FG-E-1.

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December 1966

NATIONAL WARNING SYSTEM (NAWAS) OPERATIONS MANUAL
O(SUperSedes FG-E-1.2, dated January 1964)

DEPARTMENT OF DEFENSE
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PART I-INTRODUCTION Assumptions General Responsibilities Functions Execution

CONTENTS
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PART II .. Section I-PRINCIPLES OF' OppjRATION Civil Defense Warning Attack Warning. .•• Warning Signals Attack Warning Signal Attention or Alert Signal Section 2-NAWAS EQUIPMENT ANDEQUIPMENT OPERATIONS NAWAS Warning Circuits Area Circuits. .. State Circuits Operation of Equipment . •. Equipment at Warning Points Equipment at State Warning Points Warning Circuit Signaling . . . . . Warning Points to State Warning Points State Warning Point to Warning Points State Warning Points to Warning Centers or OCD Regions, and Other State Warning Points Warning Center to All Locations Voice Communications-NAWAS Reporting of Trouble Circuit Routing~NAWAS. . Movement of NAW AS Equipment SUPPLEMENT TO Section 2: 2-A-National Warning System (map)

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Section 3-RoUTINE OPERA'l'IONAL PROCEDURES General .... Warning Point Log The Warning Circuit Tests .... Exercises. ... Time References . Phonetic Alphabet Message Precedence

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SUPPLEMENTSO Section 3: T 3-A-Calling Procedures 3-B-Test Procedures 3-C-Exercise Procedures 3- D- Time-Con version Table 3-D-1-Time-Conversion Chart 3-E-Phonetic Alphabet 3-F -Message Precedence Section 4-EMERGENCY OPERATIONS PROCEDURES General Declaration and Dissemination of the Attack Warning Special Emergency Announcements Emergency Broadcast System (EBS) Alternate Procedures Termination of Attack Warning and Emergency Broadcast System Operation Special Emergency Information Peacetime Disaster . Severe Weather Seismic Sea Waves (Tsunami) Downed Aircraft Reporting Transattack and Postattack Information Nuclear Detonation Information "Flash" Radiological Information Fallout Warning Messages SUPPLEMENTS OSection 4: T 4-A-Procedures for Dissemination of Attack Warning 4-B-Procedures and Terminology for Special Announcements 4-C-Procedures for Use of Alternate Means of Communications . 4-D-Procedures and Terminology for Terminating the Attack Warning and/or Emergency Broadcast System Operations 4-E-Procedures and Terminology for Relaying Peacetime Disaster Messages 4-F -Procedures and Terminology for Relaying Severe Weather Forecasts and Warnings 4-G-Procedures and Terminology for Relaying Information About Downed Aircraft 4-H-Procedures for NUDET and Other Types of "Flash" Reports 4-1 -Procedures for Relaying Information About Nuclear Accidents. Section 5-GLOSSARYOF WARNING TERMS

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Part I

INTRODUCTION
The objective of the Warning Program is to establish, operate, and maintain an effective nationwide warning system to alert governments, industry, and the public to the threat of enemy attack and other extraordinary dangers. ASSUMPTIONS A. Timely warning of impending attack and attack effects will materially assist in reducing the number of casualties. B. Tactical warning time is considered to be less than 30 minutes because of the missile threat. Tactical warning is warning based on data from mechanical" or electronic detection systems indicating that the enemy has launched an attack. However, attack could come at any time without warning, and the detonation of a weapon might well be the first indication of attack. Strategic warning is a possibility. It is based upon evidence of enemy intentions to launch an attack against the United States and/or its allies. GENERAL RESPONSIBILITIES Regions, certain OCD offices, and more than 850 Warning Points that serve States and their principal political subdivisions. The State portion is comprised of warning systems established by the respective States to relay warning and other emergency information received over NAWAS to political subdivisions that are not served by N AWAS. Facilities utilized for this purpose vary from State to State. The majority use State Public Service Radio Systems (police, highway, conservation, and similar departmental networks); others use telephone, teletype, or special systems such as bell-and-lights. County sheriff radio nets are often linked to State networks and assist in spreading the warning throughout the county. The local portion consists of devices used to warn the public: sirens, horns, voice-sound systems, etc., and the facilities utilized to alert key personnel and installations. FUNCTIONS There are certain basic functions that must be carried out by governments to assure the successful development and operation of a rapid, reliable nationwide warning system: 1. Prepare a War'ning Plan Each level of government must prepare a warning plan setting forth its role and mode of operation, and making certain that its plan is compatible with the plan of the next higher echelon of government. 2. Establish a Source of Warning A source of warning for every Warning Point must be established by the government concerned. 3. Establish Waming Points Each political subdivision must establish, equip, maintain, and staff a location where warnings may be received and relayed to the public, and to other political subdivisions (when required) according to established plans and procedures. 1

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The Office of Civil Defense (OCD) is responsible for the development and execution of all steps necessary to warn or alert Federal military and civilian authorities, State officials, and the civilian population. In order to carry out its warning responsibilities, OCD, in coordination with State and local governments, has established the Civil Defense Warning System (CDWS). This system is part Federal, part State, and part local. The Federal portion, which serves the continental United States, is called the National Warning System (N AWAS). It is comprised of three U.S. Army Strategic Communications Command-CONUS-National Civil Defense Warning Centers manned 24 hours daily by USASTRATCOM-CONUS Attack Warning Officers, nearly 45,000 miles of private-wire telephone circuits that link the three Warning Centers, USASTRATCOM Headquarters, OCD

4. Provide Warning Facilities
Each level of government must establish or designate communication facilities, equipment, and devices for relaying warning from its source to government, industry, and the public.

5. Establish Warning Procedures
Each level of government must establish and test procedures governing the dissemination of warning, and must insure that its procedures are compatible with those of other political subdivisions concerned.

4. Test the warning system. 5. Provide guidance to States and their political subdivisions in warning matters. 6. Provide financial assistance to States and their political subdivisions in the establishment of warning systems.
State Governments will:

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6. Inform the Public
People must be informed of the meaning of civil defense warning signals and of the actions required.

7. Test Warning Facilities and Procedures
If warning is to be effective, warning facilities and the procedures governing their operation must be tested regularly.

1. Provide, operate, and staff NAWAS Warning Points 24 hours daily. 2. Establish a warning plan. 3. Establish reliable systems for relaying warning and other emergency information to all their political subdivisions. 4. Establish procedures governing State warning system operation. 5. Test the system.
Local Government will:

EXECUTION
The Federal Government will:

1. Establish a reliable source of warning. 2. Establish, maintain, and operate 24 hours daily a rapid, reliable warning system to provide warning of enemy attack and related emergency information to the continental United States. 3. Establish procedures governing the operation of this warning system.

1. Prepare a local warning plan. 2. Establish and operate a local warning point. 3. Establish a local public warning system. 4. Establish procedures governing operation of the local warning point and local warning system. 5. Test the public warning system. 6. Take the necessary steps to insure that the public understands the local warning plan and will respond properly to the warning signals.

