damage. however. squid or Portuguese man-of-war – and. "The ocean is not infinite. then we probably are too. Chelsea Rochman. She has also started slicing open the lanternfish so she can determine if they are eating plastic and whether POPs are accumulating in their tissues. a generous sprinkling of colourful plastic particles." says Anna Cummins. Lanternfish inhabit the dim depths during the day." What researchers have established so far is that the plastic in the oceans is persistent and pervasive." Cummins also explains that trawling gathers plastic particles from surface waters only. the remains of a candy wrapper blown out to sea in China will eventually drift. In every single trawl. "What is their ultimate state? They could very well break down to a size where they are ingested by fish. Rochman wants to see whether fish caught in highly polluted areas of the gyres have more plastic in their guts and higher levels of POPs than those taken from less polluted waters. the buoys – and. More surprising is that despite the lure of the gyres. but it appears to travel everywhere. The fate of all this plastic determines not only the health of marine life. what that does to them. each no larger than your fingernail. so if any fish would have plastic in their guts. Last month researchers from the 5 Gyres Institute in Santa Monica. Rochman used a special net to collect around 660 lanternfish – a ubiquitous family of small bioluminescent fish that make up around 65 per cent of all deep sea fish biomass. which are designed to map surface ocean currents rather than wind patterns or waves. The nets that they use cannot capture plastic particles that are smaller than one-third of a millimetre across. cell death and congestion in the organs that filter toxins. "It's amazing to see the global patterns. 63 . "We are going to look for tumours. One tool is providing some answers. the team discovered plastic. and another made two loops around Antarctica. Confirming that distinction would suggest that fish are indeed consuming toxic morsels. Rochman has started analysing the water and plastic samples for the presence of POPs. "After a certain size these particles just disappear. and another group a plastic-free diet. Back at her lab. joined the 5 Gyres team in November for a month-long trawl in the South Atlantic." There are still significant gaps in the data the crew can collect. is whether surface-feeding fish are ingesting plastic – and if so. Wherever the buoys gather most densely. Plastic in the ocean would not be so worrisome if only certain areas were polluted. it's hard to pin down exactly where. and the Algalita Marine Research Foundation in Long Beach. it would be these guys. California. probably plastic in general – really get around. They had just completed the third leg of the first expedition ever to study plastic pollution in the South Atlantic subtropical gyre. co-founder of 5 Gyres." says Cummins." she says. is also where plastic particles should cluster. say. sailed into Piriápolis. In addition to sampling the water and plastic. however." says Maximenko. Uruguay. It doesn't have room for our waste. almost certainly. "This issue has only recently come to the public's attention. who collaborated with 5 Gyres researchers to identify which areas of the ocean should have especially high levels of plastic pollution. Rochman fed one group of fish a diet infused with plastic. however. For at least two decades oceanographers have deployed thousands of Lagrangian drifting buoys. but the early signs are not reassuring. but also our own. if fish are feasting on these toxic morsels. That is what the researchers have found so far: all our plastic waste meets and circulates in the gyrating wastes of the ocean. "We're trying to document the issue and get baseline information because there is so little data. California." says Cummins. therefore. "We realised that our buoys are in fact a kind of marine debris. "I just found out that one surface drifter went very close to the North Pole in summer 2009. In another lab experiment." says Nikolai Maximenko of the University of Hawaii in Honolulu.1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 13 14 15 16 17 18 19 20 21 22 23 24 25 26 27 28 29 30 31 32 33 34 35 36 37 38 39 40 41 42 43 44 45 46 47 48 49 50 51 52 53 54 55 56 57 58 59 60 Pollution-trawling voyage finds ocean's plastic 'soup' New Scientist – 25 March 2011 by Ferris Jabr If you trawl a fine mesh net through any of the globe's five subtropical gyres – giant ocean vortexes where currents converge and swirl unhurriedly – you will haul on deck a muddle of brown planktonic goop. who studies marine ecology and ecotoxicology at San Diego State University in California. but swim to the surface at night to feed. the occasional fish. Worse. the reasoning goes. Investigations into what all this pollution means for wildlife and people are just getting started.
Leigh Hochberg.paralysis of all four limbs and the vocal cords. Instead.1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 13 14 15 16 17 18 19 20 21 22 23 24 25 26 27 28 29 30 31 32 33 Brain-computer implant has passed 1000-day milestone New Scientist – 25 March 2011 by Helen Thomson.fewer electrodes were recording useful neural signals than they did when tested six months after implantation. biomedical news editor A paralysed woman was still able to accurately control a computer cursor with her thoughts 1000 days after having a tiny electronic device implanted in her brain.S3 proved the durability of the device by performing two different "point-and-click" tasks by thinking about moving a cursor with her hand. The electrode decodes these signals to allow people with paralysis to control external devices such as computers. The achievement demonstrates the longevity of brain-machine implants. visiting associate professor of neurology at Harvard Medical School and director of the BrainGate trial. assistant professor of engineering at Brown. say the researchers who devised the system. In 2005. Her first task was to move a cursor on a computer screen to targets arranged in a circle and select each one in turn. which includes a combination of hardware and software that directly senses the electrical signals produced by neurons in the brain which control the planning of movement.1000 days after implantation . lead author John Simeral. In a study just published. the device did not perform perfectly . The woman. Rhode Island. for whom the researchers use the pseudonym S3. had a brainstem stroke in the mid-1990s that caused tetraplegia . The electrode array is part of the team's BrainGate system. Speaking with Brown University's news service. The second required her to follow and click on a target as it moved around the screen in varying sizes. 64 . said that they would like to further improve the sensitivity of the device: Hochberg says that S3's implant is still working and she is still participating in trials. they believe the decreased signal quality over time can largely be attributed to engineering issues. the researchers say that in 2008 . told the website Medical News Today: However. The researchers say there is no evidence of any fundamental incompatibility between the sensor and the brain. researchers from Brown University in Providence. wheelchairs and bionic limbs. Ongoing research means these issues are now less of a problem than they were when S3 received her implant. the Providence VA Medical Center and Massachusetts General Hospital in Boston implanted a tiny silicon electrode array the size of a small aspirin into S3's brain to help her communicate better with the outside world.
Then spiking food prices and the public suicide of one young Tunisian triggered revolution. rather than the underlying system. and the results. and a tendency for all players to behave similarly. let alone revolutionary change. have apparently been poor. Libya and Bahrain seemed firmly in control. "We cannot predict the spark. children or prospects. was nowhere on the horizon. "but we can say when a forest has accumulated dangerous levels of kindling. said last week. who heads the New England Complex Systems Institute in Cambridge. They are planning to study recent events to devise better ways to predict a fall. In the past. it yielded a simple result: ethnic violence flares when enclaves are a certain size. This successfully modelled 90 per cent of recent ethnic conflicts in India." he says. Now it's anybody's guess which country will be next. This is not unusual." he says. "We have never once gotten it right. including the Middle East. the stresses of poverty.until they reach a point where a small stress can trigger a sudden shift to another stable state. analysts focused on the trigger that sparks change. According to Yaneer Bar-Yam. believes such data may not be necessary." Repressing revolution is not the way to achieve stability. Scheffer says. unemployment and an absence of government accountability built up in Middle Eastern countries with a large "youth bulge" of young adults without jobs. The key to predicting regime shifts. Three months ago the rulers of Tunisia and Egypt. With the right data we can model other social changes. Kenya. however. US Secretary of Defense. says Marten Scheffer of the University of Wageningen in the Netherlands. Dissent of any kind. The US military tries to predict political instability. "All complex systems exhibit certain symptoms before a regime shift. allowing kindling to accumulate until a big fire breaks out. But uncovering the symptoms of instability may warn societies to reform themselves before revolution happens. forests accumulate kindling until a spark ignites a fire. while secret. central Asia and former Yugoslavia. For example. Bar-Yam has previously used mathematical models to predict violence between ethnic groups. Bar-Yam has found this behaviour pattern in the lead-up to market crashes. can accumulate stresses while showing no obvious change . Scheffer. Scientists who study mathematically complex systems claim we can do better. It would be like preventing small forest fires. including slower responses to small changes. Scheffer is launching research to look for such symptoms in social systems. Though the system's mathematics was complex.1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 13 14 15 16 17 18 19 20 21 22 23 24 25 26 27 28 29 30 31 32 33 34 35 36 37 38 I predict a riot: Where the next dictator will fall New Scientist – 03 March 2011 by Debora MacKenzie NO ONE saw it coming. he says though good social data may be hard to find. Massachusetts. such as ecosystems or societies." Robert Gates. 65 . he adds. Complex systems with many interrelated variables. is to look beyond individual behaviour to seek simple laws that describe a population's collective behaviour.
often used in the warmer summer months. many activities were cancelled due to the low-lying mist. the mist meant that he couldn't see for more than 20 metres. far away from the hustle and bustle of work. he had expected to be greeted with the promised view of rolling hills and animals grazing in the meadow below.. This apartment in an eighteenth-century mansion had caught his eye as it promised exquisite cuisine.. So he set off just after breakfast. beautiful interior decor and a range of country pursuits such as clay pigeon shooting and horse riding.then another hour.. He decided to rest and sat on a fallen tree to enjoy his lunch. he would be back there soon? 66 . He had been told about a clearing in the middle of the forest that would greet him with a comfortable bench. He headed towards the forest with a small packed lunch in case the mist prevented him from returning to the mansion before lunchtime. By now he was getting worried.Appendix 4 – Reading passages Skimming passage 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 13 14 15 16 17 18 19 20 21 22 23 24 25 26 27 28 29 An extract from 'The path that led nowhere' The mist clouded Harry's view as he woke up early that morning. Anxious not to let the day slip away. Harry thought he was heading in the right direction but. Instead. he still hadn't reached it. Harry heard the birds sitting in the trees above him. the twigs snapped under his feet and the dew from the trees dripped on to his shoulder. Harry had looked forward to his annual holiday.. He had looked forward to a country retreat. Looking out of his sash window. Feeling better after a rest and some food. Harry continued to try to find his way back to the comfort of his holiday accommodation. Working hard in the city centre. Harry decided that a walk through the nearby forest would enable him to relax. This Sunday morning though. the daily grind had started to get to him and he had had little time for pleasures such as relaxation. over an hour later. As he walked along the path. Surely. The holiday had been booked for weeks.he was still walking amongst the tall oak trees. Another hour passed. letting him know that he wasn't alone.
