AN-1087

APPLICATION NOTE
One Technology Way • P.O. Box 9106 • Norwood, MA 02062-9106, U.S.A. • Tel: 781.329.4700 • Fax: 781.461.3113 • www.analog.com

Thermocouple Linearization When Using the AD8494/AD8495/AD8496/AD8497
by Reem Malik

INTRODUCTION
The AD8494/AD8495/AD8496/AD8497 thermocouple amplifiers
provide a simple, low cost solution for measuring thermocouple
temperatures. These amplifiers simplify many of the difficulties
of measuring thermocouples. A fixed-gain instrumentation amplifier amplifies the small thermocouple voltage, and an integrated
temperature sensor performs cold junction compensation.
The AD849x is optimized to measure and amplify J and K type
thermocouple signals for a linear 5 mV/°C response such that
VOUT = (TMJ × 5 mV/°C) + VREF

Whether a thermocouple measurement needs linearization
depends on the type of thermocouple chosen, the required
system accuracy, and the temperature range being measured.
The nonlinearity of thermocouple signals is well studied and
is constant for a specific thermocouple type. Therefore, the
measurement system can compensate for it.

AD849x THERMOCOUPLE NONLINEARITY
COMPENSATION

where TMJ is the temperature at the measurement junction of
the thermocouple.
The AD849x output is accurate to within 2°C across the entire
range of measurement and ambient temperatures listed in Table 1.
This application note describes ways to achieve even greater
accuracy when operating at or measuring temperatures outside
the specified ranges using the AD849x.

THERMOCOUPLE NONLINEARITY
The voltage generated by a thermocouple is inherently nonlinear.
For example, a J type thermocouple changes by 52 μV/°C at 25°C
and by 55 μV/°C at 150°C. K type thermocouples tend to be much
more linear, staying fairly near 41 μV/°C when temperatures are
above 0°C. The voltage response of a thermocouple to a temperature gradient can be described by a greater than sixth-order
polynomial (see Figure 1).
100

80

Although the AD849x does not actively correct thermocouple
nonlinearity, the amplifiers are precision trimmed to match the
transfer characteristics of J type and K type thermocouples. This
means that the AD849x compensates for nonlinearity by choosing
a specific section of the thermocouple curve and performing a
linear best fit to this section to create a 5 mV°/C output.
Table 1 shows the temperature ranges chosen, resulting in
an error from thermocouple nonlinearity of less than ±2°C.
Figure 2 shows the nonlinearity error graphically.
Table 1. AD849x ±2°C Accuracy Temperature Ranges
Thermocouple
Type
J
K
J
K

Part
AD8494
AD8495
AD8496
AD8497

Max
Error
±2°C
±2°C
±2°C
±2°C

Ambient
Temperature
Range
0°C to 50°C
0°C to 50°C
25°C to 100°C
25°C to 100°C

Measurement
Temperature
Range
−35°C to +95°C
−25°C to +400°C
+55°C to +565°C
−25°C to +295°C

E
2.0
J

T

60

1.5

–1.0

Rev. 0 | Page 1 of 4

MEASUREMENT JUNCTION TEMPERATURE (°C)

Figure 2. AD849x Output Error due to Thermocouple Nonlinearity

09282-001

–2.0

600

The AD849x linearly amplifies the (cold junction compensated)
thermocouple signal. This means that the output signal is as
nonlinear as the input signal from the thermocouple.

650

–1.5

550

Figure 1. Seebeck Coefficient of Thermocouple vs. Temperature

AD8494
AD8495
AD8496
AD8497
500

1400

450

1200

400

1000

350

800

300

600

250

400

TEMPERATURE (°C)

200

200

150

0

100

–200

–0.5

0

0
–400

0

50

20

0.5

–50

K

OUTPUT ERROR (°C)

1.0
40

09282-002

SEEBECK COEFFICIENT (µV/°C)

An application may require better nonlinearity (meaning greater
accuracy) than is provided directly by the thermocouple in that
temperature range. In such cases, linearization, or correction, of
the thermocouple measurement is required.