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Part II

SECTION I-PRINCIPLES
The North American Air Defense Command (NORAD) is responsible for the aerospace defense of the North American Continent. The Office of Civil Defense (OCD) is responsible for warning the civilian population of enemy attack. The detection system of NORAD and other sources of information provide the intelligence from which NORAD Commanders determine the probability or imminence of air attack. The National Warning Center is located in the NORAD Combat Operations Center, where this Intelligence is immediately available. There are two alternate Warning Centers in protected facilities that can assume the functions of the National Warning Center, if necessary: National TWO Warning Center at Denton, Texas; and National THREE Warning Center near Washington, D.C. The U.S. Army Strategic Communications Command (USASTRATCOM) is responsible for the operation and maintenance of NAWAS and the three Warning Centers in support of the Office of Civil Defense. CIVIL DEFENSE
A. Attack Warning

OF OPERATION

1. ATTACK WARNING SIGNAL Immediately upon receipt of the attack warning message, the ATTACK WARNING signal will be sounded on public warning devices. The ATT ACK WARNING signal is a 3- to 5-minute wavering tone on sirens, or a series of short blasts on horns or other devices-repeated as necessary. The ATTACK WARNING signal shall mean that an actual attack against this country has been detected, and that protective action

should be taken immediately.
The ATT ACK WARNING signal additionally may be used at the option of local government to warn of the imminent approach of fallout-since the meaning of the signal, "protective action should be taken immediately," is appropriate for both attack and fallout warning. THE ATTACK WARNING SIGNAL WILL BE USED FOR NO OTHER PURPOSE, AND WILL HAVE NO OTHER MEANING. 2. ATTENTION or ALERT SIGNAL Public warning devices may be used to get public attention in times of peacetime emergency by sounding the ATTENTION or ALERT signal. This signal shall be sounded strictly at the option and on the authority of local government officials, and will be activated under such circumstances (including natural disasters) as local officials may determine. The ATTENTION or ALERT signal is a 3- to 5-minute steady tone on sirens, horns, or other devices. In addition to any other meaning or requirement for action as determined by local government officials, the ATTENTION or ALERT signal shall mean to all persons in the United States, ... "Listen for essential emergency information." Once an actual attack on the United States has been detected, the National Warning Center will declare an ATTACK WARNING and 3

WARNING

This is a civilian warning used to notify civil authorities that an attack on the United States has been detected. It is based on command decisions within NORAD, and on existing OCD directives. ATTACK WARNING is declared by the National Warning Center, and is disseminated over the National Warning System (NAWAS) to all points on the system. This warning will be supplemented as further information concerning the emergency becomes available. The ATTACK WARNING will be terminated by an announcement over N AWAS.
B. Warning Signals

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There are two civil defense warning signals that may be sounded on public outdoor warning devices: the ATTACK WARNING signal and the ATTENTION or ALERT signal.

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-----------------------------------and radiological defense (RADEF) data, will be disseminated over NAWAS as appropriate. In addition to serving as a warning medium, NAWAS is used during transattack and postattack periods to collect "flash" data such as that concerning NUDETS, the presence of fallout, and initial damage. During periods of normal readiness, NAWAS may be used for warnings of impending peacetime disasters, locating downed aircraft, and similar emergency situations.

disseminate that warning to all Warning Points over the National Warning System (NAWAS). These Warning Points then relay the warning via State Warning Systems to political subdivisions, where authorities responsible for civil defense will sound the ATTACK WARNING signal on public warning devices. The public will then take designated survival actions. Further tactical information, such as that concerning nuclear detonations (NUDETS),

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SECTION 2-NAWAS

EQUIPMENT AND EQUIPMENT OPERATIONS
will increase their reliability, and insure greater continuity of service. OCD Regional areas of responsibility appear in Supplement 2-A, National Warning System chart.
B. State Circuits

N AWAS is designed so that the eight OCD Regions have separate area warning circuits linking them to Warning Points within each Region's area of responsibility. However, OCD Regions will man and operate their warning circuits only during emergency situations and special exercises. At all other times, operational functions will be conducted by the three Warning Centers, as follows: The National Warning Center will monitor and operate the warning circuits of OCD Regions SIX, SEVEN, and EIGHT; National TWO Warning Center will monitor and operate the warning circuits of OCD Regions THREE, FOUR, and FIVE; and the National THREE Warning Center will monitor and operate the warning circuits of OCD Regions ONE and TWO. In an emergency, all eight area warning circuits would be tied together into a nationwide warning circuit so that the National Warning IIfIII'I'.. Center (or either of the other Warning Cen(i I ters) could disseminate emergency information . ~ to all NAWAS Warning Points simultaneously. Thereafter, a nationwide warning loop would be separated into the three warning circuits. If the Regional warning circuits are manned, the circuits would be further separated into the Regional configuration. All communications conducted on NAWAS are by voice, with signaling devices where required. Transmissions over NAWAS are classified as privileged communications under the provisions of the Federal Communications Act of 1934, as amended, and the rules and regulations as may be promulgated thereunder. NAWAS WARNING CIRCUITS
A. Area Circuits

Each State has been provided with a voice circuit connecting the State Warning Point with the other NAWAS Warning Points in the State. This circuit is connected to the Area Warning Circuit at the State Warning Point. The State Warning Point exercises supervision of the circuit within the State. Warning Points receive warnings and other emergency information directly from the Warning Center or Region, as well as necessary subsequent instructions from the State Warning Point. This eliminates manual relay of warning information. Conversely, Warning Points will pass information on local conditions to the State Warning Point for relay to the Warning Center or Region . OPERATION
A. Equipment

OF EQUIPMENT

at Warning Points

1. All Warning Points are provided with:

a. Hang-up type handset with push-to-talk button. b. Loudspeaker with volume control. c. Audible incoming signal bell. 2. When the handset is removed from the receptacle, the loudspeaker is disconnected automatically from the circuit.
B. Equipment at State Warning Points

1. These locations are provided with the equip-

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When the eight area warning circuits of NA WAS are connected, they form a nationwide loop-and all stations on the system receive emergency information simultaneously. When separated, the warning circuits may be operated independently of each other. This

ment similar to that listed above, with the exception that an additional speaker is provided. One of the speakers is connected to the Area Warning Circuit; the second speaker is connected to the State portion of the NAWAS circuit. This insures reception of information at all times from the Warning Centers, OCD Regions, and Warning Points .. 2. State Warning Points are provided with a non locking, foot-operated switch. When· this

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switch is depressed, the following functions are accomplished: a. State circuit is disconnected from the Area Warning Circuit. b..Handset is transferred from Area Warning Circuit to the State circuit. However, the loudspeaker connected to the Area Warning Circuit remains in operation, so that incoming communications may be received from any of the Warning Centers or the Region. c. Loudspeaker on State Circuit is disconnected (to prevent feedback). 3. When the footswitch is released, all equipment and circuits are restored to normal operation. If the footswitch is in normal position and you desire to talk on the area circuit, remove the handset from the receptacle. This automatically disconnects the loudspeaker to prevent feedback. Now depress the push-totalk button. 4. Signaling key is used to ring Warning Points and NAWAS extensions. 5. By use of a special dial code, (SS-l) the Warning Centers have the capability to bypass the footswitch at the State Warning points. This will permit ringing and voice messages to go through to all Warning Points regardless of the position of the footswitch. WARNING CIRCUIT SIGNALING
A. Warning Points to State Warning Points

or OCD Regions and State Warning Points monitor the system continuously, so that incoming calls will be answered promptly. 2. A State Warning Point wishing to communicate with another State Warning Point must request permission to do so from the Warning Center or OCD Region controlling the circuit. NOTE: Procedures and terminology will be found in Supplement 3-A, "Calling Procedures."
D. Warning Center to All Locations

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1. A signaling key is provided for the Warning Circuit at each of the Warning Centers. When this key is depressed, signal bells are activated at all locations connected to NAWAS. Signal bells will precede all announcements. 2. If the footswitch is depressed at any State Warning Point, signaling from the Warning Center WILL NOT be received at Warning Points within the State until the Warning Center activates the bypass by use of SS-l dialing. This action will light a signal lamp at the State Warning Point. 3. THE FOOTS WITCH WILL NOT BE TIED DOWN. VOICE COMMUNICATIONS-N AWAS

Voice paging will be used by Warning Points to contact the State Warning Point or any other Warning Point in the State.
B. State Warning Point to Warning Points

If the State Warning Point resires to signa! other Warning Points within the State, the footswitch must be operated and the signal key depressed. This will activate a bell at each NAWAS Warning Point in the State.
C. State Warning Points to Warning Centers Regions, and other State Warning Points or OCD

A. The circuits from Warning Centers and OCD Regions to State Warning Points is of the "partyline" type; that is, State Warning Points can hear and talk to each other, as well as to the Warning Centers and OCD Regions. In other words, any location connected to the circuit can hear all conversations conducted on the circuit. As long as the footswitch at the State Warning Point is not depressed, the Warning Points also can hear all transmissions without the necessity of a relay. B. Supervision of the circuit within the State is exercised by the State Warning Point; with the exception that ATTACK WARNINGS and certain other emergency announcements issued by a Warning Center will go through the State Warning Points, thus eliminating manual relay of this information. C. That portion of NAWAS within a State is also of the "partyline" type; that is, Warning Points within the State can hear and talk to each other as well as to the State Warning Point.