Botox and Bollinger Botox parties are causing concern amongst practitioners. Not only can booze intensify bruising but it can also wash the toxin away from the target muscle. Botox should only be administered by experienced and welltrained doctors or nurses. This bacterium causes botulism . Unfortunately. Celebrities like Madonna. Alcohol and Botox do not mix well. Armpit attack Botox is reportedly a favourite with Oscar nominees who don't want to work up a sweat on the red carpet. the fine lines and wrinkles smooth out. or an exaggerated effect. atrophy or thinning of the muscles occurs.Scanning passage 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 13 14 15 16 17 18 19 20 21 22 23 24 25 26 27 28 29 30 31 32 33 34 35 36 37 38 39 40 41 42 43 Beauty with Botox Botox injections are one of the most popular cosmetic treatments in the world. a poison produced by the bacterium Clostridium botulinum. Side effects Soreness or mild bruising can occur around the injection site. however. Cosmetic treatments were pioneered by dermatological surgeons in 1987. Botox treatment can leave the face with a lack of expression. In small doses. The American Academy of Dermatology has warned against this practice. 67 . Sir Cliff Richard admitted to having had the treatment and now it is an increasingly popular choice for ordinary women looking for a quick way to look younger. Since it is still a relatively new treatment. when it is overdone. A treatment costs roughly £200. A high dose could cause poisoning. eye ticks and uncontrolled blinking. In small quantities. What is Botox? Botox is made from 'botulinum toxin'. any possible side effects of long-term use are still unknown.a severe form of food poisoning. Botox first began to be used in 1980 to treat many muscle disorders such as lazy eye. When these muscles relax. Headaches can also occur. Kylie Minogue and Liz Hurley are rumoured to be keeping the wrinkles at bay this way. Botox works by paralysing the muscles of the face which are used in frowning and raising the eyebrows. With repeated treatments. which produces longer lasting results. Botox may be unsuitable for use around the mouth as the muscles there are important for facial expressions and eating. Botox merely interrupts nerve impulses to muscles in the face. Some stars have injections in their armpits to paralyse the sweat glands there. How long does it last? Injections take effect about three to seven days after treatment and the effect lasts three or four months. This way they can receive their awards knowing they don't have sweaty patches under their arms and hand back their couture outfits unstained. In rare instances patients may experience a droopy eyebrow or eyelid. People are receiving treatments whilst sipping champagne. This is reputed to have caused a problem for some actors.
In British Columbia. provides jobs. since 1990. and soon we can expect to see pulp and paper produced from this new source. rope. taxes for the government and cheap products of all kinds for consumers. profits. for example. that 137 species of plant. They also point out that marijuana is less toxic than alcohol or tobacco. there is a problem: hemp is illegal in many countries of the world. This second group has had a major triumph recently: in 1997.Reading passage 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 13 14 15 16 17 18 19 20 21 22 23 24 25 26 27 28 29 30 31 32 33 34 35 36 37 38 39 40 41 42 43 44 45 46 47 48 49 50 51 Pulp Friction Every second. but scientists are now suggesting that the cultivation of hemp should be revived for the production of paper and pulp. that adds up to 31 million hectares -. In the late 1930s. In recent years. An area the size of New York City is lost every day. thirteen rainforest valleys have been clearcut. and that it is used by large numbers of people who are not criminals but productive members of society. This plant. it was essential to the economies of many countries because it was used to make the ropes and cables used on sailing ships. Hemp has been cultivated by many cultures for thousands of years. 1 hectare of the world's rainforest is destroyed. four times as much paper can be produced from land using hemp rather than trees. According to its proponents. The other legalization movement is concerned only with the hemp plant used to produce fibre. Canada legalized the farming of hemp for fibre. related to the plant from which marijuana is produced. and rope. Canada supplies 34% of the world's wood pulp and 49% of its newsprint paper. Although both George Washington and Thomas Jefferson grew hemp in large quantities on their own land. where. According to the Canadian Pulp and Paper Association. but also of the commercial fibre-producing hemp plant. wolves and many other creatures are threatened. resulting in the eventual banning of the cultivation not only of the plant used to produce the drug. so the government is reluctant to restrict or control it. It produces fibre which can be made into paper. is a species of cannabis. 68 . Canadian forests could be preserved.and that the use of the drug marijuana should not be an offense. insect or animal become extinct every day due to logging. this group wants to make it legal to cultivate the plant and sell the fibre for paper and pulp production. hundreds of farmers are planting this crop. fuel and textiles. so useful for fibre.more than the land area of Poland. For centuries. They argue that marijuana is not dangerous or addictive. Recently. oils. however. However. That's equivalent to two football fields. fuel. a possible alternative way of producing paper has been suggested by agriculturalists and environmentalists: a plant called hemp.despite the fact that marijuana cannot be produced from the hemp plant. scientists estimate. Much of Canada's forestry production goes towards making pulp and paper. a movement to ban the drug marijuana began to gather force.both the hemp plant and the marijuana plant -. In a year. since it contains almost no THC (the active ingredient in the drug). colonial expansion and the establishment of a world-wide trading network would not have been feasible without hemp. textiles. and many environmentalists believe that the large-scale cultivation of hemp could reduce the pressure on Canada's forests. oil. Logging. For the first time since 1938. two major movements for legalization have been gathering strength. This alarming rate of destruction has serious consequences for the environment. If these paper products could be produced in some other way. and the habitats of grizzly bears. 142 species of salmon have already become extinct. any American growing the plant today would soon find himself in prison -. food. ships' cables are usually made from wire or synthetic fibres. One group of activists believes that ALL cannabis should be legal -. Nowadays.
so they would like to show how destructive logging is. Therefore. They want to show how useful it is for making paper and other products. they want to be able to continue to cut trees. The environmentalists: The environmental lobby want to protect the forests against logging companies. The marijuana legalization lobby: These people would like marijuana to be legal. They want to show how useful industrial hemp is. they want to convince people that marijuana is harmless. They also get lots of taxes from the forestry industry.Critical reading passage 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 13 14 15 16 17 18 19 20 21 22 23 24 25 26 27 Pulp Friction The forestry industry: The forestry industry makes money from cutting down trees. The hemp farming lobby: The hemp farmers would like the fibre hemp plant to be legal so that they can grow it. but they want to keep marijuana illegal. They are interested in linking the fibre hemp plant with marijuana because they think it may be possible to legalize BOTH kinds of plant. so they do not want to restrict logging too much. 69 . The Canadian government: The Canadian government has just legalized industrial hemp. and they would like people to understand the difference between the marijuana plant and the fibre hemp plant. and at the same time. so they want to show that it is dangerous. and they want to discourage any alternative ways of producing pulp and paper. and how valuable the forests are.
70 . 7) Read through the text again trying to understand as much as you can. 11) Which of the expectations/anticipations you listed in task 2 does the text meet? A)…… B)…… C)…… D)…… E)…… 12) What do you think of the text? Evaluate it in the light of your reading purpose. conclusion etc. 10) Draw a diagram or a flowchart to show how the information in the text is organized. main part(s). 2) Write down at least 5 key words or questions you expect to find in the text. Name the sections according to their function (e. Don't worry about the words you don't understand. 6) Ask yourself if the text may suit the needs that made you choose it as a source of information.g. What do you already know about the topic? In note form write down pieces of information you expect to find in the text. in not more than 15 words. When you come across a word which you don't know and which you think is important for the text write it down and beside it write your idea of what it probably means. Use the dictionary only if absolutely necessary! 8) Divide the text into sections. 9) Write down the main idea of each paragraph or section using one sentence only.) and give one content-related keyword for each. introduction. the main theme of the text.Appendix 5 – Standard reading exercise 1) Read only the title of the chosen text. 3) Is the text: A) an extract from a book? ……… B) a newspaper article? ……… C) a magazine article? ……… D) a scientific article? ……… E) a…………………………… 4) When was it published? …………………… 5) Read through the whole text as quickly as possible. Now write down. Give reasons for your evaluation.
