Stirling Engine

Prof. S. L. Bapat Mechanical Engineering Department

Department of Energy Science and Engineering Indian Institute of Technology Bombay, Mumbai – 400 076 April 28, 2008

Indian Scenario • Shortage of Electrical Power Thermal power plants Nuclear power plants Hydel power plants • Solar P-V cells • Solar Thermal Rankine Cycle Stirling Cycle 2 .

Choice of Capacity for Stirling Engine • ~ 43.000 villages to be electrified • Features of these villages (Sastry. 2003): – – – – – – – Difficult terrain 3-30 km away from grid No. Refrigerators etc. of household 2 to 200 Average population ~ 500 Power demand quite low (Supply for 4-6 hrs/day) facilities are minimal (TV.) Income levels & paying capacity low 3 .

For a group of 3-4 households having enough cattle to supply bio-gas for gas based systems or hybrid systems .4.000 48 billion 4 .5 kW (Sastry.00.6 lakh.8 lakh for 1.Use for small capacity pumps for irrigation application Investment required (in 2003) per village for India $ 60. 2003) Applications: .000 1.20 billion Rs. 24. 3.Cost of P-V plants ranges from Rs.

(Normally explained by using α – type) • Assumptions • Working – Compress the gas. and then expand to get power output – Internal heat transfer in regenerator Ideal Stirling cycle (a) P-V and T-S diagrams (b) Piston arrangements at the terminal points of the cycle (c) Displacement-time diagram 5 . heat the gas.

Disciplined (Kinematic) engine 6 .Basic arrangements of Stirling engine Two piston machine (α) Piston – Displacer in same cylinder (β) Piston – Displacer in separate cylinder (γ) Different types of Stirling engine .Free piston .Free displacer engine .

Selection of drive mechanism Kinematic mechanisms for reciprocating motion (a) Simple slider Crank b) Cross head Crank c) Rhombic Drive 7 .

1 2 3 4 5 6 7 Parameter Speed Mean Pressure Temperature hot side (th) Phase angle (motion) Specific heat ratio Fluid – Hydrogen /Helium Minimum gas temperature (tc) Unit rpm bar K ° --K Value 1440 30 750 78.43 -350 8 . no.5 1.Operating conditions Sr.

Engine and receiver arrangement 9 .

Obtaining heat at temperature level of about 750 K or more Gas Flame (Bio-gas. CNG.Issues Involved 1.Hybrid System using solar concentrator and gas flame Arrangement for switching over from solar to gas flame and vice-versa 10 . LPG) Circulation of burnt gases for reuse in preheating of combustion air Size of the dish depends on heat input requirements Dish Concentrator - .

Some special materials to be chosen based on specific requirements (properties) e. O-rings at higher temperature (soft metal. Materials: . Copper) Sealing rings: – Compression rings – Oil scrapper rings – Sealing of displacer 4.g.Engine of the capacity of 1. Lubrication Problems: 11 .Indium. Requirement: .5 kWe should satisfy most requirements 3.Issues Involved 2.

Large value of pressure ratio leads to higher value of peak pressure. Working spaces and dead volumes in cooler. regenerator and heater tubes decide the pressure ratio 2. Operating and Resulting Parameters 1. So this parameter needs to be decided 12 .Issues Involved 5. The enclosing components such as compression and expansion cylinders have to be stronger from mechanical design point of view.

Issues Involved 6. the fabrication processes. rejection schemes need to be worked out Interchangeability is required and hence tolerances will have to be really fine 13 . Manufacturing processes: This will depend on scale of manufacture If number crosses 1000.

Mechanized assembly: i) Components such as crankcase can be using castings or made out of plates by welding ii) leak proof ness /porosity has to be checked for enclosing components 14 .Issues Involved 7.

Issues Involved 8. Testing Procedures: i) Test engine with electrical heating to determine minimum heat input ii) Testing with gas flame to find fuel consumption iii) Design dish and test to provide suitable dish area for a given heat input 15 .

Worldwide Scenario – Engines upto 30 kW capacity have been made as a Single Cylinder Engine – Some of these have been coupled with dish systems iii) Testing over very large number of hours is done with a very small number of units 16 .

mct. Calorific Value = 20 MJ/m3 Net heat input required is 5000 Watt for date: 23/03/07] 17 .5 kWe capacity Qgas = 5000 Watt Combustion efficiency = 90 % http://www.Bio-gas requirement : 1 m3 / h or so.

Conclusions 1. Bio-gas requirement will be about one cubic meter/ hour 5. Capacity needs to be at least 1.5 kW 3. Hybrid system will be the ideal option if suitable arrangement is possible 18 . Major heat input should be through gas flame or solar energy 4. Stirling engines seems to be viable option 2.

Thank you ! 19 .

Sign up to vote on this title
UsefulNot useful