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1. Signaling from State Warning Points to a Warning Center, or OCD Region, or to other State Warning Points on the Area Circuit will be by voice only. To signal, pick up handset, depress the push-to-talk button (footswitch must be in the normal position), and state the name of the location desired. Warning Centers 6

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REPORTING
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A. All stations are required to report immediately to the test room of the serving telephone company whenever any circuit difficulties or equipment malfunctioning are encountered. Test-room telephone numbers are posted on each telephone.
Reporting Location
Warning Point Point State Warning

B. In reporting trouble occurring on NAWAS, specify GP circuit designation listed on the telephone. C. Reports on interruptions to service and/ or equipment malfunction will be made as follows:

Reports to:
Local telephone company serving test company will advise State Warning Local telephone company serving test company will advise Area System will forward the information to Warning Center. room. Telephone Point. room. Telephone test room which the appropriate

D. Reports of restoration
Reporting Location
Warning Point State Warning Point

of service will be made as follows:
Reports to:
State Warning Point over NAWAS. Warning Points and appropriate Warning NAWAS.

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CIRCUIT ROUTING-NAWAS A. The circuits which comprise NAWAS are routed where possible, over express and bypass routes of the American Telephone and Telegraph Co. (AT&T) to avoid target areas. As new express and bypass routes are constructed, AT&T will reroute NAWAS over them. This provides reasonable assurance of continuity and reliability of communications. B. The chart attached as Supplement 2-A is not to be interpreted as showing the actual routing of NAWAS. It merely illustrates the system from an operational viewpoint. MOVEMENT OF NAWAS EQUIPMENT A. NAWAS EQUIPMENT WILL NOT BE MOVED WITHOUT PRIOR AUTHORITY. (This includes NAWAS extension equipment). B. Should it become necessary to move NA WAS equipment within the Warning Point or to another building, the Warning Point Supervisor will give the following information

through channels to the OCD Region concerned: 1. Reason for the move. 2. Specific item(s) to be moved, if the entire installation is not to be moved. 3. Present location of the equipment and the proposed location. (Give street address and room number or other specific identifying information.) 4. Narne of the person to contact and his telephone number. 5. Date for movement of the equipment. 6. Office to be billed by the telephone company for the cost of the move. (This applies only to NAWAS extensions.) 7. Estimated installation and recurring costs. (This applies only to NAWAS extensions.) C. Upon receipt of this information, the OCD Region will request USASTRATCOMCONUS to make the necessary arrangements. D. Six weeks should be allowed for a routine move of equipment. E. For an emergency move, the same information is required. The request may be telephoned through channels to the Region.

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SECTION 3-ROUTINE
GENERAL

OPERATIONAL PROCEDURES
tests, and exercises; and necessary reporting and/or checking of circuit and equipment. D. Calling and answering procedures and terminology will be as prescribed in Supplement 3-A. TESTS A. Tests of NAWAS will be conducted three times daily at times prescribed by the U.S. Army Strategic Communications Command (USASTRATCOM). Tests may originate from any Warning Center. All Warning Points and NAWAS extensions will receive the initial ring and hear the inter-Warning Center announcements. State Warning Points will acknowledge when specifically requested to do so by the Warning Centers. Other Warning Points will acknowledge when specifically requested by the State Warning Points. B. Biweekly tests are conducted from the alternate State Warning Points to test all Warning points on the State circuit, including NAWAS extensions. Procedures will be prescribed by OCD Regional Headquarters. C. Procedures and terminology for testing will be found in Supplement 3-B. EXERCISES A. To differentiate an exercise from an emergency, the following code words will be used for disseminating warning information in all exercises involving the Civil Defense Warning System: CHECKERBOARD FADEOUT -----------_Simulated ATTACK WARNING .End of Exercise

A. These operating procedures are for the guidance of personnel operating the Warning Points and other locations where N AWAS equipment is installed. B. Each Warning Center controls the operations of designated Area Circuits. These Centers also assist the National Warning Center in controlling operations when all Area Circuits are tied together. WARNING POINT LOG A. Each Warning point should maintain an accurate and complete record of daily events pertaining to NA WAS. Entries should include, but not be limited to, the following: 1. Date and time each call was received. 2. Type of call and resume of message. Initials of person receiving call and initials of person acknowledging receipt of message when relayed. 4. Equipment and/or circuit malfunctions. 5. Time of reporting malfunction to telephone company. 6. Time malfunction was cleared. B. OCD Regional representatives will check the entries in this log during each visit to the Warning Point. THE WARNING CIRCUIT A. All transmissions will be by voice and will be heard at all locations connected to the circuit. To insure the immediate availability of NA WAS for emergency operations, strict control of the circuit is necessary. B. Warning Centers and State Warning Points will continuously monitor the circuit and, when necessary, take immediate action to stop unauthorized use of the circuit.
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C. The circuit will be used only for authorized purposes. These include emergency calls,

B. When simulated warnings and warning information are disseminated during an exercise, all messages will be preceded by and ended with the word EXERCISE and the NAME of the Exercise. Code words will be used where applicable. 9

C. OCD Regions or Warning Centers will advise their Warning Points of the fact that an exercise will take place. Depending on the type of exercise, the announcement may, or may not, give the date and time of the exercise. Acknowledgment of the message will be requested. D. The State Warning Point, by depressing the footswitch to disconnect that portion of NAWAS within a State from the Area Circuit, may trigger a statewide civil defense exercise at the request of authorized State civil defense officials. E, Procedures and terminology for exercises will be found in Supplement 3-C. TIME REFERENCES A. All times used in transmissions from the Warning Centers will be in 24-hour "Z" time. This is Greenwich Mean Time, which may be derived from the time zones in the United States as follows: "Z" Time is: Eastern Standard Time plus 5 hours

Central Standard Time plus 6 hours Mountain Standard Time plus 7 hours Pacific Standard Time plus 8 hoursJ B. The 24-hour clock readings begin at midnight and continue through the 24-hour period, and are always expressed in four figures. For example, 3 :15 a.m. would be expressed as 0315; 3 :15 p.m. would be expressed as 1515. C. A table to aid in time conversion is attached as Supplement 3-D. Some offices may desire to cut up the "Z" time chart, Supplement 3-D-l, and post only that time conversion factor applicable to their zone. PHONETIC ALPHABET

The phonetic alphabet used for transmissions over NAWAS by the OCD Regions and Warning Centers is given in Supplement 3-E. MESSAGE PRECEDENCE Supplement 3-F establishes the rules for assignment of NAWAS message precedence.