and Count Basie became the heroes of the young." Dial (May 1990): 15. and with her bobbed hair and short skirts. Matisse is the best painter ever at putting the viewer at the scene. With scrubby coats of ivory. including the subtle presence of the bowaab. Yet the fragility of this regulating system is now threatened by human activity. which pierces the southern wall of the city near the sultan's palace. In an accident. and it exerts tremendous control on our climate. Classical music was forgotten while jazz spread throughout the land.Appendix 6 – Paraphrasing passages 1) "The Antarctic is the vast source of cold on our planet. Of the more than 1000 bicycling deaths each year. and men like Bix Beiderbecke. and the police seemed powerless to do anything against it. The twenties were the years when drinking was against the law. From Ron Bachman. 2) 3) 4) 5) 71 ." Newsweek (26 March 1990): 50. Matisse gets the essence of a Tangier afternoon." Audubon (May 1990):17. He's the most realistic of all modern artists. the sentry who sits and surveys those who pass through the gate. The question is: Just how high can a building go? Structural engineer William LeMessurier has designed a skyscraper nearly one-half mile high. "The Casbah Gate" depicts the well-known gateway Bab el Aassa. "The cold ocean water around Antarctica flows north to mix with warmer water from the tropics. And architect Robert Sobel claims that existing technology could produce a 500story building. aqua." [Jacques] Cousteau told the camera. twice as tall as the Sears Tower. From Peter Plagens. "Reaching for the Sky. a bike helmet absorbs the shock and cushions the head. America's break with the past. she symbolized. it's unlikely that architects and engineers have abandoned the quest for the world's tallest building. just as the sun is the source of our heat. blue. English 102 Supplemental Guide (1989): 25. perhaps more than anyone or anything else." Consumer Reports (May 1990): 348. and rose delicately fenced by the liveliest gray outline in art history. They were the years when organized crime ruled the cities. Half of those killed are school-age children. While the Sears Tower is arguably the greatest achievement in skyscraper engineering so far. if you admit the feel of the breeze as necessary to a landscape and the smell of oranges as essential to a still life. and its upwellings help to cool both the surface water and our atmosphere. From "Bike Helmets: Unused Lifesavers." From "Captain Cousteau. "Bright Lights. and the law was a bad joke because everyone knew of a local bar where liquor could be had. From Kathleen Yancey. three-fourths are caused by head injuries. The flapper was born in the twenties. Louis Armstrong. One study concluded that wearing a bike helmet can reduce the risk of head injury by 85 percent.
The present study explored to what extent emotional speech recognition of 'basic' emotions (anger. happiness.de (S. Introduction Communicating and understanding emotions is central to human social interactions throughout the lifespan. All rights reserved. but not of sex.002 * Much of the literature on emotional expression has focused on emotional facial expression (e. University of Leipzig. fear. Banse & Scherer.2007. Paulmann).O. As a contribution to this literature. doi:10. we would like to point out that several authors (e. • 2007 Elsevier Inc. McGill University. Aging. Germany Accepted 3 March 2007 Available online 10 April 2007 Abstract To successfully infer a speaker's emotional state. 1992). elation. by which we refer to both the verbal-semantic content and the prosodic realization of an emotional utterance. Banse and Scherer (1996) studied the recognition of emotional prosody and reported that accuracy rates varied significantly as a function of the emotion category. 0093-934X/$ . the perceptual findings were examined in relation to acoustic properties of the sentences presented. Fax: +49 (0)341 9940 260.1016/j. Sex 1. the likelihood of participants discriminating rather than recognizing an emotion is reduced with an increasing number of response alternatives that were applied in the current study.03. Canada c Day Care Clinic of Cognitive Neurology. Expressions of anger and sadness are typically recognized more reliably from prosody than expressions of fear and pleasant surprise (Banse & Scherer. individuals must decode the emotional expressions of others efectively or risk a breakdown in interpersonal communication.g. 1982. 1993). However. Johnstone & Scherer. Vocal expression. It is therefore of major social relevance to understand how emotions are encoded and decoded and to determine which factors inﬂuence these processes. As a secondary goal.c Max Planck Institute for Human Cognitive and Brain Sciences. Findings indicate that emotion recognition rates difer between the diferent categories tested and that these patterns varied significantly as a function of age. 1996) have argued that most published recognition studies may have studied discrimination processes (choosing between a limited number of response alternatives) rather than true recognition processes.g.elsevier. Sonja A. interest in emotional speech.. Kotz a. or shame were all below 40% although still larger than expected by chance (Banse & Scherer. 1996). babies scream when feeling pain.Appendix 7 – Scientific articles Brain and Language 104 (2008) 262-269 www. Box 500 355.. 1 In order to stay coherent with the literature available we use the term emotion ''recognition''. has increased (for a recent review see Juslin & Laukka. P. All rights reserved. For instance. 2000). fear. Ekman. a small literature on this topic indicates that sadness is usually expressed with low 72 . the present 1 study investigated the recognition of 'basic' emotions from speech in two distinct age and sex cohorts. Corresponding author. although not all emotional categories are recognized equally well. Prosody.com/locate/b&l How aging afects the recognition of emotional speech Silke Paulmann a a.bandl. Keywords: Emotion. Participants were asked to identify the emotional prosody of a sentence as accurately as possible. From the first moments of life humans express their feelings (e. disgust.mpg.g. sadness) difers between diferent sex (male/female) and age (young/middle-aged) groups in a behavioural experiment. 2003). whereas hot anger was recognized with 78% accuracy. or happiness). 1996. However. Montre´al. hunger. * b . E-mail address: paulmann@cbs. In adulthood. Marc D. Germany b School of Communication Sciences and Disorders. Most studies of emotional prosody demonstrate recognition rates that are approximately four times higher than expected by chance (Pittam & Scherer. 04303 Leipzig. Pell . diverse sources of emotional information need to be decoded. recognition rates for panic fear. The high recognition rates for these two emotions may be due to their distinctiveness at the acoustic level. More recently.see front matter _ 2007 Elsevier Inc.. 1972. pleasant surprise.
and no reported hearing impairment. Their results showed that younger participants significantly outperformed older participants irrespective of the emotional category tested (Kiss & Ennis. Evidence for possible sex diferences comes from studies on facial expression. while anger is conveyed with high intensity. Talbott. Stimulus material The stimulus material consisted of 350 syntactically similar (SVO) sentences. Connor. Thompson & Balkwill. young women tend to rate male faces more positively than young men (e. In comparison to previous studies in which the mean age of older participants was 75 years. sadness) or a neutral category.1.. we predicted that the ability to recognize emotional speech would decline with increasing age. Obler. Paulmann et al.02 73 . the results of 16 young women and 16 middle-aged women were contrasted against the results of 16 young men and 16 middle-aged men (age range of both groups: 18-50 years). for example.. 2004). the aim of the current study was to clarify whether emotional speech recognition difers as a function of sex and/or age.g. 2. Raithel & Hielscher-Fastabend. Reasons for these diverse results are probably manifold. To date. For example.g. although according to our design..g.. 2006). Nicholas. and rather low pitch. Armony.46 Mean (years) 23. All participants had a similar educational background.06 42.16 ± 10. it is under debate to what extent vocal emotion recognition difers between male and female listeners. & Friederici. Based on previous findings. syllable length. Thompson.44 ± 2.19 ± 9. Kotz. To build on previous work in the literature.35 32. recognition rates of emotional prosody of 16 young women and 16 young men (range 18-28 years) were compared to the performance of 16 middle-aged women and 16 middle-aged men (range: 38-50 years). 2002.g. attention or working memory (Filley & Cullum. Kiss and Ennis (2001) investigated the perception of emotional prosody in sentences with and without lexical content.0 ± 2.. The verb and noun of the sentences were controlled for word letter length. but varying task demands as well as the use of diferent methodologies and measurements across studies are likely candidates. 1972). Despite the growing research interest in emotional speech there are still several open questions. Further to possible sex efects in vocal emotion recognition. showing lower accuracy rates for middle-aged as compared to young participants. we also investigated whether the recognition rates in diferent age and sex groups could be predicted by acoustic dimensions of the stimuli presented. 1994. Orbelo. / Brain and Language 104 (2008) 262-269 263 intensity. Moreover. 2001. and plosive consonants. Orbelo and colleagues reported an advantage for comprehending both emotional and attitudinal prosody in a group of young rather than older participants (Orbelo et al. where it has been suggested that women are more responsive to non-verbal cues than men (e. 2005). 1995). (see Table 1 for mean age of participants).81 ± 3. low speaking rate. 2000). Brosgole & Weismann. although not for disgust. Prior to Table 1 Participant information: the table displays the mean age in years (± standard deviation) for each sex and age group individually and grouped together Participants Young Middle-aged Mean Female (years) 22. normal or corrected-to-normal-vision. 2. Orbelo et al. research on facial expression reveals perception diferences between female and male participants which might extend to emotional speech processing. Pell.67 Male (years) 24. 2001. Scherer. To reduce the potential efects of attention or working memory decline on emotional processing we thus opted to test middle-age participants in the current experiment. fast speaking rate. Grim. Kiss & Ennis. Bonebright.50 33. 1998). Williams & Stevens. Allen & Brosgole. and high pitch (Juslin & Laukka. In the second dimension. 1996. 2005. disgust..2.g. Some evidence suggests that women are better than men in identifying or discriminating emotional prosody (e. 1993.88 ± 1. fear. resulting in two group dimensions. Schirmer. In the first dimension. The possibility that vocal expressions of these and perhaps other emotions are expressed in a 'universal' manner across languages is also being explored (e. it has been noted that emotional speech recognition declines with age (e. Participants were divided into four equal age.S. For example. Similarly.13 41... but rather domain general afecting. & Belin. 1995. Not all existing studies have reported this sex diference though (e.and sex-controlled groups. initial sounds. & Albert. & Ross. our middle-aged-group comprised of participants with a mean age of 43 years. It is often argued that age diferences in emotional processing may not be domain specific. 2005). In addition. 1986. 2003. the accuracy of each group was then compared. Fecteau.. 2003) reported that older participants showed lower recognition rates for expressions of fear and anger. & Leger. Joanette. van Strien & van Beek. 2001). Male and female participants of two age cohorts (young and middle-aged) listened to sentences and then identified the meaning of the prosody in reference to six basic emotional categories (anger. Materials and methods 2. In the context of this literature.89 43. there is less direct evidence of sex diferences in emotional speech perception. happiness. an efect of sex on emotional speech recognition should lead to diferences for both young and middle-aged participants irrespective of their age. 2005). 2005. Participants Sixty-four native German speakers (age range: 18-50 years) participated in the experiment. The efect of sex on emotional speech recognition was less certain from the literature. a recent study of facial emotion recognition (Calder et al. Briton & Hall.g. pleasant surprise.63 ± 3.44 ± 2. word frequency.