such that The thermocouple voltage. Thermocouple nonlinearity is typically corrected with a microcontroller in the digital domain.2°C at 1 V. the correction procedure is as follows: TMJ = fNIST ((1 V − 1.7 122. VTC = NIST Thermoelectric Voltage Lookup Tables Gain 96.4) = fNIST (8. For greater accuracy. Linear extrapolation yields a final answer of 200.25 mV)/122. VREF is the user input voltage.4 CJC Factor (mV/°C) 5 4.4) VOUT − (TRJ × CJC ) − VOFFSET − VREF For the AD8496. Rev. and fNIST is a millivolt-to-temperature function based on the standard lookup tables or on equations published by the National Institute of Standards and Technology (thermocouple databases can be found at http://srdata.25 mV)/122. Transfer Function Values for the AD8494. where TMJ is the temperature at the thermocouple measurement junction.98 mV)/122. the measurement junction temperature (TMJ). and the reference junction temperature (TRJ).98 LINEARITY CORRECTION ALGORITHMS Using the same example as for the first method (an AD8495 at room temperature with a grounded reference pin connected to a K type thermocouple that reads 1 V). Using the 5 mV/°C transfer function. which lists the ideal AD849x output voltages as a function of the temperature for J type and K type thermocouples with the specified junction temperatures.35 122. 0 | Page 2 of 4 Consulting a standard K type thermocouple table indicates that at a measurement junction temperature of 200°C. AD849x Output Lookup Table The first method is to use Table 3.5°C. the thermoelectric voltage of the thermocouple is 8. is a function of the thermocouple type.gov/its90/main). and AD8497 Part AD8494 AD8495 AD8496 AD8497 The second method is to use the following equations. and at a measurement junction temperature of 201°C. it is 1. . the actual AD8495 output is 0.2 mV)/90. For the AD8497. the equation is as follows: TMJ = fNIST ((VOUT − VREF − 1.178 mV.95 4. One of two correction algorithms can be used. the equation is as follows: TMJ = fNIST ((VOUT − VREF + 0.0392 Offset (mV) 0 1. the thermoelectric voltage is 8. Table 3 indicates that at a measurement junction temperature of 200°C. VTC. AD8495. AD8496. 1 V represents 200°C.nist. the user must calculate the temperature that corresponds to the 1 V output as follows: 1. For the AD8495. The following three parameters are trimmed to achieve a 5 mV/°C output with minimal errors: • • • Gain of the amplifier Offset of the amplifier (error voltage at 0°C to achieve 125 mV at 25°C) Scale factor of the temperature sensor/cold junction compensator VTC = fNIST (TMJ − 0) − fNIST (TRJ − 0) Output values for intermediate temperatures can be interpolated or calculated using the AD849x output equations and the NIST thermoelectric voltage tables referred to 0°C.999 V. the equation is as follows: Gain TMJ = fNIST ((VOUT − VREF − 20.35) where: CJC is the cold junction compensation scale factor.2 −0. For example.158 mV) 1. an AD8495 at room temperature (25°C) with a grounded reference pin connected to a K type thermocouple outputs 1 V.4 90.138 mV. Recall that VTC ‫ ן‬TMJ − TRJ. the equation is as follows: VTC ‫ ן‬TMJ – TRJ = (TMJ − 0) − (TRJ − 0) TMJ = fNIST ((VOUT − VREF)/96.097 V. and at a measurement junction temperature of 220°C.7) The following transfer function should be used to determine the actual thermocouple voltages being measured by the AD849x (see Table 2 for specific values for each part).25 20.4) Table 2. Linear extrapolation between these two points yields an answer of 200. VOFFSET is the error voltage at 0°C to achieve 125 mV at 25°C.8 5. 2.AN-1087 Application Note Each part in the AD849x family is precision trimmed to optimize a linear operating range for a specific thermocouple type and for specific measurement and ambient temperature ranges. For the AD8494. Gain is the gain of the amplifier. 2.

