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National Engineering and Technical Company Limited (NETCO) Piping and Plant Layout Engineering Valve and Flange

Application
VALVES AND ALLIED FITTINGS TYPE OF SERVICE REQUIRED

Rev 01 April 19, 2004 Page

Each type of valves has its own particular function and the selection narrows down once this is established. Is it to be used for on-off service only and if so, is rapid shut-off required? Or the throttling, diverting, regulation of pressure, safety, or relief or prevention of back flow? Or perhaps some combination of these duties? The selection is governed by the functional characteristics of the valve type, the general use classification being as follows: For on-off services. Gate valves and slide valves and normally, plug valves and the ball valves (although the plug and ball can be used for throttling if special provisions are made (see under). For throttling service. Globe valve, angle and Y valve, needle valve, butterfly valve, diaphragm valve, and pinch valve. Also the plug valve if a special cage is used, the ball valve if the ball is notched. (See chapter 8 Automatic Process Control.) Back flow prevention. Check valve and foot valve. Pressure control. Safety and relief valves, back pressure-regulating valve, pressure reducing valve, and piston valve. Other types of control come under the classification of Automatic Control Valves. Fundamentals of Flow Control Mechanisms. There are four fundamental methods by which control of flow through a valve is accomplished; A disc or a plug is projected into or against an opening in the manner done in globe, angle, Y and Needle Valves. Flat cylindrical or spherical surfaces are moved across an opening as done in Gate, Slide, Piston, Plug and Ball Valves

National Engineering and Technical Company Limited (NETCO) Piping and Plant Layout Engineering Valve and Flange Application

Rev 01 April 19, 2004 Page

A disc is rotated about a shaft extending across the diameter of a cylindrical body, as in butterfly valve. A flexible sleeve is pushed into the flow stream as in Diaphragm and pinch valves.

GUIDE TO VALVE SELECTION This table classifies valves by function for general use. Special designs of various types have applications outside those listed. General function Valve type Gate valve Slide valve Plug valve ON-OFF SERVICE Guide lines Wide variety of designs. Straight through flow when open. Minimum pressure drop. If used for throttling there is tendency to erode quickly with consequent leakage. Wide use range including corrosive duties. Extensive size and pressure/temp. range. Quick opening types available. Tapered disc type can be used for throttling. As above. Fluid pressure provides effective closing. Has a limited use for throttling.

Straight through flow. Positive shut-off, quarter turn open to close. Important characteristic is easy adaptation to multi-port operation. i.e., 2,3and 4 way, etc., thus simplifying piping system, making control simpler and eliminating single port valves and pipe fittings. Can be used for throttling if cage is fitted (see chapter 8). Lubricated For critical services requiring packing under pressure. Lubricant prevents leakage, reduces plug valve friction, wear, and turning effort. Lubricant can cause contamination of highly pure products and its use sets the maximum temperature of operation. NonInexpensive materials can be elastomer or plastic coated. Excellent for corrosive conditions lubricated Relatively inexpensive as high cost metals are avoided. Pressure / temp. Conditions limited plug valve by lining materials.

National Engineering and Technical Company Limited (NETCO) Piping and Plant Layout Engineering Valve and Flange Application
Ball valve

Rev 01 April 19, 2004 Page

Widely use in industry where conditions of corrosion plus pressure/temp. Exists. Simple, compact, and quick opening. Very wide size and temp. /pressure range. Good for conditions which require being fire-safe. Conventional type has poor throttling characteristics. Can be used for throttling if special ball fitted (i.e. V. Notch). (See chapter 8.) Guide lines Most commonly used valve for efficient regulation of a critical service. Used extensively for Automatic Process Control (see chapter 8). Not normally used for ON-OFF service. Wide size, pressure/temp. range. Available in an extensive material range. Similar to conventional globe valve but ends are at right angles to each other. Provides less pressure drop and reduces number of pipe fittings in a system. Care should be taken at design stage to ensure that valve is not subjected to stresses often present in the pipe bends. As above but orifice at 45o to flow path. Good throttling characteristics and lower pressure drop than normal globe valve. Restricted to smaller sizes and used where close manual regulation of flow is required. Extremely simple in construction. Specially suited for large flow of gases, liquids, and slurries at low pressures. Also suited for ON-OFF conditions. Low pressure drop, low priced, clean, and quick acting. Ordinarily not bubble-tight but can give tight shut-off according to design. Glandless type of valve for corrosive, volatile, and toxic fluids, particularly where leakage must be avoided. Although choice limited by diaphragm materials a very wide range exists to handle very corrosive fluids. Temp. /pressure imposes limitations. Valve versatile and also used for ON-OFF service. For either throttling or ON-OFF. Low initial cost, simple in design, and excellent for slurries, abrasive fluid, and resistance to corrosion and avoidance of contamination. Temp./pressure limit use because of elastomer sleeve materials.