The vast majority (83.3. 2. 100%. duration) were entered in a series of one-way ANOVAs and results revealed significant diferences across emotional categories for mean pitch (F(6. Participants were instructed to listen to a sentence and to recognize the emotional prosodic category as quickly and accurately as possible. the first two functions successfully separate sentences by emotional category. A discriminant analysis was performed to infer whether the stimuli contained detectable acoustic contrasts which might help listeners to correctly diferentiate the intended emotion categories. sadness) or into a semantically neutral category (50 sentences per category). trials were divided into four pseudo-randomized lists (350 sentences each). p < 0. sentences were grouped into one of the six basic emotional categories (anger. Within the current experiment. however.S. mean duration had the highest pooled-within-groups correlation with the canonical discriminant function score (r = . (4) a blank screen for 500 ms. Fig. 60%. 1 illustrates how the canonical discriminant function scores for functions one and two separate the emotional categories for each sentence. duration).1 kHz sampling rate and the amplitudes were normalized (with CoolEdit Version 2000).989). mean intensity (F(6. and mean duration (F(6. Each sentence is plotted according to its discrimination scores for the discriminant functions 1 (highest correlation with mean intensity) and 2 (highest correlation with mean pitch). (5) presentation of a number scale (++ + 0 À ÀÀ) requesting the intensity categorization. Four German actors (two female. / Brain and Language 104 (2008) 262-269 264 testing. 100%.729).0001). Sentences were taped with a video camcorder (SONY Digital Video camera Recorder MiniDV DCR-TRV60E) attached to a high-quality clip-on microphone.0001).4. (3) acoustical presentation of a sentence with simultaneous presentation of a question mark on the screen requesting emotional prosody recognition. To control the length of the experiment. only the voice material was tested. neutral. Response time was limited to 8000 ms to ensure spontaneous reactions. p < 0. Primary acoustical measurements (mean pitch.343) = 1024. Classification results obtained from the discriminant analysis revealed that the model identified 87.95.18. happy. In each list.3%) of the variance was accounted for the first function described by this discriminant analysis.1% of the sentences correctly. Paulmann et al. 82%. The sentences were presented via loudspeaker located 70 cm from the participant. Secondly. The Event-related Run Time System (ERTS) (Beringer. pleasant surprise. 2. (6) inter-trial interval of 2000 ms. disgust. 1. As can be seen. Mean pitch had the largest pooled-withingroups correlation with the canonical discriminant function score (r = . Pooledwithin-groups correlations between acoustics parameters and the first canonical discriminant function scores revealed that mean intensity drove the highest correlation (r = . happiness. In the analysis acoustic measurements served as independent variables whereas the dependent variable was the intended emotional category. pleasant surprise. Each participant was presented with one of the four lists.45. The presentation of each speaker in each list was balanced as closely as possible 74 .0001). intensity. 1993) was used to carry out the experimental task. (2) clear screen for 100 ms. all 50 sentences of each emotional category were presented. Fig. 2006). two male). intensity. With the exception of disgust.343) = 39.809) in a second function that accounted for 15. 90%. fear. participants were asked to judge the stimulus intensity as quickly and accurately as possible (results not reported here). Acoustic analysis The stimulus material was acoustically analyzed using Praat (Boersma & Weenink. fear. that accounted for 1. 98%. two in each age cohort (young/middle-aged) were then asked to produce each sentence in the respective emotional prosody.343) = 744.5% of the variance. The video material was digitized and the voice-track was separated from the visual-track. This resulted in a total number of 1400 sentences. The voice material was digitized at a 16-bit/44. Results of a discriminant feature analysis in which the intended emotional category was predicted by three acoustic parameters (mean pitch. The trial sequence was thus as follows: (1) presentation of a fixation cross for 200 ms. Procedure Each participant was comfortably seated in a chair at a distance of approximately 60 cm from a computer screen with a seven-button panel placed before him/her. sadness. p < 0.2% of the variance. 80%). disgust. the model correctly predicted category membership for all emotions above 80% correct (anger. lists difered with respect to which speaker had articulated the sentence. In a third function.
Bars show the correct responses for each intended emotional category and error bars represent the standard errors.74. 96. Post hoc t-tests conducted for each emotion category revealed that young participants were significantly better at recognizing all 2 Fig. The main efect of Afect was signifi2 cant (F(6. Additional analyses revealed that middle-aged participants did not only make more misclassifications. followed by disgust.8%). 61. 2.1. Efect size was estimated by omega-square 2 3. the coefcient of determination. Results revealed that errors made by all participants could not be successfully predicted by the acoustic properties of the stimuli.138 are considered large efects. As shown in Fig. 3. disgust.786).835). Sentences were grouped according to their most frequent misclassification. those sentences that had equally frequent misclassifications were left out of the analyses (92 sentences for young. For middle-aged participants. Accuracy rates 3.360) = 82.2. 2 X = 0. 3.2%) than the discriminant analysis for middle-aged participants (19. 84% of the variance was accounted for in the first function described by this discriminant analysis. Descriptive statistics Overall. and values between 0. 3. Paulmann et al. Results emotion categories from prosody than middle-aged participants (all p < . although this was informed by a significant interaction of Age · Afect (F(6. For young participants. fear.994) in the second function which accounted for 3. the discriminant analysis for young participants showed higher prediction accuracy (32. However. Error analysis 3. As can be seen in Table 2.2. There were no significant correlations between acoustics and the second function described by this discriminant analysis which accounted for 16% of the variance.4% of the variance. Mean pitch had the largest pooled-within correlation with the canonical discriminant function score (r = . which represents the proportion of variance in the dependent variable accounted for by the independent variable (interpreted in 2 a similar manner as r ).e. Also.. No main efect of Sex was found (p > . Discriminant analysis by age group To determine whether the overall Age efect was due to using acoustic cues diferently.82%).0001. X efect sizes greater than 0. 75 .0001). Analysis of variance (ANOVA) Accuracy scores for the six emotion categories (+ neutral) were submitted to a 7 · 2 · 2 ANOVA treating Afect (angry. happy. Olejnik & Algina.05. 3. 151).1. the figure shows that even though errors made by the two groups had a very similar distribution. middle-aged participants chose the categories neutral and pleasant surprise more often than young participants. listeners frequently confused pleasant surprise with happy sentences. i. Analyses revealed that middle-aged participants made more errors than young participants. 3.1.2. indices between 0. but the Age efect was highly significant (F(1.048 are considered small efects (c. sadness) as a repeated-measures factor and participant Sex (male/female) and Age (young/middle-aged) as betweensubject factors.0001. neutral. X = 0.31). but they had more time-outs (i.05).21. For between-subject designs. and happiness. These patterns did not difer between the age and sex groups.05). 2).017). 2.39). pleasant surprise.05) (see Fig. p < . Pooled-within correlations between the acoustics and the first canonical discriminant function scores revealed that mean intensity had the highest correlation (r = . mean accuracy rates for anger and neutral vocalizations were highest. Pooled-within correlations between the acoustics and the first canonical discriminant function scores revealed that mean duration had the highest correlation (r = .1. 13 sentences for each emotional category per speaker). no hits during the given time-frame) than young participants (251 vs.f. Chi-square tests for error matrices Chi-square analyses for each error matrix indicated that participant errors were not equally distributed (all p > .3.67.22% vs.6% of the variance was accounted for by the first function described by the discriminant analysis. Accuracy (in %) of emotional prosody recognition according to the age of participants..2. except for pleasant surprise which did not difer as a function of age (p > . p < . (X ). 3. Distribution of false alarms The distribution of incorrectly recognized emotional sentences split by age is illustrated in Fig.60) = 29.2. X =20. and 67 sentences for middle-aged participants). 2003). emotional prosody recognition was well above chance level (14%).S. Emotion recognition rates were generally higher in younger participants than in middle-aged participants (73.0009 and 0.138 are considered medium efects.e. and fearful with sad sentences. / Brain and Language 104 (2008) 262-269 265 (12 vs. Expressions of fear and pleasant surprise were recognized the least accurately overall.2. sadness. errors were entered into an additional discriminant analysis. p < .048 and 0.360) = 3.1.