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Supplement 3-A-Calling
The following calling procedures will be used under the conditions indicated: A. A Warning Center or Region calling one or more locations will: 1. Ring in the usual manner or page by voice. 2. Announce: (Warning Center or OCD Region) "CALLING (locationfs) ). ALL OTHERS DISREGARD." a. The location(s) will acknowledge with, "(name of location)." 3. Terminate transmission by saying, "(Warning Center or Region) OUT AT (time) ZULU." B. State Warning Point calling a Warning Center or OCD Region will: 1. Listen to determine that the system is not in use. 2. Pick up handset, press "talk" button (foots witch must be in normal position) , and say, "(State) CALLING (Warning Center or Region);" e.g., "OREGON CALLING NATIONAL WARNING CENTER." a. The Warning Center or OCD Region being called will answer, "(Warning Center or Region). GO AHEAD (location) ." b. State Warning Point will give message. c. The Warning Center or Region will acknowledge the message by saying "(name)." 3. Terminate transmission by saying, "(name of State) OUT AT (time) ZULU." C. State Warning Point calling one of its Warning Points will: 1. Depress the footswitch, lift the handset, push the "talk" button, and say, "ST ATE WARNING POINT CALLING (name of Warning Point). ALL OTHERS DISREGARD."

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a. The Warning Point being called will answer, "(name of city)." b. State Warning Point will give message. c. The Warning Point will acknowledge the message by saying, "(name of city) ." 2. Terminate transmission by saying, "(name of State) OUT AT (time) ZULU." 3. Restore footswitch to normal position. D. State Warning Point calling a group of its Warning Points will: 1. Depress the footswitch, lift the handset, depress the signal key, push the "talk" button, and say, "THE FOLLOWING IS FOR (names of Warning Points) ONLY. REPEAT. THE FOLLOWING IS FOR (names of Warning Points ONLY. ALL OTHERS DISREGARD." 2. Give the message and say, "STAND BY TO ACKNOWLEDGE." 3. Then call the roll of Warning Points involved. As each Warning Point is called, it will acknowledge by saying, "(name of city)." 4. Terminate transmission by saying, "(name of State) OUT AT (time) ZULU." 5. Restore footswitch to normal position. E. Warning Point calling its State Warning Point will: 1. Listen to determine if the State portion of NAWAS is clear. 2. Voice-page the State Warning Point by name. a. The operator of the State Warning Point will depress the footswitch and answer with, "STATE WARNING POINT." 3. Then say, "THIS IS (name of city) ," and proceed with transmission. 11

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-~-------------------.-------------------=~~--a. The State Warning Point acknowledge the message. will a. The called Warning Point will answer by saying, "(name of Warning Point)." 3. Then say, "THIS IS (name of Warning Point)," and proceed with message. a. The called Warning Point will acknowledge the message by saying, "(name of Warning Point)." 4. End the transmission by saying, "(name of Warning Point) OUT AT (time) ZULU." NOTE: There are certain Federal locations on the area warning circuits. These locations will use the same calling procedures for contacting a Warning Center or OCD Region as the State Warning Point. ~ ~

4. Terminate transmission by saying, "(name of city) OUT AT (time) ZULU." a. The operator at the State Warning Point will restore the footswitch to normal position. F. Warning Point calling another Warning Point within the same State will: 1. Listen to determine that the State portion of NAWAS is clear, then request permission of State Warning Point to use the circuit. 2. Voice-page the desired Warning Point by name.

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Supplement 3-B-Test A. Tests of NAWAS will be conducted three times daily at times prescribed by the U.S. Army Strategic Communications Command (USASTRATCOM). B. The procedures for testing are: 1. The Warning Center initiating the test will ring for five (5) seconds and announce, "TEST. CIVIL DEFENSE NETWORK TEST. REPEAT. TEST. CIVIL DEFENSE NETWORK TEST. CENTERS ACKNOWLEDGE." (Centers will acknowledge.) 2. The Area Warning Circuits will then be disconnected and each Warning Center will say, "THIS IS (Warning Center). TEST. CIVIL DEFENSE NETWORK TEST. STAND BY FOR ROLL CALL." 3. A roll call of the stations will be made. Each will acknowledge by saying, "(name of station). TEST." For example, "OHIO. TEST." 4. Any station not acknowledging will be called again at the end of the roll call by the Warning Center, saying, "(station), ACKNOWLEDGE TEST." 5. After roll call is completed, the Warning Center will sign off with, "END OF TEST. (Warning Center) OUT (date), (time), ZULU." The Center will notify the telephone company (Telco) of the failure of any State Warning Point to acknowledge a roll call.

Procedures 6. The State Warning Point will call the roll of its Warning Points to insure receipt of the test. The following procedure will be used: a. Depress the footswitch to disconnect that portion of NAWAS within a State from the Area Warning Circuit. (NOTE: Whenever this switch is depressed, Warning Points cannot hear calls from the Warning Center, nor can the Warning Center hear the State Warning Point, unless the Warning Center has activated the special dial code.) b. Pick up handset, depress ringing key for five (5) seconds, then press "talk" button and state, "THIS IS THE (name) STATE WARNING POINT. STAND BY TO ACKNOWLEDGE TEST." c. Each Warning Point will acknowledge the roll call by answering with its name, followed by the word "TEST." For example, "PORTLAND. TEST." d. If any Warning Point fails to answer, it will be called again before proceeding with the roll. At the end of the roll call, Warning Points that have not acknowledged will be called again. e. The State Warning Point will notify the serving test room of any failure of a Warning Point to acknowledge.

13

--------~-._-

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I I

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Supplement 3-C-Exercise A. An exercise may be initiated nationwide by the National Warning Center, or regionwide, by any of the OCD Regions. No exercise Using any part of NAWAS will be conducted without prior approval by the National Warning Center. B. In a national exercise initiated by the N ational Warning Center, the following terminology and procedures will be used: 1. Ring for five (5) seconds. 2. Announce: "ATTENTION ALL STATIONS. THIS IS THE NATIONAL WARNING CENTER. EXERCISE (name). THIS IS A CHECKERBOARD. REPEAT. THIS IS A CHECKERBOARD. EXERCISE (name). TIME IS _ ZULU, (date) WARNING CENTERS AND REGIONS ACKNOWLEDGE." 3. Area Warning Circuits are then disconnected from the National Warning Circuit. Each Region or Warning Center then says, "THIS IS (Region or Warning Center). EXERCISE (name). THIS IS A CHECKERBOARD. STAND BY FOR ROLL CALL." 4. Each station will acknowledge with " (State or Office). EXERCISE (name). CHECKERBOARD." 5. The CHECKERBOARD and message explaining why it has been declared will be further disseminated by N AWAS Warning Points in accordance with State and local civil defense procedures. 6. To terminate the CHECKERBOARD, the National Warning Center will: a. Ring for five (5) seconds. b. Announce, "ATTENTION ALL STATIONS. THIS IS THE NATIONAL WARNING CENTER.. EXERCISE (name). CHECKERBOARD IS TERMINATED. REPEAT. CHECKProcedures
~'

ERBOARD IS TERMINATED. REGIONS AND WARNING CENTERS ACKNOWLEDGE." '(Regions and Warning Centers acknowledge with, "C H E C K E R BOA R D T E R M 1NATED".) 7. After the Area Warning Circuits are disconnected from the national circuit, each OCD Region says, "THIS IS REGION EXERCISE (name). CHECKERBOARD IS TERMINATED. EXERCISE (name). STAND BY FOR ROLL CALL." 8. Each station will acknowledge with, "(State or Office). CHECKERBOARD TERMINATED." 9. After roll call, each OCD Region signs off with, "(Region) OUT, (date), (time) ZULU." 10. The termination will be further disseminated by Warning Points according to State and local instructions. 11. To terminate an exercise, the code word "FADEOUT" will be used. Pro- cedures will be the same as those used to terminate CHECKERBOARD. C. In exercises initiated by other Warning Centers or by OCD Regions, the following terminology and procedures will be used: 1. Ring for five (5) seconds. 2. Announce, "ATTENTION ALL STATIONS. THIS IS (Region or Warning Center) EXERCISE (name). THIS IS A CHECKERBOARD. REPEAT. THIS IS A CHECKERBOARD. EXERCISE (name). TIME is _ _____ ZULU (date) STAND BY FOR ROLL CALL." 3. Each station will acknowledge with, "(Sta te or Office.) EXERCISE (name). CHECKERBOARD." 4. The CHECKERBOARD will be further disseminated by N AWAS Warning Points in accordance with State and