General function

Valve type Globe valve Angle valve Y valve

THROTTLING

SERVICE

Needle valve Butterfly valve Diaphragm valve Pinch valve

National Engineering and Technical Company Limited (NETCO) Piping and Plant Layout Engineering Valve and Flange Application

Rev 01 April 19, 2004 Page

General function PREVENTION OF BACK FLOW

Valve type Check valve Foot valve

Guide lines Automatically prevents reversal of flow in lines. Kept open by flow in piping system. Various type exist to meet different conditions. e.g. pulsating flow, horizontal or vertical mounting. etc. wide sizes and pressure/temp. ranges. Type of check valve fitted to maintain prime in pumps. Etc Usually combine with a strainer. NB: All the above valves (in (1),( 2) and (3) are discussed in detail in this chapter

General function AUTOMATIC PROCESS CONTROL.

Valve type

Guide lines Wide range of valves for automatic regulation and control of process temperature, pressure, flow rates, liquid levels etc. covers a vast field of operation including that via a computer. Continuously operated plants have led to growth. Reliability is essential. Actuated from a signal received from the flowing medium itself or from a programme having pre-set Conditions. Operation can be hydraulic, pneumatic, electric, or combinations of the same. Discussed in chapter 8.

AUTOMATIC CONTROL VALVES.

General

Valve type

Guide lines

National Engineering and Technical Company Limited (NETCO) Piping and Plant Layout Engineering Valve and Flange Application
function Safety valve Relief valve SafetyRelief valve Bursting disc For protection against excessive pressure. Used with gases. For protection against excessive liquid pressures. Can be used for either gas or liquid.

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SAFETY AND PROTECTION

All type required periodic inspection to ensure that they can function. Types exist to meet all conditions, including corrosion, met with in industry. For protection of plant systems where extremely rapid pressure rise may be encountered and where safety or relief valve might not be effective. Gives instantaneous unrestricted relief. Disc are available in many materials and required to be replaced after each operation. Discussed in chapter 9.

What is a Flange? A flange allows two pipes to be mechanically connected together, or a pipe to be mechanically connected to a valve, tee, choke or other piece of equipment. The principle of a flange is to use a mechanical force (exerted by the bolts) to pre-load the gasket sufficiently so that when internal pressure (end cap force) is applied, there is enough contact stress between the flanges and gasket to maintain a seal. The flange itself needs to be connected to the pipe. This is usually achieved by welding, though threaded and other weldless connections also exist.

National Engineering and Technical Company Limited (NETCO) Piping and Plant Layout Engineering Valve and Flange Application
& ANCHOR/HANGER.

Rev 01 April 19, 2004 Page

Types of flanges include WELDNECK, SLIP-ON, SOCKET WELD, LAP JOINT, THREADED, SWIVEL, BLIND, ORIFICE All flanges are sized according to their nominal bore size. For the majority of pipe sizes, this designation does not represent either their actual outside diameter or inside diameter. More is explained below. Types and Uses of Flange General function HIGH PRESSURE SERVICE Flange type Weld Neck Flanges Uses These are the most common type of flange used for high pressure applications. They are recognized by their long tapered hub. The hub provides an important reinforcement to the flange itself and acts to reduce rotation of the flange at bolt-up. The smooth transition between the flange and the hub combined with the strength of the butt weld joint, allows the flange to be used in extreme conditions of cyclic loading, bending and temperature fluctuations. Weldneck Flange, characterized by it's smooth hub transition from flange to weldend. Most common type of high pressure flange. Uses Slip-On Flanges are ideal for lower pressure applications. Their ease of fitting and welding reduces fabrication costs. Less time needs to be spent ensuring the accuracy of the cut pipe and they are somewhat easier to align. They do not have as much strength as a weldneck flange and are not available in higher pressure ratings and diameters. Slip-On Flange, fits over the pipe and is then welded in position. Only available in smaller pressure ratings/diameters.