75 13.27 6.11 2. our findings further revealed an overall recognition advantage for young participants over middle-aged participants on this task with the exception of one emotion category (pleasant surprise).47 0.10 1.97 — 0.17 4. / Brain and Language 104 (2008) 262-269 Table 2 Error analysis: the matrix shows the confusion pattern for errors made in the emotional recognition task split by participant's age and sex Group Emotion Intended emotion Anger Middle-aged Anger Disgust Fear Happiness Neutral Pls.30 0.82 11.55 — 525 9.84 4. 3.90 0.24 — 0.47 25.1. The figure displays all errors for trials excluding timeouts.22 0 0.g.63 — 4.86 2.89 3.63 8.51 Neutral 5. Sadness Anger Disgust Fear Happiness Neutral Pls.46 3.28 7.17 Sadness 1. Discussion The present study investigated how the combined efects of age and sex inﬂuence emotional speech recognition.03 — 6.25 0.31 0.88 — 7.23 46. Paulmann et al.34 0. an overall accuracy rate of 70% was obtained which is approximately five times higher than expected by chance in our task and in line with previous research (e.23 10. Sadness Anger Disgust Fear Happiness Neutral Pls.65 8.19 Fear 3.90 11. Sadness Anger Disgust Fear Happiness Neutral Pls.32 5.44 0.26 3.44 0.86 1.11 0.86 19.05 4. acoustic analyses revealed that there were obvious diferences in pitch.04 — 0.53 5.10 3.51 1.57 0. and temporal 76 .20 2. Averaging across emotions.73 0.31 1.91 — 8.51 0.31 — 0.38 0. Interestingly.82 1. 4.88 3. Overall.52 — 3. amplitude.3 1.44 0.55 0.06 — 0.53 3.63 1.88 1.08 2.94 0.33 — 7.95 — 4.92 4.86 7. surp.94 0.63 3.63 0.88 44. 2003).27 0.95 9.06 3.34 0.70 1.48 2. Emotional speech recognition Prior to the study. These results will be discussed in sequence in the following paragraphs.31 0.39 1.13 1.11 14. surp.16 4.62 13.19 0.65 01. In contrast.50 6.02 0.64 — 2.61 1.06 3.06 3.71 7. split by age. we found that 37% of the sentences were classified incorrectly by middle-aged participants in contrast to only 26% classification errors by young participants.61 23.07 3.19 0.44 0.38 1. Scherer.41 — 8.60 0 0. Taken together.36 4.13 16.200 responses could be given by participants (50 sentences per emotional category · seven emotional categories · number of participants).76 — 4.14 7.55 0.09 49.45 50.59 — 6.31 18.51 1. no efects of sex on emotional speech recognition emerged from our data. 6.06 — Young Female Male Values are the mean incorrect answers (in %).64 — 2.25 0.82 0 0.32 0. The distribution of emotional error classifications across trials.95 0.48 17.18 11.07 2.13 0.86 2.84 9.37 Pls.31 2.50 2. Johnstone.89 9.13 — 0.83 0.4 0 0.98 — 6.39 11.54 0. surp.37 19.69 — 0.18 0.60 — 3.88 Happiness 0. Fig.61 6.17 3. Sadness — 8.07 0..06 2.32 0.07 13. 11. our results confirmed that recognition accuracy rates vary significantly as a function of emotion category when listening to emotional speech.32 0.51 Disgust 0. & Klasmeyer.33 19.266 S.13 0.66 — 2. surp.38 0.44 — 4.13 0. 4.90 0.22 0.85 11.69 2.82 10. For example.13 — 1.51 0.39 2.40 0. surp.26 — 5.01 13.
.. and possibly biological factors. McDowell. anger was recognized better than pleasant surprise. or recognizing anger is necessary to perceive potential danger.. Paulmann. 1998) have each been associated with increasing age. 1996). Kotz. 4. Ohman. / Brain and Language 104 (2008) 262-269 267 attributes of our emotional utterances that might help listeners to correctly classify the intended emotional category. As well.g. 2007) and with particular findings on the processing of emotional prosody (e.. sex differences are not found if young participants are instructed to take emotional prosody into account when rendering perceptual judgments (Schirmer. Inﬂuence of sex on emotional speech recognition Our investigation failed to uncover significant evidence of sex-specific efects on emotional speech recognition.. while others have not (e. 2002. electrophysiological data gathered by Schirmer and colleagues suggest that women are primarily faster to process emotional prosody than men. even though listeners could successfully decode basic emotions from speech samples at a high level.2005). The current results illustrate that recognition errors are not randomly distributed. this may explain some of the errors witnessed in the current study. such as the presentation modality. 1994) and working memory (Nicholas et al. Orbelo. Testa. & Ross. Ohman¨ & ¨ Mineka. Kiss & Ennis. one could speculate that strong sex diferences are only detectable in young participants. Nonetheless. Paulmann et al.g.g.. German. In addition.. it is likely that emotional category recognition varies between studies due to multiple reasons. Bonebright et al. 2005. Briton & Hall. Tasks that include emotion categories which tend to yield high confusion rates are likely to inﬂuence the relative ranking of emotions in recognition studies. 2005). but not in younger participants. the diferent acoustic realization of stimuli.. Schirmer et al.. undergo hormonal changes around 40 to 55 years of age that can afect cognitive processes (e. Diferences in ranking emotional categories could also be due to biological factors which can inﬂuence emotion recognition (e. Based on physiological evidence. it is unlikely that emotion recognition abilities were confounded by a reduction in other cognitive capacities.g.g. 2002. recognition at word/sentence level). our findings reafrm that some emotions are recognized much better than others (e. In the introduction. (1999) found that lexical emotion perception was associated with an age-related decline in participants 60 years or older. van Strien & van Beek. Scherer. It has been argued that emotions that are acoustically similar are often misclassified (c. 2005). confusion between pleasant surprise and happiness). 4.2. 2004). suggesting that the perceptual stimuli were distinct at the acoustic level. This may be particularly the case when the semantic context is sufciently ambiguous as to the intended emotional interpretation (e. 2).g. & Ross. 2001. but also men.e.g. Arabic).f. Demaree. Everhardt.g.. 2006 for a recent review). review Fig. This age efect is in line with general findings on emotion perception (e. Grunwald et al. Based on the broader literature.. Pell. & Shipley.3. women.g. although this confound may be present in the wider literature. e.S. Some of these inconsistencies could be due to diferent presentation modalities (e. Filley and Cullum (1994) evaluated the attention of participants who were 50-69 and 70-90 years of age (Filley & Cullum. 2005.g. Orbelo. the efects of aging on our data are likely 77 . 1986). c. the ecological validity of stimulus materials. & Friederici. while basic attention was not afected at all. Banse & Scherer. Thus. and fear was frequently mistaken for sadness.. Some emotions may be more easily recognized if lexical information is available. pleasant surprise was frequently mistaken for happiness. Brosgole & Weismann.f.. The inﬂuence of age on emotional speech recognition The present results reveal a clear decline in emotional speech recognition with increasing age. 2001. Fecteau et al. Orbelo et al. 2003. 1993. Orbelo et al. 1995. 2005). we put forward several reasons that could explain why some research has reported sex diferences in emotional speech recognition (e. and there is behavioural and electrophysiological evidence that semantic information cannot be ignored even if it is not in the focus of a task (Besson. but they do not necessarily engage in diferent processing strategies (e. Another possibility is that sex diferences are highly pronounced at the stage of expressing rather than recognizing emotional speech. Allen & Brosgole.. we noted that the sex of the speaker had a major impact on how vocal emotions were expressed. Prodan. anger and sadness are less often confused than anger and fear. Rather. Grunwald et al. 2000). 2005). Banse and Scherer (1996) argue that some emotions are recognized more poorly in sentences because of the limited ecological validity of certain expressions in a sentential context. Given that our middleaged group was younger than most aging groups studied previously. a discriminant feature analysis showed that category membership for all emotional tokens was correctly predicted by the acoustic measures in excess of 80% with the exception of disgust (which still achieved 60% correct). Harrison.. Our results are thus in line with the assumption that sex diferences only occur under implicit emotional prosody processing situations. Magne.. & Alasseri. but that these diferences were recognized similarly by male and female listeners of each language (Pell et al..g. Some researchers also argue that misclassifications frequently involve emotions of similar valence (e. for example. & Demaree... Raithel & HielscherFastabend.. & Scho¨n . 1995. 1994. For instance.. with/without lexical context.. 1994) and found that sustained attention starts to decline after the age of 70. Kotz. and then only under certain task-related conditions. Studies that demonstrate how well particular emotions are recognized from speech show rather mixed findings. in a recent study of emotional communication in three languages (English. happiness and pleasant surprise) and arousal (i. 1999. 2006). Williams & Mattingley.2002. A decline in attention (Filley & Cullum. detecting fear is necessary to survive.. 1996.g.