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14

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local civil defense instructions cedures.

and pro-

5. To terminate the CHECKERBOARD, the Region or Warning Center will: a. Ring for five (5) seconds. b. Announce, "ATTENTION ALL STATIONS. THIS IS (Region or Warning Center) EXERCISE (name). CHECKERBOARD IS TERMINATED. REPEAT. CHECKERBOARD IS TERMINATED. STAND BY FOR ROLL CALL." 6. Each station will acknowledge with,

"(State or Office). CHECKERBOARD IS TERMINATED." 7. After roll call, each Region or Warning Center signs off with, "(Region or Warning Center) OUT. (date), (time), ZULU." 8. The termination will be further disseminated by Warning Points according to State and local instructions and procedures. 9. To terminate an exercise, the code word "FADEOUT" will be used. Procedures will be the same as those utilized to terminate CHECKERBOARD.

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SUPPLEMENT 3-D
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TIME-CONVERSION
Greenwich

TABLE
Mountain Standard

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Time

(Z)

EtUlem

Standard

Central Standard

Pacific Btondtt.rl

2400 Midnight 0100 0200 0300 0400 0500 0600 0700 0800 0900 1000 1100 1200 1300 1400 1500 1600 1700 1800 1900 2000 2100· 2200 2300

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1900 7:00 pm 2000 8:00 pm 2100 9:00 pm 2200 10:00 pm 2300 11:00 pm 2400 Midnight 0100 1:00 am 0200 2:00 am 0300 3:00 am 0400 4:00 am 0500 5:00 am 0600 6:00 am 0700 7:00 am 0800 8:00 am 0900 9:00 am 1000 10:00 am 1100 11:00 am 1200 Noon 1300 1:00 pm 1400 2:00 pm 1500 3:00 pm 1600 4:00 pm 1700 .5:00 pm 1800 6:00 pm

1800 6:00 pm 1900 7:00 pm 2000 8:00 pm 2100 9:00 pm 2200 10:00 pm 2300 11:00 prn . 2400 Midnight 0100 1:00 am 0200 2:00 am 0300 3:00 am 0400 4:00 am 0500 5:00 am 0600 6:00 am 0700 7:00 am 0800 8:00 am 0900 9:00 am 1000 10:00 am 1100 11:00 am 1200 Noon 1300 1:00 pm 1400 2:00 pm 1500 3:00 pm 1600 4:00 pm 1700 5:00 pm

1700 5:00 pm 1800 6:00 pm 1900 7:00 pm 2000 8:00 pm 2100 19:00pm 2200 10:00 pm 2300 11:00 pm 2400 Midnight 0100 1:00 am 0200 2:00 am 0300 3:00 am 0400 4:00 am 0500 5:00 am 0600 6:00 am 0700 7:00 am 0800 8:00 am 0900 9:00 am 1000 10:00 am 1100 11:00 am 1200 N.oon 1300 1:00pm 1400 2:00 pm 1500 3:00 pm 1600 4:00 pm

1600 4:00 pm 1700 5:00 pm 1800 6:00 pm 1900 7:00 pm 2000 8:00 pm 2100 9:00 pm 2200 10:00 pm 2300 11:00 pm 2400 Midnight 0100 1:00 am 0200 2:00 am 0300 3:00 am 0400 4:00 am 0500 5:00 am 0600 6:00 am 0700 7:00 am 0800 8:00 am 0900 9:00 am 1000 10:00 am 1100 11:00 am 1200 Noon 1300 1:00 pm 1400 2:00 pm 1500 3:00 pm

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Supplement 3-E-Phonetic

Alphabet

The following alphabet will be used to clarify spelling and in passing emergency information: A
B

C
D E F

G
H

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K

L
M

ALFA BRAVO CHARLIE DELTA ECHO FOXTROT GOLF HOTEL INDIA JULIET KILO LIMA MIKE

N

P Q
R

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V
W

X
Y
Z

NOVEMBER OSCAR PAPA QUEBEC ROMEO SIERRA TANGO UNIFORM VICTOR WHISKEY X-RAY YANKEE ZULU

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2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9

ZEE-ROW WUN TOO THU-REE FO-WER FI-YIV SIX SEV-VEN AIT NI-NER

NOTE: It is not necessary to write the entire word of the phonetic alphabet when receiving information. Write only the first letter. For example, O-OSCAR, CCHARLIE, D-DELTA, would be copied OCD.

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Supplement 3-F-Message
Assignment of message precedence over the NAWAS system will be in accordance with the following: TYPE OF MESSAGE
A. Emergency Messages

Precedence
Priority Messages

B. Operational

Messages of an urgent operational nature, amplification of initial reports, or urgent messages concerning operations and messages where a delay in delivery would adversely affect current operation. Examples: 1. Initial damage reports. 2. Amplification of attack or damage reports.
C. Priority Messages

Reports of enemy attacks and messages concerning an emergency situation which gravely affects the Nation's security, or a disaster of major proportions which demands immediate transmission to the addressee. These messages should be brief. Examples: 1. Information on actions leading to enemy attack requiring immediate action. 2. ATTACK WARNINGS. 3. Reports of actual attack. 4. Proclamations of civil defense emergency. 5. Peacetime disaster of extreme seriousness and widespread damage .
.\..,

For all sufficient dence but with least

types of messages which are not of urgency to justify a higher precemust be transmitted to the addressee possible delay.

Examples: 1. Assistance requests. 2. Warning Center emergency
D. Routine Messages

information.

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Messages which may be delayed.

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SECTION 4-EMERGENCY
GENERAL Warning Points are responsible for receiving warning and other emergency information disseminated by the Warning Centers or Regions and for relaying it throughout their assigned area of responsibility in accordance with State or local plans. To accomplish this mission in an efficient manner, Warning Point personnel must be thoroughly familiar with their emergency operating procedures. DECLARATION AND DISSEMINATION OF THE ATTACK WARNING A. Based on existing OCD directives and intelligence available to him, the Attack Warning Officer on duty at the National Warning Center will declare the ATTACK WARNING. He will immediately disseminate it over NAWAS. B. In the event of subsequent attacks, the above procedures will apply. However, availability of remaining communications will dictate how subsequent ATTACK WARNINGS will be disseminated to the Warning Points. C.Procedures for the dissemination of the ATTACK WARNING and supplemental information will be found in Supplement 4-A. SPECIAL EMERGENCY ANNOUNCEMENTS A. Emergency Broadcast System (EBS).When the Emergency Broadcast System is activated, an announcement will be made over NAWAS by the Warning Centers to all Warning Points. This announcement should be relayed immediately by all Warning Points throughout their portion of the Civil Defense Warning System according to the State and local civil defense plans. B. Procedures and terminology for the Emergency Broadcast System activation announcement are in Supplement 4-B. ALTERN ATE PROCEDURES
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OPERATIONS PROCEDURES
ing the dissemination of warning and/or other emergency information. Should this occur, the Warning Centers or OCD Regions will use other available methods to relay the information to the Warning Points. The alternate procedures to be used by the Warning Centers or OCD Regions are in Supplement 4-C. TERMINATION OF ATTACK WARNING AND EMERGENCY BROADCAST SYSTEM OPERATION The procedures for terminating the ATTACK WARNING and/or the EMERGENCY BROADCAST SYSTEM OPERATION are given in Supplement 4-D. SPECIAL EMERGENCY INFORMATION

