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Contemporary Issues in Health and Exercise

HPP301 Week Four

Learning Outcomes
Recap and consolidation of last three weeks Facilitating motivation and behaviour change Amotivation

Quiz
You have been given
Terms Definitions

Match the terms to the definitions to achieve your extrinsic reward Swap sheets to mark you answers Winner gets choice of reward

Terms
Locus of control Intrinsic motivation External motivation Autonomy Introjected motivation Integrated motivation Competence Identified motivation Amotivation Relatedness Extrinsic motivation K A B F G E I H C J D

Amotivation
Come up with some ideas about what amotivation actually is
Discuss with person next to you

What did you come up with? Is it simply the absence of motivation? Or is it something more?

Outcomes
Evidence on effects of amotivation Negative outcomes
Poor psychosocial adjustment High levels of perceived stress Poor general well-being Lower educational outcomes (e.g. Baker, 2004) Lack of persistence Lower self-esteem

Deconstructing Amotivation
Not just cant be arsed Not just lazy Potential link with pre-contemplation? Recall the underlying philosophy of SDT
People are active organisms with inherent and deeply evolved tendencies towards psychological growth and development

So how can amotivation even exist?

Resolving Amotivation
What else can be going on?

An individual has no intention to engage in physical activity? Why might this be?

Consequences
So what does this mean for intervention?

No one-size-fits-all solution
Not simply a case of providing rewards to facilitate a progression to external motivation

Multi-Faceted Construct
Different reasons for amotivation
No perceived competence
Lack of required skills or knowledge Self-efficacy (Bandura)

No perceived connection between actions and desired goals


Learned helplessness (Seligman)

Deliberate intention not to act


Volitional amotivation

Dimensions of Amotivation
Shen et al. (2010) propose four dimensions of amotivation
Ability beliefs Effort beliefs Value of task Task characters

Ability Beliefs
Similar to self-efficacy, perceived ability to perform a certain behaviour May be aware that a course of action is required or advantageous May even desire to commence activity Likelihood of activity proportional to perceived ability to meet requirements Results in amotivation Possible intervention
Facilitate development of perceived competence
Education and training Goal setting

Effort Beliefs
Desire to expend the energy required by a course of action
Not just physical energy

Tasks requiring sustained energy are less likely to be started


Perceived competence may be high

Tasks that are difficult to integrate into lifestyle Reinforced perception of individual as low in effort
Potential role for personal outcome value

Results in amotivation Possible intervention


Supportive and informed decision Accountability
Validation Decisional balance

Value of Task
Low value placed on task results in amotivation in the context of specific activity
Particularly when little perceived relevance to individuals life or values

Often relevant in a value-laden context


Environment can place high or low values on activity

Particularly relevant to education and physical activity Results in amotivation Possible interventions
Education and training Intrinsically frame task

Task Characteristics
Appeal of a task influences the reduction or development of amotivation Lack of pleasure or interest results in disengagement Emphasis placed on the environment rather than the individual Results in amotivation Possible intervention
Environmental engineering
Presentation of material Stimulation

Intervention
How can we effectively intervene with amotivated individuals? Support development of competence or selfefficacy
Goal setting

Assist with the individuals understanding of meaning Educational interventions


Skills training Information
Links again with pre-contemplation

Summary
Amotivation is a complex concept Not simply a lack of effort Multi-dimensional Requires careful consideration Explore underlying reasons for amotivation Provide a specific intervention

Homework
Ensure you consolidate your understanding of amotivation
Papers on Moodle

Particularly relevant for your assignments