(1993). & Scho¨n. 429-445. Scott..). & Brosgole. 6. the normal elderly and young adults.. S. Emotion in the human face. 24(2). L. 32. (2003). R. NimmoSmith. First. L.. Armony. Ekman. Fecteau. potentially for several reasons (e. Erhan. Gur.. & Scherer. J. Sex Roles. N.. Pick. due to true changes in the recognition of emotional prosody as a function of aging that appear to demonstrate a notably ''early'' decline in middle-aged adults in the auditory modality. 41. Although we found no evidence of sex efects in emotional speech recognition. J.1.praat. 2005). C. Ekman. & Weenink. P. Banse. I.. 405-407. M. (1996). International Journal of Neuroscience. S. 2005). our data clearly show that emotional speech recognition begins to decline already in participants who are middle-aged.. (1994). age-related changes in the right hemisphere (e. K. J.. A. M. Besson. 195-202.. Facial expression recognition across the adult life span. July 15. 169-200. C. Applied Neuropyschology. Future studies are needed to investigate these issues more closely by clarifying how emotional speech recognition declines in the latter half of the lifespan. (2005). Facial and auditory afect recognition in senile geriatrics. 29-32. Universals and cultural diferences in facial expressions of emotion. C. The Efects of Age and Gender on the Perception of Lexical Emotion.. R. & Cullum. temporal and frontal regions). D. (1999). 285-295. In fact. (1982). The fact that middle-aged participants responded with a greater frequency of delays in the recognition task (as evidenced by an increased number time-outs) may constitute further evidence that the middle-aged group experienced trouble using the acoustic input to categorize specific emotions. In conclusion. Acoustic profiles in vocal emotion expression.. frontal and limbic regions) than older participants (involving parietal. D. L.. it appears that the two age groups may have been using the acoustic cues of the stimuli diferently or perhaps using diferent acoustic cues altogether. Attention and vigilance functions in normal aging.. Pell).. Age-related diferences in brain activation during emotional face processing. R. Lincoln. Perception of Emotional Prosody: Moving toward a model that incorporates sexrelated diferences.org/. (2006): Praat: Doing phonetics by computer (Version 4. A. Acknowledgments The authors thank Beate Gu¨nther for help with participant recruitment.. J.g. I. This work was supported by the German Research Foundation (DFG FOR 499 to S.. 3. I.. neurophysiological changes. J. Nebraska Symposium on Motivation 1971 (Vol. C. Some research suggests that emotion perception engages diferent neural networks in young and older adults (see Fecteau et al. Calder. (1993). C. Age-related diferences in emotion recognition can be accounted for in several ways. a possibility that is implied by our data. & Shipley. / Brain and Language 104 (2008) 262-269 268 to be domain specific rather than domain general. L. Emotional prosody: Sex diferences in sensitivity to speech melody... H. Neurobiology of Aging. International Journal of Neuroscience. 68. & Hall.2% vs. Manly. W.).D. Experimental Run Time System (computer software). it has been said that diferences in various cognitive domains between young and old participants may be due to specific age-related neuroanatomic changes (e. Boersma. P.. Orbelo et al. NE: University of Nebraska Press. T. et al. Neuro-cognitive studies which spec- ify changes in the underlying brain mechanisms that lead to a decline in emotional prosody recognition will also be valuable.13) [Computer program]. F. M.8%). L. In J. Beliefs about female and male nonverbal communication. T. Schroeder. J. Judgment of emotional nonlinguistic vocalizations: Age-related diferences. A.. Joanette. (1995).. their results imply that young participants rely on a diferent cortical network to discriminate emotional faces (involving visual. Filley. 40-48.. Kotz) and by the Natural Sciences and Engineering Research Council of Canada (to M. Turetsky. Marie Desmarteau for help with the acoustic analyses.. pp. Demaree. Along similar lines. 92-102. and Dorothee Geyer for useful comments on statistical analyses. Y. Gunning-Dixon. 12(1). Mood recognition across the ages. Everhardt. H. Katharina Flach for help with data acquisition. L. Beringer. (1992).g. Welkowitz. (1995)..g. 226-238. Thus. Frankfurt/ Main. P.S. 207-283). L. 79-90. 82(3/4). & Leger. 19. R.A.. A. Perkins. E.. Retrieved from http://www... Cole (Ed. Keane. Gunning-Dixon and colleagues (2003) investigated the inﬂuence of age on emotional face processing using a discrimination task. Thompson. 6(4). Gender stereotypes in the expression and perception of vocal afect. 2003. preferably using a longitudinal design. 1. M. Paulmann et al. for example those that were not captured by the current measures. age-related diferences in emotional speech recognition could result from acoustic cues being used diferently in young and older adults. L. diferential use of acoustic cues.. Borod.e. B. (2003). (1996). (2002).. Obler. Grunwald. Brosgole. 1994) and this may also be true for recognizing emotional speech. Ekman.. 34(5/6). Cognition and Emotion. BeriSoft Corporation. (2006). Germany. For instance. 169-189. etc. some authors have argued that emotional prosody comprehension declines in older participants due to asymmetric.. P. C. References Allen. D. 5(2).. K. Behavioural and Cognitive Neuroscience Reviews.. 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2008 Abstract Female mate choice by multiple male traits is an important current topic in animal behavior. or contribute to produce offspring with a higher genetic quality (Gwynne 1984. indicating the color saturation of male orange spots to be a more important factor than the total length in their mate choice. Japan e-mail: kkarino@u-gakugei. We initially examined the effective difference in the color saturation of orange spots as well as that in total length between two stimulus male images.Environ Biol Fish (2008) 83:397-405 DOI 10. 2001). 2003). males possessing preferred traits may provide more resources for the females. Knapp and Kovach 1991. Tokyo Gakugei University. When two male images in which both the two traits were modified were presented to females.ac. females choose their mates on the basis of morphological and behavioral traits (Andersson 1994). Keywords Female mate choice Sexually selected .V.1007/s10641-008-9360-8 The relative importance of orange spot coloration and total length of males in female guppy mate preference Kenji Karino & Yoko Urano Received: 7 May 2007 /Accepted: 22 April 2008 /Published online: 21 May 2008 # Springer Science + Business Media B. traits . In some cases. Barber et al. Introduction In many animals. Alatalo et al. 1998. exhibit a greater degree of paternal care for offspring.jp 80 . . Female guppies Poecilia reticulata use both the color saturation of orange spots and the total length of males as mate choice criteria. females only exhibited a preference for larger size when they were presented a choice between two relatively small male images (total length 26. Karino (* :) Y. it has been suggested that females may obtain direct and/or indirect (genetic) benefits from their mates via their mate choice (Andersson 1994. For example. Urano Department of Biology. Therefore. In the present study.0 mm). The color saturation of orange spots may convey more reliable information about the males to the females than their total lengths.0 mm versus 23. Kokko et al. they prioritized male images possessing higher color saturation of orange spots. Nukui-kita 4-1-1. Carotenoid-based coloration Sexual selection Digitally modified videos . Qvarnström et al. the relative importance among the multiple cues in female choice is not explored in most cases. male signals that are used by K. These findings imply that females may rank multiple male criteria depending on relative benefits or costs derived from their mate choice based on each criterion. However. Conversely. we used digitally modified video playbacks to examine the relative importance of these two male traits to female mate preferences. Koganei. Females only showed a strong preference for a bright male image (compared to the dull image) when the difference in color saturation was large (91% versus 25%). Tokyo 184-8501. Møller 1994. 2000.
Magurran 2005). The mate preference of female guppies has been extensively investigated (reviewed by Houde 1997). It is well known that females choose their mates on the basis of several male traits. The color saturation of the orange spots of male guppies is known to be a carotenoid-dependent trait. and the frequency of courtship displays (Farr 1980. Scheuber et al. In this study.398 Environ Biol Fish (2008) 83:397-405 females to choose mates may indicate the male's resource holding potential. in order to demonstrate female preferences in a dichotomous choice experiment. whereas other traits do not. These techniques allow examination of female preference for a particular male trait by digitally manipulating only the target trait in videos of the same males. 2004b). Kodric-Brown 1989. For instance. Kodric-Brown and Nicoletto (2001) have demonstrated the female mate preferences for male orange spot coloration and display rate using digitally modified videos of males with or without orange coloration and those exhibiting high or low frequencies of courtship. In fishes. we aimed to examine the relative importance of two male traits to female mate preference in the guppy. and swordtails genus Xiphophorus (Rosenthal and Evans 1998. such as the area and color saturation of orange spots (Houde 1987. we initially examined the effective differences in both orange spot coloration and total lengths between two digitally modified stimulus male images that evoked a great preference of the females to colorful or larger male images. and conspicuous coloration indicated ability to resist parasite infection (Milinski and Bakker 1990. Morris et al. Houde and Endler 1990. and thus indicates their foraging ability for algae. Nicoletto 1993). Trainor and Basolo 2006). Houde and Torio 1992. Houde and Torio 1992). frequent courtship displays indicated energy reserves (Knapp 1995). However. parental ability. However. for example the three-spined stickleback Gasterosteus aculeatus (Milinski and Bakker 1990. Kolm 2002). In the present study. in previous studies. some traits indicate that a male is in good condition. Endler and Houde 1995). not been empirically demonstrated (Wagner and Basolo 2007). size of males indicated parental ability (Downhower and Brown 1980. Trainor and Basolo 2006). For instance. female guppies may be able to produce offspring possessing a high algal-foraging ability by mating with males expressing bright orange spot coloration. 2003. males assume brightly colored spots on their bodies. Candolin 2003. or genetic quality. females can obtain indirect benefits such as fast growth of their offspring and high reproductive output of their daughters (Reynolds and Gross 1992). by choosing males possessing large total length. In order to clarify the relative importance between male orange spot coloration and total length 81 .. several studies have shown that females chose their mates assessing multiple male traits. This fish exhibits remarkable sexual dichromatism. On the other hand. the relative importance among several male traits to female mate choice may differ (Schluter and Price 1993. 2006. in many cases. females may be able to obtain more detailed information about the males by assessing multiple traits than by assessing only single traits. the relative importance of male orange spot coloration and total length to female mate choice is unknown. Grether 2000). it is possible that the females may prioritize the traits and preferentially utilize the trait that conveys the most reliable information. i. we examined the relative importance of male orange spot coloration and total length to female mate preference in guppies using digitally modified video playbacks. Fawcett and Johnstone 2003). total length (Reynolds and Gross 1992. the relative importance among multiple male traits to female choice has. 2001. Several studies have reported the efficacy and benefits of using digitally modified video techniques to examine female mate preferences in guppies (Nicoletto and Kodric-Brown 1999. Fisher et al. 2005). Therefore. Since algal-foraging ability is a heritable trait (Karino et al. Rosenthal 1999. the guppy Poecilia reticulata (Kodric-Brown 1993.e. Grether et al. When several male traits convey opposite information. 2001. In this study. McLennan 2003). It has been suggested that females assess multiple traits of males to choose their mates (Pryke et al. On the other hand. Sato and Karino 2006) and other fishes (Rosenthal and Evans 1998. Karino et al. 2007). The guppy is a live-bearing poeciliid fish that is native to the streams of Trinidad and adjacent parts of South America (Houde 1997. Rowland 1999. 2004. Morris et al. Wagner and Basolo 2007). 2003. Côte and Hunte 1989. Karino and Matsunaga 2002). a natural carotenoid resource (Grether 2000. Each male trait often conveys different information about the males to the females (cf. Kodric-Brown and Nicoletto 2001.