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The Civil Defense Warning System may be used for the relay of special emergency infermation or announcements. All messages must be short but give all essentials. In most instances, this usage would involve only the State and local portions of the System.
A. PEACETIME DISASTER

Information of a potential disaster or information about a disaster may be given over the Civil Defense Warning System. This information may originate either above or below a Warning Point. In either case the Warning Point would relay the information according to established procedures. Examples of this type of disaster are floods, fires, tidal waves, and earthquakes. Supplement 4-E gives the type of information which should be in disaster messages.
B. SEVERE WEATHER

Communications

difficulties may occur dur-

1. The preparation and issuance of severe weather forecasts and severe weather warnings are responsibilities of the U.S. Weather Bureau. These warnings are issued for tornadoes, severe storms, damaging winds, flash floods, and hurricanes .

21

..
2. Detailed plans must be established specifying sources of forecasts and warning, points to be advised, and procedures to be followed at each point in the Warning System. Severe weather forecasts and/or warnings relayed over the Civil Defense Warning System will also be transmitted through other facilities. The use of the Warning System is merely a service to the Weather Bureau in further disseminating official Weather Bureau bulletins and/or warnings. One Weather Bureau station in each State will be designated to coordinate Weather Bureau activities with the State Warning Point. 3. Any forecast and/or warning for a given area will be limited to the wording of the originating Weather Bureau Office and will be identified as a Weather Bureau Forecast or a Weather Bureau Warning. No evaluation or interpretation of the message will be made. This will insure coordination and eliminate the possibility of conflicting warnings. 4. Procedures and terminology for relay of severe weather forecasts and/or warnings are given in Supplement 4"':'F.
C. SEISMIC SEA WAVES (TSUNAMI)

3. This usage of NAWAS supplements existinginstructions or agreements of any other agency pertaining to this subject. 4. Procedures and terminology for relay of this information are given in Supplement 4-G. REPORTING TRANSATTACK AND POSTATTACK INFORMATION Warning Points will report transattack and postattack information to their OCD Regions in the form of NUDET and/or other types of FLASH reports. Supplement 4-H gives the form and type of information required in these reports. Other systems, such as teletype or facsimile communications systems, will be used to transmit mass data required for more precise location of ground zero, and for detailed fallout pattern plotting and/or analysis of the fallout threat.
A. NUCLEAR DETONATION INFORMATION

The Federal Aviation Agency (FAA) in San Francisco receives TSUNAMI Advisory Bulletins and warnings from the Honolulu Observatory and will pass them over NAWAS to the States of Alaska, California, Oregon, and Washington according to established procedures.
D. DOWNED AIRCRAFT 1. Occasionally the

Warning Centers are asked by the U.S. Air Force to relay questions about missing military aircraft to a specific area. By use of NAWAS, the message is given to the Warning Point in the specified area. This Warning Point is asked to further relay the message to its destination without cost to OCD. 2. Information received by a Warning Point concerning an aircraft accident, a downed aircraft, or an aircraft in flight that is obviously in distress, will immediately be relayed over NAWAS to a Warning Center. The Center will handle the report as prescribed in special instructions.

If an enemy should attack with nuclear weapons, prompt reports of the locations of the detonations would be urgently needed. From these reports and Weather Bureau fallout wind vector data, fallout area forecast plots could be developed to prepare warning for issuance to areas expected to be subjected to fallout effects. Certain of these reports on nuclear detonations may be transmitted over N AWAS. These include: 1. "Flash" NUDET reports, which are onetime initial reports from the local level (civil and military) forwarded with all possible speed to higher headquarters. These reports will indicate only the area hit and the time of detonation, unless more specific information is immediately available. 2. "Flash" NUDET reports from civilian sources received by Warning Points are to be forwarded to the State Warning Point for relay to the OCD Regions.
B. "FLASH" RADIOLOGICAL INFORMATION

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When fallout radiation intensity reaches or exceeds 0.5 roentgens per hour (R/hr), the monitoring stations transmit a flash report to the seat of local government. The flash report includes the following:

22

1. Time (GMT) when dose rate reached or

exceeded 0.5 R/hr. 2. Code designation of monitoring station. 3. The word "Fallout." Local or county government is required to submit flash reports and subsequent dose rate reports to the State Emergency Operating Center in accordance with standardized procedures and schedules. The local or county civil defense director may wish to use the State portion of NAWAS for the rapid relay of "flash reports" or high priority "dose-rate" reports to the State civil defense office. The channel for these messages would be from the local civil defense director to the nearest N AWAS Warning Point, then to the State Warning Point for relay to the State Emergency Operating Center. Similarly, the State civil defense director may wish to use N AWAS for forwarding summaries of "flash reports" and other high priority radiological defense information to the OCD Regional Office. The channel for these messages would be from the State civil defense director to the State Warning Point, then to the OCD Regional Office.
fr

reports should be limited to "flash" and selective "dose-rate" reports of high priority. NAWAS should not be used for relay of voluminous radiological reports or tabular data.
C. FALLOUT WARNING MESSAGES

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At the State's discretion, the State and Federal portions of the NAWAS system may be used for relaying high-priority radiological information from the local civil defense director to the State civil defense director, and from the State civil defense director to the OCD Regional Director. Inasmuch as NAWAS is a voice circuit, its use for relay of radiological

The State Emergency Operating Center is responsible for the preparation and issuance of fallout warnings and advisories to the less densely populated areas of the State where such warning and advisory service is not provided by local or county government. The State civil defense director may wish to use the State portion of NAWAS for the transmission of his RADEF messages to the less densely populated areas. The channel for these messages would be from the State civil defense director to the State Warning Point, and then to the NAWAS Warning Point. Relay would then be to designated radio stations or other media of dissemination previously arranged by the State civil defense director to get the warning to people who could be affected. At the State's discretion, the State portion of NAWAS may be used for the relay of this information from the State civil defense director to the point of final dissemination to the general public. During an emergency, OCD Regions will pass on NAWAS information concerning overwa ter fallout to certain Coast Guard installations. Messages in this connection will be prefaced by the statement, "This message is for (name of Coast Guard installation) only. All others disregard. "

23

-.-----------.---------------====-~-==-= ...

Supplement 4-A-Procedures

for Dissemination of Attack Warning
C. As soon as a State Warning Point has received the ATT ACK WARNING, the operator will immediately call the roll of Warning Points within the State, using the following procedures: 1. Depress footswitch to disconnect the State Warning Circuit from the Area Warning Circuit. 2. Pick up handset, depress ringing key for five (5) seconds, press "talk" button and say, "THIS IS THE (name) STATE WARNING POINT. STAND BY TO ACKNOWLEDGE ATTACK WARNING." 3. Each Warning Point will acknowledge the roll call by answering with its name, followed by, "ATTACK WARNING." For example, "PORTLAND. ATTACK WARNING." 4. Any Warning Point not answering roll call will be contacted by telephone or radio immediately after roll call, repeating the warning message and taking the acknowledgment. 5. Any circuit trouble will be reported to the serving telephone company test room, giving the circuit number posted on the NA WAS telephone. D. When disseminating subsequent emergency information, each OCD Region will: 1. Ring for five (5) seconds. 2. Announce, "THIS IS (Region). PREPARE TO COpy EMERGENCY INFORMATION." After the message has been transmitted, the Region will say, "THIS IS (Region) OUT AT (time) ZULU." No acknowledgment will be requested. E. The ATTACK WARNING and other emergency information will be further disseminated by Warning Points in accordance with State and local plans. F. Subsequent attacks will be announced using the same procedures as in the initial attack.