8 1.363 3.316 3.548 3.1 2.605 0.003 0.530 −0.650 2.008 1.010 2.392 −0.3 2.5 −0.2 0.464 −0.100 0.658 −0.9 2.505 0.2 0.804 1.155 3.6 −0.272 −0.101 1.901 1.497 1.365 −0.184 −0.431 3.002 0.5 1.702 1.701 0.2 3.200 0.504 0.2 1.119 0.6 2.Application Note AN-1087 Table 3.6 1.3 0.9 0.7 2.9 3.366 1.9 1.759 2.1 2.095 −0.259 1.676 −0.3 1.114 2.8 −0.902 1 1.4 0.201 1.1 3.3 0.590 −0.948 3 3.231 3.8 2.751 −1 −0.803 0.937 0.5 −0.4 3.092 0 0.687 1.2 −0.200 0. 0 | Page 3 of 4 AD8496/AD8497 Output.300 2.580 1.4 1.124 3. TA = TRJ = 25°C Ideal Output (V) Actual Output (V) AD8494/ AD8494 Output AD8495 Output AD8495 with J Type with K Type −1.843 2.947 3 3.4 −0.718 −0.201 0.125 0.296 1.9 −0.221 2.6 0.1 3.3 1.203 3.601 0.142 0.362 3.303 0.295 1.017 3.301 0.188 −0.751 −1 −0.773 −1.617 0.3 −0.999 1.569 −0.151 1.785 −1.3 3.354 −0.7 −0.4 0.568 −0.634 2.900 0.502 2.9 0.5 1.677 −0.1 0.1 1.979 2.355 −0.3 3.097 1.6 1.503 −0.213 0.603 2.328 2.774 −1.217 2.804 0.396 1.218 2.738 2.999 1.2 2.498 1.401 2.097 1.627 −0. Actual AD849x Results Reflecting Thermocouple Nonlinearity Measurement Junction Temperature (°C) −260 −240 −220 −200 −180 −160 −140 −120 −100 −80 −60 −40 −20 0 20 25 40 60 80 100 120 140 160 180 200 220 240 260 280 300 320 340 360 380 400 420 440 460 480 500 520 540 560 580 600 620 640 660 680 AD8494/AD8495 Output.705 2. TA = TRJ = 60° Ideal Output (V) Actual Output (V) AD8496/ AD8496 Output AD8497 Output AD8497 with J Type with K Type −1.5 0.340 3.396 1.8 1.063 −0.901 1 1.868 2.803 1.432 −0.465 Rev.800 0.184 −0.705 0.001 0.432 −0.473 1.9 2.451 3.8 −0.7 0.7 −0.2 1.5 2.8 0.8 2.701 1.051 3.405 0.907 2 2.6 0.052 3.402 0.235 −0.523 −0.446 −0.1 −0.113 2.200 2.808 2.714 −0.7 0.801 1.156 3.321 2.9 −0.196 1.705 0.529 2.271 −0.666 3.719 −0.786 −1.605 0.090 2.100 0.901 1.044 0.626 −0.125 0.503 0.4 1.2 −0.7 1.435 2.3 −0.302 1.6 2.1 −0.1 0.2 −0.027 0.402 1.4 −0.003 0.739 2.100 2.426 2.466 .723 0.125 0.4 2.530 2.634 2.3 −0.126 0.322 2.542 2.101 0.843 2.278 −0.308 0.594 −0.425 2.5 2.602 1.504 −0.1 1.4 3.001 2.301 0.196 1.010 2.599 1.2 3.912 2.642 −0.403 0.406 0.7 1.906 2 2.7 2.4 2.5 0.3 −0.315 −0.1 −0.2 −0.2 2.1 −0.794 1.093 0 0.125 0.502 1.829 0.511 0.8 0.3 2.259 3.114 2.259 3.150 −0.6 −0.701 1.599 1.

670 4.076 4.055 5.152 3.710 5.339 5.800 5.246 6.8 6.5 5.486 4.874 3.150 5.503 6.503 6.2 6.9 5.3 5.863 4.276 4. Trademarks and registered trademarks are the property of their respective owners.4 4.473 4.7 6.8 6.018 4.6 6.891 6 6.5 3.6 3.029 3.801 5.375 4. AN09282-0-8/10(0) Rev.2 5.137 4.891 6 6.572 4.5 6.773 3.6 6.675 3.3 4.588 6.432 5.055 5.975 4 4.1 6.727 5.786 3.4 4.874 3.6 5.176 4.571 4.774 4.9 6.3 4.8 3.959 5 5.9 4.9 6.754 .6 5.433 5.720 5.047 4.2 5.176 4.374 4.2 6.6 4.7 6.526 5.3 6.257 4.790 5.275 4.709 5.332 6.526 4.7 5.1 4.906 3.332 6.6 3.5 3.369 5.7 4.401 4.772 3.670 3.374 4.5 6.475 5.863 4.8 5.394 5.960 5 5.058 5.254 4.616 5. All rights reserved.606 5.525 5.2 4.076 4.897 4.562 3.138 4.418 6.946 5. Inc.069 6.245 5.158 6.766 4.999 5.1 4.1 5.895 5.600 4.789 3.904 3.937 4.170 5.8 4.245 5.976 4 4.1 5. TA = TRJ = 60° Ideal Output (V) Actual Output (V) AD8496/ AD8496 Output AD8497 Output AD8497 with J Type with K Type 3.3 5.8 6.669 4.474 4.7 3.581 5.568 3.833 5.9 6.339 5.8 6.4 6.569 3.490 4.8 5.714 4.020 3.3 6.4 6.9 4.671 3.418 6.311 5.155 4.826 4.686 5.151 5.070 6.158 6.4 6.767 4.207 5. 0 | Page 4 of 4 AD8496/AD8497 Output.671 6.981 6.245 6.4 5.7 6.103 5.7 4.1 6.505 5.263 5.2 4.AN-1087 Measurement Junction Temperature (°C) 700 720 740 760 780 800 820 840 860 880 900 920 940 960 980 1000 1020 1040 1060 1080 1100 1120 1140 1160 1180 1200 1220 1240 1260 1280 1300 1320 1340 1360 1380 Application Note AD8494/AD8495 Output.6 6.5 6.9 6.7 5.5 4.617 5.980 6. TA = TRJ = 25°C Ideal Output (V) Actual Output (V) AD8494/ AD8494 Output AD8495 Output AD8495 with J Type with K Type 3.282 5.671 6.754 ©2010 Analog Devices.370 4.276 3.5 5.9 5.618 5.650 4.587 6.

Sign up to vote on this title
UsefulNot useful