The males were anesthetized using a 2-phenoxyethanol solution in order to facilitate the recording. We used the average value of all orange spots on both the right and left sides of the males as the score of the color saturation of their orange spots (see Karino and Haijima 2004 for details). The values of these areas were averaged between the right and left sides of the male. and the setup was illuminated by two 23-W white lights. The male was placed in a small aquarium (14 cm×13 cm×7 cm height). Therefore. Immediately after the collection. The aquarium had a black background. Apple. We recorded the courting male using the digital video camera that was placed on the side of the female compartment (4 cm× 4 cm×7 cm height) of the aquarium. a value identical to the average total length of males (n=55) in the natural habitat. Experiment 1: test of effective differences To examine the effective differences in orange spot coloration with respect to female preference.5 cm. We chose successive frames 1 (60 s in length. We also recorded the empty aquarium using the video camera and used this recording as a blank image. which was similar to the average value (7. In this population.e.1 mm from a digital image. scale and color plates were displayed in the background of the fish. A female was presented to the male through a clear partition. We selected a male that exhibited a relative orange spot area of 7. Japan). We duplicated the frames of the male image. we recorded images of the right and left sides of the males using a digital camera (Coolpix 2500. females prefer males exhibiting large total lengths and high color saturation of orange spots (Karino and Matsunaga 2002. we recorded a courting male using a digital video camera (GR-DV5000. and fish were subjected to a 12-h light/12-h dark photoperiod. 30 frames s ) of the behavioral sequences of the male in which the male exhibited typical sigmoid courtship displays (Houde 1997). Germany) daily.. They were fed newly hatched brine shrimp nauplii and commercial flake food (Tetramin. USA) and analyzed using Photoshop CS (Adobe. The distance between the lens of the camera and the fish was fixed at 9. We also measured the color saturation (percent) at six points in each orange spot using Photoshop CS. Victor. USA).0%) of the relative orange spot area among males (n=55) in the natural habitat. The area of the orange spots was divided by the total area of the body and tail for each male to obtain the relative orange spot area (percent). For calibration. We measured the area of all the orange spots on both the body and tail (caudal fin) as well as total area of body and tail of each male. The fish were housed in 40-l aquariums in a laboratory at Tokyo Gakugei University. we measured the total length (the length of a male from the front of lower jaw that is most anterior part to the end of the longest caudal ray) of each male to the nearest 0. Japan. we enhanced the color saturation of the orange spots in one copy (hereafter referred to as the bright male image) and reduced the color saturation in 82 . Nikon. To determine the average values and ranges for both orange spot patterns and total lengths among males in the natural population. The circulated aquarium water was maintained at 25-28°C.0 mm through adjustment of the frame size. we collected 55 adult males from a single site on the Hiji River in March 2005. The recorded images of the males were transferred to a computer (iBook G4. we manipulated the color saturation of the orange spots of two otherwise identical male images. A 60-W daylight lamp was placed 10 cm above the aquarium. i.Environ Biol Fish (2008) 83:397-405 399 in female choice. we subsequently examined female preference for two male video images differing in orange coloration as well as total lengths. To produce digitally modified video images of the stimulus males. the courtships of the male were directed toward both the female and the video camera. Subsequently. Okinawa Island.0 mm. We calculated the average value of the six points as the score for each spot. Since males in the natural habitat often exhibited courtship displays to females with dark background such as shades of vegetation or rocks (our personal observation). The total length of male images in the selected frames of the video was adjusted to 24. the black background seemed not to affect female preference.3%. The digital video images were transferred to the Macintosh computer and manipulated using DVD Studio Pro 3 and Final Cut Pro HD (Apple). Materials and methods We used laboratory-reared descendants of feral guppies from the Hiji River (26°43′ N. In addition. Karino and Shinjo 2004). Tetra Werke. We adjusted the total length of the male image to 24. Japan). 128°11′ E).
To examine the female preference.7 mm and that of the small male image was 18.400 Environ Biol Fish (2008) 83:397-405 the other copy (the dull male image) using the color adjustment filter function of Final Cut Pro HD. In the second pair. these values were identical to those of the largest and smallest adult males.0 mm and that of the small male image was 23. 1 Apparatus used for the female mate preference test. in the natural habitat. Because females that matured without ever seeing males often mate indiscriminately during the first encounter with males (Houde 1997). The four pairs of bright and dull male images and the three pairs of large and small male images were presented to the 12 females with random order to examine their preferences in a dichotomous choice experiment. we selected 12 mature virgin females (ca. and those in the final pair were 66% and 50%. sizes of the male images were entirely increased or decreased including body area and orange spot sizes. In the final pair. An area of 6×12 cm in front of each male image was considered as the preference zone (Fig. The color saturation of orange spots in these male images was fixed as 58%. The test females were housed separately from males. We produced four pairs of the bright and dull male images differing in the color saturation. We also modified total lengths of the two stimulus male images. respectively. respectively. 1) and procedure similar to those used in Sato and Karino (2006). 4-6 months after birth) as test females. the total length of the large male image was 30. and that of the dull male image was 25%. Therefore. Therefore. the color saturation of the orange spots of the bright male image was 91%. 1). Japan) was placed at a distance of 2 cm from one side of the aquarium (Fig. but the relative orange spot area was fixed as 7. The corresponding color saturations in the third pair were 74% and 42%. Digitally modified image Monitor 6 cm 18 cm 12 cm 6 cm 12 cm Fig. Shaded areas within the aquarium indicate the preference zones 83 . A color liquid crystal display monitor (FlexScan L367. In the first pair. and increased the total length in one copy (hereafter. we adopted an apparatus (Fig. this was identical to the average value of the color saturation of orange spots of males in their natural habitat. These color saturation values were identical to those of the highest and lowest values. Observations were conducted through a window (5× 10 cm) on the screen. 6 cm) was designated a neutral area and allowed us to easily judge which male image was chosen by the female.6 mm. The water temperature was maintained at 25°C. Since these 12 test females were exposed to the same group of educator males. all orange spots of a male image exhibited identical color saturation such as 91%. Since pregnant females are usually unreceptive to the courting males (Houde 1997). among males in the natural habitat. the effect of the preparation on mate preference might not differ between females. These digital modifications of the color saturation of the orange spots did not affect the area of orange spots and coloration of the other parts of the male images. The two stimulus male images were presented from the right and left sides of the monitor to the test female.3 mm.3%. Eizo. respectively. virgin females (Karino and Matsunaga 2002). We produced three pairs of the large and small male images.6 and 20. the large male image) and decreased the total length in the other copy (the small male image) through adjustment of the frame size. Daylight lamps (15 and 20 W) were placed 10 cm above the aquarium. the color saturations of the two male images were 82% and 34%. the total length of the large male image was 26. The total lengths of the large and small male images in the second pair were 28. A dark screen was used to cover the aquarium in order to prevent disturbance. This preparation results in increased selectivity among the naive.0 mm. In the first pair. We placed 2-3 cm of gravel at the bottom of the aquarium and filled it with water to a depth of 9 cm. We duplicated the male image. all test females were exposed through a clear partition to an aquarium that held 5060 adult males. 1 day prior to the experiment. A small central area (width. 1).
The apparatus and procedure for examining female preference were identical to those adopted in experiment 1. We used StatView 5 (SAS Institute. 84 . Subsequently. different pairs of stimulus male images that exhibited different color saturation of orange spots or different total lengths as the repeated factor. one male image was enhanced for orange spot coloration (91% saturation) but decreased in total length (23. We used the same frames of the male image as those used in experiment 1.. The values for color saturation of orange spots and total lengths in the stimulus male images were determined from the results of experiment 1 (see Results). During the period. Statistical analysis In the statistical analysis. The repeated-measures ANOVAs were conducted with the relative time spent by each of the 12 test females for male images as the dependent variable. 46 months after birth) as the test females.9). We produced two pairs of the stimulus male images that exhibited different orange coloration and different total lengths. If male orange spot coloration is a more important factor than total length for female choice.g.e. If females favor male total length over orange spot coloration. The second trial was conducted 24 h after the first trial in order to eliminate the effect of the first trial (Sato and Karino 2006). to clarify the relative importance between color saturation of orange spots and total length of male images. One day prior to the experiment. USA) for the analysis. we conducted twoway ANOVA with the relative time spent by females for each male image as the dependent variable. and one to test for the effect of male total length on female preference. the first 2 min were considered as a period of acclimation to the male images. while the other male image was reduced for orange spot coloration (25% saturation) and increased in total length (26. Experiment 2: testing the relative importance of traits To examine the relative importance of orange spot coloration and total length of males in female preference. one male image was enhanced in both orange spot coloration (91% saturation) and total length (26.0 mm).. we performed two repeatedmeasures ANOVAs. The other male image was reduced in both orange spot coloration (25% saturation) and total length (23. In experiment 2. i. we predicted that the females would prefer the male images possessing bright coloration irrespective of the total lengths of the male images. then they should prefer the male images possessing large total length irrespective of the orange spot coloration of the male images. In experiment 1. a pair of stimulus male images (e. We presented these two pairs of stimulus male images with random order to the test females and measured the time spent by the females with each male image. To evaluate side bias in females. After the transformation. we conducted a second trial in which the same male images were presented to the same test females on the sides opposite to those in the first trial. the females were exposed through a clear partition to an aquarium holding 50-60 adult males that were the same group as used in the preparation in experiment 1. P>0. all data showed normal distributions (Kolmogorov-Smirnov one-sample test. the relative time spent by the females within the preference zone on the right or left side was also calculated. We selected 22 mature virgin females (ca. We recorded the time spent by the female within the preference zone in front of each male image during the final 5 min. In the second pair. The time spent by the female within the preference zone in both trials was combined to analyze female mate preference and side bias. the bright and dull male images) was simultaneously presented to the female for 7 min. In the first pair.0 mm). two blank aquarium images were presented to the female. Similarly. we modified both the saturation of orange spot coloration and the total length of the stimulus male images. one to test for the effect of color saturation of male orange spots on female preference.Environ Biol Fish (2008) 83:397-405 401 A test female was introduced into the aquarium and provided a 10-min acclimation period. The relative time spent by females for each male (or side) was arcsine-transformed before analysis.0 mm).0 mm). we used the relative time spent by the females within each preference zone. the category of color saturation (the bright or dull male images) and that of total length (the large and small male images) as factors. These females were different from the individuals used in experiment 1. The time spent by a female for each male of the pair was divided by the total time spent for both males to obtain the relative time spent by the female.