A. In general, these procedures are similar to the EXERCISE procedures outlined in Supplement 3-C. B. After declaring an ATTACK WARNING, the National Warning Center connects the circuit nationwide, activates equipment to bypass all State footswitches, and disseminates the warning immediately, using the following procedures and terminology: 1. Rings for five (5) seconds. 2. Announces, "ATTENTION ALL STATIONS. EMERGENCY. THIS IS AN ATTACK WARNING. REPEAT. THIS IS AN ATTACK WARNING. TIME IS ~ULU (date) • WARNING CENTERS AND REGIONS ACKNOWLEDGE." 3. After the Warning Centers and Regions acknowledge, the Area Warning Circuits are disconnected from the National Warning Circuit. Each Region then says: "THIS IS (Region). THIS IS AN ATTACK WARNING. STAND BY FOR ROLL CALL." 4. Each station will acknowledge with "(State). ATTACK WARNING." 5. Should any station request a "repeat" during the roll call, the Region will repeat the message. The terminology for making this request is, "(name of State). SAY AGAIN YOUR MESSAGE." 6. The Region will again call at the end of the roll call any station which did not answer. 7. Any station not answering the roll call will be called by long-distance (LD) telephone, using the procedures and terminology specified in Supplement 4-C. 8. Each Region will sign off with "(Region) OUT. (date), (time), ZULU." NOTE: In the event that OCD Regions are not manned for emergency operations at the time the ATTACK WARNING is disseminated, the Warning Centers will assume the roll call function.

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24

o
Supplement 4-B-Procedures
EMERGENCY BROADCAST (EBS)

and Terminology for Special Announcements
Region) will repeat the message. The terminology requesting a "repeat" is, "(name of State). SAY AGAIN YOUR MESSAGE." 5. The Warning Center (or Region) will again call at the end of the roll call any station which did not answer. 6. Any station not answering the roll call will be called by LD telephone, using the procedures and terminology specified in Supplement 4-C. 7. Each Region or Warning Center will sign off with, "THIS IS (Region or Warning Center) OUT, (date), (time) ZULU." 8. As soon as the State Warning Point has received the EMERGENCY BROADCAST SYSTEM announcement, the operator will immediately call the roll of the Warning Points within the State. He will use the same procedures and terminology specified in Supplement 4-A, paragraph C, but will substitute the term "EMERGENCY BROADCAST SYSTEM ANNOUNCEMENT" in place of "ATTACK WARNING," B. When an ATTACK WARNING is declared at the same time that the EMERGENCY BROADCAST SYSTEM is activated, the ATTACK WARNING message will be expanded to include that information.

SYSTEM

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A. When the Emergency Broadcast System is activated, the following procedures will be used: 1. National Warning Center will: a. Ring for five (5) seconds. b. Announce, "ATTENTION ALL STATIONS. THE EMERGENCY BROADCAST SYSTEM HAS BEEN ACTIVATED. REPEAT. THE EMERGENCY BROADCAST SYSTEM HAS BEEN ACTIVATED. WARNING CENTERS AND REGIONS ACKNOWLEDGE." 2. After the Warning Centers and OCD Regions acknowledge, the Area Warning Circuits are disconnected from the National Warning Circuit. Each Warning Center or OCD Region then says, "THIS IS (Warning Center or Region). THE EMERGENCY BROADCAST SYSTEM HAS BEEN ACTIVATED. STAND BY FOR ROLL CALL." 3. Each station will acknowledge with, "(State or Office). EMERGENCY BROADCAST SYSTEM ACTIVATED." 4. Should any station request a "repeat" during the roll call, the Warning Center (or

25

Supplement 4-C-Procedures

for Use of Alternate Means of Communications

A. During an emergency, if a station does not acknowledge on NAWAS, the OCD Region or Warning Center will immediately place a long-distance (LD) telephone call to that station, using the backup telephone number. The already-established precedence system which follows will be used: Precedence Indication Priority 1 Emergency
1. Immediate danger due to presence of

Priority 2 Emergency

Priority 3 Emergency B. Should both NAWAS and LD backup fail, the Region or Warning Center will use every available means of communication in attempting to get the emergency message to its destination. For example: Request a State Warning Point to relay the message to adjacent States via State Police or other communication nets.

the enemy, including ATTACK WARNING. 2. Proclamations of Civil Defense Emergency. 1. Initial report of damage due to enemy action. 2. Civil defense activities immediately subsequent to enemy attack. 1. Civil defense or the public health and safety. C. Warning Points should also make use of the information in paragraphs A and B, above, to get emergency information to the OCD Region or Warning Center, and to acknowledge the message. D. Terminology of a message will be the same, whether or not received over NAWAS or by some other means of communication.

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26

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Supplement 4-D-Procedures and Terminology for Terminating the Attack Warning and/ or Emergency Broadcast System Operations
A. When attack is no longer probable, the ATTACK WARNING will be terminated by use of the following procedures: 1. The National Warning Center will: a. Ring for five (5) seconds. b. Announce, "ATTENTION ALL STATIONS. THE ATTACK WARNING IS TERMINATED. REPEAT. THE ATTACK WARNING IS TERMINATED. WARNING CENTERS AND REGIONS ACKNOWLEDGE." 2. After the Warning Centers and Regions acknowledge, the Area Warning Circuits are disconnected from the National Warning Circuit. Each Region then says, "THIS IS (Region). THE ATTACK WARNING IS TERMINATED. STAND BY FOR ROLL CALL." 3. Each Station will acknowledge with, "(State or Office). ATTACK WARNING TERM IN ATED." 4. Should any station request a "repeat" during the roll call, the Region will repeat the message. The station making the request will use the approved terminology as shown in Supplement 4-A, paragraph B.5. 5. The Region. will again call at the end of the roll call any station which did not answer. 6. Any station not answering the roll call will be called by LD telephone by the Region using the procedures and terminology specified in Supplement 4-C. 7. Each Region will sign off with, "THIS IS (Region) OUT, (date), (time) ZULU." 8. As soon as the State Warning Point has received the TERMINATION announcement, the operator will immediately call the roll of the Warning Points within his State. He will use the same procedures and terminology specified in Supplement 4-A, paragraph C, but will substitute the phrase, "ATTACK WARNING TERMIN ATED" for the term "A TT ACK WARNING." B. When Emergency Broadcast System operations have been terminated, the Warning Centers will make that announcement using the same procedures as those governing termination of the ATTACK WARNING. C. If both the ATTACK WARNING and EMERGENCY BROADCAST SYSTEM operations are terminated at the same time, it will be reflected in a single message.

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27

Supplement 4-E-Procedures and Terminology for Relaying Peacetime Disaster Messages A. Messages about potential or actual peacetime disasters may be transmitted over the Civil Defense Warning System. However, they must be as concise as possible. When such messages are to be relayed over any portion of NA WAS, the calling procedures prescribed in Supplement 3-A will be used. As these messages are received at a Warning Center, the Warning Officer will relay them to the OCD National Headquarters Duty Officer and to the appropriate OeD Regional Duty Officer. B. Messages concerning a potential peacetime disaster should cover briefly the following points: 1. Source of the warning. 2. Type of destruction expected. 3. Time the disaster is expected. 4. Probable area affected. 5. Probable severity. 6. Any local actions taken or to be taken. C. Messages reporting an actual peacetime disaster should cover briefly the following points: 1. Type of disaster. 2. Time of disaster. 3. Area affected. 4. Estimate of casualties: a. Dead. b. Injured. c. Homeless. 5. Estimate of damage (report private and public damage separately). a. Whether light, medium, or heavy. 6. Local actions taken or to be taken. 7. Outside assistance needed: a. What type. b. Where. c. When. d. What extent. d. The use of N AWAS for peacetime disasters will be carefully controlled by each Warning Center. Since NAWAS is a voice communications system, lengthy messages will not be permitted.