General function LOW PRESSURE SERVICE

Flange type Slip-On Flanges

National Engineering and Technical Company Limited (NETCO) Piping and Plant Layout Engineering Valve and Flange Application

Rev 01 April 19, 2004 Page

General function LOW PRESSURE SERVICE

Flange type Socket Weld Flanges

Uses The fabrication of these items is similar to that of a Slip-On Flange. However, their internal pocket allows for a smooth bore and better fluid flow. They are ideal for small diameter high pressure applications. Socket Weld Flange, pipe fits in to the recess to allow smooth flow through the flange. Used for small diameter applications.

General function

Flange type Blind Flanges

Uses Blind Flanges are used to blank off the ends of pipe, valves and pressure vessel openings. They may often be supplied with NPT fittings to allow pressure test connections to be fitted. Blind Flange, normally a flat disk with raised or RTJ face to match mating flange. Uses Lap Joint Flanges must be used with their associated stub end. The stub is welded to the pipe and the Lap Joint then works as a backing ring. The main advantage of this type of flange is that the bolt holes can be aligned with the matching flange after the welds have been completed. A Lap Joint Flange is not suitable for areas with high external or dynamic loads. A Swivel Ring Flange should be used for this type of application. Lap Joint Flange, used with a matching stub end. Bolt holes can be aligned with pipe after welding. Useful for complex spools and rigid pipe work.

General function

Flange type Lap Joint Flanges

National Engineering and Technical Company Limited (NETCO) Piping and Plant Layout Engineering Valve and Flange Application
General function Flange type Threaded Flanges Uses

Rev 01 April 19, 2004 Page

Threaded Flanges can be fitted to the pipe without welding, though a seal weld can sometimes be used. They are suitable for small diameter high pressure services. At larger diameters, the difficulty in machining the thread on to both the flange and pipe makes them unviable. They are also not suitable for areas having high external loads, particularly torsion. Threaded Flange, can be attached to the pipe without welding. Saves time and cost. Unsuitable for large diameters and external loads. Uses Anchor flanges are used to resist thrust loads in long pipelines caused by thermal expansion and other environmental factors. The Anchor Flange is normally buried in concrete. Hanger flanges are similar in profile but are used to support the weight of a riser on an offshore pipeline. Anchor/Hanger flanges are proprietary items designed to order. Anchor/Hanger Flange, supports pipelines and risers. Designed specifically for the application taking in to account external loads. Uses Orifice Flanges are used with orifice meters to measure the flow rate of liquids and gases in a pipeline. They are similar to Weldneck, Slip-On and Screwed Flanges, except that they are modified to hold orifice plate carriers and have radial taped holes for the fitting of meter connections. Orifice Flange, used for flow rate metering of pipelines. Flange supplied with pressure connection holes and jack screw holes (to aid removal of orifice plate). RTJ type have to be supplied with a full face.

General function

Flange type Anchor /Hanger Flange

General function

Flange type Orifice Flanges

National Engineering and Technical Company Limited (NETCO) Piping and Plant Layout Engineering Valve and Flange Application

Rev 01 April 19, 2004 Page

General function

Flange type

Uses Swivel Ring Flanges are similar in principle to Lap Joint Flanges. They have a hub which is welded to the pipe and a rotating bolt ring. The swivel inner hub profile and full thickness of the swivel outer can give the flange the same strength and external load capabilities as a Weldneck Flange. Swivel Ring Flanges are used for subsea installations. Swivel Ring Flanges are not covered by International Standards and are designed by Welding Units as a proprietary items. Swivel Ring Flange, used for ease of assembly subsea. High strength and resistance to external loads. Proprietary item designed to order.

Swivel Ring Flanges

What is a Pipe? A Pipe is considered to be the run connecting two Equipment items or the run connecting Equipment items to main process or service headers / Manifolds. Pipe could also be considered as the Road through which Fluid Travel, and / or means of Conveying Fluid. Nominal Diameter and Schedule Number specify pipe and the number means the Pipe Wall Thickness. Nominal Pipe Sizes

National Engineering and Technical Company Limited (NETCO) Piping and Plant Layout Engineering Valve and Flange Application

Rev 01 April 19, 2004 Page

The nominal diameter of a pipe, e.g. 1", 4", 8", does not reflect the actual size of the pipe. The outside diameter of these sizes are 1.315", 4.500" & 8.625" respectively. The inside diameter of the pipe is determined by a series of 'pipe schedules' or simply by the wall thickness. It is important when ordering and manufacturing any type of pipe connector to match the bore size of the piece with the bore size of the mating pipe. Tables of schedules and wall thickness are given in API 5L, BS1600 and other standards.
Prepared By: Checked By: Approved By