01. 20 =0.40.35). This result indicates that when the difference in color saturation of orange spots between stimulus male images was greater.1. F 2. male image pairs. the interaction between the female preference for the large male images and the difference in total length between stimulus males was significant (F 2. Female preference for the large male images was not significant (repeated-measures ANOVA: F 1. P= 0. 44 =0.85). P=0. P=0. the effect of the male image pairs was not significant (F 3.2 0 91 25 82 34 74 42 66 50 Saturation of orange spots of stimulus male images (%) Fig. P=0. respectively. 83 =29. The values of the relative time spent by the females are arcsine-transformed. 60 0. is the most effective to examine the female preference for male total length. 3). Experiment 2: testing the relative importance of traits 1 Bright male image Relative time spent by female s 0.6 0.04). F 3. P=0.8. P= 3. P=0. male image pairs.5. 4). 44 =3.001. the interaction between the side and male image pairs. Fig. However.0. 2).04). within-subjects.34.1.4 Relative 0. Columns represent the mean and bars represent SE Test females exhibited a significant preference for male images possessing greater color saturation of orange spots (two-way ANOVA.9. Therefore. 60 =3. P=0. 2).3 28. The female side-bias was not significant (repeated-measures ANOVA: F 1.89. P=0.0 23.8 Dull male image 0. 44= 0.0 and 23. Fig. P=0.2 0 30. This result indicates that when the difference in total lengths between stimulus male images was decreased. 44 0. Fig. Within-subjects.6 0. the effect of the Small male image 0.99).02. Withinsubjects.8. F 1. P< 0.402 Environ Biol Fish (2008) 83:397-405 1 Large male image time spent by female s Results Experiment 1: test of effective differences Females exhibited significant preference for the bright male images over dull male images (repeated-measures ANOVA: F 1. 60 =0. The values of the relative time spent by the females are arcsine-transformed.6 20.2. F =0. These results indicate that a pair of large and small male images possessing total lengths of 26.42). Side-bias for right or left side by the females was not significant (repeated-measures ANOVA: F 1.0 Total lengths of stimulus male images (mm) Fig.6 26. P= 2. The interaction between the color saturation of orange spots and total length of stimulus males was also not significant 85 . the female preference for the bright male images increased (Fig. 3).17.7 18. the interaction between the side and male image pairs. Columns represent the mean and bars represent SE male image pairs was also not significant (F 2. 22 =2. P=0. The interaction between the female preference for bright male images and the difference in color saturation between the male image pairs was significant (F 3. P=0. 20 =8.8 0.03. F =0.0 mm. However. the female preference for the large male images increased (Fig.99. 22= 1.0. the female preference for male orange spot coloration can be demonstrated by using a pair comprising a bright male image exhibiting 91% color saturation and a dull male image exhibiting 25% saturation.4 0.99). 3 The relative time spent by test females with the large and small male images in experiment 1.008. within-subjects. 60 =0. the female preference for male images possessing larger total length was not significant (F 1.0. 2 The relative time spent by test females with the bright and dull male images in experiment 1.9. 83 =0.
F =0. 83 =0. 2006b). Karino and Matsunaga (2002) have demonstrated that when the difference in total lengths between two stimulus live males was greater.8 Dull male image 0. the females are unable to discriminate the long-tail male from the short-tail male without physical contact with the males (Karino and Matsunaga 2002).39. In experiment 1. 2004a). For example. respectively. the females can produce offspring possessing a higher algal-foraging ability and hence acquire greater fitness via their mate choice for the color saturation of male orange spots.2.04. females in experiment 1 in this 86 . P=0.6 0.0 mm. Columns represent the mean and bars represent SE (F =0. female guppies also exhibited larger total length than males (Karino et al. In addition. Since the algal-foraging ability is a heritable trait (Karino et al. Body size is also a heritable trait in guppies (Brooks and Endler 2001. Therefore. Karino and Matsunaga 2002) in which females preferred males possessing larger total length. The color saturation of the orange spots of male guppies is considered an indicator of their viability. This result contrasted with those of previous studies using live males (Reynolds and Gross 1992.84. 4 The relative time spent by test females with each male image in experiment 2 in which the two stimulus male images differed in both color saturation of orange spots and total length. Female guppies are often larger than males (Houde 1997).23). However. It is possible that females viewed the largest male images as other females. When two males possessing the same total length and different tail length are presented to female guppies. The female side-bias was not 1. 2007).2 0 Large Small Small Large Total lengths of stimulus male images Fig. (2004a) suggested that carotenoid intake enhances the immune system in male guppies. females incur certain costs such as small body size and low reproductive output of their female offspring (Karino et al. such as swimming performance (Nicoletto 1991). Grether et al. P=0. These results indicate that the orange spot coloration of males is a more important factor than male total length for female preference. Karino et al. females exhibited stronger preference for the larger males. Discussion The results of the present study indicate that female guppies prioritized the saturation of male orange spot coloration over total length for their mate preferences. P=0. It is known that the intake of an algal diet enhances the color saturation of orange spots of male guppies. strength of immune systems (Grether et al. it is possible that the large total length in males may include a deceptive signal to females. One plausible explanation can be proposed for the unexpected result. 2007).8. Some male guppies elongate their tails in order to achieve a large total length. even though their standard lengths are small (Karino and Matsunaga 2002).4 0. In the Hiji population. Nevertheless. 83 significant (two-way ANOVA: F 1. 83=1.0 and 23. 83 between the side and male image pairs. female preference for large male images was not observed when the size difference between male images was largest.4. The color saturations of the bright and dull male images were 91% and 25%.Environ Biol Fish (2008) 83:397-405 1 403 Bright male image Relative time spent by female s 0. respectively. 2006a). By mating with these long-tailed males. P=0. and the algal-foraging ability (Grether 2000. 1999. and the total lengths of the large and small male images were 26. male image pairs. the interaction 1. and females enhance their offspring growth and reproductive output of their daughters when they mate with males possessing large total lengths (Reynolds and Gross 1992). F 1. Therefore. Karino et al. 2005).64). algae are scarce resources for guppies in certain circumstances (Grether et al. The values of the relative time spent by the females are arcsine-transformed. the growth of both sexes as well as the reproductive efficiency of females (Karino and Haijima 2004). the color saturation of orange spots may convey more reliable and honest information about the males than their total lengths to the females. Karino and Haijima 2001).
Behaviour 74:38-91 Fawcett TW. Evolution 55:1002-1015 Candolin U (2003) The use of multiple cues in mate choice. even though the male images exhibited malespecific traits such as orange spots.404 Environ Biol Fish (2008) 83:397-405 study might recognize the largest male images as other females. Proc R Soc Lond B 266:1317-1322 Grether GF. Proc R Soc Lond B 270:1637-1643 Fisher HS. and sexual selection. However. Parri S (1998) Mate choice for offspring performance: major benefits or minor costs? Proc R Soc Lond B 265:2297-2301 Andersson M (1994) Sexual selection. when digitally modified videos of males are used to examine the female preferences. It is probable that this result was partially due to lower discriminative ability of females to male video images than live males (discussed below). a greater degree of difference in color saturation between the stimulus male images was required than when using live males. Acknowledgements We are grateful to A. Hunte W (1989) Male and female mate choice in the redlip blenny: why bigger is better. This information will suggest the relative benefits or costs of mate choice for females on the basis of each male trait and has implications for the evolution of female choice based on multiple male traits. Kotiaho J. Proc R Soc Lond B 268:71-76 Brooks R. Anim Behav 28:728-734 Endler JA. Proc R Soc Lond B 271:45-49 Grether GF. Evolution 49:456-468 Farr JA (1980) Social behavior patterns as determinants of reproductive success in the guppy. Cottus bairdi. Rosenthal GG (2006) Alteration of the chemical environment disrupts communication in a freshwater fish. such as display rate and area of orange spots in the mate preferences in female guppies. Braithwaite VA. the female preference for the high color saturation of male orange spots was manifest when the color saturation of the bright male image was 91% and that of the dull male image was 25%. However. 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