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Supplement 4-F-Procedures and Terminology for Relaying Severe Weather Forecasts and Warnings A. There will be one or more Weather Bureau Stations on NAWAS to serve each State by providing severe weather forecasts and warnings to areas likely to be affected. B. Any Warning Point receiving a request to relay severe weather information will use the calling procedures specified in Supplement 3-A. The wording of the originating Weather Bureau station will be repeated verbatim and will be identified as a Weather Bureau forecast or warning. No evaluation or interpretation will be made. C. Any Warning Point that further disseminates a severe weather forecast or warning will do so in accordance with State and local plans. (These plans should indicate who will pay the costs of any toll calls in connection with such dissemination. )

29

Supplement 4-G-Procedures and Terminology for Relaying Information About Downed Aircraft A. The use of NAWAS to relay questions and/ or information concerning aircraft down '.or in trouble will supplement existing search and rescue procedures and/ or agreements. Early receipt of reports of aircraft accidents could contribute materially to lifesaving operations. B. Calling procedures outlined in Supplement 3-A will be used by Warning Centers and Warning Points in relaying this type of information. C. Reports to Warning clude the following: Centers should in1. Location (as exact as possible). 2. Time of crash or sighting. 3. Type and number of aircraft, number of engines, and identifying markings. (Civilian: commercial carrier, etc.; military: bomber, fighter, etc.) 4. Description of any fire or explosion seen. 5. Location and condition of crew and passengers, if known. 6. Name(s) and address (es) of person(s) having knowledge of the accident. (This applies only to those who can assist in pinpointing the accident.)

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Supplement 4-H-Procedures for NUDET and Other Types of "Flash" Reports
A. To relay this type of information, the calling procedures specified in Supplement 3-A will be used by OeD Regions and the Warning Points. Timely and authentic information is urgently needed in any type of operation. B. Type of flash reports: 1. Nuclear detonations (NUDETS) : a. Location-give co or d in a'tes by GEOREF, UTM, or latitude and longitude. b. Size-small, medium, or large. c. Type of burst-air, surface, or water. d. Time of detonation. e. Source of information. f. Remarks. 2. Radiological contamination: a. Area involved. b.Dose rate and time of dose-rate observation. c. Source of information. 3. Other (not covered above) : a. Subject. b. Time. c. Location and area involved. d. Source of information.

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Supplement 4-I-Procedures for Relaying Information About Nuclear Accidents A. The unintentional dispersal of radioactive materials may result from fires and incidents within institutions using radioactive materials, or from accidents involving the transport of fissionable and/ or radioactive materials. B. Early receipt of information on such accidents or incidents is important. Warning Points should immediately forward the information to the Warning Center over NAWAS. C. Messages should cover briefly the following points: 1. Type of accident or incident. 2. Exact location. 3. Time of accident or incident. 4. Whom notified. 5. Pertinent details. D. Calling procedures outlined in Supplement 3-A will be used by Warning Points in relaying this type of information.

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SECTION 5-GLOSSARY
Alternate Warning Point-See Warning Point. Area Warning Circuit-That portion of NA WAS which lies within an OCD Region and connects the Warning Points in that area with the Region. Attack Warning Officer-A Warning Center staff member who is responsible for declaring and disseminating warnings and other emergency information over NAWAS. ATTACK WARNING Signa"-a 3- to 5-minute wavering tone on sirens, or series of short blasts on horns orother devices, repeated as deemed necessary, signifying that an actual attack against this country has been detected and that protective action should be taken immediately. The ATTACK WARNING signal additionally may be used at the option of local government to warn of imminent approach of fallout, since the meaning of the signal "protective action should be taken immediately" is appropriate for both attack and fallout warning. ATTENTION or ALERT Sumal-:« 3- to 5minute steady tone, signifying a high probability of danger other than enemy attack, and that the public should listen for essential emergency information. Backup Telephone-A telephone in Warning Points to which a call is placed by a Warning Center or OCD Region when no answer is received over NAWAS. CHECKERBOARD-A code word designating a simulated ATTACK WARNING used in civil defense exercises. Civil Defense Warning System (CDWS)-The system over which a warning or other emerg- . ency information is transmitted throughout the Nation. It comprises Federal, State, and local warning systems.

OF WARNING TERMS
emergency or periods of extreme world tension: FADEOUT-Code word used to terminate an exercise. Flash Report-A short message giving the first available details of an incident, a bombing, a disaster, etc. Greenwich Mean Time-The mean solar time at the Greenwich Meridian. Also called ZULU Time. National Warning Center-The facility staffed by Attack Warning Officers situated within the combat operations center at NORAD Headquarters. Controls NAWAS when the area Warning Circuits are tied together. National Warning System (NAWAS)-The Federal portion of the Civil Defense Warning System, used for the dissemination of warnings and other emergency information from the Warning Centers or Regions to Warning Points in each State. N A WAS Extension-A type of telephone service which extends without relay the transmission of warning from the Warning Point to places having a vital need for this information. (An approvable item under Federal Contributions. ) NORAD-North American Air Defense Command. NUDET -Nuclear detonation. Peacetime Disaster Warning-A warning of an unusual incident resulting from natural causes which endangers the health, safety, or resources of the residents of an area. Phonetic Alphabet-An alphabet code in which an authorized word for a letter is used in transmitting messages when possibility of a misunderstanding exists. RADEF Warning-A warning of radiological fallout. State NA WAS Circuit-That portion of NA WAS which connects all Warning Points within a State with the State Warning Point. 33

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Emergency Broadcast System (EBS)-Established to enable the President, Federal, State, and local authorities to communicate with the public during a national civil defense

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State Warning Point-See Warning Point. Telco-Telephone Company. USASTRATCOM-CONUS Facility-An installation established to support the OCD Regional Director in the field of Communications and Warning. Warning-Warning is the alerting of civil defense forces and the public to the threat of extraordinary danger and the related effects of both enemy-caused and natural disasters. Warning Center-A facility staffed by Attack Warning Officers. The National Warning Center is located at the source of first available information concerning an attack on the United States. Warning Officer - A USASTRATCOM CONUS staff officer, experienced in the field of warning, and stationed at each USASTRATCOM-CONUS facility to advise and assist the OCD Regional Director in developing warning plans and systems in States and their political subdivisions.

Warning Point-A facility that receives warnings and other emergency information over NAWAS and relays this information in accordance with State and local civil defense plans. Alternate Warning Point-A facility which acts for and has the same responsibility as the Warning Point with which it alternates. Generally located in an EOC. Local Warning Point-A facility in a city, town, or community which receives warnings and activates the public warning system in its area of responsibility. State Warning Point-Same as Warning Point, with the additional responsibility of supervising and controlling that part of NAWAS which is within a State. Warning Signalr-An .audible signal, sounded on public outdoor warning devices. (See ATTENTION or ALERT Signal and ATTACK WARNING Signal). ZULU (Z) Time-See Greenwich Mean Time.
CONUS Army-Military Support Planning USASTRATCOM-CONUS CD Warning Senior Military Colleges under DoD Officers

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t:rU_S, Government Printing Office 1966-254-280/17

Distribution: OCD Regions, Staff College State and Local CD Directors State Adj. Gen.-Military Support Planning

Officers

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